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DEPARTMENT OF MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS

WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY
MME 1103

WELDING I & II
SEM. I, 2007/08

MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

CONTENTS
7.1 WELDING EQUIPMENTS........................................................................................ 2 7.2 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 3 7.3 WELDING I ................................................................................................................. 5 7.3.1 Arc Welding ......................................................................................................... 5 7.3.2 Shielded-Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) ............................................................. 7 7.3.3 Arc Welding Technique ..................................................................................... 9 7.3.4 Procedures ........................................................................................................ 12 7.3.6 Questions (Answer ALL) ................................................................................. 12 7.4 WELDING II.............................................................................................................. 13 7.4.1 Gas Welding...................................................................................................... 13 7.4.2 The Oxyacetylene Welding............................................................................. 14 7.4.3 Gas Welding Technique.................................................................................. 16 7.4.4 Procedure .......................................................................................................... 19 7.4.5 Project Welding II ..............................................Error! Bookmark not defined. Question....................................................................................................................... 19 Safety ............................................................................................................................... 20 References ...................................................................................................................... 25

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.1 WELDING EQUIPMENTS


Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Power Supply to supply current for Arc Welding process Electrode holder a mechanical device which clamps the electrode in the desired position

Wire Cable as a circuit connection

Consumable Electrodes used to weld the metal

Oxyacetylene Welding Equipments for Gas Welding process

Gas Welding Torch is a tool mixing the oxygen and acetylene in desired l

Grinder for grinding the workpiece Bench grinder Electric hand grinder

Chipping Hammer to break the slag.

Gloves to protect hand.

Face shield to protect face and eyes from the glare, heat and spark d d

Steel Brush

Wire

Other Apparatus Spark lighter to ignite the acetylene gas Work Table to put task into operation Pliers to hold the hot material. C clamper to clamp the metal tightly. Workpiece : Mild Steel Plate

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.2 INTRODUCTION
Welding is one technique of joining between two or more metal or non-metal parts. During welding, metal or non-metal to be welded are heated to welding temperature with or without application pressure or with pressure alone and with or without the use of filler material. Heat may be provided by a gas flame, an electric current, a chemical reaction or an electrical resistance. The welding process is used not only for manufacturing but also for the repair and maintenance of broken and worn parts. It requires low capital investment costs. It can be classified into broad categories as in Figure 7.1

Figure 7.1: Joining classification

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

The weldment is an assembly whose parts are joined by welding which can be made by two or more metal parts. It may contain metals of different composition and the pieces may be in the form of rolled shapes sheet, plate, pipe, forgings and casting. To produce a useable structure or weldment there must be weld joints between various pieces. There are some examples of welding joint shown below:

Figure 7.2: Examples of welding joint (Courtesy from Kalpakjian, S and Schmid, S.R., Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, page ) Another important factor in welding is weldability or the ability to get a weld includes material that can withstand the thermal, mechanical stresses, corrosion, other service requirement, and material which with limited porosity, absence of cracks, have proper fusion and proper geometry. Almost all metals can be welded, however, there are recommended specific welding methods which weldability depends on it. In workshop technology practical course, two types of welding will be introduced which are arc welding and gas welding with 4 types of joints namely Butt, Tee, Lap and Corner Joints. 4

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.3 WELDING I

7.3.1 Arc Welding


Arc welding (AW) is a fusion welding process widely used in the manufacturing and construction industries. It is a process where heat is produced by electric energy by forming an electric arc between the electrode and the base metal (workpiece). An electric arc is a discharge of electric current across a gap in a circuit. This type of welding may produce temperature until 6000oC to 7000oC (Gupta, 1996) which is sufficient to melt most metals. Generally the molten metal is consisting of the base metal(s), filler metal (if used) and the molten metal solidified as the electrode moved along the joint as shown in Figure 5.3.

Figure 7.3: The basic configuration and electrical circuit of an arc welding process. (Courtesy from Groover, M.P., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, page 729) Movement of the electrode can be done manually (by humans) or by mechanical means (machine welding, automatic welding or robotic welding). The welder needs hand-eye coordination which is stressful after a long period of time. Frequent rest for the welder is essential to overcome fatigue. There are many varieties of arc welding depending on the type of electrodes which are consumable and non-consumable as in Figure 7.1. Generally, the consumable electrode consists of core wire coated with flux material and has two forms, either rod or wire. The disadvantage of weld rod is it has to be replaced periodically. While weld wire can be fed continuously avoiding interruption that occurs by using weld rod or stick.

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

In other hand, non-consumable electrode is made of tungsten (or carbon) which is high in thermal resistant. Despite its resistant to be melted by the arc, the non-consumable electrode gradually will be worn due to vaporization during welding process and furthermore, filler metal has to be fed in the molten pool to joint the base metal. At high temperature, metals are very chemically reactive to the gasses (oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in the air). The mechanical properties of the joined metals will be degradable when one of the base metal corroded by these reaction. To protect the welding operations, the shield which is usually blanket of inert gas (argon, helium or carbon dioxide) or flux or both covering the arc, electrode tip and molten weld pool. The gas will control the shape of the molten weld pool and the flux which produces slag has the functions of; To provide protective atmosphere for welding To stabilize the arc To reduce spattering (Groover, M.P., 1996) While the slag has another three functions which are as follows; To protect the weld until it cools to a point where the reaction with the air is negligible To prevent rapid cooling of weld metal To control the shape of the completed weld (Workshop Information Sheet, 1996) There are varieties of AW such as plasma arc welding, fluxed core arc welding and many. In Workshop Technology practical session, the students have to perform Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with two types of joints.

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.3.2 Shielded-Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)


Shielded-Metal Arc Welding is an arc welding process of the oldest, simplest, and most versatile arc welding processes using consumable electrode consisting filler metal rod coated with chemicals that provide flux and shielding (Figure 7.4). The filler material should be compatible with the metal to be welded. The arc is generated by touching the tip of a coated electrode to the work piece and withdrawing it quickly to an appropriate distance to maintain the arc. The heat generated melts a portion of the electrode tip, its coating, and the base metal in the immediate area. The weld forms out of the alloy of these materials as they solidify in the weld area. Slag formed to protect the weld against forming oxides, nitrides, and inclusions must be removed after each pass to ensure a good weld. The SMAW process has the advantage of being relatively simple, only requiring a power supply, power cables, and electrode holder as shown in Figure 7.4.

Figure 7.4: SMAW schematic and circuit diagram (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 126 and Fellers, W.O. et.al, Manufacturing Processes for Technology, page 247) This welding process usually was done manually. It is commonly used in construction, shipbuilding, and pipeline work, especially in remote locations. The disadvantages of SMAW are because of the consumable electrode stick which has to be changed periodically. Another limitation is the current level that can be used since the electrode length varies that affect the electrode heat resistivity. The current level should be

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

maintained within safe range to avoid overheat in the coating and melt prematurely when starting a new stick. (Groover, M.P., 1996) The types of SMAW stick or rods are designated by either a four or five digit system designed by the American Welding Society. Examples are E-6010, E-7018 and E11020. The E- stands for electrode. The first two or three nmber indicate the tensile strength of the rod in thousands of pounds per square inch, the next-to-last number gives the welding positions for which the rod may be used. The number indication position will range from one to six. The welding positions are as follows (See Figure 7.5); 1. All positions 2. Flat and Horizontal position 3. Flat position only 4. Vertical position only 5. Flat, vertical, overhead position (pipe) 6. Inclined position only

Figure 7.5: Welding positions (Courtesy from Fellers, W.O. et.al, Manufacturing Processes for Technology, page 248-249)

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.3.3 Arc Welding Technique


In making your work piece properly welded, there are certain factors which need to be followed: Correct electrode Correct arc length Correct speed Correct current Correct angle Correct electrode It involves such as position of the weld, properties of the base metal, diameter of electrode, type of joint and current value. Nowadays there are many types of electrodes have been used such as E-6010, E-7010, E-8010 etc. So make sure that the electrode used is matched with the metal to be welded. As for example cast iron electrodes are used for welding cast iron and non-ferrous electrodes for welding such metals as aluminum, copper and brass. Correct arc length An arc that is too long, the metal melts off the electrode in large globules which wobble from side to side as the arc wavers. This produces a wide, spattered, coarse and irregular bead. On the other hand, if the arc is too short, the electrode fails to generate enough heat to melt the base metal properly. As a result, the electrode will sticks frequently that will formed high and uneven bead with irregular ripples. Thus, for the proper penetration (beads in uniform formed) we should obtain the correct length. In this case, the beads have the proper height and width and the ripples are uniformly spaced. Basically, the length of the arc depends on the size of electrode used and the kind of welding done. For small diameter electrodes, a shorter arc is necessary than for larger electrodes. As a rule,

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

the length of the arc should be approximately equal to the diameter of the electrode. For instance, a 3.25mm diameter electrode should have an arc length of about 3.25mm. In addition, a shorter arc is required for vertical and overhead welding than for most flat position welds because it gives better control of the puddle. Correct speed When the speed is too fast, the molten pool does not last long enough and impurities are locked in the weld. The bead is narrow and the ripples pointed. In contrast, if it too slow, the metal piles up excessively and the bead is high and wide with straight ripples. Correct current If the current is too high, the electrode melts too fast and the molten pool is large and irregular. Besides, when the current is too low, there is not enough heat to melt the base metal and the molten pool will be too small. It will not only result in poor fusion but the beads will pile up and be irregular in shape. Correct angle It is particularly important in deep groove welding. Electrode angle involves two positions incline and side angles. Incline vary from 5o to 30o from the vertical, depending on the welder preference and welding conditions. Side angle is the angle from horizontal usually 60o (as in Figure 7.6), measured at right angles to the line of welding, which normally splits the angle of the weld joint. In short, correct electrode angle is important to make good welds.

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

666 Figure 7.6: Correct angle for Arc Welding The quality of the weld depends also on the design of the joint, the electrode, the technique as mentioned above and the skill of the welder. Figure 7.7 shows weld appearance and variables

Figure 7.7: Welding examples relating to bad practices (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 132)

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.3.4 Procedures
1. Understand first the drawing of the three joints shown in Project Figure. 2. Choose only two joints from the three joints. 3. Prepare the welding apparatus. During this process, cover face with the face shield.

4. Perform the arc welding by touching the edge of the work piece to ignite the
flame. Hold the electrode by using the electrode holder at about 60 o 90 o. As an addition to get a better penetration, perform welding operation by following the given guidelines.

5. Finally, punch the workpiece for verification purposes . 6. Answer all questions and submit with the lab report.

7.3.6 Questions (Answer ALL)


1. What is the polarity of the electrode in SMAW process? 2. What is the welding electrode designation? 3. Draw (hand drawn) the following welding accessories and write down its function a) Electrode Holder b) Welding Ground c) Face Shield d) Chipping Hammer e) Steel Wire Brush

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.4 WELDING II

7.4.1 Gas Welding


Gas welding is a general term used to describe any welding process that uses fuel gas which usually combined with oxygen (Oxy-Fuel Welding, OFW) to produce a flame. This flame is used as the source of heat to melt the metals at the joint. This type of welding is suitable for joining metal sheets and palates thickness from 2 to 50 mm. In order to weld materials having thickness more than 15 mm, additional metal (called filler metal) from the welding rod is melted into the gap between the two parts to be joined as in Figure 7.8. The material of the welding rod is usually the same as that that of the parts being welded. A flux is used during welding to remove impurities and oxides present on the surfaces of the metal to be joined and to obtain a good weld result. (Gupta, 1996)

Figure 7.8: The basic configuration of gas welding process (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 208) The approximate flame temperatures produced by different combination of gasses are as in Table 5.1 Table 5.1: Fuel gasses used for Oxy-fuel Welding (Rao, 1999) Gas Chemical Formula Flame Temperature, 0C Acetylene C2H2 33000C Propylene C3H6 25000C Propane C3H8 24500C Hydrogen H2 23900C 23500C Natural Gas CH4 + H2

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.4.2 The Oxyacetylene Welding


The most common gas welding process uses acetylene fuel, is known as oxyacetylene welding and is used typically for structural sheet-metal fabrication and automotive bodies and various other repair works. Developed in the early 1900s, this process utilizes the heat generated by the combustion of acetylene gas (C2H2) in a mixture with oxygen. The basic apparatus is shown in Figure 7.9.

Figure 7.9: Apparatus required for Oxyacetylene welding (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 209) Welding torch or known as blow pipe shown in Figure 7.10 is a tool for mixing the oxygen and acetylene in the desired volumes and burning the mixture at the end of a tip which produces a high temperature flame. The welding torches have a handle at one end with two inlet connections for gasses. Each inlet has a valve that controls the volume of oxygen or acetylene passing through them. The desired proportion of oxygen and acetylene are thoroughly mixed in the mixer, before issuing from the torch to the tip or nozzle. The flame is produced by igniting the mixture at the torch tip. The welding torches are commercially available in the following two types:

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

Injector or low pressure type; and Positive or equal pressure (also known as high pressure) type.

Figure 7.10: Welding Torch (Courtesy from Gupta, J.K., Basic Workshop Practice, page 154) The heat is generated in accordance with the following chemical reactions. The primary combustion process, which occurs in the inner core of the flame, is C2H2 + O2 2CO + H2 + heat This reaction dissociates the acetylene into carbon monoxide and hydrogen and produces about one-third of the total heat generated in the flame. The second reaction is 2CO + H2 + 1.5CO2 + H2O + heat This will results in burning of the hydrogen and combustion of the carbon monoxide, producing about two-thirds of the total heat. The temperature developed in the flame as a

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

result of these reactions can reach 3300oC (6000oF). The reaction of hydrogen with oxygen produces water vapor. There are three basic flame types: neutral (or balanced), excess acetylene (reducing or carburizing) and excess oxygen (oxidizing) as shown in Figure 7.10. Neutral flame is used for steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum welding and carburizing flame is to weld monel metal (certain alloy steels, many non-ferrous material and hard surfacing materials such as satellite) While oxidizing flame is to weld brass and bronze.

Figure 7.10: Four types of oxyacetylene flames in oxy-fuel gas welding and cutting operation. (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 208, Gupta, J.K., Basic Workshop Practice, page 154 and Kalpakjian, S. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology page )

7.4.3 Gas Welding Technique


The pieces to be weld should be preheated until there will be a small puddle of molten base metal. The filler rod should be held at the same moment as it has to be fused to the base metal. In order to obtain proper penetration and good weld, the torch tip should be moved with a side to side motion, slowly and uniformly. 16

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

There are two techniques of gas welding; left-ward and rightward methods as shown in Figure 7.11. In left-ward or fore-hand welding, the welding torch is held in the welders right hand, the tip pointing toward the left and weld is made from right to left. . The torch makes and angle of 600 700 with the plate and the welding rod makes an angle of 300 400 as shown in Figure 7.11(a). The flame is given a circular, rotational or side-to-side motion to obtain uniform fusion on each side of the plate. This method is more efficient for butt welding on plates up to 2 mm thickness. When plates over 3 mm thickness are to be welded, then the plate edges are beveled to produce a V of 800 900. The larger volume of this V requires sufficient quantity of filler material. If V is reduced, the welding torch flame pushes the molten metal form the pool towards the unmelted sides of the V. The plates above 6 mm thickness are noet economical to weld with this method. (Gupta, 1996)

Figure 7.11: Gas welding method. (Courtesy from Gupta, J.K., Basic Workshop Practice, page 156) Right-ward or back-hand welding method needs the welding torch is held in the right hand and the filler rod in the left hand. The welding begins at the left and end of the joint 17

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

and proceeds towards the right. The filler rod is given circular motion while the welding torch moves in straight line. In this case, the torch makes an angle of 400 500 with the plate and the welding rod makes an angle of 300 400, as shown in Figure 7.11(b). this method is better and economical for plates over 6 mm thickness. A good fusion can be obtained with this method without preparing V upto 8 mm thick plates. The plate edges are beveled to produce V of 600 for palates above 8 mm thick. (Gupta, 1996) The quality of a weld made with oxyacetylene process can be equal to the quality of the base metal being welded. This is base on the use of the proper filler metal, proper flux and the skill of the welder and by following the procedure mentioned above ( proper tip size, torch adjustment for the proper type of flame and the travel speed). Figure 7.12 shows a good weld and common welding mistakes. (Cary, 2002)

Figure 7.12: Quality of oxyacetylene welds. (Courtesy from Cary H.W., Modern Welding Technology, page 213) 18

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

7.4.4 Procedure
1. Understand first the drawing of the three joints shown in Project Figure. 2. Choose only one joint from the three joints. 3. Prepare the welding apparatus. During this process, cover face with the face shield. 4. Prepare the edges to be joined, and maintain their proper position using suitable clamps and features. 5. Release acetylene gas by opening the control valve at the torch and ignite the gas at the tip of the torch with friction by using spark lighter. 6. Open the oxygen valve slowly and adjust to the neutral flame. Avoid releasing oxygen too much as it will cause spark. (Pure Acetylene flame orange). 7. Pre-heat the base metal until there is a puddle of melt. 8. Hold the torch at about 45o form the plane of the work piece, with the inner flame near the work piece and the filler rod at 30 o 40 o. 9. Touch the filler rod to the joint and control its movement along the joint length by observing the rate of melting and filling of the joint. 10. Shut off the oxygen then followed by acetylene. Shutting off acetylene first will produce a loud pop, which can damage the tip. 11. Finally, do the numbering to verify your work.

Question
1. What type of flame is used for Project Welding II? 2. Hand drawn the Welding torch is used that and describe its function. 3. What are the factors that control the quality of oxyacetylene welding? 4. Hand drawn the type of gas welding flame for Project Welding II

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

Safety
Welding should be done in a well-ventilated area Use the player to hold, lift, and place the work piece while on work. Always wear the face shield during weld Always wear the goggle for any grinding purposes. Do not put face shield, player and other plastic equipments on the working table. When the electrode stick with metal, separate them from the table quickly. Cool down the hot material with water Get an advices from demonstrator or technician for any arising problem Anyone within 20 feet of a welding arc should be wearing safety glasses or shielded by an opaque barrier. No one should be permitted anywhere near welding in progress without proper eye shields. Always dress in leather or other protective garments. These include jackets, gloves and possibly leggings. The operator should not expose others to fumes produced by welding

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

PROJECT FIGURE

1. L-joint

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

2. Lap-joint

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

3. T-joint

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MANUFACTURING AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

ADVANTAGES OF WELDING: Some of the advantages that welding has over riveting and casting methods of assembly are as follows: 1. Welding is usually a cheaper process than riveting for any particular joint, and the joint can often be made much more quickly. 2. It gives a stronger joint and permits the use of less material, thus reducing the weight and cost of the structure. 3. Weld seams are normally pressure tight, and do not need caulking as do riveted joints. Joints are smooth, which is important in many applications. For example, painting is much easier on welded joints, and turbulence in pipes is reduced. 4. Designs not practicable for riveting may be constructed by welding. 5. Plate preparation for welding is generally cheaper than for riveting. 6. Labour necessary can often be cut to less than one- third of that necessary for riveting. 7. Welding is not as noisy as riveting, and permits building and alterations to proceed with the least disturbance to occupants. 8. Welding is more versatile than casting; changes can be made quickly without having to produce a new pattern. 9. Rolled section is often cheaper than cast section, and fabrication by welding of rolled section may be cheaper than casting the same article. 10. No storage of patterns is necessary for welding, as with castings. 11. Welding can produce articles of consistent and known quality, whereas castings may have external or hidden internal flaws causing their rejection, or failure in service.

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MME 1103 Workshop Technology Manual Welding

References
1. Cary, H.B., (2002), Modern Welding Technology, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall. 2. Kalpakjian, S and Schmid, S.R., (2001), Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall International. 3. Rao, P.N. , (1999), Manufacturing Technology, Foundry, Forming and Welding, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill. 4. Kalpakjian, S., (1997), Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 3rd Edition, Addison Wesley 5. Groover, M.P., (1996), Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, Materials, Processes and Systems, International Editions, Prentice Hall. 6. Gupta, J.K. (1996), Basic Workshop Practice, S. Chand & Company Ltd

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