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Definition of Hotel A Hotel or Inn as defined by a british law is a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and

shelter, provided he / she is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received. Therefore, a hotel must provide food (and beverages) and lodging to travellers, on payment and has, in turn, the right to refuse admission if the traveler is drunk, disorderly, unkempt or is not in a position to pay for the services. The provision of beverages is subject to local customs and practices.

HOTELS CAN BE CLASSIFIED IN THE FOLLOWING BASIS: LOCATION NO. OF ROOMS (SIZE) OWNERSHIP TYPE OF CLIENTELE LENGTH OF GUEST STAY FACILITIES OFFERED PRICING PLAN

CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS BASED ON LOCATION CITY/DOWNTOWN/COMMERCIAL HOTEL: These hotels are located in the heart of the city, more expensive than the suburban hotels. These hotels are patronized by business men and high income tourists. The hotels are centrally located and at a convenient distance from markets, railway station, airport, etc. These are quality hotels to cater to moneyed clientele, usually the business and corporate community Some places its challenged by parking space, most parking spaces are in the basements. SUBURBAN HOTELS: These hotels are located in the suburb of cities, moderately priced and are of mostly medium, large or small size. Normally these hotels are patronized by low budget and cost concious tourists. The tourists who do not want to stay in the heart of city as they want to be away from hustle and bustle of city, prefer these hotels.These hotels promote their facilities for training programs, conferences and seminars of a leisurely ambience. Ideal hotel for groups usually writers, poets, low budget tourists etc prefer to stay at suburban hotels.

AIRPORT HOTELS: These are Hotels located near the Airports, especially international airports. Airport Hotels are popular because of their proximity to major travel centers. Airport Hotels vary widely in size and level of services. Typical target market includes business clientele, airline passengers with overnight travel layovers or canceled flights and airline personnel. Hotel owned courtesy vans often transport guests between the hotel and the airport.

MOTELS: Motels are also called Motor Hotels or transit hotel and are located alongside the highways. Motels are normally economical and they provide comfortable bedrooms that motorists prefer to stay on their way for a night rest. Motels have facilities of proper motor garage to service a car and a filling station to refill vehicles, parking area for motor vehicles etc. They also have road maps, dormitory for drivers. These days Motels also provide various indoor and

outdoor facilities like Video parlor, Billiards, Table tennis, Cyber caf, Library etc.

RESORT HOTELS: A resort is located in the tourist places like hills, forests, beaches, ski resorts, water falls, safari parks, on an island, or in some other exotic manmade vacation sites away from crowded residential areas. Disney Land, Lego Land, Universal studios in Hollywood nad dam reservoirs are some good examples of manmade marvels. The recreational facilities and breathtaking scenery typical of most resorts. Highly seasonal depending upon climate and holidays to get their clientele. May also provide heavy off season discount to attract the budget conscious. Most resort hotels provide extensive food and beverage, valet and room services, sight seeing to vacationers. Many resorts also provide special activities, indoor and outdoor games for guests such as dancing, golf, tennis, horse riding, nature hikes, skiing and swimming, health club, steam sauna bath, spas etc. A more leisurely, relaxed atmosphere distinguishes most resort hotels from other types of hotels.

CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP TIME SHARE: This is also known as Vacation Ownership or Holiday Ownership concept. These properties are in resort areas like hills, beaches, forests etc. Time share involves individuals who purchases the ownership of accommodation for a specific week or weeks in a year. The guest can choose a peak season, semi peak season or a lean season. The owner pays a fixed price for certain number of years say 20 to 30 years and has a right to stay at the hotel during rented week. The guest also required to pay an annual contribution towards the maintenance of apartment and public areas, electricity, gas, water, safety, insurance etc. The owner can also exchange their resort with any other resort either directly owned by the company or through contract signed with any other company/management by paying a nominal fee. Best example of Timeshare in India are Mahindra Holidays,Sterling Holiday Resorts, Avelon Resort, Nanda Tourist Corporation etc.

CONDOMINIUM HOTELS: These are quite similar to Time share. These units are developed on joint ownership basis. Each owner purchases and has full right of an unit he has purchased and shares the cost common to the complex, such as taxes, insurance, maintenance and upkeep of public areas including swimming pool, health club, parking, security, air conditioning, heating, cable, broad band etc. Each owner can occupy or sell his unit independently but is required to follow the rules and regulations laid by the management. In some cases the management can help the owner in renting out the property. They take the full responsibility of the owners units safety and also pay to the owner a major portion of the rent earned from renting out. The management earns a major portion by renting out conference hall and from catering. Usually the management requests the owner to rent out in case of major conferences.

CHAIN HOTELS: A chain is usually classified as operating under a management contract or as a franchise or referral group. Chains usually make certain rules regarding standards, rules, policies, procedures of affiliation etc. In general, the more centralized the organization the stronger the control over the individual property. Some chains own affiliated properties, but many do not. Some chains have strong control over the architecture, management and standards of affiliated properties. Other chains only concentrate on advertising, marketing, purchasing.

INDEPENDENT HOTELS: Independent hotels do not have ownership or management affiliation with other properties. They have no relationship to other hotels regarding policies, procedures, financial obligations, management, accounting etc. These may be registered as sole proprietor-ship or a private limited company. The owner may decide the standard, type of clientele, the tariff etc. He may tie up with travel agencies to sell his property against commission.

MANAGEMENT CONTRACT: Management companies are organizations that operate properties owned by others. Those other hotels may be owned by individual persons, partnerships or private limited companies. The individual hotel, under construction, may contract with a professional hotel management company to operate the proposed property. These contracts are normally on a long-term basis. Some management companies, when feel that they must have a hotel in a particular location then they approach prospective individuals to build a hotel and operate under their managements contract.

The management contract can even be signed before the construction starts. After paying the management fees, operating expenses, the owners keep the balance cash for paying their debts, taxes etc. and the balance is their net profit. The Management companies only take over the management of the company, whereas the franchising companies provide the financial assistance, advertising, central reservation facilities, marketing etc.

FRANCHISE: Franchise is a system in which the franchise owner grants another the right or privilege to merchandise a product or service for a specified return. Franchise Agreement is an agreement under which the owner operates as a member of the chain, utilizing the brand image, name, goodwill and obtaining for a certain fee some services of marketing and operating nature support from resources of a large organization, advertising, sales promotion, technical and financial help etc. The best known franchising companies are Holiday Inn, Choice International, Quality Hotels & Inns etc.

Referral Groups: referral Groups consists of independent hotels which have grouped together for some common purpose. Though the properties in the referral group may be different from each other but there is sufficient consistency in the quality of service to satisfy guest expectations. The member hotels recommend guests to other member hotels. Best Western International, one of the largest hotel chains is the best example of referral groups. The referral groups also extend benefit of more extensive reservation and expanded advertising through pooled resources.

ON THE BASIS OF LENGTH OF STAY:

TRANSIENT HOTELS: Guest stay for a short duration to a maximum of 1 week. Motels and Airport hotels are good examples of transient hotels . Some times these hotels also charge room rent for half a day as guests would like to stay just for a few hours. At times these hotels have much more than 100% occupancy.

RESIDENTIAL HOTELS/ APARTMENTS: These hotels offer rooms/apartments for long term on monthly basis and even if a guest stays for a part of the month, is normally charged for the full month.

The best examples for these hotels are hostels, paying guest houses for students, trainees, working people etc. Some big companies also hire them for months/years for their company executives for pleasure, business, training etc. These can be located in any part of the country, it may be a hill station, beach etc. for pleasure or a big city or an industrial town for business.

PRICING PLANS / ROOM PLANS Pricing plan is an all inclusive price for rooms and meals. Continental Plan (CP) : Room + Continental Breakfast. This plan is used in most hotels worldwide. The continental breakfast consists of a variety of breadrolls with butter, jam, marmalade and honey and tea and coffee European plan (EP): Room only Charges - This is found in downtown hotels where guests want the flexibility of eating out. American Plan (AP): Room + All meals This plan can be found in Resort hotels for Vacationers where the guest can concentrate on holidaying and relaxing. Also in sub urban hotels that gear themselves for seminars, conferences and training programs where participants can concentrate on the program rather than getting worried about where to get the next meal. Modified American plan (MAP) : Room + Breakfast + Lunch or Dinner - This pricing plan is found in hotels that cater to tour groups who like to start the day with a hearty breakfast before proceeding on their sightseeing tours only to return in the evening to a warm dinner. CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF THE TYPE OF CLIENTELE Another way to classify hotels on the basis of the type of clientele they cater to. This categorization enables the hotel to specialize for a market segment with appropriate facilities and services as against those that are geared for multi-guest profiles. These segments are BUSINESS HOTEL specializes in catering to business travellers who own a business and corporate travellers who are salaried professionals working in a company. Facilities include Business centre that provides meeting rooms, secretarial services and modern telecommunication facilities and internet and modern office automation. Business Lounge for executives to have private meals. Equipped with latest newspapers, business magazines and perhaps a library. Rooms are equipped with hi speed internet, Direct dialing communication link up globally, ergonomic writing desks and chairs, mini bars, safety lockers, multi channel TV etc. GROUP HOTELS Geared for volume traffic at any given time. Facilities include Large lobbies to accommodate groups Separate registration counters Bell staff equipped to handle volume baggage. Rooms that are all twin bedded. Large dining halls to seat several groups at a time. Briefing rooms for tour groups.

Medical services for handicapped, aged and infant care.

FAMILY HOTELS : Found mostly at resorts or suburban suite hotels geared specifically for families. Features include Interconnected rooms. Kitchenette and basic cooking facilities. Entertainment lounges equipped with television, indoor games and children area. Outdoor children parks, jogging paths and independent barbeque areas. Rooms on American plan. Babysitting services. Brunches Evening family entertainment. CONVENTION HOTELS: Specifically geared to hold conventions. A convention is an international or national event that brings large numbers of people of a similar vocation together to learn latest developments in that field. Features include Plenary halls ( to seat all participants) with podiums. Smaller meeting rooms for breakout seminars and presentations. Admin offices to provide support services to speakers. Huge dining halls . Modern equipped twin bedded rooms with mini bars,safety lockers, etc. Shuttle coach services. Translation services, GYMs and pools. YOUTH HOSTELS Cater to travelling youth. The YMCA are the best examples of this type of accommodation Features include Dormitory style accommodation Common toilet and shower areas Large dining halls with simple food. Gymnasium, game courts and fields.

Assembly hall with a stage for youth gatherings and entertainment. CASINO HOTELS SERVE ONLY ONE PURPOSE- to serve guests who want to gamble. Egs Las vegas in Nevada, USA Features include Gaming halls sometimes the size of foot ball field with all possible gambling games like slot machines, Blackjack tables, roulettes tables, etc. Unique dcor. Every hotel has a theme dcor. Lavish and extravagant rooms. Huge auditoriums and entertainment by world famous stars. Helipads, shuttle services, limo services. CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF SIZE

CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF FACILITIES OFFERED THE STAR CATEGORY TO THE HOTELS ARE GIVEN BY THE COMMITTEE CALLED HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS APPROVAL AND CLASSIFICATION COMMITTEE (HRACC) with its head quarters in New Delhi..

STAR RATING VARIOUS CATEGORIES ON THE BASIS OF SIZE ARE: SMALL HOTEL- A HOTEL WITH 25 ROOMS OR LESS IS CALLED A SMALL HOTEL. AVERAGE HOTEL- A HOTEL WITH 26 TO 99 ROOMS IS CALLED AN AVERAGE HOTEL. ABOVE AVERAGE HOTEL- A HOTEL WITH 100 TO 299 ROOMS IS CALLED ABOVE AVERAGE HOTEL. LARGE HOTEL- A HOTEL WITH MORE THAN 300 ROOMS IS CLASSIFIED AS LARGE HOTEL.

DELUXE HOTELS Normally have a 5* rating. Rated as deluxe as they would have dcor and and with every conceivable built into the guest experience and standards of luxury. Some deluxe business hotels provide individual butlers and specialized cuisines. SPORTS HOSTELS Associated with Mega sports events. Games villages specific to an event like Olympics, World Cups, championships, etc. Such complexes are funded by the state who organizes such events. Features include separate accommodation for each national team, Independent gymnasiums,swimming pools, Dormitories with common bathrooms fro athletes, Individual rooms for officials, Practice fields,

Large dining halls to cater to different cuisines, special security, Medical rooms, Dope-test facilities, specialized doctors in sports medicine. Dieticians for special diets for sportsmen and sportswomen, trainers,etc. BUDGET HOTELS: are relatively a new concept that makes travel inexpensive in a world that is getting more and more costly. Features Include : Rooms with a bare minimum Use of automation to fulfill many guest needs like food vending machines, automatic check ins, ice machines, alcoholic and non alcoholic beverage vending machines, machines vending basic toiletries etc. There would be common toilets. A mini television wall mounted on the wall to save space. Many motels have built these facilities into their way of operation. BED AND BREAKFAST HOTELS: Establishments are usually small family businesses. Afamily may have an extra set of rooms that they let out to tourists. This is a typical concept from Europe which perhaps earlier did not have well developed hotel facilities. Ireland and Scotland for example supplement hotel accommodation in the huge tourist season with Bed and breakfast properties. The features ; The family wishing to provide this facility registers with the state tourism department who ensures a basic standard. Rooms are comfortable much on home style. Provide English breakfast in the family dining room. The rent goes to the family. OTHER CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS HERITAGE HOTELS: The Government of India to boost up tourism and to preserve the India heritage, has started a scheme, where old heritage buildings, palaces constructed before 1935 were converted into hotels. Heritage Grand Hotels are those which are more than 100 years old.

BOUTIQUE HOTELS: These are very small and very expensive hotels and mainly cater for elite class who place high importance on privacy,luxury and service delivery.In India The park hotels are boutique hotels.. These hotels provide exceptional accommodations and arefurnished in a themed and stylish manner.

ECOTELS: Ecotels are environment friendly hotels. The phrase Environment Friendly is now being replaced by Environmentally sensitive Since one way or the other they will be though, in a very small way, harming the environment. The Orchid ,Mumbai is Asia,s first and most popular five * Ecotel. ALL SUITE HOTELS: The All-suite concept a new addition to the hotel industry. These suites provide living room, bedroom, kitchenette etc.

ROTELS: The hotels which rotate on wheels are called rotels. It is also called motel on wheels. Best example of rotel in India is Palace on wheels. It is a luxurious train, fully air-conditioned, well-furnished

with attached restaurant and bar. The fare is inclusive of train ticket, food, alcoholic beverages and sight seeing. The train starts from Delhi and covers the tourist interest places of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh including TajMahal, Agra, Mathura. In Japan Rotels are parked in the parking slot in the late evening and during day the rotel is towed away. FLOATELS: The hotels which floats on water are called floatels. The best examples of floatels in India are House boats in Kashmir Dal Lake. These are luxurious suites consisting of drawing room, dining room, bed room, sitting room, balcony, kitchen, bathroom etc. These days luxury ships are becoming popular for travelling. The guests are offered cabins to stay. These float on sea water and these have all facilities of five star hotels.

BOATELS: These are luxury boats/yachts which can ferry people from one place to another. The best example of yachts are in Mediterranean or Caribbean, they can ferry guest through canal-based narrow boat or Broad-based cabin cruiser.

Caravans: Mobile homes that families take across the county for trekking and camps. Caravans are fitted with sleeping, dining, lounge and bathroom facilities. Caravans are moored to camping sites which are constructed and rented out for just this purpose. MATELS : These are fully automated hotels which require minimum human contact. A guest books online and gets an immediate confirmation. On arrival he punches in his reservation number and name in a machine which initiates a dialogue with a virtual receptionist who registers the guest through a close circuit TV and issues a key to the room through a slot machine. The Housekeeping services are usually outsourced. The Cleaning crew comes and cleasn the rooms and replenish the supplies. This concept was started in Japan and is likely to be the future of hotels. SANATORIA: These are lodgings found at spas and other health resorts. The rooms are specifically equipped for therapy including sauna( Chambers with dry heat), Turkish baths(Chambers with steam) and Jacuzzi (tubs with water jets for relaxation). Meals are personalized diet regimes. These hotels have Proper dieticians, doctors and medical arrangements. Ideal for those recouping from surgeries and illnesses. Also a place for attaining physical fitness. GOVERNMENT HOUSES:comprises of all Dak bunglows, circuit houses, PWD houses nad forest lodges which were the legacy of british raj in India. FLOATING HOTELS: Those found on passenger ships. Some are permanently docked while others are cruise liners taking passengers on a week long trip around the locations connected with water. The ships are 5 star hotels with every conceivable luxury. The house boats of kerala and Kashmir are also good examples of floating hotels. HOSPICES ; Traditional lodgings in Europe for Christian piligrims to Jerusalem. Each religion has its religious support groups running on charity. Examples Hokke club of Japan build specially designed and serviced facilities for the Buddhist piligrims. Followers of Islam provide Madrassas while Hindus have Dharmashalas and chathrams.