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Our facebook fan page activity in the month October November ! write abt Economist Mahbubul ...

. pakistani economist known for human development report. He has also given 5 year plan to South Korea which helped South Korea to progress rapidly.In honour of Dr Haq, UNDP established" The Mahbub ul Haq Award for Outstanding Contribution to Human Development" Explain wat is purchasing power parity If two countries have differing rates of inflation, then the relative prices of goods in the two countries, such as footballs, will change. The relative price of goods is linked to the exchange rate through the theory of Purchasing Power Parity. Human Development Report * published by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) *various aspects of human development covered while ranking nations *since 1990 Human Development Index is broadly an average of social aggregates/averages of longevity, knowledge and access to resources. To put it more concretely, it is an equi-weighted average of : 1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) 2. Education Attainment Index (EAI) 3. Standard of Living Index (SLI) where the sub-indices were to be calculated by the same old method of the PQLI.In other words, HDI=(1/3)(LEI+EAI+SLI) * India HDI Rank : 119 What is PQLI ? The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is an attempt to measure the quality of life or wellbeing of a country.? .pqli is the average of the basic literacy rate, infant mortality rate and life expectancy. it gives a quantitative measure of the quality of life. Explain human development index w.r.t India ! Human development index computed by the UNDP. ... India HDI Rank : 119 ... Article 19 (1) deals wit ? Freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed as a fundamental right by Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India. What do you understand by the term Paid News? Give some recent example regarding this. Paid news or paid content are those articles in newspapers, magazines and the electronic media, which indicate favourable conditions for the institution that has paid for it. The news is much like an advertisement but without the ad tag. This kind of news has been considered a serious malpractice since it deceives the citizens, not letting them know that the news is, in fact, an advertisement. Secondly , the payment modes usually violate tax laws and election spending laws. More seriously, it has raised electoral concerns because the media has a direct influence on voters. sme utval yadav or so is accused in paid news controversy as she didnt she didnt declare cost of advertisement in hindi news paper EC has barred her for three years frm contestng election she happens to b wife of billionaire liquor barron yadav. her son is said to b main accused in nitish katara murder Bring out Salient features of the recent draft on protection of children from sexual offenses Bill, 2010 According to this new bill, legal age to have non penetrative sex is lowered to 12. Govt aims to decriminalize sexual exploration of two children of same age. What is Human Papillomavirus (HPV)? Write about recent Controversies associated with HPV vaccines project in India. the commercially licensed HPV vaccine produced by Merck Sharp and Dohme ... with PATH and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) on the project. ... PATH claims the side-effects associated with the vaccine are negligible nothing more than a pain in the arm after a jab. ... hpv are the group of viruses responsible for causing human cervical carcinoma in females some adoloscents killed during clinical trials of HPV vaccine in andhra and gujarat Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 1

Write about the National e-government plan (NeGP) and its status in India The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), takes a holistic view of e-Governance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision, a shared cause. Around this idea, a massive countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotest of villages is evolving, and large-scale digitization of records is taking place to enable easy, reliable access over the internet. The ultimate objective is to bring public services closer home to citizens, as articulated in the Vision Statement of NeGP. The Government has accorded approval to the vision, approach, strategy, key components, implementation methodology, and management structure for NeGP. However, the approval of NeGP does not constitute financial approval(s) for all the Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and components under it. The existing or ongoing projects in the MMP category, being implemented by various Central Ministries, States, and State Departments would be suitably augmented and enhanced to align with the objectives of NeGP. Bring out the N.R. Madhava Menon Committee recommendations on Autonomy of Central Educational Institutions freedom to recruit distinguished faculty from anywhere in the world, to take up consultancy assignments and at the same time open the institute to independent reviews. Advocating a thorough revisiting of the process of appointment of a V-C, a five-year tenure for the V-C and reappointment of a V-C if the Executive Council so recommends suggests that the Indian Institutes of Management be allowed to grant degrees to make them more autonomous... suggests that all universities switch to choice-based credit courses along with the semester system in the minimum possible time. This will make the academic structure flexible and promote student mobility, both in the country and abroad........ the Central educational institutes should be free to decide the fees to be charged, the scholarships to be granted and the recoveries to be made, subject to the government's broad policy guidelines.. To improve the performance of teachers it recommends that all faculty members be subjected to a review once in five years by a committee appointed by the executive council...... Give a brief account of National Water Mission approved by the Prime Minister Council on climate change This Mission aimes at cnsrvation of water, minimizn wastage and ensuring its equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management... Five goals of the Mission are 1: Comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources; 2: promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation and preservation 3: focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas 4: increasing water use efficiency by 20 per cent 5: promotion of basin level integrated water resources management..... The Mission envisages its implementation through a two-tier set-up- one at Central level and the other at State level. At Centre, an apex Board under the Chairmanship of the Minister of Water Resources and at the State level, a Monitoring Committee under the Chairmanship of the Principal Secretary / Secretary will be constituted.... The Mission would be run by a secretariat headed by a director who will be supported by adviser (technical) and adviser (coordination and monitoring). The technical support will be provided by Central Water Commission, Central Ground Water Board, Brahmaputra Board and National Institute of Hydrology.... On 28 May 2010 Prime Ministers council Chaired by Manmohan Singh approved the national water mission. Prime Minister suggested that the water conservation should be made a peoples movement in the country. The council decided to raise efficiency regarding water conservation Bring out the Salient features of the Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010. it was drafted as the step towards ratification of the Convention against torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9th December, 1975. Ratification of the Convention requires enabling legislation having provisions that would be necessary to give effect to the Articles of the Convention. Although some provisions existd in the Indian Penal Code, they neither define torture nor make it criminal so this need led thiz bill to be drafted... The Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 seeks to provide for punishment for torture committed by government officials. The Bill defines torture as grievous hurt, or danger to life, limb and health. Complaints against torture have to be made within six months. The sanction of the appropriate government is required before a court can entertain a complaint.... Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 2

the Bill makes illegal acts which result in injury to persons or property, if such acts are directed against persons on the basis of their affiliation to any group, and if such an act destroys the secular fabric of the nation. Such acts include sexual assault, hate propaganda, torture and organized communal violence. Asian Clearing Union (ACU) *simplest form of payment arrangements...the participants settle payments for intra-regional transactions....the participating central banks on a multilateral basis. *main objectives --> to facilitate payments among member countries for eligible transactions...economizing on the use of foreign exchange reserves N transfer costs...promoting trade among the participating countries. *operating in various regions of the world. *ACU Members : Bangladesh Bank Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan Reserve Bank of India Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran Maldives Monetary Authority Central Bank of Myanmar Nepal Rastra Bank State Bank of Pakistan Central Bank of Sri Lanka what is Contempt of Parliament ? contempt of parliament is the offence of obstructing the legislature in the carrying out of its functions, or of hindering any legislator in the performance of his or her duties write short note on ....PERT, CPM, MIS All these techniques are used in operation Research in particular network analysis area and Assembly lines management..!!Relating to the problems arising in manufacturing areas and assembly line system management..!! mis -magagement information system , pert- programme evaluation and review technique cpm-critical path method.....all these are part of operation research Pert-program evaluation and review technique... It is the shortest way to mgt and cpm-critical path method is the longest way or the maximum time beyond which any operation can not go,it will be within this time pd only anyhow... The much-awaited Namma Metro is now on the fast track. If sources privy to the project's implementation are to be believed, Bangalore's first rapid mass transit system will see its inaugural run on March 3. The second metro train, with three coaches, arrived in Bangalore late on Saturday night, Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL) how monetary policy is called counter cyclic n fiscal being pro cyclic..??? Any quantity that tends to increase when the overall economy is growing is classified as procyclical. Quantities that tend to increase when the overall economy is slowing down are classified as 'countercyclical'. Monetary policy is the process by which the RBI controls the supply of money, often targeting a rate of interest for the purpose of promoting economic growth and stability. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure and revenue collection (taxation) to influence the economy. If money circulation in the market increases, inflation is high and so money circulation needs to be decreased. So, by monetary policy that is by increasing the bank rate( repo rate, reverse repo rate), the money circulation is decreased. If the money circulation is less, govt needs to increase the money circulation, so through monetary policy, it will lessen the bank rate and banks will provide loan with less interest. Similarly, for decreasing money circulation govt sells treasury bills and for increasing money circulation govt buys back the treasury bills! What is the difference between PSLV and GSLV? # PSLV is older than the GSLV;# GSLV has a much greater load capacity than the PSLV;# GSLV uses cryogenic fuel while the PSLV doesnt;# GSLV has three stages while the PSLV has four stages;# GSLV has 4 liquid boosters while the PSLV has 6 solid boosters;

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To overcome limitations of the existing Train Running Information System, it was decided to develop GPS based train tracking system jointly by RDSO & IIT-Kanpur. The system has been developed and working successfully in number of trains. It has now been decided to open the Real-time Train Information System (RTIS) to public in few trains to begin with effect from today i.e.19 October 2011 This information will be available on website http://www.simran.in/. Public may also get the train running information through SMS by sending a text message <train number> to mobile number 09415139139. RTIS system deployed in the trains will provide the following information to public/passengers: (i) Train locations. (ii) Train running position (i.e. whether train is running on time or if running late and by how much. (iii) Train location with respect to next stopping station in terms of kms. Women and development - Self help group movement govt is promoting the rural woman entrepreneurship through different agencies like KVIC, grameen bank's microfinance through Self help groups and NABARD,,etc. as by encouraging IT, like in e-seva project in district of west godavari, andhra pradesh, where web -enabled rural kiosks termed e-seva centres have been established at mandal levels(sub-district) n these are run and managed by women from self help groups, positing them as information leaders, n helps bridge gender divide too...with innovative methods n scientific management under state guidance rural woman may be mobilised and can be effective agents of change for better homes better society and ultimately for producing "shining economy" in present global scenario!! Write a short note on Outcome Budgeting. The Outcome Budget is a progress card on what various ministries and departments have done with the outlay announced in the annual budget. It is a performance measurement tool that helps in better service delivery; decision-making; evaluating programme performance and results; communicating programme goals; and improving programme effectiveness. It was introduced in India's budgetary parlance in 2005-06 and was stipulated to comprise scheme- or project-wise outlays for all central ministries, departments and organisations during the year listed against corresponding outcomes (measurable physical targets) to be achieved during the year. It measures the development outcomes of all government programmes. Which means that if one wants to find out whether some money allocated for, say, the building of a school or a health centre has actually been given, one might be able to. It also tells if the money has been spent for the purpose it was sanctioned and the outcome of the fundusage. The Outcome Budget, however,does not necessarily include information of targets already achieved. This method of monitoring flow of funds, implementation of schemes and the actual results of the usage of the money is followed by many countries. Relationship between Planning Commission and NDC (National Development Council) if planning commission is the vehicle ndc is the steering wheel.ndc is the apex decision making body in india.all plans prepared by the planning commission has to be approved by the ndc The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister. The Council comprises the Prime Minister, the Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of all States or their substitutes, representatives of the union territories and the members of the Commissions.

The functions of the Council are to prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the National Plan, including the assessment of resources for the Plan; 2. to consider the National Plan as formulated by the Planning Commission; 3. to consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting national development; and 4. to review the working of the Plan from time to time and to recommend such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets set out in the National Plan.
1.

It has been set up with three objectives


1. 2. 3.

to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres and to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country.
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Impact of 'privatization on PSU's privstisation is done to generate funds so that to meet fiscal deficit n also with purposes of incresing efficiency, provindn better services to da ppl, n also keeping in touch with the modern technologies n upgradement n maintence with better mangement skills...

Summer Soltice *occurs exactly when the axial tilt of a planet's semi-axis in a given hemisphere is most inclined towards the star that it orbits. *Earth's max. tilt towards the Sun during a solstice is 23 26'. *occurs in June in the Northern Hemisphere north of the Tropic of Cancer (2326'N) *in December in the Southern Hemisphere south of the Tropic of Capricorn (2326'S) *Sun reaches its highest position in the sky on the day of the summer solstice. *However, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, the highest sun position does not occur at the summer solstice, since the sun reaches the zenith here and it does so at different times of the year depending on the latitude of the observer *the summer solstice occurs some time between December 21 and December 22 each year in the Southern Hemisphere, and between June 20 and June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere. Write abt IBSA IBSA is a trilateral , developmental initiative between India, Brazil, South Africa...... its 5th summit is going in pretoria south africa IBSA is a trilateral, developmental initiative between India, Brazil and South Africa to promote South-South cooperation and exchange. In the aftermath of discussions between the Heads of State and/or Government of the IBSA countries at the G-8 meeting that took place in Evian in 2003, and following ongoing trilateral consultations, the Foreign Ministers of the respective countries met in Brasilia on June 6, 2003. At this meeting between Ministers Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma from South Africa, Celso Amorim from Brazil and Yashwant Sinha from India, the launching of the IBSA Dialogue Forum was formalized through the adoption of the "Brasilia Declaration" . The main objectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum could be summarized as follows: To promote South-South dialogue, cooperation and common positions on issues of international importance To promote trade and investment opportunities between the three regions of which they are part To promote international poverty alleviation and social development To promote the trilateral exchange of information, international best practices, technologies and skills, as well as to compliment each others competitive strengths into collective synergies To promote cooperation in a broad range of areas, namely agriculture, climate change, culture, defence, education, energy, health, information society, science and technology, social development, trade and investment, tourism and transport. The IBSA Dialogue Forum has regular consultations at Senior Official (Focal Point), Ministerial (Trilateral Joint Commission) and Heads of State and/or Government (Summit) levels, but also facilitates interaction amongst academics, business and other members of civil society The following agreements have been signed so far]: MoU on Agriculture and Allied Fields MoU on Biofuels Agreement on Merchant Shipping and Other Maritime Transport Matters Action Plan on Trade Facilitation for Standards, Technical Regulations and Conformity Assessment MoU Framework for Cooperation on the Information Society Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (b. September 9, 1941; found dead October 12, 2011)commonly known by his username dmr, was an American computer scientist who "helped shape the digital era." He created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the UNIX operating system. Ritchie and Thompson received the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System Software Research Department when he retired in 2007. The 'R' of the K&R C book stands for his name . Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 5

China has surpassed the United States to become the European Union's largest trading partner (China-EU trade totaled 49.4 billion dollar in July).

Write a note on G20 ~! The Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G-20, G20, Group of Twenty) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies: 19 countries plus the European Union. The G-20 was proposed by former Canadian Finance Minister Paul Martin (later, Prime Minister) for cooperation and consultation on matters pertaining to the international financial system. G-20 leaders met twice a year in London and Pittsburgh in 2009, Toronto and Seoul in 2010. Beginning in 2011, when France will chair and host the G-20, the summits will only be once a year. Mexico will chair and host the leaders' summit in 2012. Role / status of PM/CM in coalition government....Discuss. His or her Decision making power of on important matters gets effected, Ministries or we can say portfolios is shared as per the party strength and not by the him or her and in that case important ministries may come under the incapable person, Stability of government becomes fragile, Jai Somnath was a book written by ? It is written by Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi He founded Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, an educational trust in 1938 this book was written on somnath temple. A new draft Sports Bill giving powers to Appellate Sports Tribunal to recognize or derecognize the National Sports Authorities was unveiled. Earlier these powers were with the government. The ministry has also introduced six exclusion clauses(related to players health and the selection process) in the application of Right to Information Act, 2005 to the sports federations and bodies. what is iPSCs ? induced pluripotent stem cells. Put light over the Seed Village scheme ! Foundation type HYV seeds are provided at the 50% cost to willinG 50 farmers from a well known area of seed production in the cluster approach. These farmers are Given three days comprehensive traininGs at the time of sowinG of seeds, flowerinG staGe and at the time of harvest for seeds production. This enables the farmers to Get a quick access to quality seeds. The proGram was funded by GOI from 09 to 10 for 2 years with the initial investment and finally shifted to State Govt aGriculture department for execution as it was deemed fit for the implementation of project A village, wherein trained group of fanners are involved in production 'of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow fanners of the village and fanners of neighboring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called "a seed village". Define Solar constant ? Defined as the solar enerGy incidence normally on a imaGinary surface in the extraterrestial(no atmosphere) space. Fairly constant value with fiG 1367 W/sqm Define the terms (A) Conduction (B) Condensation (C) Radiation (D) Insolation A-the process by which heat or electricity passes through a material B-water drop that forms on a cold surface C-heat ,energy sent out in the form of rays D-the amount of light from the sun which reaches a particular area What is the Eco-Mark? Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Eco-Mark is an eco-labelling scheme which was constituted by the Government of India in 1991 for easy identification of environment-friendly products. Objectives of the Scheme: The specific objectives of the scheme are as follow: 1. To provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environmental impact of products. 2. To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products. 3. To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives by providing information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions. 4. To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impacts 5. Ultimately to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources. Scope of Eco-Mark: The Eco-Mark scheme initially covered about 16 product categories covering a wide range of products. i.e. the Criteria for evaluating products under these categories were initially analyzed and identified. At a later point, a 17th category was included. The product criteria were developed using a cradle-to-grave approach keeping in mind full life-cycle considerations of the environmental impact of the product i.e. all stages from raw materials to manufacturing, usage and disposal were analyzed and evaluated to determine the criteria. Unique feature of the Eco-Mark vis-a-vis other Eco-Labels Eco-Mark is unique when compared to other eco-labels in one aspect; it also necessitated meeting the quality requirements of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Three Committees set-up for the Eco-Mark Scheme 1. A Steering Committee in the Ministry of Environments and Forests 2. A Technical Committee in the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) 3. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for assessment and certification purposes Write everything abt UNFCCC ~! UNFCCC (united nations framework convention on climate change) is an international environmental treaty produced at the united nations conference on environment and development (UNCED) informally known as the earth summit held in Rio de jeneiro from june 3 to 14, 1992 the objective of the treaty is to stablize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Radha vinod Koijam ...whozz he ? Radhabinod Koijam is a politician from Manipur, India. He is currently the president of the Nationalist Congress Party in Manipur.[1] In 2007 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manipur, as the Nationalist Congress Party candidate in the constituency Thangmeiband Which are the books written by Premchand ? Sewasadan was the first book written by premchandra in 1918. Rangbhumi,Nirmala, Gaban, Godan, Navnidhi, Mansarowar ect what is the present status of PRI in India in terms of its success in its functionality ? post 1990s Panchayat Raj Institutions has decentralised powers of Govt. which was an essential ageda to pave security and avaliabilty at root Level U/sd Aricle 40 Local Self Govt is prescribed. Art. Amd 73 and 74 State panchayats and Municipalities formation. This has taken a very strategic step towards socialism Surinder Nath Comittee report was for ? the report was for reforms in india's civil services, which encompasses the system of performance appraisal, promotion, empanelment and placement for the IAS

Looking into the other side of the Telecom Policy ! *Dent on margins, longer term picture still unclear: With abolishment of roaming charges, the leading telcos will have a negative impact on EBITDA margins by 4% to 6% going forward. However other policy issues like delinking of spectrum and pricing will have an impact on a longer term horizon. *Implementation would be key: We believe from current 22 circles and various licences regime, converting it into single pan India licences would be difficult. 2G and 3G Licences with different expiry at different circles will be a 7 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

major hurdle. The timeline to implement single pan India licences could take longer time than expected. The policy did not give a solid framework about Spectrum Act which would deal with spectrum pricing and allocation. *Sector outlook remains positive: National Telecom Policy failed to pave a concrete way to achieve its mission. It lacks in proving policy measures which will impact industry as well as each incumbent. No timeline for Spectrum Act was provided. Also TRAI may take longer time to make pan India licence regime. Although abolishment of roaming will have a negative impact in near term. What is amortization ? the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years. What are VAS services ? A value-added service ( VAS ) is popular as a telecommunications industry term for non- core services , or in short, all services beyond standard voice calls and fax transmissions What is the difference between amortization and depreciation? Because very few assets last forever, one of the main principles of accrual accounting requires that an asset's cost be proportionally expensed based on the time period over which the asset was used. Both depreciation and amortization (as well as depletion) are methods that are used to prorate the cost of a specific type of asset to the asset's life. It is important to mention that these methods are calculated by subtracting the asset's salvage value from its original cost. Amortization usually refers to spreading an intangible asset's cost over that asset's useful life. For example, a patent on a piece of medical equipment usually has a life of 17 years. The cost involved with creating the medical equipment is spread out over the life of the patent, with each portion being recorded as an expense on the company's income statement. Depreciation, on the other hand, refers to prorating a tangible asset's cost over that asset's life. For example, an office building can be used for a number of years before it becomes run down and is sold. The cost of the building is spread out over the predicted life of the building, with a portion of the cost being expensed each accounting year. What are EBITDA margins ? EBITDA means earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization divided by total revenue. It shows the core profitability of the company. Explain the salient features of the New Telecom Policy announced in October 2011. How will it help the country? 1. Increase in rural tele-density from the current level of around 35 to 60 by the year 2017 and 100 by the year 2020. 2. Provide affordable and reliable broadband on demand by the year 2015 and to achieve 175 million broadband connections by the year 2017 and 600 million by the year 2020 at minimum 2 Mbps download speed and making available higher speeds of at least 100 Mbps on demand. 3. Provide high speed and high quality broadband access to all village panchayats through optical fibre by the year 2014 and progressively to all villages and habitations. 4. Promote indigenous R&D, innovation and manufacturing that serve domestic and foreign markets. 5. Promote the domestic production of telecommunication equipment to meet 80% Indian telecom sector demand through domestic manufacturing with a value addition of 65% by the year 2020. Assess India and G20 G20 originated in 1999 in da wake of Asian Financial crisis,1997.As global financial crisis deepened in 2008 it elevated to summit Format in 2008. Its continuous strengthening highlights the rise of multilateralism in the management of global financial and economic order.This goes well with the policy and position of India.India has been a founder member of G-20 group.This membership has enabled India to play a major role in da global financial n economic matters,which is commensurate with da sustained economic growth and size of da country.its particpation boost India's Global image as as responsible emerging power. One of da major achievements of G20 is da reform of international financial institutions,which has been a longstanding demand of India for many years.The active role played by India in G20 is likely to strengthen its claim and oppurtunity to get effective representation in other international bodies like UN security Council. local name of shifting cultivation in philipines? in india it is calld Jhum,in which d forest r burnt nd in those specified area r cultivatd by Farmer Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

kaingin While agricultural productivity is adversely affected by climate change agricultural activity itself contributes to global warming in this respect discuss Indias Programmes of national mission for sustainable agriculture.

Longest National Highway in India ? NH-7 frm varanasi to kanyakumari.. NH-2 and NH- 37......features ? Nh 2 is also called gt road it was build in maurya period and it was revenoted by sher shah suri in 16 century nh-2 national highway 2 b/w DELHI-KOLKATA......DELHI U.P HARYANA..BIHAR JHARKAND...WB COVERS.. Nh-2 gt road runs between 3 countries india,pakistan,afgnistan NH-37 Is the national highway of india which across the Assam state.. myopia, hypermetropia , astigmatism and presbyopia explain each ! myopia - shortsightedness - is the condition where the light that comes in does not directly focus on retina but in front of it. ie., the image is formed in front of the retina.its difficult to see far objects. hypermetropia - longsightedness- opposite to myopia. astigmatism - blurred vision due to irregulary shaped lens which is behind the cornea. presbyopia - results due to aging and not an eye disease as such..cannot focus on close objects.. dont know the exact definition 1.MYOPIA- type of refractive order when parallel rays coming frm a distant object r focussed in front of retina. person fails 2 see distant object clearly but near vision alrite. common cause: anteroposterior diameter of eye is longer than normal. correction: use of concave lens . 2. HYPERMETROPIAa- parallel rays from infinity r focussed behind d retina n d person has 2 accomodate 2 see objects far away n accomodate excessively 2 see nearer objects. Cause: anteroposterior diameter of eyeball is shorter than normal. correction: use of convex lens. 3. PRESBYOPIA- Occurs after age of 40 commonly. the crystalline lens becomes rigid n hence during accomodation d lens fails 2 increase its diopteric power. such persons cannot see printed words or small objects even held at usual distances for reading. correction: use of reading glasses. 4.ASTIGMATISM- in some corneas d curvature varies frm meridian 2 meridian. thus, d curvature in a tranverse direction may be less than in d vertical meridian. such eye is an astigmatic eye. the refractive power of such cornea is different in different meridians. as a result images frm all d portions of d body cannot b simultaneously foccused on d retina n so not seen clearly. correction: use of cylindrical lens. wHAT IS THE difference between .geosyncronous orbit..and geostationary orbit ? In geostationary orbit, a satellite remains at fixed pt. with respect to earth but it takes a lot of energy, synchronization and control to keep the satellite at the same pt. Instead in geosynchronous satellite satellite remains approx.stationary with respect to earth but actually there is a little relative displacement with respect to earth in order to prevent repeated correction of satellite position(which is disturbed due to cosmic interventions) thus saving power and reduces complexity. talk abt..Australia Group ( now joined by European Commission) its a group of 41 members includin those of europian union established in 1985 mainly for identification n controlln of those exports of constituent nations which may lead to spread of biological or chemicsl weapons...

what is Wassenaar Arrangement?? D wassenar arrangemnt on xport controls 4 conventional arms and dual use goods nd Technologies,is a multilateral export control regime wit 40 participants states,includng mny 4mer COMECON countries.It is d succedr of COCOM nd set up on 12 july,1996. In Wassenar,near d International court city The Hague.it is mainly focussing on d transperncyof national export control regims nd nt granting Veto power 2 indivisual members over organizational decisions.. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 9

its da arrangement done to promote greater responsibilty n transparency in tranfer of conventional arms n dual purpose technologies hence helpn in estblishn regional n intrnational security by preventing destabilising accumulations.... Representatives of Participating States meet regularly in Vienna where the Wassenaar Arrangement's Secretariat is located. The Wassenaar Arrangement is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) with 40 participating states including many former COMECON (Warsaw Pact) countries. Missile Technology Control Regime...write on it MTCR is an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.34 countries r partners of it.The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally binding obligations on Partners MTCR is an informal nd voluntary partnersip between 34 countries.It s nt a treaty nd it prevents d prolification of missile and unmanned areial vehicle technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km. Palestinian factions signed unity pact in Cairo ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Rival Palestinian-factions, Fatah and Hamas proclaimed a landmark, Egyptian-mediated reconciliation pact aimed at ending their bitter four-year rift. *The declaration was made at a ceremony at the Egyptian intelligence headquarters in Cairo. *Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas said this ended four black years that hurt national Palestinian interests. He also said he would soon visit Hamas held Gaza Strip. *The pact provides for the creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government ahead of national elections next years, but leaves key issues unresolved and makes no mention of peace talks with Israel. *Israel has denounced the pact in advance, because of the militant Hamas long history of deadly attacks against Israeli targets. It has equated the deal with a renunciation of peacemaking. *Like the US and the EU, Israel considers Hamas a terrorist organisation and says it will not negotiate with a future Palestine government that includes the Iranian and Syrian backed group. *Abbas rejected Israels opposition to the pact, saying the reconciliation with the militant Islamic group was an internal Palestinian affair. They are our brothers and family. We may differ, we often do, but we still arrive at a minimum level of understanding, Abbas said of Hamas. And in a message to Israel Abbas added: we reject blackmail and it is no longer possible for us to accept the occupation of Palestinian land. *Hamas leader Kahled Mashaal also addressed the ceremony, saying his group was prepared to do anything to translate the text of the pact to facts on the ground. Our battle is with the Israeli enemy and not with Palestinian factions. Its not clear if western powers would deal with the new government due to emerge from the deal. *The reconciliation deal is designed to unify the dueling governments that emerged after Hamas violently wrested control of Gaza from security forces loyal to Abbas in June 2007 and left his Fatah controlling only the West Bank. Three separate committees are to be formed, which will plan for the upcoming polls, and recommend internal reforms within the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) the umbrella group of the Palestinian factions. One of the committees would also study new security arrangements Gaza and occupied West Bank Who is the father of Lok Adalat? Based on the principles of maghatma Gandhi (shri P N Bhagawati, He introduced Public Interest Litigation in Indian Judicial system.) Lok Adalat means peoples court is presided over by Retired judges,social activist,or people who r involved in law section,,it is creatd wit d concepts of Mahatma Gandhi.. The first Lok Adalat was held on March 14, 1982 at Junagarh in Gujarat the land of Mahatma Gandhi. Lok Adalat accepts the cases which could be settled by conciliation and compromise, and pending in the regular courts within their jurisdiction. Is potato a Rabi or Kharif crop? 80% f potatao r sown inwinter season...so it is a rabi crop.. Write abt PSLV PSLV developed by ISRO for launching 1600 kg satellite in 620 km sun synchronous polar orbit n 1500kg satellite in geo synchronous transfer orbit. The recent successful launch was d 19th consecutive successful mission of PSLV out of 20 which also impressed d CNES by its professional launch..Till nw it has launched 27 foreign sattelite(many of dem small) 10 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

recently pslv c-18 ws launchd to put meghna-torquiroes in orbit br french collaboration frm sriharikota for predctn monsoon variations n wave patterns it also hd on its board 3 nanosatellites jugnu for vegetation n water bodies vessessat for locating ships cruising in d sealane n SRMsat is for global warming n pollution. What actually is cash disbursement capacity. ? Cash disbursement is a process by which a business pays out money to a person or organization, typically related to operating expenses for that business. While the name implies this type of payment is made out in cash, which is possible, it is common for payments to be made as checks or credit transactions, too. There are a number of reasons for a business to make such a disbursement, including employee salaries, rent on physical locations, and equipment. Cash disbursement can be subtracted from cash receipts to determine revenue for a business.... What is MIDCAP? ? A company with a market capitalization between $2 and $10 billion, which is calculated by multiplying the number of a company''s shares outstanding by its stock price. Mid cap is an abbreviation for the term "middle capitalization... What is Basel II banking norms? the bankin norms formulated to apply an international standard and regulation for banking systems to protect international financial system in case of any major bank or series of banks collapse are basel 2 norms... in these the bank z to hold a capital reserve that wil be proportinate n also aapropiate to the amount of risks its exposn itsllf too...the risks may include its lendings or its invesments... The purpose of Basel II, which was initially published in June 2004, is to create an international standard that banking regulators can use when creating regulations about how much capital banks need to put aside to guard against the types of financial and operational risks banks face while maintaining sufficient consistency so that this does not become a source of competitive inequality amongst internationally active banks.

The final version aims at: Ensuring that capital allocation is more risk sensitive; Enhance disclosure requirements which will allow market participants to assess the capital adequacy of an institution; 3. Ensuring that credit risk, operational risk and market risk are quantified based on data and formal techniques; 4. Attempting to align economic and regulatory capital more closely to reduce the scope for regulatory arbitrage.
1. 2.

Basel II uses a "three pillars" concept (1) minimum capital requirements (addressing risk) (2) supervisory review (3) market discipline. What is Anti-dumping duty ?

A penalty imposed on suspiciously low-priced imports, to increase their price in the importing country and so protect local industry from unfair competition. Anti-dumping duties are assessed generally in an amount equal to the difference between the importing country's FOB price of the goods and (at the time of their importation) the market value of similar goods in the exporting country or other countries. See also constructed value.
to make less fiscal deficit wat should the govt. do..????? the government should not delay disinvestment process. Fiscal deficit can be reduced by bringing up revenues or by lowering expenditure also by bringing rationalization of expenditure, augmentation in revenue, disinvestment of public sector undertaking, enhancing the efficiency of funds spent on various flagship programs like NREGA among others..... What was the Gadgil formula ? formula includes: 1. Special Category states like Assam, Jammu and Kashmir and Nagaland were given preference. Their needs should first be met out of the total pool of Central assistance. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 11

2. The remaining balance of the Central assistance should be distributed among the remaining States on the basis of the following criteria: (i) 60 per cent on the basis of population; (ii) 10 per cent on the basis of tax effort, determined on the basis of individual State's per capita tax receipts as percentage of the State's per capita income; (iii) 10 per cent on the basis of per capita State income, assistance going only to States whose per capita incomes are below the national average; (iv) 10 per cent on the basis of spill-over into the Fourth Plan of major continuing irrigation and power projects; (v) 10 per cent for special problems of individual States. Reasoning behind the given weights: i. Population In a country like India population acts as an apt measure to represent the requirements of the people because a major portion of the population lives below the poverty line. This proposition was also supported by the empirical data which showed a negative correlation between population of states and their per capita income. ii. Tax effort This is an important factor to measure the potential of the state as far as its own resources are concerned. This relative measure incentivizes the states to undertake measures to increase their own potential through various tax measures. iii. State per capita income A problem regarding unequal development amongst the states was faced in the earlier plans because of larger states with their large plans were able to get a larger share of resources from the centre. This led to increased inequalities amongst the states. Therefore, to make the distribution fairer to the smaller states with a lesser than national per capita average income were given extra share in the resources. iv. Special Problems This factor was introduced so as to provide enough resources to states to overcome problems like droughts, famines etc. In the absence of this share, such states would have suffered huge losses because of these problems and the implementation of their plans could have been hindered. This was a discretionary element in the formula which required proper scrutiny of the states situation by the Finance Commission. v. Irrigation and power projects reviewd gadgills formula from sixth plan included that the 10 percent indicator for ongoing power and irrigation projects was dropped and the share of per capita income was increased to 20 percent, to be distributed to those states whose per capita incomes were below the national average... what is heat energy budget? d earth can b considerd a physical system tat includes an energy budget tat includes all gains of incoming energy nd loses all d outgoing energy,,,so d earth is nearly equillibrium,,so sum of gainning incoming energy is equal to d sum of losing outgoing energy... wat is upwelling and downwelling ? down welling is said to when surface waters converge (come together), pushing the surface water downwards. Regions of downwelling have low productivity because the nutrients get used up and are not continuously resupplied by the cold, nutrient-rich water from below the surface. Upwelling is the movement of cold, deep, often nutrient-rich water to the surface mixed layer; and downwelling is the movement of surface water to deeper depths. Some of the dryest costal area on earth are associated with up welling particularly in the latitudes influence of some permanent sub tropical high pressure of cell..it carries neutrients on sea surface nd most productive fishing ground in the world ocean...some examples are north chili nd peru, north western mexico.. What are the Qualitative and Quantitative methods RBI adopts ? Quantitative measures are those measure whch adopted by RBI to controll the total quantum nd volume of loans credits given by commercial bank in the various sector of economy.... 3 measures are 1. bank rate 2. 2- CRR or VARIABLE Reserve ration 3. open market operation (selling nd purchasing of govt. Securities)

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Qualitative measures aim that controlling not only the over quantum of credits but also the "purpose" for whch bank gives credit nd loans 5 qualitative measure 1- rationing of credit 2-variation of margin requirement 3-regulating loans for consumption purpose 4-moral suasion 5- direct action... Explain the role of RBI to control inflation Through quantitative approach consist bank rate, CRR,SLR,RR,RRR, govt. securities We cant decrease inflation fully with monetary policy.. We should adopt those economic strategy which can increase in production nd productivity but this job is not for RBI it is for govt. ..main reason for food inflation is scarcity of supply we can't decrease demand we should increase supply...RBI aim is now to stablise short term inflation... control of demand pull inflation is by monetary policy, fiscal policy and administrative reforms! Control cost push inflation cannot be done in short run Inflation can be ctrled by controlling flow of money in market Write 20 words on BHIM FAULT ! Bhim fault in nothern karnataka Related to uranium exploration nd mineralisation. Explain the terms -- pycnoline,thermocline,halocline ! pycnoline : it applies to the area of carbon dioxide can be defined as ' In the ocean, a region where the water density increases rapidly with depth'. and also a layer where there is a quick change in water density. thermocline - is the layer where water temperature decrease rapidly with the depth. Much faster than the usual temperature drop. Below the layer, the water temperatures drop at its usual rate. halocline is a strong, vertical salinity gradient. Because salinity (in concert with temperature) affects the density of seawater, it can play a role in its vertical stratification. Eastern ghat is subjected to denudation by east flowing rivers how to measure the height of a mountain? theodolite and transits are used.....they employ trigonometrical method of calculation like the elevation of peak frm a crtain dstnc s measured and angle s calculated and hence the height....anthr method is employng a gps sys on the peak and calculate hw lng does it take to recieve d radio signals frm d satelite whos dstnce frm centre of earth s alrdy knwn....using speed dstnc calculatn height can b calculated...bt ts wont yield appropriate results...cuz height s supposed to b measured frm sea level...hence d frmer one s widely used ornithochory means ? chory: suffix used to descrb scheme of dsprsl of seed mechanism.....ornitho:birds....hence the defntn tranfer of pollen grains by birds.. or reproductn in plants facillatd by birds

Write 20 words on Amoeba ! The amoeba was first discovered by August Johann Rsel von Rosenhof in 1757. Early naturalists referred to Amoeba as the Proteus animalcule after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape. The name "amibe" was given to it by Bory de Saint-Vincent, from the Greek amoib (), meaning change.Dientamoeba fragili was first described in 1918, and was linked to harm in humans. Karakorum Highway The 8th Wondered of the world. karakorum runs through POK and joins pakistan to china. Also known as friendship highway.. Recently some PLA engineers were said to be working on the same highway! A VPN supplies network connectivity over a possibly long physical distance.VPN is a form of Wide Area Network (WAN).The key feature of a VPN, however, is its ability to use public networks like the Internet rather than rely on private leased lines. VPN technologies implement restricted-access networks that utilize the same cabling and routers as a public network, and they do so without sacrificing features or basic security..... 13 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

A VPN supports at least three different modes of use: - Remote access client connections - LAN-to-LAN internetworking - Controlled access within an intranet ....... write about ....Surinder Nath Comittee report Report of the Group Constituted to Review the System of Performance Appraisal, Promotion, Empanelment and Placement for the All India Services and Other Group 'A' Services Write short note on....Citizen Charters Citizens Charter is a document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the commitment of the Organisation towards its Citizens in respects of Standard of Services, Information, Choice and Consultation, Non-discrimination and Accessibility, Grievance Redress, Courtesy and Value for Money. This also includes expectations of the Organisation from the Citizen for fulfilling the commitment of the Organisation..... Sixth plan (1980-1985) *Janata government plan *reversal of the Nehruvian model. *Indian national highway system was introduced *widening of roads *Tourism also expanded. *Family planning xpanded. *In contrast to China's harshly-enforced one-child policy, Indian policy did not rely on the threat of force. *India continued to have a high birth rate. Landmark *marked the beginning of economic liberalization. *Price controls were eliminated and ration shops were closed. *This led to an increase in food prices and an increased cost of living. Fifth plan (1974-1979) *Stress was laid on employment, poverty alleviation, and justice *focused on self-reliance in agricultural production and defense --In 1978 the newly elected Morarji Desai government rejected the plan. -Landmark *Electricity Supply Act was enacted in 1975, which enabled the Central Government to enter into power generation and transmission. Write down interesting facts w.r.t to Smiling Buddha underground nuclear test The Smiling Buddha or Pokhran-I, was the codename given to Republic of India's first nuclear test explosion on 18 May 1974 at 8:05 a.m. (IST). "Peaceful Nuclear Explosive" or PNE, but commonly called Smiling Buddha

Fourth plan (1969-1974) *Indira Gandhi government nationalized 19 major Indian banks. *East Pakistan war *performed the Smiling Buddha underground nuclear test in 1974 *partially in response to the United States deployment of the Seventh Fleet in the Bay of Bengal to warn India against attacking West Pakistan and widening the war. Effect of War *Funds earmarked for the industrial development had to be used for the war effort. Third plan (1961-1966) *stressed on agriculture and improving production of rice. *Sino-Indian War in 1962 shifted focus on defence *construction of dams continued. *cement and fertilizer plants built Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 14

*Many primary schools were started in rural areas. *Panchayat elections were started *states were given more development responsibilities *State electricity boards and state secondary education boards were formed. *State road transportation corporations were formed *local road building became a state responsibility Landmarks *Green Revolution in India (1965-66) initiated *abundance of wheat in Punjab Effect of War *led to inflation *priority was shifted to price stabilization. *GDP lower at 2.7% Write 20 words on Mahalanobis model.? Heavy industries include what all? The Mahalanobis model of growth is based on d predominance of d basic goods.Based on d premise dat it would attract all round investment..Emphasis was on expanding d productive ability of the system.. .Heavy industries include industries related to d production of iron,steel,heavy chemicals(nitrogenous fertilizers) and machine building industry and development of heavy engg. Second Five year plan(1956-61) is based on Mahalanobish Model.The main emphasis of this model was to rapid industrialization.Especially in the field of heavy raw materials like steel,iron and heavy engineering and machine building industry.It's aim was to increase national growth rate by 25 percent. Second plan (1956-1961) *focused on industry, especially heavy industry *plan followed the Mahalanobis model, Landmarks *Hydroelectric power projects *five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela *Coal production was increased. *More railway lines in NE *Atomic Energy Commission was formed in 1957 (Homi Bhabha -Chairman) *Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was established as a research institute. *In 1957 a talent search and scholarship program was begun to find talented young students to train for work in nuclear power. First Five year plan *presented by Jawaharlal Nehru *date - December 8, 1951 *total budget - 206.8 billion INR *focus on seven sectors 1. irrigation and energy (27.2 percent) 2. agriculture and community development (17.4 percent) 3. transport and communications (24 percent) 4. industry (8.4 percent) 5. social services (16.64 percent) 6. land rehabilitation (4.1 percent) 7. other (2.5 percent *idea of a self reliant closed economy *developed by Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis *ideas from USSR's five year plans developed by Domer *plan referred to Domer-Mahalanobis Model. Result GDP *target growth rate was 2.1 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

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*achieved growth rate was 3.6 percent net domestic product * went up by 15 percent. per capita income *went up 8 percent Landmarks *Bhakra Dam and Hirakud Dam initiated *WHO addressed children health nd infant mortality nd hence population growth *five IITs setup *University Grant Commission setup The first Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru presented the first five-year plan to the Parliament of India on December 8, 1951. The total plan budget was ? under d 1st FYP provision was made to spend a total of Rs. 2,378 crore during d plan period..bt d actual expenditure amounted to Rs. 1,960 crore only. NH-4 route ? chennai- bangalore- davangere-Hubli-Belgaum-Mumbai Which countries President have offered hindi films to be shot at the picturesque country? Austrian President, who loves Hindi films, wants his picturesque country to become a part of Indian cinema. Bollywood figured in the respective talks held between President Pratibha Patil and her Swiss counterpart Heinz Fischer...Fischer wants Bollywood directors and producers to come to Vienna and Austria to shoot and make use of the beautiful locations here..... Name the Sanskrit scholar and a former director of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan who passed away recently Mr Mathoor Krishnamurthi, a Padma Shri awardee,Sanskrit scholar and former Director of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.Born on August 8, 1929.... He had worked as a reporter and sub-editor in Kannada daily Samyukta Karnataka....... Name the Swedish poet who won 2011 Nobel in literature. Tomas Transtromer The 2011 Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Tomas Transtromer, a Swedish poet whose surrealistic works about the mysteries of the human mind won him acclaim as one of the most important Scandinavian writers since World War II...... Name the person who has been conferred at the 2011 Telstra NSW Business Women's Award for her contribution to world's first green steel manufacturing process. Scientia Professor Veena Sahajwalla, Director at the Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology at The University of NSW (UNSW), is helping the steel industry combat environmental challenges with technology that reduces carbon-emissions and re-uses plastics waste that would otherwise go to landfill.... How does Sebi regulate FIIs? *FIIs who issue/renew/cancel/redeem P-Notes, are required to report on a monthly basis. The report should reach the Sebi by the 7th day of the following month. *The FII merely investing/subscribing in/to the Participatory Notes -- or any such type of instruments/securities -with underlying Indian market securities are required to report on quarterly basis (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and OctDec). *FIIs who do not issue PNs but have trades/holds Indian securities during the reporting quarter (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec) require to submit 'Nil' undertaking on a quarterly basis. *FIIs who do not issue PNs and do not have trades/ holdings in Indian securities during the reporting quarter. (JanMar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec): No reports required for that reporting quarter. What are hedge funds? Hedge funds are generally privately-owned investment funds, and so are not regulated like mutual funds whose owners are public corporations.Hedge funds utilize a wide array of investment strategies according to the goals of their managers and clients. Some investment strategies include Global macro, directional, event-driven, relative value (economics).Hedge funds are generally unsupervised by national regulatory agencies... 16 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

What is an FII? An FII, or a foreign institutional investor, is an entity established to make investments in India. However, these FIIs need to get registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India. Entities or funds that are eligible to get registered as FII include pension funds; mutual funds; insurance companies / reinsurance companies; investment trusts; banks; international or multilateral organisation or an agency thereof or a foreign government agency or a foreign central bank; university funds; endowments (serving broader social objectives); foundations (serving broader social objectives); and charitable trusts / charitable societies. The following entities proposing to invest on behalf of broad based funds, are also eligible to be registered as FIIs: * Asset Management Companies * Investment Manager/Advisor * Institutional Portfolio Managers * Trustees What are P-Notes? (Economy question) Participatory Notes: Another options for FIIs to invest in markets thru second authority or rather attract other investors to buy notes from them. Not Regulated by SEBI. Why the concept of P-Notes (Participatory notes) came into existence !? To encourage investment from FII. Who won the Irani Cup 2011? The Rest of India battered Rajasthan down by 404 runs talk about conduction,convention,rediation,and cosmic disturbances ? Conduction, Convetion and radiation all three are the mode of heat transfer. Conduction is the mode of heat transfer in which a medium is must. It is due to temparature difference. Eg. of this is heating of metal rod. Convection is the mode of heat transfer in which heat is transferred to/ by fluid. It also due to tempR difference. Eg. heat transfer in bike engine(fins). radiation is the mode of heat transfer which need NO medium. In this ktype of heat transfer elctromagnetic waves propagates in form of quanta. No matter of tempR difference. Every body radiate heat in form of EM waves. If tempR of 2 body is same then the net heat transfer is 0 but rad cosmic disturbances are related to emmision of energy n its trasmission among solar bodies...... quasicrystals .........explain it ! Structure that is ordered but not periodic. A quasicrystalline pattern can continuously fill all available space, but it lacks translational symmetry. this made,,, Daniel Shechtman to win the nobel prize in chemistry 2011:: Unlike structre of normal crystal,quasicrystal are consisted of regular units which are not repeating in a particular pattern,(resembling the mosaic pattern seen usualy in mosque....)formed by coolin of metal alloys, made israeli scientist to win 2011 nobel prize in chemistry.. used in making microsurgical eye instruments .. Also used in Razors steel what is ramp valley ? a broad open valley through which river flow; gaurded by mountains in 2 side. E.g: Brahmputra flow through ramp valley in assam, one side is mighty himalaya & other side is garo, khasi, jaintiya hills Who has been appointed as Chairman of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation? Mr. sudhir vasudev. Western most point of India? West of Ghuar Mota in Gujarat is the westernmost point of India Eastern most point of India ? Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

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The Kibithu is the easternmost point of India. It is a tiny village located at the heights of 11,000 feet in the Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh bordering China's Tibet region. Difference between Sex ratio and Child sex ratio ? Sex ratio itself is no of females per 1000 males... When dealing with children below 6 it is termed as child sex ratio Largest Glacier in India ? Siachen glacier is 75.6 km long and 2.8 km wide. It is the source for the 80km-long Nubra River, a tributary of the Shyok, which is part of the Indus River system. Also known as third pole !! Define a Glacier in terms of Geography ! A large presistant body of ice that forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation(melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. At least 0.1km square in area and 50 m thick. . . . What are 10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet LANs 10Base is An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per sec dat uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 100 meters and a maximum of 2 segments. 10Base5 is An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per sec dat uses baseband signaling, with 5 continuous segments not exceeding 100 meters per segment. 10BaseT is an Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per sec dat uses baseband signaling and twisted pair cabling. New Telecom Policy 2011 1) Increase in rural teledensity from the current level of around 35 to 60 by the year 2017 and 100 by the year 2020 2)Provide affordable and reliable broadband on demand by the year 2015 and to achieve 175 million broadband connections by the year 2017 and 600 million by the year 2020 at minimum 2 Mbps download speed and making available higher speeds of atleast 100 Mbps on demand. 3)To create fund to promote indigenous R&D, IPR creation, entrepreneurship, manufacturing, commercialising and deployment of state-of-the-art telecom products and services 4)Strive to create One Nation - One License across services and service areas. 5)Achieve One Nation - Full Mobile Number Portability and work towards One Nation - Free Roaming. 6)To reposition the mobile phone from a mere communication device to an instrument of empowerment that combines communication with proof of identity, fully secure financial and other transaction capability, multi-lingual services and a whole range of other capabilities that ride on them and transcend the literacy barrier. 7)Ensure adequate availability of spectrum and its allocation in a transparent manner through market related processes. Make available additional 300 MHz spectrum for International Mobile Telephony (IMT) services by the year 2017 and another 200 MHz by 2020. 8)Encourage adoption of green policy in telecom and incentivize use of renewable resources for sustainability. 9)Protect consumer interest by promoting informed consent, transparency and accountability in quality of service, tariff, usage etc. 10)Achieve substantial transition to new Internet Protocol (IPv 6) in the country in a phased and time bound manner by 2020 and encourage an ecosystem for provision of a significantly large bouquet of services on IP platform. 11)To make efforts to recognise telecom and broadband connectivity as a basic necessity like education and health and work towards Right to Broadband. 12)To delink spectrum in respect of all future licences. Spectrum shall be made available at price through market related processes. *The world's highest webcam was installed on Kala Patthar, a smaller mountain facing the Everest. * It is a solar-powered camera and set at 18618 feet (5675 metres). The webcam can withstand temperature as low as minus 30 degrees Celsius and operates from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. *The Webcam will send live images of Mount Everest back to scientists studyingthe effect of climate change on the planet's tallest peak. *Earlier, scientists had set up a webcam at the base camp of Mount Aconcagua in Argentina. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 18

The German surveillance firm Mobotix developed the device and it wasinstalled by the mountain research group, Giampietro Kohl ofEV-K2-CNR. What is the role of the finance commission? The finance commission is set up by the president in every interval of 5 year how ever he is resposible for the distributions of the tax collected and distribute them according to the recomdations of fincamce commisson an also look after financial matter between the state and center PURA | Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas .........write few lines ! Concept given by our former president Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam ....PURA proposes that urban infrastructure and services be provided in rural hubs to create economic opportunities outside of cities. What is paganism ? paganism means worshiping nature.... pagans were the worshipers of nature who worshipped nature in all spheres of life.... e.g. "GREEKS" were the worshipers of nature... What are plastids ? functions ? plastids r d major cell organnels found in plant cell dey r responsible for photosynthesis.. known as the kitchen of cells; they are of 3 types: chloroplast; leukoplast; chromoplast portfolio investment means ? xplain portfolio investment is a kind of investment in shares , debentures , bonds etc of different type n of different type in order of minimize risk n have more profit Paris Convention * A key international convention relating to patents is the Paris convention for the protection of industrial property, initially signed in 1883. *The Paris convention sets out a range of basic rules relating to patents, and although the convention does have direct legal effect in all national jurisdictions, the principles of the convention are incorporated into all notable current patent system. * The most significant aspect of this convention is the provision of the right to claim priority i.e., filing an application in any one member state, and receive the benefits of the original filing date. *Because the reference to a patent is intensely date driven, this right is fundamental to modern patent usage Risk Weight Assets include ?

In terms of the minimum amount of capital that is required within banks and other institutions, based on a percentage of the assets, weighted by risk. Weighted Assets The idea of risk-weighted assets is a move away from having a static requirement for capital. Instead, it is based on the riskiness of a bank's assets. For example, loans that are secured by a letter of credit would be weighted riskier than a mortgage loan that is secured with collateral.
Explain the TRIPS agreement ! trade related intellectual property rights; one of the main feature of WTO agreements!!!! What do u mean by exercising VETO power in UNSC....explain in ur wrds china,usa,uk,france nd russia are d five permanent members....if rest of countries have decided something nd in case if any permanent member hav objection on dat den law or bill cant be passed.....dese hav special power called veto power... Who got Nobel Prize In Economics ...what was their wrk xplain in brief ! Thomas J. Sargent, Christopher A. Sims The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011 was awarded jointly to Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims "for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy" 19 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

What are Tier I and Tier II Capital? these are the two type of capital which combine to form the capital adequacy ratio....tier-1 includes shareholders fund,reported reserves, borrowings and many other things...where as teir -2 capital includes non reported reserves, prefrence sharefunds, sub-ordinate loans etc. these are required to be disclosed by banks as a statutary regulatio what is core capital ? Core capital is the minimum amount of resources that any type of thrift must have on hand in order to be in compliance with the regulations put in place by the Federal Home Loan (FHL) Bank. Unless the amount of core capital meets FHL regulations, the thrift will not be able to extend services and provide accounts for new customers. The identification of core capital is a valuable tool in making sure that consumers are adequately protected when it comes to the process of establishing financial accounts...... Write abt "Policy of Masterly Inactivity" this is a kind of attitude of the Brit leadership ...like let things happen the way they r happening ...do nt get involved in them...mostly this kind of attitude was used by them in Afghanistan..where d Russians were trying to invade but they showd least interest to this prob....This kind of attitude was shown by Lord Elgin, Lord Lawrence,Lord Mayo,Lord NOrthbrooke, nd is called as d period of Mastrerly inactive in d history ....this was exactly oppposite to dat of Forward Policy followed by Lord Lytton Schemes for Increasing per Capita Forest Cover in the Country *The per capita forest cover of India is 0.06 hectare while the global per capita forest cover is 0.6 hectare. *To increase the per capita forest coverage in the country, the Ministry of Environment & Forests is implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Afforestation Programme (NAP) for regeneration of degraded forests and adjoining areas in the country. *The scheme is implemented through a decentralized mechanism of State Forest Department Agency (SFDA) at State level, Forest Department Agency (FDA) at Forest Division level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at village level. *The choice of species to be planted under NAP Scheme is decided by JFMCs, based on local preferences, suitability of land and agro climatic conditions. *Seven models of Afforestation have been recognized under the National Afforestation Programme (NAP) and teak could be one of the species. Besides NAP, the following steps have been taken to promote afforestation / tree planting in the country which will help to increase the per capita forest coverage in the country: 1)Two new Eco-Task Force (ETF) Battalions have been operationalised by the Ministry for eco restoration of degraded areas in Assam, in addition to supporting the existing four ETF battalions in the country. An amount of Rs. 31.91 Crores has been released during the 2010-11. 2)XIIIth Finance Commission has recommended Rs. 5000 crore for five years starting from 2010-11 for activities including conservation and development of forests. 3)Additional Central assistance of Rs. 81.66 Crores has been released to the States during 2009-10 for Restoration and Regeneration of Forest Cover. 4)Tree planting is also an approved activity under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Justice Mukul Mudgal committee::Action Taken in Recent Incidents of Doping With a view to investigate the recent incidents of doping, including use of food supplements allegedly claimed to contain banned substances, Government has appointed Justice Mukul Mudgal, retired Chief Justice of the High Court of Punjab & Haryana as a one member Committee with the following terms:i)To determine the facts and circumstances leading to large scale recent incidents of alleged doping in Athletics discipline. ii)To examine reasons for such large scale prevalence of doping and modus operandi involved, including availability of the prohibited substances in and around training camps/competitions. iii)to enquire into the role of agencies involved, if any. iv)To suggest remedial measures to improve the protocols of dope testing and its integrity and promotion so that such lapses, if any, do not happen in future. v) Any other issues. The Report of the Committee is still awaited. 20 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Action as appropriate would be taken by the Government, on receipt of the Report of the Committee. Who appoints the Chief Electoral Officer? election commission of india....ECI Which authority conducts elections to the State Legislative Assemblies and Legislative Councils? election commision of india through its state election commission f tht state. Which authority conducts elections to Parliament? election commission of india Who supervises the election work in a State ? The Chief Electoral Officer (CEO). As per section 13A of the Representation of the People Act 1950, read with section 20 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the Chief Electoral Officer of a State/ Union Territory is authorised to supervise the election work in the State/Union Territory subject to the overall superintendence, direction and control of the Election Commission. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioners and Election Commissioners? recommendation decidd by cabint,tat is send to presidnt of India What is the status Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners in terms of salaries and allowances etc.? Equivalent to Supreme Court Judges. What is the present composition of the Election Commission? A Three - Member Body At present, the Election Commission of India is a three-member body, with one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Which authority conducts elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President of India ? Under Article 324(1) of the Constitution of India, the Election Commission of India, interalia, is vested with the power of superintendence, direction and control of conducting the elections to the offices of the President and VicePresident of India. Detailed provisions are made under the Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Act, 1952 and the rules made thereunder

Some latest new reforms for implementing MGNREGA - government came out with a set of reforms that include payment of unemployment allowance if a legally entitled worker is not given the promised job on time. -include solutions to reducing delay in payments to workers, providing requisite number of days of work as per demand, improving quality of assets created under MGNREGA and their relevance to the livelihood of the poor and ensuring full wages stipulated under the programme. -"if you are not provided work within 15 days of your applying for work, you will be provided unemployment allowance," the reform note says that in case the states "fail to provide work within 15 days", workers who applied for work "must be paid unemployment allowance". -these reforms could be implemented in 2000 of the poorest blocks of the country, especially those with high concentration of SC/ST population," Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority (NSRA) - Being formed to regulate safety from nuclear radiation. -Regulator will not report to DAE but to parliament. -It will be able to access any premises where radiation is present, used or proposed to be used and seize documents concerned. -it will be the sole agency granting consent on nuclear transactions. -For any violations, defautlers to face imprisonments, fines. -The Authority will replace the existing atomic energy regulatory board (AERB). POWERS 21 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

-to conduct investigations, inspect , search and seize documents and objects from the sources of such radiation. ORGANISING STRUCTURE: - A chair person (serving/ retired judge of Supreme court and high court) - two full time members ( eminent scientists who have held position of secretary rank in the govt.) -four part timers There will be a " council of nuclear safety " to over see and review the policies on nuclear and radiation safety. it will be headed by PRIME MINISTER. WADA -It was set up on November 10, 1999 in Lausanne, Switzerland, as a result of what was called the "Declaration of Lausanne" - It is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) -It is to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sport. -Initially funded by the International Olympic Committee, WADA now receives half of its budgetary requirements from them, with the other half coming from various governments throughout the world. What is "Whereabouts clause"? For every Sportsperson to select one hour per day, seven days a week to be available for no-notice drugs tests. MALEGAM COMMITTEE REPORT ON MFI Bckground *The RBI in Oct 2010 set up a Sub-Committee of its Central Board of Directors to study the issues and concerns in microfinance sector, under the Chairmanship of Shri Y H Malegam, a senior member on the Reserve Banks Central Board of Directors. *Other members of the Sub-Committee included Shri Kumar Mangalam Birla, Dr. K C Chakrabarty, Deputy Governor, Smt. Shashi Rajagopalan and Prof. U R Rao. Shri V K Sharma, Executive Director, Reserve Bank of India was the Member Secretary to the Sub-Committee. The Sub-Committee has also recommended some additional qualifications for NBFC to be classified as NBFC-MFI. These are: 1. The NBFC-MFI will hold not less than 90% of its total assets (other than cash and bank balances and money market instruments) in the form of qualifying assets. 2. There are limits of an annual family income of Rs.50,000 and an individual ceiling on loans to a single borrower of Rs.25,000 3. Not less than 75% of the loans given by the MFI should be for income-generating purposes. 4. There is a restriction on the other services to be provided by the MFI which has to be in accordance with the type of service and the maximum percentage of total income as may be prescribed. The Sub-committee has made a number of recommendations to mitigate the problems of multiple-lending, over borrowing, ghost borrowers and coercive methods of recovery. These include : 1. A borrower can be a member of only one Self-Help Group (SHG) or a Joint Liability Group (JLG) 2. Not more than two MFIs can lend to a single borrower 3. There should be a minimum period of moratorium between the disbursement of loan and the commencement of recovery 4. The tenure of the loan must vary with its amount 5. A Credit Information Bureau has to be established 6. The primary responsibility for avoidance of coercive methods of recovery must lie with the MFI and its management 7. The Reserve Bank must prepare a draft Customer Protection Code to be adopted by all MFIs 8. There must be grievance redressal procedures and establishment of ombudsmen 9. All MFIs must observe a specified Code of Corporate Governance Microfinance sector includes ? Credit, savings, insurance, fund transfers Jainism *Jainism was atheis-tic in nature, the existence of God being irrelevant to its doctrine. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 22

*It believes that uni-verse functions according to an eternal law and is contin-ually passing through a series of cosmic waves of progress and decline. *Every-thing in the universe, mate-rial or otherwise, has a soul. *The purification of the soul is the purpose of living, for the pure soul is released from the body and then resides in bliss. *Jains believe that by following the three-fold path of right Belief, right Knowledge and right Con-duct, souls will be released from transmigration and reach the pure and blissful abode or Siddha Sila. *Jainism spread rapidly among the trading community. *The emphasis on non-violence prevented agricul-turists from being Jainas, since cultivation involved killing insects and pests. *According to the tra-dition of the Svetambara Jains, the original doctrine taught by Mahavira was contained in fourteen old texts styled Purvas. Mahavira *The parents of Mahavira were Siddhartha, a Janatrika chief of Kunda-pura, and Trishala, a Ksha-triya lady related to the rul-ing families of Vaishali and Magadha. *practiced severe penance for 12 years. *Half of this time was spent with a mendicant (beggar) friar (brother) named Goshala who subse-quently left him and became the leader of the Ajivika sect. *In the 13th year of penance, Mahavira attained the highest spiritual knowl-edge called Kevala-jnana, on the northern bank of river Rijupalika, outside Jrimb-hikagrama, a little known locality in eastern India. *He was now known as a Kevalin (omniscient), a Jina (conqueror) and Mahavira (the great hero). *Mahavira became the head of a sect called Nigranthas (free from Fret-ters), known in later times as Jains or followers of Jina (conqueror). *Mahavira died at Pava in south Bihar, after wandering for 35 years as a religious teacher, at the age of 72. *The Jains believe that Mahavira was not the founder of a new religious sys-tem, but the last of a long succession of 24 Tirthankars or ford-makers across the stream of existence. *The 23rd teacher, Parsav, the immediate pre-decessor of Mahavira, was a prince of Benaras and enjoined on his disciples the great four vows of non-injury, truthfulness, abstention from stealing and non-attachment. *Mahavira added the vow of Brahamcharya or continence to this. What is Paleobiology ? the branch of paleontology dealing with fossil life forms, esp. with reference to their origin,structure, evolution, etc. Write a note on Ajivika sect ! Makhali Gosala, a friend of Mahavira propounded this sect.... Bindusara was follower of ajivika sect Enlist all the INSECT - borne diseases ! Malaria *anopheles Sleeping sickness *tse-tse Plague* Flea Filariasis-roundworms kala azar -bite of sandfly Explain the Disease ..Meniningitis ! Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore the condition is classified as a medical emergency. What is Glucagon ? Glucagon is a hormone which promotes Glycogenolysis (conversion of Glycogen into Glucose) Gluconeogenesis (Formation of Glucose from Proteins & Lipids) It is sectreted by aplha cells of Pancreas... Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 23

Glucagon a harmon secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin.which lowers blood glucose levels What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for? Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term liberalism derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of Government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. The equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. In France, the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. During the nineteenth century this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. Napoleons administrative measures had created out of small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures. The conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time. current state of Affair in 3 major countries TUNISIA 23 of ousted President Ben-Ali's family members and friends have since been put on trial, real power remains with the Armyplans for elections have been postponed once from July 14 to October 23 New York Times report from the town of Sidi Bouzid, home of iconic protestor Mohammad Bouazizi who set himself ablaze and sparked off the revolutions EGYPT Revolution dat played out day in n say out for 18 days on TV screens across d world as d young protesters came out in TAHRIR SQUARE end to military rule n tight control f intelligence n 4 complete set f political reforms Hosni Mubarak n his sons are on trial Army or SCAF ( supreme Court of Armed Force) has maintained a tight grip over d country TECHNOCRAT HAZEM ABDEL AZEM due to be sworn in as the first revolutionary leader to be included in the Egyptian Cabinet of interim Prime Minister Essam Sharaf in July. ..the SCAF withdrew Dr. Hazem's name, citing trumped-up charges that he was an Israeli agent. a massive rally called for the DAY OF UNITY' ended without much unity.Salafists and Islamists overran everyone with a massive show of strength, making a call not for reformbut for the Sharia to be implemented in Egypt extreme right-wingerswho effectively won the vote on a constitutional referendum in March (with a 77 per cent majority)could overtake even the Muslim Brotherhood in the elections (now postponed beyond November 2011). international community has had little say in Egypt, or in other countries that saw massive demonstrations: Yemen, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia have also seen sparks of revolt dying with little or no pressure in their favour from the West LIBYA U.K., France and the U.S. focused their intervention but despite five months of relentless bombingthey have achieved little by way of peace, or the ouster of Muammar Qadhafi. They have succeeded only in pushing the country towards civil war March 19 U.N.-sanctioned strikes began. rebel forces have made some gains by gaining control f TRIPOLI n fighting still continues for Qaddhafi,s home turf f Sirte NATO continues to bombard Libyans in Qadhafi-controlled areas and has killed hundreds of people. Last month, its forces even targeted Libyan TV in Al-Jamahiriya for what NATO called terror broadcasts. killed three journalists, and was condemned by the chief of UNESCO. rebel military chief, Abdel Fattah Younes, was killed by one of his own men created new worries for the rebel leadership of the Transitional National Council (TNC), and cast doubts on its ability to control tribal rivalries if Mr. Qadhafi were to go. Perhaps the real problem is that the world identified each of these uprisings as purely democratic, unifying movements. In fact, they have exposed more fault lines inside the Arab world than they have bridged Shia-Sunni tensions, tribal rivalries, long-simmering seperatist movements, and the economic divide between the haves and the have-nots. 24 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Another problem is that according to statistics, shows of massive public strength as we have seen do not always translate into positive change for the people. Author Omar Ashour points out how all studies on nations in transition' point to quite the opposite: according to one published in the Journal of Democracy, of 100 countries in stages of upheaval between 1970 and 2000, only 20 became full-fledged democracies. Five relapsed into dictatorships (like Algeria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and the rest were stuck somewhere in transition. Another study by Columbia University finds that about 43 per cent of countries that have defeated a dictator through an armed popular uprising, have subsequently fallen into civil war. What is laccustarine ? laccustarine plains are the area which was previously filled by water & a lake persisted there, now These areas become dried & mostly become Forested areas & meadows. Very rich in humous content in soil known as laccustarine Deposits. Eg: DEHRADUN & valley of flowers in Uttarakhand!!! NSSO and CSO....government bodies of Indian gov...how their functions varies ! IMF,UNIDO,UNESCO,ILO....tell their Headquarters respectively washigton, vienna, paris and geneva respectively..... Ramdas Madhava Pai ...who is this pesonality ? Chairman of Manipal education and medical group. . (padma bhusan doctor, Businessman and philanthropist). . . .!!!! Who was Birbal Sahni ? the founder of palaeobotanical research in India,who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent, was also a geologist father of indian paleontology What are the constituents of LPG ? Liquefied petroleum gas is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel. LPG constituent include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and the more common, mixes including both propane C3H8 (60%) and butane C4H10 (40%), depending on the season in winter more propane, in summer more butane. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA... *born on Jan. 12, 1863...national day that is celebrated on the 12th of January every year is dedicated to Swami Vivekananda, *principal disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa *foundation for the establishment of Ramakrishna mission and math that are actively involved in carrying out philanthropic works *Subhash Chandra Bose called him "the maker of modern India" *original name : Narendranath Dutta...was born as the son of Viswanath Dutta & Bhuvaneswari Devi *1879, he joined the Presidency College for pursuing higher studies. *He compiled a number of books on the four Yogas, namely Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga *The Maharaja of Khetri...Raja Ajit singh... named him as Vivekananda *at Kanyakumari on 24th Dec 1892 he meditated on a rock after swimming across the sea...Vivekananda Memorial or Vivekananda Rock *1893- had to attend a conference of World Religion in Chicago, America...addressed the conference as Sisters and Brothers of America that attracted a lot of applause *his famous disciple was Margaret Nivedita who settled in India *On July 4, 1902, at a young age of 39, this great man headed his way for heaven 3 women's wins nobel prize in peace. . .1 frm Yaman n 2 frn Liberiya...name them and also der work ! The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman of Yemen for their work on women's rights.... What is scorched earth policy... A scorched earth policy is a military strategy or operational method which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. Although initially referring to the practice 25 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

of burning crops to deny the enemy food sources, in its modern usage the term includes the destruction of infrastructure such as shelter, transportation, communications and industrial resources. Who was Johny Cash ? Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, actor,and author.He was born February 26, 1932, in Kingsland, Arkansas. He made his first single, "Hey Porter", for Sun Records in 1955.Amonst his biggest hit records was "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire" and "A Boy Named Sue".... explain d terms of 'de-facto' and 'de-jure' ? by virtue of fact and by virtue of law South China Sea oil exploration dispute India - China said to have affected the relationship. Please clarify According to china, whole south china sea region belongs to it. It is not ready to accept the international law . Now india is trying heard to find the oil and gas in that region with vieatnam. So china is having an objection on that saying india should seek permation from china for that as it is a chines area and hence the violation of chines internal affair. And they have warm india . But india is ready to go. In reply china is now doing the same in indian ocean to disturb the india. Afghanistan Peace Process n Assassination of Rabbani Assassination f d chairman f Afghanistan high Peace council, Rabbaniby Taliban suicide bomber..reduce prospect 4 political reconciliation within AfghanistanRabbaniserved as Prez of Afghanistan (1992-96)finding ways to engage d Taliban by Prez Hamid Karzai TALIBANs CAPACITY: Assassination marks Taliban capacity 2 strike @will against the top figures f d current regime in Assassinationalso had killed Ahmed wali Karzai(half bro of the Prez)both cases bombers successfully breached d security f d high profile targets Taliban gained power during 1996-97 with d support of the ISI n Pak Army Political purposes- highlight d weakness of Karzai regime Taliban offensive gains momentum ..d disarray in Kabul n Washington is likely get worse Winning over at least sections of d Taliban has been d key to Obamas strategy in Afghanistan Taliban r nt interested in peace only in war- Gen, John Allen Non-pashtun minorities in Afghanistan were always skeptical f strategy f engaging Taliban Haqqani Network (Pak Role) : war of words betn Washington n RawalpindiKabul siege centre of rising tensionHaqqani Network..santuries in Pak Prez Obama had declined 2 meet PM Gilani @ UN Pak army might be betting that the US has no option but to retreat n accept Rawalpindis terms 4 a reconciliation in Afghanistan dat wil include giving it proxy, the Haqqani network- d pride of place South Sudan Emerges On July 9, 2011- joined the community of nations Capital- JUBA n 1st Prez. Salva Kiir Mayardit In Jan. 2011- voted an historic referendum to separate from the rest of the Sudan REALTY: rankd near the bottom of all recognized Human Development Indices...Has worlds highest mortality rateestimates of illiteracy among the female population exceeds 80% REMARKABLE POTENTIAL : substantial oil reserveshuge amounts of arable land n Nile flowing through its centre NORTH SOUTH COOPERATION : new leaders of South Sudan should reach out to their counterparts in Khartoumstrong peaceful relations with north are essential African Food Crisis Prolonged droughtsimmediate cause of severe food crisisin parts of Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, n Somaliarains have failed..with strong La Nina event Current conditions classified by U.N. as per-famine- one step down from catastrophe IPCC report suggested horn of Africa wud get wetter with climate change..recent research concluded...Global warming..increase drought in the region Structural causes : most conflict driven areas of the worldcold war to war on terror Strategic Position : opening to RED SEA n its oil mineral interests have attracted foreign powers for over 150 years Northern Kenya n southern Ethiopiahome to ethnic Somalis for generations Protracted war in Somalia 20k mo Somalis into Kenya 26 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Board for Industrial & Financial Reconstruction ..write 20 words was created for ? Those public sector companies are sick and requires whole financial reconstruction are required to take permission from board for industrial and financial rconstruction....!! What is the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment? It is basically study group put forward to study about the various factors that affect the Arctic system.. this includes meteorological , biological and physical parameters... more than 300 odd scientists and groups from various parts of the world work together to asses the impact of man on the Arctic system. Who is Lawrence J. Ellison ? American business tycoon ,CEO of oracle software so more America's third richest person 42nd Pacific Islands Forum The Pacific Islands Forum is a regional political and economic policy institution comprising 14 Pacific Island countries, Australia and New Zealand. This meeting, marking the 40th anniversary of the Forum, will be hosted by the Government of New Zealand. what is ocean warming??? its nothing but warming of the oceans coz of co2 and stuff ( refer green house gases ).... Somali pirates are fast becoming the masters of the Indian Ocean with foreign navies forced by legal constraints to release nine out of every 10 they detainput light on it. legal constraint...take example of country like Kenya...Kenya have previously held Somalis captured by foreign navies and placed them on trial. But with its legal system already overloaded, the government is reluctant to take any more, and all piracy cases are on hold anyway after a Kenyan judge ruled the country had no jurisdiction to try them

Elyse Treaty of 1963 On 22 January 1963, French President, General de Gaulle, and Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, sign the lyse Treaty in Paris. The Treaty provides, in particular, for consultation between the two partners and closer cooperation in the areas of international relations, defence and education. .also known as the treaty of frndship when it comes to skilled workforce India faces huge supply-demand gap...comment on it. What is Megha-Tropiques ? It is one of the four satellite which will be launched through PSLV C18. Megha is built by ISRO and Tropiques is built by CNES (France's Space Reserch Center). Megha-Tropiques will help understand the behaviour of Indian monsoons and occurrence of cyclones, floods and droughts. Megha-Tropiques (Megha in Sanskrit means cloud and Tropiques in French is tropics). What can developing nations do to manage the challenges of globalisation? the third world shud form a common union 2 counter d economic policies foisted on them by d capitalist countries...even though globalisation s inevitable, they can at least be pro-social in their economic policies to considerable extent like keep holding some sectors which directly affect their people's life...... eg. Limit FDI,bringing crucial sectors under state, regulate market by a powerful regulating body for the welfare of people.. Difference between absolute majority and simple majority in terms of a bill being passed in Parliament >?? A Simple Majority means more than 50% it can be 51 votes out of 100. A Super Majority means in the case of overriding the President's Veto Power a 2/3 majority. Meaning out of 90 votes, 60 would have to vote for the overriding of the veto. mark a difference between Wage shares and Profit Shares ! Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 27

Profit Shares are direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees' regular salary and bonuses. How does the Indian state pass the bill nd wat bills can it pass wit simple majority? A voting is done in d legislative assembly n a bill is passed bt in d 6 states where we hv leguslative councils also dere d same procedure is followed as in d centre bill related to transport water electricity etc Mention the advantages which India enjoys being at the head of the Indian Ocean ? Monsoons, cheap n easy naval transportation and marine resources enjoys dominancy over high seas; mineral deposits in contigous zone & exclusive economic zone!!! Why do the Western Ghats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Ghats? Western ghats r higher than eastrn ghats so dey more succesfully vlocks moisture laiden winds to shed there moisture in westrern ghats that is y when they reach eastern ghats dey r deprived f moisture thus making it a leeward area What do you understand by Deccan Trap? Describe its characteristics ? the basaltic depostis of lava all over the peninsular part during cretaceous formation occured due to cracks of continental drifting & mantle plume convection, which form steps like topography all along the eastern side of western ghats is known as Deccan traps!!! 95th Amendment was relating ? In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, under Article 246, the item relating to taxes on services was not specifically mentioned in any entry either in the Union List or in the State List. At the same time Entry 97 of the Union List empowers the Union Government to Make laws in respect of any other law which is not enumerated in list II (State List ) and List III (Concurrent list), including any tax which has not been mentioned in Union List or the State List. Since Taxes on Services is not there in either of the lists, the central government kept levying the service tax exercising the powers under Entry 97 of the union List Original Consti me 395 articles aur 8 schedules the,,,abhi kya stithi hai ? its 450 articles divivided into 22 parts ! nd 12 schedules Consolidated fund of India..write 20 words ! all revenues received by the govt. of India , all monies raised by the loan nd all monies receivd in the repayment of the loans shall 4m one consolidatd fund.no moneys can be issued out of this fund except in accordance wid a law made by the parliament .however, crtain xpenditures chargd on this fnd does not require the annual approval of the parliament Explain the Removal of Vice President of India ! The Constitution of India provides the mechanism for the removal of the Vice-President (Article 67(b)) by a resolution passed by an absolute majority in Rajya Sabha and agreed to by a simple majority of Lok Sabha. Tribal Advisory Council.....write few lines ! it was Constituted under Para 4 of the V Schedule of Constitution in each State having scheduled areas.It is be the duty of TAC to advise the Governor on such matters pertaining to the welfare and advancement of Scheduled Tribes in the State as may be referred to them by the Governor Contingency funds in full detail...! An yearly estimate of revenue and expenditure is made and some amount is kept aside as contingency fund so whenever the expenditure is more than revenue the contingency fund is used. Explain Article 110 in full detail...! it talks abt money bill. A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 28

If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House of the People thereon shall be final There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Council of States under Article 109, and when it is presented to the President for assent under Article 111, the certificate of the Speaker of the House of the People signed by him that it is a Money Bill Definition of Money Bill (1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely (a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax; (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India; (c) the custody of the consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund; (d) the appropriation of moneys out of the consolidated Fund of India; (e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure; (f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State; or (g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub clause (a) to (f) TAPI (Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan India) Project carrying gas from daulatabad gas fields from turkmenistan to hajira in punjab,india. Pipeline is sponsered by ADB, and backed by USA. the survey of proposed pipeline was completed. US alternative to IPI pipeline for India. India would be stakholder in afgan problem . Indo pak relation may improve. 1680 km lolg

Business advisory Committee.write abt it !? it is the committee of the parliament which advices the house on the allocation of time for the discussion of various items of govt.and othr business Write abt Ploughshares Project wrt to Northeast India !..What actually it is ..whose it is ...what for it is ,,evrything ! what is the Difference between Money bill and a finance Bill ? 1.money bill deals with any of the maters specified above as article 110 (a) to Article 110(g). However the Finance Bill is just concerned about article 110 (a). The structure of the Finance bill presented with the documents has the following heads, supported by Schedules, statement of objects and reasons and notes on clauses. : Rates of Income Tax , Income Tax , Wealth Tax , Customs , Excise Service Tax, Central Sales Tax , Clean Energy Cess , Miscellaneous 2. All of the above are within the purview of article 110(a). In simple language a money bill may have other provisions also. Like Money Bills, they can be introduced only in Lok Sabha on the recommendation of the President. 3. Other than the one restriction that Money Bills can be introduced in Lok Sabha only, does not apply to the Finance Bills. 4. This means the Finance Bills can be referred to a Joint Committee of the Houses while money bills can not. This also means that provisions of article 108 regarding joint sitting of both Houses do not apply to a Money Bill. This also means that a finance bill can effectively rejected by the Rajya Sabha whereas money bill cannot. 5. Finance Bill is a bill introduced in Lok Sabha every year immediately after the presentation of the General Budget to give effect to the financial proposals of the Government of India for the following financial year. Finance Bills are treated as Money Bills as they substantially deal with amendments to various tax laws. However Article 117 (3) says that those bills which contain provisions of involvement from the consolidated fund of India are Finance bill and can be introduced in either House of Parliament. However, recommendation of the President is essential for consideration of these Bills by either House and unless such recommendation is received, neither House can pass the Bill 29 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

What is Human Poverty Index? .....India current rank ? It's calculated on the basis of long n healthy life, knowledge and standard of living. Rank was 88 out of 135 Suez Canal It is historically recorded that Egypt was the first country to dig a man-made canal across its lands to connect the Mediterranean sea to the Red sea via the River Nile and its branches, and the first who dug it was Senausert III, Pharaoh of Egypt (1874 B.C.) . This canal was abandoned to silting and reopened several times as follows: The Suez Canal is actually the first canal directly linking the Mediterranean sea to the Red sea. It was opened for international navigation on 17 November 1869. - Egypt nationalized its canal on 26 July 1956 - The canal was closed five times, the last time was for 8 years (1967-1975) and was reopened in 1975 Advantages of the Suez Canal - Longest canal in the world with no locks - Compared with other waterways, the percentage of accidents is almost nil. - Navigation goes day and night - Liable to be widened and deepened when required to cope with the expansion in ship sizes. Trade route saving The geographical position of the Suez Canal makes it the shortest route between East and West as compared to the Cape of Good Hope. The Canal route achieves a saving in distance between the ports north and south the Canal, the matter that is translated into other savings in time, fuel consumption and ship operating costs. Ad-Hoc committee write 20 wrds ad hoc committee is the one which is established for a special purpose at a specific time.examples have been cited above

Article 331 says ?? the President "may", if he is of opinion that the Anglo Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of the people, nominate not more than two members of that community to the House of the People Write abt Substantive Motions ! Substantive motion is a self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House and drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing a decision of the House, e.g., all resolutions are substantive motions. a proposal 2 get d decison of d house on a particular issue What is the procedure for removal of CAG ? CAG could not be removed from office other than through a procedure of impeachment similar to what is applicable to a Judge of the Supreme Court of India historical significance of d place 'Mandu '? Mandav or Mandu as it is known is situated 2000 feet above the sea level at the Vindhya Range. Sultan Bazbahadur had gone to the dense woods near the Narmada River and it was there that he heard a sweet voice. As he reached the place from where the voice originated he was stunned to see a beautiful maiden. Enchanted by her beauty and by her voice he proposed her but as all love stories are she kept a condition to bring her goddess Narmada to Mandu so that she continue paying homage before consuming anything. The Sultan then went to the river and asked it to climb over the mountain and start flowing at Mandu and was granted the wish and he found a spring of pure Narmada water which was a tributary and was called the Rewa Kund. Rewa is another name of the river Narmada historical significance of d place 'Kalinjar ' Kalinjar occupies a place of pride not only in the history of Banda also in the history of India. Many decisive battles were fought for the possession of this strategically located fort in ancient, medieval and modern times, but military aspect alone does not exhaust the importance of Kalinjar. The place is also a symbol of cultural and religious glory. This panorama of Kalinjar is marked by the famous temple of ageless Neelkantha, the tallest 'Kala Bhairava' image and number of high class sculptures in and around, and artistic friezes strewn throughout the length and breadth of the site and ranging from the Gupta period of the time of Chadellas. Kalinjar can further boast the of a vast wealth of Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 30

epigraphic material as also possibly of even pre-gupta structures and cultural assemblage embedded under the collapsed debris of the western escarpment of the mountain where the famous Neelkantha temple stands. Indias worldwide FDI rank is ? 14th Non-performing assets include ? Eg..,Any assets financed by bank which cease to peerform. means a account remain overdue for 9o days main shareholder of SBI is ? govt is 59 % share holder in sbi Marvel of Machu Picchu lost city of incas, one of new wonders of world, in andes mountains,peru,s.america, terresed agricultural fields, huge stone blocks used in construction,destroyed by spanish invaders,rediscovered and restored in 20th century India -Africa Summit aaj tak kitne huye ?..kaha huye..?..usme kya hua ? In first summit dey adopted two documents,d delhi declaration & d africa-india framework for corporation wid an aim to enhance d "true partnership" to achieve millenium development goals . . In second summit d leaders discuss significant aspects of d india-africa partnership with d objective of enhancing n widening its ambit for mutual benefit. . What is a dendritic cell ? Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells forming part of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the surface to other cells of the immune system. That is, they function as antigen-presenting cells. They act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immunity cell 4 treatment of cancer by increasing immune level this year medicine nobel prize is for this, related to immune system, R.steinmann has discovered their role.. Is der ny difference between undervaluing and devaluing of currency if ues what is it ? Bharat Chetri in news whose he ? Goalkeeper and present captain of Indian Hockey Team Saul Perlmutter, Brian P Schmidt and Adam G Riess...who r these ? nobel prize winners fr their contribution in physics...two r us citizens while brian p schmidt is an australian american! Explain undervaluing of currency wit an example ! Dne in order to bring exports at a desired level , tht have a significant impact on balance of payment position.. Here home currency is devalued. By the provisions of the Government of India Act how many Indians were nominated in the GovernorGenerals Council? Lex Loci Act,,,share details? Kuka revolt ? Ram singh, (satguru) of namdhari sect or kuka...lead non violent revolt against british, n asked people to nt use govt. Service Deccan riots of 1875 put light ~! in 1875, peasant revolt started in poona nd ahmednagar of maharashtra. here these peasants found it difficult to pay land revenue under ryotwari system which finally made their land fall in moneylenders hand making peasants landless... What are equinox..What are types of equinox !? An equinox occurs twice a year, when the tilt of the Earth's axis is inclined neither away from nor towards the Sun, the center of the Sun being in the same plane as the Earth's equator. The term equinox can also be used in a broader sense, 31 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

meaning the date when such a passage happens. The name "equinox" is derived from the Latin aequus (equal) and nox (night), because around the equinox, the night and day have approximately equal length. BASAL COMMITTEE was for ? The Basel Committee, established by the central-bank Governors of the Group of Ten countries at the end of 1974 One important objective of the Committee's work has been to close gaps in international supervisory coverage in pursuit of two basic principles: that no foreign banking establishment should escape supervision; and that supervision should be adequate. N.C. Saxena Committee was for ? Dr. N.C. Saxena Committee ws set up by the Ministry of Rural Development to advise it on d suitable methodology for BPL Census and not for estimation of poverty. The committee has suggested proportionate increase in the state level poverty estimates also. Dinabandhu Mitra....write abt him ! A Bengali dramastics.. known for his play about the plight of indigo farmers Nildarpan. The Indigo Revolt or Nilbidraha in Bengali was the revolt of the indigo farmers against the indigo planters. India aur Switzerland me kuch hua recently kya hua...elaborate karo ! indian president and president of the swiss confederation micheline anne marie calmy-rey sign mou that will give a way for cooperation between the countries tax authorities(double tax avoidance aggrement.DTAA Write abt Indigo revolt ! after the fight of 1857 ' 1st war independance in 1859 when the farmars refused to sow single seedling of indigo plant(Bengal) ..it was non violence resistance against the indigo planters...

Anti Wall Street protest...why are they happening ?? Anti Wall Street protest are happening in a show of anger over the wobbly economy and what they see as corporate greed. The protestors do make up to resemble zombies to show that the money hungry fasists are dead inside. ________ refers to the clumping of red blood cells in response to a reaction between an antigen and an antibody agglutination Heartbeat is controlled in the part of the brain called the:? The adrenal medulla is the part of the brain responsible for the release of adrenaline, when the adrenaline is released into the blood, the SAN is stimulated to work faster and increase your heart rate, this happens when playing sport or during your fight or flight response. However, the heart is not controlled by your brain as it is a myogenic muscle (self-exciting) this means that if you were to remove the heart from a body it would continue to beat. The sino-atrial node is responsible for the excitation of the heart. :) thrombosis means ? Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel,obstructing the flow of blood Khudai Khidmatgars write few lines ! it was established by khan abdul gaffar khan. it also called red shirt. it was originally social reform organisation focusing on education and elimination of blood feud. later it changed to freedom organisation Major role of technology in financial inclusion Financial inclusion is a major agenda for the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Without financial inclusion, banks cannot reach the un-banked. It is also a major step towards increasing savings and achieving balanced growth.. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality rates and increasing institutional deliveries in below poverty line (BPL) families. The JSY, which falls under the overall umbrella of National Rural Health Mission , covers all pregnant women belonging to households below the poverty line, above 19 years of age and up to two live births. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 32

The JSY, launched in 2003, modifies the existing National Maternity Benefit Scheme) or NMBS. While the NMBS was connected with providing a better diet for pregnant women from below poverty line (BPL) families, the JSY integrates help in the form of cash with antenatal care during pregnancy period, institutional care during delivery as well as post-partum care. This is provided by field level health workers through a system of coordinated care and health centres. e-waste ( Management and Handling ) Rules, 2011 Putting the onus of re-cycling of electronic wastes (e-waste) on the producers, the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has for the first time notified e-waste management rules. The e-waste (management and handling) Rules, 2011 would recognise the producers liability for recycling and reducing e-waste in the country. The rules will come into effect from May 1, 2012. Personal Computer manufacturers, mobile handset makers and white goods makers will be required to come up with e-waste collection centres or introduce take back systems . India, at present, generates about 400,000 tonnes of e-wastes annually of which only 19,000 tonnes are getting recycled according to the recent data by hardware manufacturers association, Mait. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain electronic components contain substances such as lead, cadmium, lead oxide (in cathode ray tubes), toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. These substances are considered hazardous depending on their condition and density. Under the new rules, producers will have to make consumers aware about the hazardous components present in the product. Also, instructions for consumers for handling the equipment after its use along with the dos and donts. They will also have to give information booklets to prevent e-waste from being dropped in garbage bins. They also have to maintain records of e-wastes generated by them and make such records available with State Pollution Control Boards or the Pollution Control Committees.

member States of Gulf cooperation council are ? The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was established in 1981. Its member states are: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman. Three scientists won the Nobel Medicine Prize for work on the immune system, but in a surprising twist the jury learned that one of the winners of the award had died just days before. The new laureates were Bruce Beutler of the United States, Luxembourg-born Frenchman Jules Hoffmann, and Ralph Steinman of Canada, who it was discovered Monday had died on September 30 Ashok Chawla Committee and its recommendation on water This committee was appointed this January following a decision by the group of ministers on corruption, in the aftermath of scandals such as the one over 2G spectrum. The committee looked at possible reforms in the allocation process for eight natural resources: coal, minerals, spectrum, petroleum, natural gas, land, water and forests. 1.the Committee sees an urgent need to have a comprehensive national legislation on water. This can be either done through bringing water under the Concurrent List and then framing the appropriate legislation; or, by obtaining consensus from a majority of the States that such a framework law is necessary and desirable as a Union enactment. The legal options in this regard need to be examined by the Ministry of Water Resources 2. In the meantime, the Committee recommends amending the River Boards Act, 1956 and include groundwater in its ambit, 3.The Committee recommends aquifer level mapping, along with hydro-geological studies, and pilot projects to be initiated in different settings to address the problems of groundwater management urgently. if the constitution well being drafted for the first time now, where would one put water? the obvious and incontrovertible ans is : in the concurrent list...comment on it. First, a move to put water into the Concurrent List at this stage will be generally regarded as a retrograde step that runs counter to the general trend towards decentralisation and enhanced federalism, and it will face serious political difficulty because there will be stout opposition from the States. Secondly, an entry in the Concurrent List will mean that both the Centre and the States can legislate on water, but the Centre can already do so in respect of inter-State rivers under Entry 56 but has not used that power. It seemed sensible to use that enabling provision, and also reactivate the River Boards Act, rather than pursue the difficult idea of a constitutional amendment to bring water on to the Concurrent List. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 33

Third BRICS Leaders Meeting.. took place in Sanya on the island of Hainan, China, on 14 April 2011. The meeting took place between the five heads of state/heads of government from the BRICS states following bilateral meetings in the prior days.the Chinese president chaired the BRICS Leaders Meeting.The theme was based under the vision as 'The 21st century should be marked by peace, harmony, cooperation and scientific development. In a statement after the summit on Thursday BRICS leaders said they were deeply concerned about the turbulence in the Middle East, the North African and West African regions and said they "share the principle that the use of force should be avoided". They called for a peaceful settlement to the conflict in Libya and praised the mediation efforts of the African Union. The groups announced their decision to cease mutual trade payments in U.S. dollars and instead henceforth give credits to one another in their national currencies alone. The development banks of each state signed an agreement to further gradually alter loan currencies from U.S. dollars. This was intended to strengthen financial cooperation between the BRICS countries, as well as to expand the international significance of their national currencies.... Write abt the positive side nd the negative side of the British rule in India Positive-Elimination of sati and Thugee, thus saving literally millions of lives since Improvements in the infrastructure; the British built roads, railways, cities, canals, and improved port facilities Introduction of the rule of law, rather than rule by despotism (the situation under the Mughals) Stabilization of the annual Land Tax (often arbitrarily increased by the Mughals when money was needed quickly) ending of endemic warfare between different Indian states and attacks from outside. Opportunity for ordinary Indians to better themselves by working for the British - Indians worked as train drivers, enrolled in the military, worked as servants and administrators. Education in British schools and universities available to children of rich Indian families; Gandhi is a good example.

Negatives: Complete lack of political power and influence in the political decision making process in India for all Indians.Indians also had no input into any new laws - these were all decided on and imposed by the British. The British ran India for the benefit of Britain,not for the benefit of India or the Indians themselves.Thus raw materials and riches extracted from India went to enrich Britain and the British,not India and the Indians. Target for enemies of Britain - as part of the British empire,India became an enemy of Britain's enemies, and a target in any wars Britain was involved in. Ruthless suppression of violent resistance - The British ruthlessly suppressed uprisings against their rule,the best example being the brutal crushing on the Indian Mutiny in 1857-1858. National Policy of Electronics, 2011........write a note The proposed National Policy of Electronics, 2011 envisions creating a globally competitive Electronics Systems and Design Manufacturing (ESDM) industry including nano-electronics to meet the country`s needs and serve the international market.The draft policy sets out to achieve a turnover of about USD 400 Billion by 2020 involving investment of about USD 100 Billion. It also aims at ensuring employment to around 28 million in the sector by 2020. The policy also proposes to significantly upscale high-end human resource creation to 2500 PhDs annually by 2020 in the sector. Major strategies proposed in the draft policy include: Providing attractive fiscal incentives across the value chain of the ESDM sector through Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme (M-SIPS). Setting up of Semiconductor Wafer lab facilities for design and fabrication of chips and chip components. Providing Preferential Market Access for domestically manufactured electronic products including mobile devices, SIM cards with enhanced features, etc. with special emphasis on Indian products. Creating an Electronic Development Fund for promoting innovation, R&D and commercialization in ESDM, nano-electronics and IT sectors, including providing support for seed capital, venture capital and growth stages of manufacturing. Setting up Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) specific Incubation Centres across the country. Encouraging greater participation of private sector in human resource development for the sector. Aims at encouraging setting up of skill-oriented courses for electronic designs along with hands-on laboratories enabling graduates from other disciplines to migrate to ESDM. Adopting best practices in e-waste management Setting up of a National Electronics Mission with industry participation to advance the implementation of various programmes in this policy etc. 34 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Write 20 words on Plutonic earthquakes Plutonic earthquakes occur deep within the subduction zone of colliding plates.Initial shock during such earthquakes are origin within the earth. Synclines and anticlines ...xplain ! Both the terms are in structural geology. Syncline is a fold with younger layers closer to the centre and anticline is a covex up fold with old layers! What is Syzygy ? syzygy is term referring to the straight line configuration of the celestial bodies! We call it a syzygy when solar and lunar eclipse occur! write abt poet JAISHANKAR PRASAD ? 1889: Jaishankar Prasad is born on January 30. 1915: He wrote his first significant drama, 'Rajyasri' 1928: Wrote his famous play 'Skandagupta'. 1935: The long poem 'Kamayani' was published 1937: Died on January 14 aged only 47. 1960s: The National School of Drama staged plays written by Jaishankar Prasad.

Write a note on Indian Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The Indian Chamber of Commerce, or ICC as it is popularly known, is the premier body of business and industry in Eastern and North-Eastern India. The membership of the Chamber comprises several of the largest corporate groups in the country, with business operations all over the country and abroad. Set up by a group of pioneering industrialists led by Mr G D Birla, the Indian Chamber was closely associated with the Indian Freedom Movement, as the first organised voice of indigenous Indian Industry. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is an association of business organizations in India, headquartered in the national capital New Delhi. FICCI is one of the main organizations to fund and support many governmental and non-governmental educational institutes. FICCI is also the permanent Indian host of the Global India Business Meeting, an annual meeting organised by Horasis.now it is headed by rajan bharti mittal. Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) Sea lines of communication is primary maritime routes between ports, used for trade, logistics and naval forces and is generally used in reference to naval operations to ensure that SLOC are open, or in times of war, to close them South China Seas (SCS).....yeah kya hai ?...filhaal kya controversy hai ? south china seas lies at the eastern coast of china and now it has been in the news because of the aggression showed by the chinese govt on the issue of drilling by indian companies....india has signed treaty with vietnam for drilling but china apprantely said that all the islands in the south china sea are under its law and if any country wants to do some work around those islands then that country must sign treaty with china.....so there has been a controversy between india, vietnam and china on the issue of drilling What are Internet Registries ? Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) are nonprofit corporations that administer and register Internet Protocol (IP) address space and Autonomous System (AS) numbers within a defined region. RBI's new securitisation guidelines //////////put light over the same ....What is securitisation ?? In the case of microfinance loans, the minimum holding period of the loan before securitisation will be six months from the due date of the first installment. Securitisation is the process of converting existing assets, or future cash flows, into marketable securities. In its second draft guidelines, RBI said banks extending loans to clients should mandatorily keep them on their books for a minimum period and keep a portion of such loans, depending on their maturity.

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'petaflop' ...whats dat !? One petaflops is equal to 1000 teraflops.i.e 10^12+10^3=10^15. What is a extradition treaty ?...do we hav it wit ny country ....i mean wat is d criteria in this regard w.r.t. INDIA ? In India the extradition of a fugitive from India to a foreign country or vice-versa is governed by the provisions of Indian Extradition Act, 1962.Under section 3 of this Act, a notification could be issued by the Government of India extending the provisions of the Act to the country/countries notified. Tendulkar committee is for ? Suresh tendulkar he is the chairman of central satistical organations an he normally facilates his work on the basses of NSSO .... an in recent he submited the report in regarding the poverty line measurment along with montek singj anhuwalia AFRICA *Continent Size: 30,065,000 sq km or 11,608,000 sq miles *Coastline: 30,539 km or 18,976 miles *Percent of Earth's Land: 20.2% *Highest Point:Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 19,341 ft or 5,895 m *Lowest Point: Lac' (lake) Assal, Djibouti 512 ft or 156 m below sea level Africa, the planet's 2nd largest continent and the second most-populous continent (after Asia) includes (54) individual countries, as well as Western Sahara, a member state of the African Union whose statehood is disputed by Morocco. Note that South Sudan is the continent's newest country. With just over a billion people (a 2009 estimate) it accounts for just over 14% of the world's human population. It also contains the Nile River system, the world's longest, and the massive Sahara Desert, the world's largest. Africa is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, and is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa, particularly central eastern Africa, is widely thought (by science) to be the origin of humans as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors. (a) Territorial trade. (b) Internal trade. (c) International trade. (d) Free trade Explain all the 4 terms ! A... Trade between boundary countries b...trade within own country c....trade between various nations under wto d...trade among specific nationsarty to contract f free trade Explain what is Genetically Modified Foods. *Genetic engineering in crop production is not a new concept but the precision and the direct manipulation of genetic material surpasses the traditional method. *In the traditional way of genetic engineering, desired traits are selected through crosses between crops and their wild relatives. *This method is laborious and less precise when compared to modern genetic engineering. *Modern genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA technology (also known as gene technology or modern biotechnology) which allows certain desired genetic traits to be transferred into the crop plant from wild relatives, other distantly related plants or from any other organisms totally unrelated to the crop plants. These genetically modified plants (GM plants) are then cultivated to produce GM foods. *A crop plant can develop resistance to insects if the gene for toxin production from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis has been incorporated into it. This toxin is currently used as a conventional insecticide and is considered safe for human consumption. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 36

*GM crops which permanently produced this toxin have been shown to require lower quantities of insecticides. *Another example is achieving viral resistance in crop plants. By introducing a gene from certain viruses which cause diseases in plants to a crop plant, the GM crop plant is now less susceptible to plant diseases. This translates into higher yields for the farmer. Mithun is an endemic species found in the state of Arunachal Pradesh....put light over it ! Mithun (Bos frontalis), the domesticated free-range bovine species, is an important component of the livestock production system of North-Eastern hilly region of India. This unique bovine species is believed to be domesticted more than 8000 years ago. Like buffalo, mithun milk contains high protein and fat. Evidences are there that mithun-cattle hybrids are used as milk animal in some pockets of North-Eastern India and Bhutan. Therefore, this species may also be explored as a supplementary component of the milk production system in the region. Besides, it is now established that superior quality leather can be obtained from mithun skin. However, the optimum production potentiality of this animal has not been explored fully till date and in coming days major efforts are needed to develop a scientific and sustainable mithun production system for the people of the North-Eastern hilly region. Rule of law. And Judiciary law? Rule of law is a legal maxim that says that governmental decisions should be made by applying known principles or laws with minimal discretion in their application whereas judiciary is is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. :) Maikal range....location ? it is located in eastern part of the Satpuras in Kawardha District of Chattisgarh, overlooking the scenic town of Kawardha. Write abt Teesta dispute ! Its a dipute on water sharing of river teesta b/w india and bangladesh....our central govt is ready for agreement with bangladesh but west bengal is not....our govt can't take suo motto without state's agreement... what is difference between wildlife sanctuary , national park and forest ? In forest common peple can easily vist there,In National park resrchrs can visit there 4 reserch purpose with Govt.allowance...In Sancuary visiting is totally prohibited.. explain trade deficit to a layman ! Trade deficient means negative balance of trade. that is, imports exceed exports.... what is streptomycin ? an aminoglycosides antibiotic, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus, that is used in combination with other drugs for treating tuberculosis and brucellosis. It is administered by intramuscular injection; side-effects causing ear and kidney damage may develop in some patients. Write abt New Exploration Licensing Policy The New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) was launched by the Government for accelerating the pace of hydrocarbon exploration in the country. This is the first instance in the countrys hydrocarbon exploration history that deep-water acreages were offered for competitive bidding. The NELP I demonstrated the positive response by NOC sand medium to small private companies, both Indian and foreign. abse pehle Planning commission plan banati hai phir woh PLAN sabse pehle kisko submit kiya jaata hai aur aage woh kaha jaata hai ....jara ispar prakash daale first it goes to 1. Union Cabinet after approval 2. to NDC 3. den presented in Parliament 4. wit Parliaments approval it emmerges as a a Offical Plan and is published in the office gadget ! Its described as a 'SUPER CABINET' ..wats it ? kind of core cabinet. Generally 4 5 seniormost member of cabinet includes in it .also called kitchen cabinet Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

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NDC is also called Super Cabinet ! Objectives of National Development COuncil are ? it was set up with three objectives: to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan; to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres; & to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country. National Development COuncil is composed of ? NDC is presided over by pm of india it is composed of chief ministers of all ,cabinet ministers and members of planing composition ,the main objective is t o provide economic developed in al spheres of countries,mobilisation of resources ,it plays an important role in the frmework of 5 year plan ,today 54th meeting of ndc tookplace in newdelhi under the chairmanship of manmohan singh National Development COuncil is neither a statutory body nor a constitutional body ......True or false ? true; it was set up by a proposal of the cabinet secretariat in august,1952 National Development Council k baare me likhe ! The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the ... body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, ndc means=a council of all cabinet ministers all c.m all administrator of u.t and members of panning commission

Describe the Kakori train robbery ! Train travelling from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow On August 9, 1925,,robbery was conceived by Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfa qullah Khan who belonged to the Hindustn Repblic Associatn kakori train robbery was planned by the few revolutionaries who stopped a train at kakori districti...britishers were takiing the indian treauary...its was planned to stop the train at kakori and use this amount for buying arms and armaments for using them in agitation against the britishers...ram prasad bismil, chandra shekhar azad and ashfaqullah were the members of this dacoity.........later on ram prasad bismil and ashfaq ullah were hanged for this "loot"... ... Some confusing G terms G-6: G-6 refers to a group of 6 industrialized nations viz. France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States. It was converted in G-7 in 1976 when Canada Joined it. So G-6 does not exist today. G-7: G-7 refers to group of seven industrialized nations, when Canada joined the G-6 in 1976 and its members are France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. It exists and its latest summit was held at Canada in February 2010. G-6 (EU) :-G-6 EU is an unofficial group of the home ministers of the 6 members of EU viz. Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, and Poland. These countries are having largest population in EU and the G-6 (EU) group was formed to deal primarily with the problem of immigration, terrorism and law and order. G-8: In 1997, when Russia joined the G-7, it became G-8. Please note that in G-8, European Union is represented, but cannot host or chair. It was decided in the G-20 Washington summit 2008 that G-8 will be replaced by G-20 in the September 2009 Pittsburgh Summit. So now G-8 is superseded by G-20. G-33: G0-33 was formed in 1999 and existed for a brief period. Its members were thirty-three leading national economies of the world. It was superseded by G-20. G-20: G-20 was formally established on 26 September 1999 and its first summit took place on 1516 December 1999 in Berlin, most recent was held in Seoul on November 1112, 2010 G20 developing nations: G20 developing nations was formed after the Brasilia Declaration which gave rise to BRIC Nations in 2003. Its a trade block of 23 developing economies as of now. Bring out the Salient features of the Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 it was drafted as the step towards ratification of the Convention against torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9th December, 1975. Ratification of the Convention requires enabling legislation having provisions that would be necessary to give effect to the Articles of the Convention. Although some provisions existd in the Indian Penal Code, they neither define torture nor make it criminal so this need led thiz bill to be drafted... The Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 seeks to provide for punishment for torture committed by government officials. The Bill defines torture as grievous hurt, or danger to life, limb and health. 38 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Complaints against torture have to be made within six months. The sanction of the appropriate government is required before a court can entertain a complaint.... Hard money aur Soft money ka concept kya >?

Hard money and soft money are terms that are often used to describe coin money and paper money

What are tangible and intangible goods...Give examples ? tangible goods are those that can be touched smelt seen etc like soaps, shampoos or any other fmcg product while intangible goods are those that cant b heard, seen, tasted etc and intangibles are the one's that are produced and consumed simultaneously e.g services provided by a doctor, teacher, lawyer etc etc... hope ans to the que TANGIBLE LIKE... PLANTS & MACHINERY , BUILDING, TOOLS ETC... N INTANGIBLE LIKE... GOODWILL, COPYRIGHTS, PATENTS AND TRADEMARKS..... What is Balance of Payment ? every country imports something and exports something... when ever a country exports something it creates balance of payments within the country that means the other country owes money to the exporter country and if it imports it creates deficit within that country that means the importing country owes to the other country.... thats y in the past governments of various countries imposed quotas and tariffs on imports and encouraged exports in order to create balance of payments balance iis payment is the diffe between totalexportt of tangible and in tangibal good ( capital + crrent account transaction ) - Total importr of the same What are Giltz ? securities are loans to the government which are traded on the stock market like stocks and shares gilt are government securities they are risk free securities bonds issued by gov to raise money Who is Sapper Shanti Tigga ? first lady Jawan in Indian Army. what is difference between mortgage and pledge ?? mortagage 4 immovable property like land n pledge 4 movable property like car... What is a RRB ?....first RRB of india and its estb year ? estd. In 1975; RRB's r special type of commercial banks which provides concesstional credit to the Agricultural & rural sector. It is a developed through the financing of Central govt. (50%), state govt. (15%), a sponsoring bank (35% Write a note on gilt edge market ! gilt edged market mainly deals in govt. Securities, highly safe & liquid market which is regulated by RBI. what is doppler weather radar system? A radar system used to measure the relative velocity of the system and the radar target. The operation of these systems is based on the fact that the Doppler frequency shift in the target echo is proportional to the radial component of target velocity. what is meant by optical computing? using light instead of electricity for computations.It is believed to be faster and easily manipulated.best for parallelization. Today's computers use the movement of electrons in-and-out of transistors to do logic. Optical or Photonic computing is intended to use photons or light particles, produced by lasers or diodes, in place of electrons. Compared to electrons, photons are much faster light travels about 30 cm, or one foot, in a nanosecond and have a higher bandwidth. What is money supply ? stock of money available in an economy at a specific time... Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 39

Public Sector Banks (PSBs) are still dominating the commercial banking system.Comment ! Almost 80% of the business are still controlled by Public Sector Banks (PSBs). PSBs are still dominating the commercial banking system. Shares of the leading PSBs are already listed on the stock exchanges. The RBI has given licences to new private sector banks as part of the liberalisation process. The RBI has also been granting licences to industrial houses. Many banks are successfully running in the retail and consumer segments but are yet to deliver services to industrial finance, retail trade, small business and agricultural The PSBs will play an important role in the industry due to its number of branches and foreign banks facing the constrait of limited number of branches. Hence, PSBs are still dominating. What is exit policy and its utilization in indian circumstances ? Exit policy is a directive by the administration on wrapping up industry operations. It helps an enterprise to draw out from its business (for any reason) while securing the interests of engaged parties nowdays customer's credit information and payment pattern gets recorded in the credit Informaition Bureau India Ltd. which is an initiative of GOI & RBI. What is the significance of it and what is the role of CIBIL in it ? the information collected is used to determine the credit ratiing of the customers......its on the lines of credit ratings done in US where a person above a particular score in the rating are given loans and credit... This also helps banker to take lending decision Which company hav the Maharatna status,,nd what is d criteria taken in consideration for giving dem this kind of status ! IOCL,CIL,ONGC,,,,1.affiliated as nabaratna,2.hav a part of Indian stock Exchnj.3.3 yrs turnovr at least 5000 cr. To be eligible for the grant of the Maharatna status, the company should have an average turnover of over Rs 25,000 crore, average annual net worth of more than Rs 15,000 crore and average annual net profit of over Rs 5,000 crore during the last three years Write abt the Indian company MMTC Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India Ltd. ....is one of the two highest earners of foreign exchange for India and India's largest public sector trading body. Not only handling the export of primary products such as coal, iron ore, and manufactured agro and industrial products, MMTC also imports important commodities such as ferrous and nonferrous metals for industry, and agricultural fertilizers... The Company was incorporated on 26 September, 1963 at New Delhi. The Corporation started functioning on 1 October. The main objectives of the company was Export of mineral ores and Import of essential metals. According to a latest news, MMTC is Asias biggest gold and silver importer...now cahirman is sanjiv batra....... Write a note on Indian contribution in CERN Indians has contributed their scientific knowledge. Many Indian scientiest and research students are working at CERN. Also the entire structure for the project, which has an Indian made 8,000 tonne magnet and millions of circuits, took 20 year to be constructed. the govt of india has contributed around 25 million for LHC project and is providing all the logistic support through the benaras hindu university,bhaba atomic research institute, tata institute and raja rammana centre for advanced technology What is APEC? ...provide full details The Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a cooperative effort of 21 countries with a common goal of improving free trade in this region. First established in 1989 with 12 member countries in Canberra, Australia, APEC has made great strides in facilitating and improving trade among its member countries. In the first decade after its creation, the economies of the member nations accounted for 70% of global growth economically. Its members are, alphabetically, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, China; Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Republic of the Philippines, The Russian Federation, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States of America, and Vietnam. APECs 21 members represent 41% of the global population, 49% of international trade and 56% of the worlds Gross Domestic Product (GDP). There is no treaty to sign, rather APEC functions by consensus and cooperation. It adheres to the Bogor Goals, established in 1994 in Bogor, Indonesia. These goals are to have free and open trade and increased foreign investment in member economies by 2010 for developed economies, and 2020 for developing economies.,,,,,,,, There are three main areas APEC focuses on: 40 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Trade and Investment Liberalization: In this area, APEC works to reduce tariffs and remove other obstructions to free trade. Business Facilitation: In this area, the goal is to facilitate business interactions between member nations by reducing the cost of doing business, sharing trade information and improving the relationships of importers and exporters. Economic and Technical Cooperation (ECOTECH):This program includes opportunities for member nations to improve training and education in international trade. What is meant by Social Audit? How is it implemented? Social audit as a term was used as far back as the 1950s. In a nutshell, it refers to the steps that are taken to ensure that the work done by the government is actually benefiting the people whom it is intended to benefit. It is based on the principle that the local governance should be carried out, as much as possible, with the consent and in complete understanding of the requirements of the people concerned. It is a process and not an event. Thus, Social Audit is nothing but understanding, measuring, reporting, and most importantly improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the local governance. India being a welfare state, several programs and policies are implemented for the benefit of people. Politicians and executives are usually the ones who control and implement these policies. Some policies are common to all and some are special that are meant to benefit the weaker sections of the society. To implement all such policies, funds are drawn from the state exchequer. The social control over withdrawal and usage of this fund is called Social Audit. Objectives of Social Audit Accurate identification of requirements Prioritization of developmental activities as per requirements Proper utilization of funds Conformity of the developmental activity with the stated goals Quality of service Implementation of Social Audit 1. Empowerment of people : Social audit is most effective when the actual beneficiaries of an activity are involved in it. However, people can only get involved in the process when they are given appropriate authority and rights. To this end, the 73rd amendment of the constitution has empowered the Gram Sabha to conduct social audit. This is relevant only in the villages. In the cities, the Right to Information Act empowers the people to inspect public records. 2. Proper Documentation Every thing right from the requirement gathering to planning to implementation must be properly documented. Some of the documents that should be made mandatory are: Applications, tenders, and proposals Financial statements, income - expense statements. Registers of workers Inspection reports. 3. Accessibility of Documents Merely generating documents is useless if they are not easily accessible. In this information age, all the documents must be put on line. 4. Punitive Action The final and most important provision, about which nothing is being done yet, is to have punitive actions for nonconformance of the process of social audit. Unless there is legal punishment, there will be no incentive for the people in authority to implement the processes in a fair manner. Generic Steps for Social Audit Clarity of purpose and goal of the local elected body. Identify stakeholders with a focus on their specific roles and duties. Social auditing aims to ensure a say for all stakeholders. It is particularly important that marginalized social groups, which are normally excluded, have a say on local development issues and activities and have their views on the actual performance of local elected bodies. Definition of performance indicators which must be understood and accepted by all. Indicator data must be collected by stakeholders on a regular basis. Regular meetings to review and discuss data/information on performance indicators. Follow-up of social audit meeting with the panchayat body reviewing stakeholders actions, activities and viewpoints, making commitments on changes and agreeing on future action as recommended by the stakeholders. Establishment of a group of trusted local people including elderly people, teachers and others who are committed and independent, to be involved in the verification and to judge if the decisions based upon social audit have been implemented. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 41

The findings of the social audit should be shared with all local stakeholders. This encourages transparency and accountability. A report of the social audit meeting should be distributed for Gram Panchayat auditing. In addition, key decisions should be written on walls and boards and communicated orally. Hindrances in Social Audit Mindset of people. Even after 50 yrs of independence people do not understand the concept of govt. for the people, of the people, and by the people. Most of the people still think themselves as being ruled by the politicians, while politicians think that they are the rulers. Due to this reason, common people do not get involved in the developmental activities. Lack of any legal proceedings for not following social audit principles. Unless there is a stringent penalty on authorities for not implementing social audit, they will not give up control because it reduces their kickbacks and authority. Lack of education among the common masses. Since common people are not that educated, they do not know their rights, let alone get them enforced. Benefits of Social Audit Involvement of people in developmental activities ensures that money is spent where is it actually needed. Reduction of wastages. Reduction in corruption. Awareness among people. Promotes integrity and a sense of community among people. Improves the standard of governance.

Write down all our fundamental rights ! 1.right to equality 2. right to freedom 3.right against exploitation 4.right to freedom of religion 5. cultureal & educational right 6. right to constitutional remedies.. What is investment banking? A specific division of banking related to the creation of capital for other companies. Investment banks underwrite new debt and equity securities for all types of corporations. Investment banks also provide guidance to issuers regarding the issue and placement of stock. Which information cannot b provided under the right to information act ? The following is exempt from disclosure Information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, "strategic, scientific or economic" interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offense;Information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;Information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;Information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information; Information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information; Information received in confidence from foreign Government; Information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes; Information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;Cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers; Information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual (but it is also provided that the information which cannot be denied to the Parliament or a State Legislature shall not be denied by this exemption); Notwithstanding any of the exemptions listed above, a public authority may allow access to information, if public interest in disclosure outweighs the harm to the protected interests. (NB: This provision is qualified by the proviso to sub-section 11(1) of the Act which exempts disclosure of "trade or commercial secrets protected by law" under this clause when read along with 8(1)(d)) Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 42

Write down solutions which can b taken by the Government for avoiding food grain rottening nd establishment of a better nd transparent Public Distribution system ? Best solution is to distribute it to needy people like BPL AND Others. the gap between the production & storing. distrubution to the needy people should be reduced ;the storing units must be well adaptive for natural calamities. govt. Should distance itself from targeted pds and go for universal pds..linking pds with aadhar or NPR for exclusion of ghost card holders...of course stronger anti corruption laws...better storage godowns...union govt. Should adopt tamil nadu model for its pds Can a money bill be returned by President in case of Parliament?..or by a Governor in case of d State ? Write abt the Advocate -General ?...write down his functions ! Advocate General is d highest law officer in d state.,appointed by governer,term of office is not fixed by contitution.Duties of Advocate General are : 1.to give advice to d state govt. on legal matters. 2.to perform duties os a legal character dat r assigned to him by d constituion.

Governor has a dual role ...explain he is the constitutional head of d state, acts on d advice of d council f ministrs nd serves as d agent of the central governmnt. No criminal proceedings, whatsoever, shall be instituted, or continued against the President, or the Governor of a State, in any Court during his term of office.True or False ? ans is True....so can some1 elaborate N.D. Tiwari case me kya hua tha..wa he Governor during d time he was alleged of rape..?..or he resigned or somwthing like tat ? Describe the oath taking procedure of d Governer ? As the governor is appointed for the office of the duty of the governor which hold constitutional status ...........hence after is appointed he may have to take an oath and affirmations before the chief justice of state ..........that he will discharge the duty of the office with full honesty an impartiality an without any influence of love ,affections, ill, fear ......and devote himself to the well being of people and the constitutions and india AS per the mentions in the SCHEDULE 3rd of indian constituions Can there be a same Governor of two or maore states at d same time..if so give examples Yes there can b...look at shivraj patil he z governer of punjab with an additional charg as gov. of rajasthan The emoluments and allowance payable to him r shared by the states in such proportion as determind by the president Explain the term 'Office of Profit ' Office of profit define any person who is hold any occupations which lead to earn any nature of monetary benefits and amenities and other allowances ...........will be non- eligible for the certain post which hold constitutional positions Wards Committees k baare me likho ! An important element in the promotion of local democracy is the enlargement of public participation in municipal governance. To this effect the Local Government: Municipal Structures Act provides for the establishment of ward committees. Such ward committees are structures created to assist the democratically elected representative of a ward (the councillor) to carry out his or her mandate. Ward committee members are members of the community representing a number of interests within the community and the ward. This act gave consitutional status to Municipalities ?...which act ? nagarpalika act. 74th amendment act of 1992 65th Amendment was regarding >? 65th amendment is for commission for SC/ST National COmmission on Urbanisation of baare me likhe Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 43

The push factors like population growth and unemployment etc. and pull factors like opportunities in the urban areas are debated in the studies of Indias urbanization. The National Commission on Urbanisation ( 1988 ) has termed them as factors of demographic and economic momentum respectively. In this article, specific attempt has been made to examine the contribution of both the types of urban process mentioned above. The main objectives of the study are as follows: i) To study the level , trend and regional pattern of urbanization. ii) To examine the relative contribution of natural increase as well as rural to urban migration in urban growth in the recent past. iii) To examinee Indias future urbanisation in the light of new economic policy. Taxation Enquiry Commission 1953-54 ? Taxation Enquiry Commission, 1953-54 Appointed by Govt. of India on April 1, 1953. Its chairman was John Mathai! To examine the incidence of Central, State and Local taxation on the various classes of people and in different States To examine the suitability of the present system of taxation To examine the effects of the structure and level of taxation of income on capital formation and maintenance and development of productive enterprise To examine the use of taxation as a fiscal instrument in dealing with inflationary or deflationary situations To make recommendations, in particular, with regard to Modifications required in the present system of taxation and Fresh avenues of taxation P.K.Wattal COmmittee was for ? Local Finance enquiry committee which submitted their report on 1949! Cantonments Act k baare me likhe Cantonments act of 2006-a legislation enacted by central govt...cantonment boards created as well as administered by d central govt.The 2006 Act has kept 8 nominated and 8 elected members in these boards.Reservation for SC's,ST's and women has been provided in clause 31 of the act. Govt of India Act 1919 and urban local bodies koi relation hai ? Division of powers between central and provinces. Division of provincial subjects into two grps transferred and reserved subjects. Which means introduction of diarchy in the provinces! Write abt Royal Commission on decentralisation ! The Royal Commission on Decentralisation (1907) under the chairmanship of C.E.H. Hobhouse recognised the importance of panchayats at the village level. The commission recommended that "it is most desirable, alike in the interests of decentralisation and in order to associate the people with the local tasks of administration, that an attempt should be made to constitute and develop village panchayats for the administration of local village affairs". India's Magna Carta of local self governance ? In 1882, Lord Ripon (1880-84) made the historic statement which has since been acclaimed as the Magna Carta of the local self-government in India. He realised the importance of the local self-government and made every effort to develop it as a political and popular instrument of public administration. He suggested that the principle of election should be introduced and the quantum of official members be reduced. Lord Mayo's resolution and urban local bodies koi relation hai ? Financial decentralization towards urban local bodies done by Lord Mayo Lord Mayos Resolution of 1870 instituted the system of city municipalities and called for the introduction of an elected president to lead them. Which areas are exempted from the MUNICIPALITY ACT 1992 ? The act does not apply to scheduled areas and tribal areas in the states.At present 9 states of India have scheduled areas-Andhra pradesh,Jharkhand,Chattisgarh,Gujarat,H.P,M.P,Orissa,Rajasthan and Maharashtra...and total 10 tribal areas in ASSAM(3),Meghalaya(3),Tripura(1) and Mizoram(3) First Municipal Corporation in India ?....place ? year ? In chennai formerly knwn as madras in 1687 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

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Write 20 words on Ministry of urban development ? The Ministry was constituted on 13th May, 1952 when it was known as the Ministry of Works, Housing & Supply. Subsequently it was renamed as Ministry of Works & Housing when a separate Ministry of Supply came up. The name of the Ministry was changed to Ministry of Urban Development in September, 1985 in recognition of the importance of urban issues. With the creation of a separate Department of Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation on 8th March, 1995, the Ministry came to be known as the Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment. The Ministry had two Departments: Department of Urban Development & Department of Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation. The two Departments were again merged on 9th April, 1999 and in consequence thereto, the name has also been restored to " The Ministry of Urban Development." This Ministry was bifurcated into two Ministries viz. (i) "Ministry of Urban Development" and (ii) "Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation" with effect from 16.10.1999. These two Ministries were again merged into one Ministry on 27.5.2000 and named as "Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation" with two Departments. They are (i) Department of Urban Development and (ii) Department of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation. From 27-5-2004, the Ministry has again been bifurcated into two Ministries viz: (i) Ministry of Urban Development and (ii) Ministry of Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation.

Which 3 ministries are related with the Urban Local Government ? ministry of defence,urban development, Ministry of Home Affairs w.r.t Union Territories ! Write a note on the Nagarpalika Act The Nagarpalika Act, i.e. the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992 has been enacted to accord constitutional recognition to the Urban Local Bodies as third tier of Government. In the said Constitution Amendment Act (CAA) it was made mandatory to implement the provisions of the said Act in all the States within one year from the date of enactment of the said Act...... 74th amendment said about, 1. Municipal council will be established for smaller urban areas 2. Municipal corporation for larger urban areas 3. Ward commitees for > 3 lakhs ppl 4.Metropolitan planning committee > 10 lakh ppl. 5. Nagar panchayat is a rural area is very near to urban area There are 8 types of uraban local governemnts in India...name them ? Municipal Corporation,Municipalities,Notified Area Committee,Town Boards,Townships,Port Trusts,Special Purpose Agencies...

Area

Committee,

Cantonment

what is BULLISH MARKET..???? it is opposite of bear market ...... A bull market is slang for when stock prices have increased for an extended period of time. If an investor is "bullish" they are referred to as a "bull" because they believe a particular company, industry, sector, or market in general is going to go up....... Dhruv Sitwala kaun hai billiard player 4rm maharashtra. Who is Krishna Poonia >? Discus thrower, gold medalist in delhi commonwealth games Where did the bull and bear market get their names? Bull alwys looks upwards so bullish mkt means when investors purchse shares as they are optimistic.. Bear looks dwn so bearish mkt means pessimistic mkt where people alwyz sel shares D name derived from d action they take infrnt of dere opponent i.e bull raises its horn n bear sweep down. . .so as in market wen market trade is high,its called bull market n wen low called bear market. Wirte down d importance of Article 355 ! Article 355 mandates the central government to protect states against external aggression and internal disturbance to ensure that the governance of every state is in accordance with the provisions of the constitution.

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This article was used when there was attack on churches in BJP administered states. The then minister for parliamentary affairs Vayalar Ravi suggested to amend article 355 to take control of parts or specific areas of a state..... Write a note on d GUjral Doctrine ! Gujral doctrine is a set of five principles for foreign relations with immediate neighbours of India. They are as follows: 1. With neighbours like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, India does not ask for reciprocity, but gives and accommodates what it can in good faith and trust. 2. No South Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of another country of the region. 3. No country should interfere in the internal affairs of another. 4. All South Asian countries must respect each others territorial integrity and sovereignty. 5. They should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations. What is the difference between police custody and judicial custody ? The police custody mean thee person who is detain by the police must prest befor the court of law with in 24 hour an which in non-bailable which have full control over the aacused ..... hence if the court dosent get enough justification for his detantions the he ask for the immedate relase Judicial custody is refer to the person in keept under a prisonment for certain period of time which is awarded by the court on the ground of his contempt of court of law for further enquiry .....till the charge sheet is not submited against him but it is a bailable offnce depend upon crime committed by him Recent Asian Games kaha the ?..India;s Performance ? Guangzhou; previously known as Canton. guangzuuu in china. Davis Cup par short note,,,aur 2010 waala kaun jeeta? Serbia (Novak Djokovic the recent wimbledon winner Gaganjeet Bhullar ..kaun hai ? In January 2011 Bhullar won the inaugural Gujarat Kensville Challenge to become the first Indian player to win a tournament on the Challenge Tour.. the official development tour organised by the PGA European Tour. "Come and Play Scheme"....put light ! Under the Scheme unveiled by Sports Minister on 15th April, 2011, it was envisaged of opening of SAI stadia in the city for usage by school children, students, sports persons as also the common people. The designated area in the stadia will be thrown open for imparting professional training to the establishment sports persons and also to beginners with the twin objective of encouraging participation in sports as also optimum utilization of the stadia. .... Atharva-Veda and Sports ny connection ? A mantra in the Atharva-Veda, says that," Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left". These words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic oath. India me v use WPI ie Whole sale price indexx..for measuring inflation !...lekin apun ..comman man is not a consumer who buys wholesale products..majority of us buy frm normal market ...den y do v use WPI???....nd y not CPI ?,,,wats d logic ? First of all, they say, in India, there are four different types of CPI indices, and that makes switching over to the Index from WPI fairly 'risky and unwieldy.' The four CPI series are: CPI Industrial Workers; CPI Urban Non-Manual Employees; CPI Agricultural labourers; and CPI Rural labour. Secondly, officials say the CPI cannot be used in India because there is too much of a lag in reporting CPI numbers. In fact, as of May 21, the latest CPI number reported is for March 2006. The WPI is published on a weekly basis and the CPI, on a monthly basis. And in India, inflation is calculated on a weekly basis. Narendra Jadhav ..who is this personlity Dr. Narendra Jadhav, an Indian national (born in 1953) is a leading educationist, eminent economist & policy maker, well-known social scientist and best-selling author. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 46

Dr. Narendra Jadhav is currently serving as a Member, Planning Commission (in the rank and status of Union Minister of State). He took over this responsibility on June 16, 2009 and was sworn in by the Prime Minister on July 27, 2009. Planning Commission is Indias apex policy-oriented Think Tank chaired by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with Shri Montek Singh Ahluwalia as the Deputy Chairman. As Member, Planning Commission, Dr. Jadhavs sectoral responsibilities include Education, Labour-Employment-Skill Development, Sports & Youth Affairs, and Social Justice and Empowerment. In addition, Dr. Jadhav looks after the States of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, and Goa, besides the Union Territories of Diu-Daman and Dadra-Nagar Haveli.. Dr. Narendra Jadhav has also been appointed as a Member, National Advisory Council (NAC), chaired by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, with effect from May 31, 2010. Write 20 words on United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) ? United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the voice of the environment within the United Nations system at the global and regional level. Its mandate is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for consideration and action. UNEPs mission is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. ...

aking at the EU level and contributes to shaping policy for sustainable development. It also participates fully in the UN Brussels Team and its working groups, such as Climate Change. Another main function is support to UNEPs resource mobilization efforts, and service other UNEPs divisions in their drafting and reporting of projects submitted to the EC for funding. Repo rate aur Reverse Repo rate ...both can be increased at d same time ?....nd if so whats d logic behind this ? yes both can be increased at same time. this policy is followed by RBI last 18 months. increasing repo rate means bank will have to borrow from RBI at higher interest rate, thus they have less money to lend . that will mop up money from the economy. Increasing reverse rate means now bank will lend to RBI (risk free borrower) at higher interest rate so banks will be tempted to do that that will ensure that they have less money to lend in market, that will again mopup money from the economy. Repo Rate: Commercial banks borrow money from RBI, the interest imposed for the same is called repo rate. The entire purpose of repo rate is to discourage hoarding, since inventory cost goes up by retaining the items. So the hoaders need to release the products on which prices may come down. Reverse repo rate: When reverse reporate increase, banks with more liquidity will deposit in the RBI and will get more interest. This will reduce money circulation and there by inflation. Both can be increased at the same time. WPI is published on a weekly basis in India....true or false ? Yup,every thursday CPI is published on a monthly basis. In India, a total of ................ commodities data on price level is tracked through WPI which is an indicator of movement in prices of commodities in all trade and transactions. Gimme me d number ! Define SLR ? Statutory Liquidity Ratio is the amount of liquid assets, such as cash, precious metals or other approved securities, that a financial institution must maintain as reserves other than the Cash with the Central Bank How does Inflation affect Bank rates? control inflation the Central Bank (RBI) increases CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio - the amount which a bank has to retain with RBI.. As CRR increases the banks have less money to give as loans... As a result the bank rate increases... In a nutshell... Inflation>>>increase in CRR>>decrease in banks Cash reserves>>>banks increase Rate of Interest. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 47

it inflation is high dn bank rate is set on a higher side by the rbi to curb the purchasing power to the people, thereby reducing the demand in the market and controlling the inflation, vise versa. characteristics of superconductors:? 1. Zero electrical resistance 2.Superconducting phase transition,i.e.,characteristics of superconductivity appear when they are cooled to below a critical temp. 3.Meissner effect,i.e.,When a superconductor is placed in a weak external magnetic field H, the field penetrates for only a short distance called the penetration depth, after which it decays rapidly to zero. BCS theory kya hoti hai ? BCS theory, in physics, a comprehensive theory developed in 1957 by the American physicists John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and John R. Schrieffer to explain the behaviour of superconducting materials. Superconductors abruptly lose all resistance to the flow of an electric current when they are cooled to temperatures near absolute zero. Inflation is not always an Evil....Justify this statement Inflation is not always an Evil, since Inflation leads to more money in the marked, which increases business potential of that particular area, which leads to groth and hence increases the Income of the people of that particular region.

Well for many a lil inflation could be good like if you have invested in gold you will get more money for it due to a increase in price.A little inflation is good because it sets people's expectations higher. There's a chance to make money in areas where prices are going up.People who borrow money from a bank with a fixed-rate loan gain from inflation. In this instance inflation is not bad because the rupee amount people will be paying back is less than what they borrowed.Inflation also results in increase in wages so you are actually getting more money besides its a sign of growth as stated by many economists. What is Time Value of Money? India me inflation kaise measure karte hai ? India uses the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) to calculate and then decide the inflation rate in the economy. Most developed countries use the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to calculate inflation. A sustained deterioration in the purchasing power of money is called .................. Inflation Define Bank Rate ! It is the rate of interest that the RBI charges from member banks on loans given to them which is 6% at present How is inflation controlled by RBI ? There are two policies in the hands of the RBI 1. Monetary Policy:It includes the interest rates . When the bank increases the interset rates than there is reduction in the borrowers and peple try to save more as the rate of interest has increased. 2. Fiscal Policy: Itis related to direct taxes and government spending. When direct taxes are increased and government spending increased than the disposable income of the people reduces and hence the demand reduces What is difference between vote on account and interim budget ? a vote on account is about the outgoing government's income and expenses made during the last year and to seek the Parliament's nod for the expenses proposed to be made in the next few months. There are no sops announced in a vote on account and also no talk about generating income through taxes.While a budget is a full annual budget and will include the report card for the last year, income and expenses to be made in the next financial year through taxes and welfare measures and also sops. Write a short note on C. I. Barnard Chester Irving Barnard(1886-1961),who was the president of New Jersey Telephone comp is one of the behavioural thinkers influenced by Follet n Mayo.He laid emphasis on psychological aspect of administration,consideredas spiritual father of "Social System"school.Major contribution of Barnard: Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 48

1.Concept of organisation 2.Formal n Informal organisation 3.Zone of indifference 4.Motivation and Authority of Leadership Define Metropolitan Area in terms of Indian pt of view ~! In India, the Census Commission defines a metropolitan city one having a population of over 4 million. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad, Jaipur and Surat[10] are the ten cities that qualify. Write a note on Town Area Committee ! In India, under most state laws, a settlement can be classified as a town if its population crosses 20,000. On the basis of population and other issues, the state government notifies a larger community (over 10,000) as a notified area, and its administration is under the locally elected notified area committee. A settlement over 20,000 population would be classified, with a charter from the state government as a town, with a town area committee. Some laws distinguish only towns and villages from each other, but settlement with much larger populations such as those having a municipal corporation are called cities. The recent Census of India classified all settlements above 5000 population as urban areas for the sake of census. In the Census of India 2001, the definition of 'urban area' is (a) All statutory places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. (b) A place satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously: i) a minimum population of 5,000; ii) at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and iii) a density of population of at least 400 per km 2. Twelth Schedule kis liye tha ?...wirte down d functional items of d same Twelfth Schedule (Article 243W) 1. Urban planning including town planning. 2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. 3. Planning for economic and social development. 4. Roads and bridges. 5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. 6. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. 7. Fire services. 8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects. 9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded. 10. Slum improvement and upgradation. 11. Urban poverty alleviation. 12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds. 13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects. 14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds; and electric crematoriums. 15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals. 16. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. 17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences. 18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries. Notified Area committee//write 20 words ! is set up of an area which does not yet fulfil all the conditions neccassary for the constituion of a muncilipalty but which the state government ottherwise consider important.... Describe the Working Committee of Zilla Parishad ? Members of the Zilla Parishad are elected from the district on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. Zilla Parishad has minimum of 50 and maximum of 75 members. There are seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and women. The Chairmen of all the Panchayat Samitis form the members of Zilla Parishad. The Parishad is headed by a President and a Vice-President. 49 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

The Chief Executive Officer (CEO), who is an IAS officer, heads the administrative machinery of the Zilla Parishad. The CEO supervises the divisions of the Parishad and executes its development schemes. Mayor of a Municiapl Corporation holds the office for a period of 1 year The local self governing Institution for a town with a population of twelve thousand and above is known as Municipal Committee Every Village Panchayat is headed by a Sarpanch who is elected by ? The members of the Gram Panchayat elect the Sarpanch.. hargobind khorana kaun the ?...contributions ? he is noble lauriat in 1968...he showed dat genetic codes r imp for protein synthesis...also made 1st artificial dna..

What is gene patenting? Is DNA patentable? What laws govern gene patenting? gene Patenting is particularly having special privileges over a gene,its composition,source from where it is obtained etc...like we patent other things..yes DNA is surely patentable.USPTO issued stiffer interim guidelines stating that more usefulnessspecifically how the product functions in naturemust now be shown before gene fragments are considered patentable. The new rules call for "specific and substantial utility that is credible,". A patent grants the right to exclude others from making, using, and selling the invention for a limited term, 20 years from application filing date in most of the world. To get a patent, an inventor must disclose the invention fully so as to enable others to make and use it. What is the Human Genome Project? Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year scientific research project coordinated by the U.S Project goals were toidentify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. NABARD pe 20 words likho ! National bank of Agriculture & Rural Development; setup by RBI on 2 jul 1982 as a apex institution for agriculture finance & rural Development credit India Successfully Repeats Test Of Asias Largest Solid Rocket Booster, The S-200......put light over d same ! s space program crossed an important milestone on September 4 this month, when the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) successfully carried out the second test of the strap-on S-200 solid rocket booster, stated to be the biggest in Asia and the third largest in the world after the ones flown on NASAs space shuttle and Arianespaces Ariane 5 Rocket University Grants Commission (UGC)......write 20 words ? The University Grants Commission (UGC) of India is a statutory organisation set up by Union government in 1956, for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education. It provides recognition for universities in India, and provides funds for government-recognised universities and colleges. Its headquarters are in New Delhi WHAT IS CERPA ? Centre for Research,Planning and Action CERPA is in New Delhi. The broad objectives of CERPA are to conduct social science research,provide consultancy on developmental issues, help other NGOs in Action research and provide policy inputs in HRD, Welfare and other Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 50

social issues. It also provides charitable services to the disadvantaged and poor by taking up project implementation at grass-roots level either directly or through local NGOs. Situation in Syria ? At Brussels, on 24th September, the EU reched upon a consensus to impose sanctions on Syriatel, the main telecommunications operator in Syria.Along with that, sanctions have also been imposed upon six other Syrian firms. As a result of these sanctions, the Syrian government decided to ban imports on every product that had a tariff rate of over 5% to save foreign currency.Thus, articles such as raw materials and grains. IRCON ...full form ?..write 30 words ? Indian Railway Construction Company Limited IRCON is a specialized Constructions organization covering the entire spectrum of construction activities and services in the infrastructure sector. However, Railway and Highway Construction, EHP sub-station (engineering and constructions), and MRTS are the core competence areas of IRCON......

MOU SIGNED BETWEEN UGC & BRITISH COUNCIL...put light The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the British Council have formally signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to support all activities and programmes agreed under Phase Two of the United Kingdom-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) programme relating to the university sector across four strands. DOUBLE TAXATION AVOIDANCE AGREEMENT...write 20 words...with which nations hav India has signed this it avoids double taxation of the same good and is mitigated by a treaty signed between two countries. DTAA has been signed by india with, USA, italy, singapore, mauritius and more recently estonia INDIAS FIRST-EVER NUCLEAR GALLERY...put light indias first-ever nuclear gallery with permanent exhibition on nuclear power at Nehru Science Centre in Worli, Mumbai opened Nehru Science Centre in Worli, Mumbai opened the first ever nuclear galley in the country.. it would help ppl understand nuclear energy and its uses to the common ppl in a simpler and better way. A major attraction in the gallery is the state-of-the-art virtual tour of a nuclear power plant in which visitors can learn about nuclear energy through touch-screen computer kiosks, video terminals, as well as interactive exhibits and informative panels.. ANTI-MATTER AROUND EARTH DISCOVERED...what is ANTI -Matter ?...wat is newz abt ? dark energy of universe is also said to b composed of antimatter A thin band of antimatter particles called antiprotons enveloping the Earth has been spotted for the first time. The find, described in Astrophysical Journal Letters, confirms theoretical work that predicted the Earth's magnetic field could trap antimatter....... NATURAL PRESERVATIVE BISIN...put light New preservative called Bisin discovered accidently in US ... It makes the food to be preserved for long years KENDRA SAHITYA AKADEMI AWARD 2011...winners ? ailen Ghosh forBengali , Shyam Dutt Parag for Dogri , Ramesh Parekh for Gujarati , Harikrishna Devsare for Hindi and Maheswar Mohanty for Oriya.. RAJIV GANDHI MANAV SEVA AWARD...share details ..what is this award abt?...recepients ? This Award will be known as Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award for Service to Children. It was instituted in 1994 for theservice to children... RS SHARMA......y in newzz I think he was the first historian to mention the danger of ayodhya movement .passed away in august ISA KHANS TOMB.....y in newzz ?...Who is Isa Khan ? Isa Khan was an Afghan noble in the court of Sher Shah Suri .... recently his tomb was restored ... during the restoration work India's oldest sunken garden was found...the tomb is in delhi 51 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

SURENDRA NATH JAUHAR..y in newzz ? founder of aurobinod educational society..a postage stamp was released recently in his honour. Who is DEBARSHI DUTTAGUPTA..y in newzz ? he's a photographer who won the grand prix at the nikon photo contest CLOSEST YOUNG STAR TO EARTH.....What is this newzz abt ? Planetary scientists have discovered the closest young star to Earth. An international team carried out a research and showed that the star, named AP Columbae, is the closest so-called pre mainsequence star. AP Columbae is the closest young star to earth..was discovered recently.. it was believed that young stars only resided in vast star-forming regions like Orion Nebula.. but are very much closer to earth compared to that AGRINDIA WILL BE LAUNCHED...put light on this ! AGRINDIA is to be set up by ICAR to channelise its research efforts and output in a commercial fashion and respond better to the farmers needs.

SEX TAX METRES IN GERMANY.....What is this newzz abt ? Germanys first sex tax meters,from which prostitutes can purchase a ticket for 6 euros ($8.72) per night, will ensure the tax system is fairly implemented, a city spokeswoman said. Inspectors will monitor compliance not every evening but frequently, the spokeswoman told Reuters. If caught without a valid ticket, offenders will first be reprimanded, then face fines and later even a ban. "Rajan commitee" is related for what regarding to banking sector??? Raguram Rajan committee calls for a level playing in the bank sector like ownership,privatisation of public sector banks by reducing government's majority stake in the PSU banks while allowing more foreign ownership. What is The 'Appropriation Bill' ? bill to enable the govt to spend money from Consolidated fund of India Questions in Parliament Questions Hour: The Question Hour is of 60 minute duration. It is fixed every day from 11:00 -12:00hrs to allow the Members of Parliament to ask questions from the Government. Sometimes questions may be directed to the private members with respect to the Bills or motions for which the concerned member is responsible. Every day, the sitting of Parliament begins with the Question Hour. The questions are of there kinds: i) Starred questions ii) Unstarred questions iii) Short-notice questions Explain this three types of questions ? Starred questions are those questions for which only oral answers can b given. Non starred : the questions for which a written reply can b expcted. There is a procedure of gvng 10 days notice prior to ask the question in house. If its urgent then this notice can be waived off and a question can b asked.. These kind of urgent questions described as short notice questions Basic difference between Money BIll and Financial Bill ? Money bill will only be passed in lok sabha and suggestions or recommendations frm rajya sabha need not be accepted... Financial bill can be passed in Joint sitting of both the houses and Rajya sabha has the right to reject the financial bill. Coporation tax kya hota hai ? Corporation tax is a tax levied on the profits made by companies and on the profits of permanent establishments by non resident companies also. KEYLOGGERS...kya hota hai ? Keylogger is a dangerous software that executes almost invisibly as a low level system process. It is usually started up in invisibility mode when the computer is booted, so there is no way that the user can detect it. This program logs all Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 52

the key strokes typed on the keyboard and then transmits the logged information to the intruder who infected the computer with the keylogger program. What are SPYWARE?..What do they include? Spyware programs are small applications that can get installed on your computer without your knowledge. These spyware programs can get installed either by downloading innocent looking software programs that include them or through ActiveX controls hidden within the source code of participating web sites or pop-up advertisements while you surf the internet. These bundled programs and ActiveX controls can install a wide range of unwanted software onto a users computer. they include Cydoor, TopText, Onflow, Webhancer, BonziBuddy, ClickTillUWin, and New.net in addition to trojans and viruses such as the self replicating Nimda virus Is INTERPOL also involved in DNA profiling ? Interpol recognises the value of DNA profiling and is supporting this new investigative tool.. Following the acceptance of Resolution No. 8 of the 67th General Assembly (Cairo, 1998) to advance international co-operation on the use of DNA in criminal investigations, the Interpol DNA Unit has been established. The objective of this unit is to provide strategic and technical support to enhance member states' DNA profiling capacity and promote widespread use in the international law enforcement environment....... What is DNA profiling? DNA profiling is a process which begins when a minute sample of genetic material - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is taken from human tissue and ends when the sample is given a computerised numeric value in the form of a 'bar code'. Comparing a person's DNA profile with a DNA sample retrieved from the scene of a crime can eliminate innocent people, but can also provide a strong indication of guilt What is the LPG policy ? Liberalisation pvtsation globalistn i.e. To open up indian markets to mncs n other pvt cotporation n to increase d impprt export relations What is the difference between liberalization ,privatization ,globalization ? LPG policy came in india in 1991 Libeealisation: means to relax d restrictions on trqde like tqx reduction n lossing licensing policy Privatisation: means to let private companies to cm into view n run sm specific functions individually...here govt delegates its power completely to the pvt sector globalisation: means to let various nation communiqcte with our nation n vice a versa in terms f trade culture eco etc What is fiscal deficit ? When a government's total expenditures exceed the revenue that it generates (excluding money from borrowings). Deficit differs from debt, which is an accumulation of yearly deficits Explain the 1991 Balance of Payments [BOP] crisis in India ? in 1991 this crises occured in this the current account deficit of india increased due to various reasons....overvaluation of currency being one of them...this decreased the foreign currency reserves as the country used this reseves to cover the current account deficit...there fore as the reserve reached close to 1.2 billion..the government realized that it does not has enough reserves to cover the countries import of even 15 days...further the fears of default by the governemts also rose....this all ended after IMF intrevened and india opened its economy to the world Explain d term 'balance of payments' ? BOP keeps track of outgoing and incoming foreign funds......it mainly has 2 types of account..the first is the current account and the capital account....th current account consists of the inflow and outflow from exports and imports and the capital account consist of the information about the FIIs and the FDIs Explain d term Red tape ? red tape means "Red tape" is a term for excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. It is usually applied to governments, corporations and other large organizations. One definition is the "collection or sequence of forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, especially when oppressively complex and time-consuming". Another definition is the "bureaucratic practice of hair splitting or foot dragging, blamed by its practitioners on the system that forces them to follow prescribed procedures to the letter". 53 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Red tape generally includes the filling out of paperwork, obtaining of licenses, having multiple people or committees approve a decision and various low-level rules that make conducting one's affairs slower, more difficult, or both. Red tape can also include "filing and certification requirements, reporting, investigation, inspection and enforcement practices, and procedures" What is d new concept of Virtual Water ? Thw concept of virtual water help us to reliaze how much water is needed to produced kind of good and services and this concept emerged un 1990s br proff jhon anthony allhan What is Octane no. ?..is Increase in Octane no. helpful ?..xplain ! octane number is a measure of the anti knocking property of fuel..yes increase in octane number is helpfull as the knocking in the engine decreases......thus increasing the efficiency of the engine Difference between Plasma TV nd LCD ? Plasma TV Overview Plasma television technology is based loosely on the fluorescent light bulb. The display itself consists of cells. Within each cell two glass panels are separated by a narrow gap in which neon-xenon gas is injected and sealed in plasma form during the manufacturing process. The gas is electrically charged at specific intervals when the Plasma set is in use. The charged gas then strikes red, green, and blue phosphors, thus creating a television image. Each group of red, green, and blue phosphors is called a pixel (picture element). Although Plasma television technology eliminate the need for the bulky picture tube and electron beam scanning of traditional televisions, because it still employs the burning of phosphors to generate an image, Plasma televisions still suffer from some of the drawbacks of traditional televisions, such as heat generation and screen-burn of static images. What actually is HDTV ? high definition television Can a Plasma TV Work at High Altitudes? Decreasing external air pressure present at higher altitudes can be a problem with plasma Televisions. Since the pixel elements on a plasma TV are actually glass housings containing rare gases, thinner air causes greater stress on the gases inside the housing. Most Plasma Televisions are calibrated for optimum operation at, or near, sea level conditions Can microwave ovens affect cardiac pacemakers? Cardiac pacemakers are sensitive to radiatons(waves).as ovens emit microwaves , hence it alters normal pacemaker activity by a phenonemon called forced ocillations. explain the phenomenon of SUPERHEATING ? superheating can be defined as heating of dry air (which does not have any water particles) above boiling temperature What is Heliotropism ? movement of parts of plants along with the direction of sunlight or sun.eg.SUNFLOWER(asteraecea) Minerva Mills Ltd. & Co. Vs. Union of India....was d case abt ? sec 4 n 5 of art 368 added by 42nd ammendment,were declared void and unconstitutional in this case...as these takes away the power of JR (basic feature)and gives parliament unlimited ammending power(also alters basic feature) 25th Constitutional Amendment kya kehta hai ? 1971 - curtailed the fundamental right to property, provided tht any law made to give effect to the DPSP contained in At.39(b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by the Ats.14,19,31 A.D.M. Jabalpur Vs. S. K. Shukla (1976) ..was d case abt /? Habeas Corpus case and the conclusion was "In view of the Presidential Order dated 27th June 1975 no person has any locus to move any writ petition under Art. 226 before a High Court for habeas corpus or any other writ or order or direction to challenge the legality of an order of detention on the ground that the order is not under or in compliance with the Act or is illegal or is vitiated by mala fides factual or legal or is based on extraneous considerations." Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 54

Bharathidasan,,,? who was he ? He was a twentieth century Tamil poet....His writings served as a catalyst for the growth of the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu....His mentor was Mahakavi Bharathiyar Sixteenth Amendment.......explain ? 1963 , 1. empowered the state to impose further restriction on the right to freedom of speech,assembly,etc.2.Included sovereignty and integrity in the forms of oath to MPs,judges,CAG

Wrote 20 words on Justice party ? officially known as South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India. The party was established in 1917 by T. M. Nair and Theagaroya Chetty. In 1920, it won the first direct elections in the presidency and formed the government. Amur River..significance ? a river serving as a border between Russia and the People's Republic of China. Write 20 words on Minicoy Island ! Minicoy, a large inhabited island located on the eastern and southeastern side of the lagoon, along the reef fringe. It measures about 10 km from its northern end to its southernmost point and it is about 1 km wide in its southern half, while the northern half is a narrow sandspit, often less than 100 m wide. Minicoy is almost completely covered with coconut trees. One of the few landmarks of the island is a tall lighthouse. The origin of people were from Maldives. Their Language is Dhivehi as in Maldives. Their life style and culture is of Maldivian. The Atoll is claimed by both India and the Maldives. The Atoll were fallen under control of Ali Rajaa or Alhi Rajaas of Kannur, India, by mid of 16th century. Nine Degree Channel separates? Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island. Duncan Passage lies between? it separates Rutland Island to the north, and Little Andaman to the south. West of Duncan Passage is the Bay of Bengal; east is the Andaman Sea. Rotterdam Convention...write 20 words ! It is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals. It was opened for singing in 1998 Who were Non-conformists of the 1930s ? During the French inter-war period a group of non-conformists were formed who wanted a different n new way of solution to the social , economic n all kinds of problems... they attempted to find a way between socialism and capitalism Bamiyan Buddha statues ...write 20 words ! Bamiyan Buddha is in Afghanistan... It is a monumental statue of standing buddha.... It is a typical example of Gandhara art What are "ghost particles" ? it the neutrino What is Vegemite ?,,,,,y in news ? It is a dark brown Australian food paste made from yeast extract. It is a spread for sandwiches, toast, crumpets and cracker biscuits, and filling for pastries.Vegemite has a high vitamin B content and is marketed heavily on its health benefits for children. Australia's foreign minister has said that American authorities tried to confiscate his supply of Vegemite as he entered the US.

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A six-tonnes NASA science satellite (launched in 1991)fell back to Earth.he 20-year-old satellite, which took an unpredictable course as it tumbled through the upper atmosphere, fell to Earth sometime between 11:23 p.m EDT on Friday and 1:09 a.m. EDT on Saturday (0323 to 0509 GMT on Saturday), NASA said. There were reports on Twitter of debris falling over Okotoks, a town south of Calgary in western Canada, most likely satellite remains. if RBI increase the SLR ..how it will effected to demand side..??? SLR is Statutory Liquidity Ratio i.e. the amount of liquid assets, such as cash, precious metals or other approved securities, that a financial institution must maintain as reserves. If RBI increases the SLR it will contract the bank Credit. If SLR inc => banks will have 2 keep more money wid them => amt of money for loans will dec => ppl will hav less money 2 spend => demand decreases. Tarapore Committee for what ? to study the feasibility of capital account convertibility INTERNATIONAL YOGA SEMINAR...sumthing in news ? 23rd to 25th sept in ujjain Write 20 words on Parkinson disease ~! neurological disorder caused due to decreased dopamin level and increased Ach(acetylcholine). symptoms like tremor, postural instability and rigidity. disease was referred to as "shaking palsy" when it was first described by James Parkinson in 1817 When approximately 80% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of PD begin to appear Joyce Hall is famous for? American businessman,founder of hallmark cards. Saaniya Sharma....whoozz she ? Chandigarh-based Indian Golfer,who recently won the WPGT at Delhi to win her first title of the year. Dahej in Gujarat...significance ? .Dahej is the New Special Economic ZOne and One of the fastest growing industrial hub across India...With high ans easy land acquisition policies ,Dahej as it is closer to Port So high cost saving and fast transportation possible adding to the incentives..! Country's first LNG receiving and regasification plant has been set up here by Petronet LNG Ltd,India's largest LNG importer. nation's largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) importer? India ka largest LNG importer is Petronet ...! Write 20 words on National Automotive Board (NAB) ? It is an agency proposed by the Govt due to come into effect probably in the next 2-3 months or so,to serve as a coordinating authority for all policy and certification issues related to the automobile industry. Write 20 words on Silk Mark scheme .? It is a quality assurance label conceived by the Central Silk Board launched by the Silk Mark Organization of India aimed at protecting the interests of consumers, manufacturers and traders of pure silk. Mullaperiyar dam is proposed in ? The Mullaperiyar Dam was constructed during 1887-1895 across Periyar River. Proposed to increase storage. Write 20 words on Deccan Odyessey train ? The Deccan Odyssey is a special luxury train modelled on the Palace on Wheels to boost tourism on the Konkan route of the Indian Railways. The route starts in Mumbai and travels to Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Goa, Belgaum, Kolhapur, Pune, Nashik, Aurangabad, Ajanta-Ellora and then back to Mumbai. It is a venture of the Maharashtra Government and the Ministry of Railways, Government of India. In addition to being a train that touches tourist spots, this aims to be a complete 5-star hotel on wheels, with two restaurants and a 56 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

bar, a sauna, business centre and other such amenities on board. The coaches fitted with special amenities were manufactured by the Integral Coach Factory in Chennai. In 2004, the Maharashtra government stopped its run of the Deccan Odyssey, citing poor response, but restarted it after the monsoon season. Gita Piramal.kaun hai ? renowned media personality, freelance writer, business historian, managing editor of The Smart Manager magazine, Director of BP Ergo and former director of VIP Industries Limited well known marketing management guru & author of" business maharajas" book & she is featured in 25 Most Powerful Women in Indian Business in 2004 Write 20 words on Mundra Port /? Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited (MPSEZ), Indias largest private port and special economic zone, was incorporated as Gujarat Adani Port Limited (GAPL) in 1998 to develop a private port at Mundra, on the west coast of India Mehul Choksi...kaun hai ? Mr Mehul Choksi(Chairman,Gitanjali Group) for Ernst & Young, Entrepreneur of the Year Awards, 2008. G4 group consists of ? G4 Group is a multi-national biotechnology, bioenergy and agricultural development and solution provider. brazil,india,grmany ,japan thse countries support each other as permanent member in unsc What is SLINEX-2011...pecularity ? it is joint exercise between the Indian Navy and Sri Lanka Navy,will serve as a platform for exchanging useful experiences,promoting mutual trust and understanding between the two Navies... People's Connect Programme...what is it abt ? John McCain will establish a People Connect Program that rewards companies that offer high-speed Internet access services to low income customers by allowing these companies offset their tax liability for the cost of this service. ...................... to become first State to launch my stamp jammu and kashmir Jammu and Kashmir will become the first State to formally launch the My Stamp concept on September 26 at a four-day-long Philatelic Exhibition. The Department of Posts is coming up with some novel ideas to re-establish connection with the people, which has suffered during the 21 years of turmoil. It is a novel method to emotionally connect with people, as the customer's picture will appear on the stamp he chooses to buy. Where is Rajiv Gandhi Tiger Reserve ? Andhra Pradesh.. Previously known as Nagarjunasagar-srisailam tiger reserve. Tummalapalle is a place why it is in news and where it is ?? Indias largest natural uranium reserves found here. It is in andhra pradesh rayalaseema region. What is the term E.F.T. ?? Electronic Fund Transfer transfer of money from one account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, through computer-based systems. The tenth schedule to the Constitution of India laying down the disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection was added by amendment no . ? 52 and also 91 amendment 2003 What is National Development Council..? The national devlopment council held responsibel for regulating all the schems and plans formulated by the panchyat sammati at the intermidate level an panchayat an the village level. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 57

it is non constitutional body and Prime Minister is the chairman of NDC wholesale price index (WPI) write few words whole sale price index is a method of measuring the inflation by taking the base year 2004-05 and these includes the primary produts ..manufaturing products and light an power oil under this ...... covering 426 consumer products

Write 20 words on International Monetary Fund ! The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 187 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. It was established in 1944 IMF is situated in Washington D.C & has 187 member Christine Lagarde is director of IMF main function is to look after the balance of payment Kaka Kalelkar Commission was for ? kaka kelkar commission was for OBC res....and kelkar committee was for tax reforms first backward commission,1955.It was set up by a presidential order on 29 jan 1953.kaka kalelkar was the chairman. kaka kalelkar was a gandhian, a hindi author and also was the head of the first commission for backward classes! What was 'Operation safe home coming ' abt ?> Operation Safe Homecoming was an operation launched by India to evacuate its nationals, who were fleeing from the 2011 Libyan uprising What is hot money? "Hot money" refers to funds that are controlled by investors who actively seek short-term returns. These investors scan the market for short-term, high interest rate investment opportunities. A typical short-term investment opportunity that attracts "hot money" is the certificate of deposit (CD). Banks usually attract "hot money" by offering relatively short-term certificates of deposit that have above-average interest rates. As soon as the institution reduces interest rates or another institution offers higher rates, investors with "hot money" withdraw their funds and move them to another institution with higher rates. What are FIIs? Its an investment fund that is from or registered in a country outside of the one in which it is currently investing.... Institutional investors include hedge funds,,,, insurance companies,, pension funds and mutual funds... What is the Mauritian route? It is the route used by Indian Investors to invest money in Mauritius by takin advantaGe of DTAA i.e. Double Tax Avoidation AGreement. Which says that if an Indian company opes a residential office in Mauritius, it is not liable to pay taxes on capital Gains received by investinG in India. So therefore, India will not tax them as they will have to be taxed in Mauritius and Mauritius will not tax them due to policy reforms. What is Tobin tax? Are we afraid to impose it? A Tobin tax, suggested by Nobel Laureate economist James Tobin, was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another Who is Unmukt chand ? captain of the India Under-19 cricket team chand is from pithoragarh,uttarakhand Who is Parimarjam Negi >? India's youngest Grandmaster What is NSCCL? National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited . It was set up to bring and sustain confidence in clearing and settlement of securities; to promote and maintain, short and consistent settlement cycles; to provide counter-party risk guarantee, and to operate a tight risk containment system. What term is used for Money borrowed or lent for a day or overnight ? Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

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it is call money What was the People Power, 1986 (Philippines) protest abt ?> campaign of civil resistance against President Ferdinand Marcos ending of communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe also referred to as the Yellow Revolution Write abt Lahore conspiracy case ? 1)The First Lahore Conspiracy, also known as the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial in the after of the Ghadar conspiracy in 1915... 2)The Second Lahore Conspiracy Case, the trial of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev in 1931 ..... The First Lahore Conspiracy, also known as the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial in the aftermath of the Ghadar conspiracy in 1915 What is the palmoline export scam ?: palmoline export scam was in news recently cz of involvement of P J THOMAS in it who was appointed as cvc by govt inspite of knowin abou this.. it was in kerala..the govt ignored better bidders as the officials had taken bribes to take inferior palmoline oil frm insignificant and unregistered companies New NSG guidelines unveiled recently may affect transfer of enrichment and reprocessing (ENR) technologies to India by NSG countries. Where was Indias first nuclear fuel reprocessing plant established in 1965? its trombay, maharashtra Brazils Jose Graziano da Silva was in news recently for his appointment as ? FAO next Director-General Who was appointed as President of Rotary International recently? kalyan banerjee Write 20 words on MPLAD Scheme ? MPLAD--Member of parliament local area development ...in this scheme MP's were used to given 2 crore money for local area development which is now increased to 5 crore. What is Haemophilia ? When is World Haemophilia Day celebrated ? Its a genetic disorder, impairing body's ability to clot blood. Occurs 1 in 5000 to 10000..April 17 is observed as world Haemophilia day...Haemophelia federation of india is formed in 1983... The Railways have decided to launch its own e-ticketing service recently.What are its features? Today union railway minster decleared now all E-ticket services will be done by IRCTC authority..... an ask them to make a good portal site for reservation against the existing one an withdrawl all his agency an work an self union which helps to curtel down all the day to day cheats and fradulent aspects which effects the customers of E-tickets . through new e-ticketing services indian railways nullified the role of travel agents and commercial organizations,allowing ONLY individuals to book tickets. Which SAARC capital hosted the 50th annual session of the Asian African Legal Consultative Organisation (AALCO) organised recently? AALCO ALSO KNOWN AS ASIAN LEGAL CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE OBJECTIVES: 1. PROVIDING LEGAL SUPPORT AND ADVISE TO ALL THE THE MEMBER STATES ON MATTER OF COMMON LEGAL CONCERN, INTERNATIONAL LAW, REFERENCE OF LEGAL INFERENCES DRAWN BY SUCH PRACTICES TO UN AGENCIES. HEADQUARTERED AT DELHI ANNUAL SESSION ON A ROTATION BASIS 47 AFRICAN AND ASIAN COUNTRIES ARE THE MEMBERS ONE JUDGE FROM ICJ HAGUE AND ONE FROM ICL GENEVA ON THE PANEL 50TH ANNUAL SESSION HELD AT COLOMBO G. N. Bajpai committee was setup for ? G N Bajpai-headed committee report on National Pension Scheme (NPS), set up to fast track and popularise a retirement scheme for individuals . The report recommends that PFRDA should be financially autonomous, NPS 59 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

should be made a part of the national financial inclusion agenda and the government should extend the Swavalamban incentive of Rs 1,000 every year for a longer period primarily it intended to bring Unorganized labor in to Insurance scheme . Which Latin American country has exited the UN Convention on Narcotic Drugs because the anti-drug convention classifies coca leaf as an illegal drug? Bolivia Which SAARC countrys Parliament has amended its constitution ending the system of appointing a caretaker government to oversee the conduct of general elections? Bangladesh What is austerity Bill ? a situation when people do not have much money to spend because there are bad economic conditions A Bill passed to avert acute financial crunch in a country by cutting down on expenses,invoking privatization on a grand scale,increasing taxes et al.. What is carbon tax? carbon txx is an indirect tax levied on the usaGe of Fossil Fuels. The objective of puttinG this tax is to increase the cost of burninG fossil fuels and thus encouraGinG Govts or individuals to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to improve the usaGe of non conv enerGy resources. Where was the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Council of Foreign Ministers organised recently?...what it had to do wit India ? At Pakistan's insistence, a reference to the Kashmir issue was included in the declaration adopted at a meeting of an Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) panel in Abu Dhabi. The 11-point draft declaration of the meeting of the Parliamentary Union of Islamic Countries, a panel of the OIC, had no mention of the Kashmir issue thought it dealt with the Palestinian problem, inter-faith dialogue, rights of minorities in Islamic countries and the unrest in Tunisia. On the intervention of Fehmida Mirza, the speaker of the lower house of Pakistan's Parliament, the meet agreed to include the Kashmir issue in its final declaration, the official APP news agency reported. Mirza, who led the Pakistani parliamentary delegation to the meet, said that though Pakistan fully supported the outcome of the conference, it "pained her heart" that representatives had ignored the plight of Kashmiris. Write abt Indias membership of NSG During a state visit to India in November 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced U.S. support for India's membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Wassenaar Arrangement, the Australia Group and the Missile Technology Control Regime, "in a phased manner," and to encourage the evolution of regime membership criteria to that end, "consistent with maintaining the core principles of these regimes." During a visit to India in December 2010, French President also expressed his country's backing for India's inclusion in Nuclear Suppliers Group Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. It was founded in 1974 in response to the Indian nuclear test earlier in that year. The test demonstrated that certain non-weapons specific nuclear technology could be readily turned to weapons development. Nations already signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) saw the need to further limit the export of nuclear equipment, materials or technology. Write 20 words on Pataudi Trophy ? Named after legendary ckt player Manshur ali khan pataudi popularly known as tiger pataudi! the Test Series between India and England named after India's former cricket captain MAK Pataudi aka Tiger According to a latest World Trade organisation (WTO) report India achieved _____rank in export of services worldwide. 3rd Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award fr 2010 ?? which committee decided?? headed by whom ?? Ganga narang in shotting an was preside by PT Usha committe .......with the presence of hon'ble Ms pratibha patil . Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 60

AK Seth committee was for ?? The committee, headed by Cabinet Secretary A K Seth, recommended that 50% of FDI component have to be deployed in the back-end infrastructure, like warehousing and cold storage. However, a foreign retailer, will have to commit at least $100 Mn investment. It also recommended that FDI should be allowed only 36 large cities which have population of over 1 Million. Africas most populous country ? nigeria 7th in the world Write 20 words on Tripuraneni Gopichand ? was a Telugu short story writer, novelist, editor, essayist, playwright and film director. Gopichand's writings are remarkable for interplay of values, ideas and 'isms' - materialism, rationalism, existentialism, realism and humanism. He is especially celebrated for his second novel 'Asamardhuni Jeevayatra' (The Incompetent's Life Journey). This is the first psychological novel in Telugu literature. Write abt d freedom fighter Mohammed Abdul Rehman ? Rehman is one of the tallest freedom fighters from Kerala. Unfortunately, the new generation, or for that matter even mine, has not even heard of this leader who always worked and spoke for a unified India. He was completely opposed to the idea of Partition. Almost all the great poets of Malayalam have paid tribute to him in verse. But there are no photographs or films of this leader Pakistan: A Personal History.....author ?..controversy ? imran khan its abt d Indian border shown in this book ! it is about the historical aspects of pakistan formation as a nation and the war with india in 1948,1965,1971 and 1999 and also about the invasion of US in afghanistan and pakistan role in that is the main controversy. Who wrote a book named 'Planned Economy of India' >? M. Vishveshwarya,the first engineer of India..wrote this book..!! Where is Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project...whats in news ? it is located in Tamil Nadu.It is Russia-India collaboration for creating a water cooled nuclear power plant.The biggest hurdle is the local oppose on the construction of this power plant ,as it creates lot of ecological,health and social disturbance in the nearby areas on farmers and agricultural lands.In pretext to this about 100 of people went on indefinite hunger strike,and thousands joined the protest.Recently these people broke the hunger strike while undertaking the assurance form chief minister Jay lalitha.Thus,this Too project is hanging in middle. Write 20 words on Harish Hande who got d Magsaysay award this year ! he is the co-founder of SELCO an NGO, that has been working to provide solar lightening in rural areas of karnataka. he is an IIT kharakpur graduate in energy engineering and he has done his master from University of Massachusetts Lowell.he is also the co founder of SELCO in 1995. Which Indians got the Magsaysay Award for 2011 nd what was their contribution ? nileema mishra and harish hande she has got Magsaysay Award for emergent leadership and she is the founder of Bhagini Nivedita Gramin Vigyan Niketan New Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011 After several rounds of consultation and workshop with all Stakeholders, including Central Ministries, State Governments, Industry associations and NGOs, the Ministry has prepared a Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011, vetted by Ministry of Law and Justice, to replace the existing Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957. The Bill seeks a complete and holistic reform in the mining sector with Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 61

provisions to address issues relating to sustainable mining and local area development, especially families impacted by mining operations. The Bill aims to ensure transparency, equity, elimination of discretions, effective redressal and regulatory mechanisms alongwith incentives encouraging good mining practices, which will also lead to technology absorption and exploitation of deep seated minerals. The Bill is presently referred to a Group of Ministers under the Chairmanship of Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Honble Finance Minster, and based on the recommendations of the Group of Ministers and Cabinet approval, the Bill will be introduced in Parliament at the earliest. Hemis Festival : The Hemis Festival of Ladakh is a major crowd puller and holds a lot of significance in terms of culture. The festival, which runs for two days, is celebrated to mark the birth anniversary of the Buddhist guru Padmasambhava. Losar Festival: Losar is one of the most important religious festival of Buddhists. The word Losar literally means 'New Year'. It is characterized by dancing, singing and feasting. Losar holds a great importance in the festival calender of Buddhists, celebrated on Tibetan New Year. Tak -Tok Festival Tak-Tok festival is celebrated at cave Gompa of Tak- Tok . It is among the major festivals of Ladakh. Celebrated in summer, it is yet another tourist attraction. The festival is celebrated with fanfare and locals from far-flung areas storm the place on the occasion. Sindhu Darshan Sindhu Darshan Festival, as the name suggests, is a celebration of river Sindhu, also known as the Indus. People travel for a Darshan and Puja of the River Sindhu (Indus) which originates from the Mansarovar in Tibet. Shri Kapil Sibal Launches Aakash, Low Cost Access Device Shri Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resourced Development launched Aakash, a low cost access cum computing device To ensure complete transparency and a level playing-field, the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) decided to task one of the IITs (IIT Rajasthan at Jodhpur) with the job of procuring and testing these devices based on the design and specifications that the Missions team had finalized. It is expected that 416 Universities and 20,000 colleges all over India will be connected under the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Content Creation The National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) has proposed 18 different line items for content creation. All content that is created under this Mission needs to meet the following criteria: It should be related to education delivery. It should involve faculty from different institutions All IP (Intellectual Property) created under projects funded by this Mission will vest with MHRD All content should be created using open-source software. All content created under this Mission is for open access by all and cannot be charged for in any way China launches its first space laboratory module Unmanned Tiangong 1 carried into orbit, setting stage for space station assembly In terms of technology, the launch of the Tiangong 1 places China about where the U.S. was in the 1960s during the Gemini program. China's authoritarian, centralized political system also offers the advantage of freedom from political wrangles over funding and clearly defines the program's long-term goals within Soviet-style five-year plans At about 60 tons when completed, the Chinese station will be considerably smaller than the 16-nation International Space Station, which is expected to continue operating through 2028. China applied repeatedly to join the ISS, but was rebuffed largely on objections from the U.S., prompting it to adopt a go-it-alone strategy. Ganit Labs an integrated genomics lab in Bangalore set up earlier this year under a public-private partnership between Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology and Strand Life Sciences, a bioinformatics company has successfully sequenced the genome of Neem plant known for its medicinal properties. This is the first time the genome of a higher organism has been sequenced in India 62 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Female foeticide a grave challenge education and communication (IEC) could play a role in building a positive environment for valuing the girl child, particularly at the grassroots level. Centre had decided to provide funds to States for setting up dedicated cells to monitor the implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994. There is, therefore, an urgent need to ensure that funds given under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) for IEC are meaningfully used, in convergence with the departments of Women and Child Development, Education and Panchayati Raj, social and religious leaders and civil society for continued advocacy of the cause of the girl child The 2011 Provisional Census figures have shown the misuse of medical technology for pre-birth sex selection is evidently increasing as the number of girls in the age group 0-6 years now stands at a mere 914 for every 1,000 boys. worried about the declining child sex ratio and the serious social ramifications due to the resultant demographic imbalance necessary steps political, social, economic and scientific to not only end negative discrimination against the girl child but also to encourage positive discrimination toward her. Though the PC & PNDT Act is a Central legislation, its implementation lies entirely with the States who are expected to enforce it through appropriate authorities at the State, district and sub-district levels, functioning of appropriate authorities is required to be monitored by the State Supervisory Board headed by the State Health Minister.

President Patils CERN visit President Pratibha Patil will meet a group of Indian scientists at the prestigious CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva when she visits Switzerland end of this month, and invoke Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Boses contribution to the institution. President is very keen to visit the famous institute, which last week made a discovery which if proven true could upset Albert Einsteins Theory of Relativity. If independently verified, the measurement of subatomic neutrino particles travelling faster than the speed of light would prove that one of the foundations of modern physics, Theory of General Relativity, was wrong three main past and present physicists behind the proton-smashing quantum physics experiment in Geneva, one of them is the Bose of the Higgs-boson experiment Satyendra Nath Bose. It is Bose after whom the sub-atomic particle boson is named. It is widely known in the scientific circles that the US $10 billion Large Hadron Collider experiment in Switzerland last week could not have happened without Bose and Einstein. A monk is among the 11 scientists who have been selected for the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research's (CSIR) prestigious Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize this year. Mahan Maharaj gets the award for his outstanding contribution in the area of mathematical sciences. An expert in the highly specialised field of geometric topology, he heads the School of Mathematical Sciences at the Ramakrishna Mission's Vivekananda University located at the famous Belur Math near Kolkata. Census findings point to decade of rural distress For first time since 1921, India's urban population goes up by more than its rural At 833.1 million, India's rural population today is 90.6 million higher than it was a decade ago. But the urban population is 91 million higher than it was in 2001. three possible causes for the urban population to have risen by more than the rural: migration,' natural increase' and inclusion of new areas as urban.' But all three factors applied in earlier decades too the 2001 Census. It showed us that the rural population had grown by more than 113 million since 1991. And the urban by over 68 million. the 1921 Census was unique. The 1918 Influenza epidemic that killed 50-100 million people worldwide, ravaged India. Studies of the 1921 Census data say it records between 11 and 22 million deaths more than would have been normal for that decade. There was also the smaller impact of World War I in which tens of thousands of Indian soldiers died as cannon fodder for Imperial Britain in Europe and elsewhere. India for greater role to SCO plus' nations in Afghanistan U.S. and NATO need to involve region's major players as grouping to address Afghan issue. The proposal was aired by Russia and found a backer in India at a time when the Northern Distribution Network (NDN), routes ending in a funnel in Uzbekistan, is being increasingly relied upon by the West to send supplies to Afghanistan.

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The SCO Regional Forum could also talk to the U.S. and the Northern Atlantic Treaty Organisation(NATO), both of which prefer to deal bilaterally with countries in Afghanistan's near neighbourhood, but now need to involve the region's major players as a grouping to address the Afghan issue. The NDN is much costlier and circuitous. However, greater reliance on it would reduce the dependence of the supplies on routes going through Pakistan that have frequently been attacked. The NDN routes go through several countries, in the case of supplies from the German base of Germershiem as many as 10. Despite these challenges, the upfront involvement of SCO countries and Turkmenistan, would greatly help in the efforts to resolve the Afghan conflict which has players linked to neighbouring countries by ethnic bonds. So far, all these countries have promised to deal only with Kabul and its nominees rather than cut deals with warlords with shared ethnicity. In the coming days, sources expect the NDN to expand to include China. There have been reports of NATO and Beijing opening talks on a supply route via Xinxiang Province. India favours change in Net number resource allocation The new protocol, IPv6, is increasingly expected to drive the web address system following the global exhaustion of the old IPv4-based addresses. These protocols form the technical basis for the transmission of data from one point to another across the Internet. The number of web addresses possible under the old system totalled about 4 billion, while the new regime allows for virtually countless addresses 2 to the 128th power. one of the points the Indian authorities had made in an earlier version of its proposal was that the allocation of Internet number resources to it in bulk would make it easier for the law enforcement agencies to trace the web addresses of end-users. For quite some time, the government has been planning the setting up of a National Internet Registry to manage Internet number resources. Once the registry becomes operational, part of the IPv6 resource management can be done at the national level too. IPv4 addresses were not apportioned on a country-specific basis, but to companies like Internet Service Providers, and different kinds of members that make up the regional address-allocating body, called the regional Internet registry. In some countries, national and local Internet registries are also involved in the process. The Indian case has been made to the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), which is responsible for apportioning web addresses in this part of the world. Exporters likely to get back benefit of GSP Indian exporters may once more get to enjoy the benefits of the Generalised System of Preference (GSP) with the US Senate passing a bill to renew the trade programme. The GSP, which had expired in 2010, provides preferential duty-free entry to goods from developing countries, including India. The programme, instituted on January 1, 1976, expired on December 31, 2010 and ever since, Indian exporters have been losing out to other countries, which have free trade agreements with the US. The bill, although yet to receive US president Obamas assent, is a major step forward indicating that the issue is finally out of the deep freezer. Indian exporters enjoy the benefit of the scheme in five sectors carpets, handicrafts, gems and jewellery, and certain engineering products. At present, the US provides GSP for up to 4,800 products from 129 designated beneficiary countries and territories. After Thailand and Angola, India is the third largest beneficiary developing country under the GSP with total export worth $3.5 billion reaping benefits of the scheme in 2010. Manmohan calls for U.N. reform to address global crisis International community grappling with "negative dimensions" of globalisation, Dr Singh says deepening global crisis which has generated great uncertainty and profound change. a few years ago, the world had taken for granted the benefits of globalisation and global interdependence. But now we are being called upon to cope with the negative dimensions. Economic, social and political events in different parts of the world have coalesced together and their adverse impact is now being felt across countries and continents. deficit in global governance which necessitated a stronger and more effective United Nations. For this, Dr. Singh argued, the United Nations and its principal organs, the General Assembly and the Security Council, must be revitalised and reformed. He underlined the need for early reform of the Security Council. # the traditional engines of the global economy such as the U.S., Europe and Japan, which are also the sources of global economic and financial stability, are faced with continued economic slowdown #unprecedented social and political upheaval in West Asia and North Africa; food and energy prices are once again spiralling and introducing fresh instability; long-standing disputes like the Palestinian question remained unresolved; terrorism remained a major challenge; piracy threatening the Indian Ocean's shipping lanes was escalating. Finally, iniquitous growth, inadequate job and education opportunities and denial of basic human freedoms are leading to growing radicalisation of the youth, intolerance and extremism. 64 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Dr. Singh devoted a substantial part of his speech to addressing the growing reliance on the use of force by western powers to engage with political conflicts, often legitimised as humanitarian interventions.

In search of Afghan peace, India reaches out to Iran Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has accepted an invitation to travel to Iran, opening the way for the first visit to the country by an Indian head of government in a decade. The United States, though deeply hostile to Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons capabilities and its geostrategic ambitions, has been calling for regional states to participate in a dialogue aimed at building a stable future for Afghanistan. Iran has substantial influence with Afghan groups in the country's west and, along with India and Russia, was part of a group of nations which backed the anti-Taliban resistance before 2001. Let's put it this way, a U.S. government source told The Hindu, whatever our problems with Iran might be, we welcome whatever India can do to persuade Iran to play a constructive role. Both India and Iran feel that the dispensation that emerges in Afghanistan should be Afghan-led, and that regional actors can support that process. Last year, the U.N. Security Council voted 10-2 to impose harsh sanctions on Iran to punish its pursuit of nuclear weapons. The U.S. separately passed a law imposing wide-ranging sanctions that targeted Iran's banking, energy and export sectors. Shourya (valour), the hypersonic, nuclear capable, surface-to-surface missile, with a range of 700 km was successfully flight tested by the Indian Defence scientists today. Shourya can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads and is the land-variant of the K-15 underwater missile that is being fitted into India's nuclear-powered submarine, Arihant. The Bangladesh big picture West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjees sudden withdrawal from the Indian visit to Bangladesh, apparently over reservations on the Teesta water-sharing treaty, retarded the momentum that had been assiduously built up towards a paradigm change in bilateral relations, which the visit was expected to usher in. Momentous developments are reshaping the regions socio-economic geography. China is feverishly transforming Myanmar, rich in land, water, energy, food, minerals and metals. Today, it is China, via Yunnan, that is the dominant influence on Myanmar, not, as through history, India via its Northeast. China and Bangladesh have already agreed in principle that the new rail line from Kunming to Ramree would be connected all the way to Chittagong. Northeast, gateway to Bangladesh ties Increased trade and investment will not only benefit the northeast but also help the Bangladesh economy grow faster, eventually deterring illegal migrants. access to Bangladesh's Chittagong port, 75 km from Tripura, and gateway, was of importance. This has also a direct bearing on India's much talked about Look East policy. Tripura is a potential hub of trade with Bangladesh in the entire northeast India Bangladeshi businessmen to utilise resources in the northeast, to set up agro-based industries and gas-based units like a fertilizer factory. Tripura could supply 100 MW to power-starved Bangladesh if an accord was negotiated with India. Dhaka has also requested facilitation for setting up memorial plaques and visits of family members to the identified graves of freedom fighters buried along the border in Tripura, Meghalaya, Assam and West Bengal. These States, which were the sanctuary of Bangladesh liberation fighters, also sheltered 10 million refuges during the liberation war in 1971 New Delhi is to enhance scholarships for their heirs to pursue higher studies in India. India, Sri Lanka conduct naval exercises The exercises, SLINEX II, which commenced on September 19 and ended on Friday, were aimed at enhancing interoperability. Doha round conclusion not possible before 2013: Khullar India will not be pressured to change its agenda at any cost There has been a strong disagreement over rich-country farm subsidies and access to developing-country markets for manufactured goods. 65 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Washington is demanding that major emerging economies like China, India and Brazil should make generous offers that reflect their tremendous growth in exports over the past decade. Meanwhile, Mr. Khullar advised exporters to cash their dollar earnings without being greedy. Abbas calls on U.N. to grant Palestine membership Palestinians believe full U.N. membership will put pressure on Israel to return to peace talks aimed at creating two separate States, compelling it to negotiate on terms of parity one State with another. The proposal has been bitterly resisted by Israel and the United States, which has threatened to veto the Palestinian bid when it is presented in the Security Council. The Palestine Liberation Organisation was granted observer status at the U.N. on the basis of Resolution 3236, and the next year, the Security Council agreed that it could join in its debates. In 1998, five years after Israel and the Palestinians accepted a road map for peace leading to a two-State solution, the PLO was awarded a permanent mission to the U.N. U.S. President Barack Obama argued against the Palestinian bid in a speech delivered to the General Assembly on Wednesday, saying peace will not come through statements and resolutions at the U.N. I am convinced he said, that there is no short cut to the end of a conflict that has endured for decades. Beijing to host first ever India-China special talks The first-ever India-China Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED) will take place in Beijing on September 26-27, said a simultaneous announcement from both countries. The dialogue will not discuss the growing list of sensitive trade issues both countries are grappling with against the backdrop of a fast-widening trade imbalance in China's favour. Indian officials have, in recent months, had little success in convincing China to open up its markets to Indian IT, pharmaceuticals and engineering products, with the deficit reaching $14 billion seven months into this year, on track to surpass last year's record figure of $20 billion. Indian officials said the Joint Economic Group dialogue mechanism, led by both Commerce Ministers, will handle issues related to trade, with the strategic dialogue instead focusing on big picture issues, with the aim of looking at how the two economies could better work together and leverage their common interests. India backs New Silk Road' in Central Asia India has backed a multinational initiative to build a multi-billion dollar network of roads, railways and gas pipelines linking the resource-rich Central Asia with the continent's fast-growing economies a project that its advocates describe as a New Silk Road, a modern version of the fabled trade routes. The highways and rail links the New Silk Route projects envisage will also give Europe a level of direct access to Central Asia it has not enjoyed since at least the sixteenth century, when the caravans that ferried goods across the region were rendered redundant by the new oceanic trade. poverty looks different now Periodic income surveys could dispel many of the ambiguities and provide useful information, as the National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) has shown. Almost 50 years ago, V.M. Dandekar and N. Rath used calorie intake to determine the numbers below the poverty line. Much has changed since for the Indian economy and its society. There are five estimated poverty ratios: 21.8 per cent and 27.5 per cent from the Planning Commission under different assumptions; 78 per cent from the Arjun Sengupta Committee; 42 per cent from the World Bank; and 37.2 per cent from Suresh Tendulkar. We find that poor households spend about 61 per cent on food out of their total expenditure, irrespective of whether the poverty ratio is that of the Planning Commission, the World Bank or Tendulkar. However, if the NCAER poverty ratio is applied, the corresponding figure is around 56 per cent. Expenditure on healthcare is almost the same (around 5 per cent of the total expenditure) for all the poor, irrespective of the poverty ratio applied for identifying them. education by poor households was 5.7 per cent of total expenditure as measured by the poverty ratios estimated by the Planning Commission, the World Bank and Tendulkar; the poor classified by the poverty ratio given by the NCAER, spend a little more on education (6.2 per cent). There have been three BPL censuses, conducted in 1992, 1997 and 2002, respectively and as the pilot for the 2011 BPL census is underway, we need research on other reliable sources to enhance the process used to pick the multidimensionality of poverty in India rural, urban, regional, etc. This will have a strong bearing on the political economy of the country while governments, both at the Centre and the states go about implementing their inclusive development mandate. This could lead to a nuanced and better informed debate on the BPL population. It will have a bearing on the governments subsidies directed at the vulnerable sections of Indian society.

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Our analyses suggest that one needs to assess the socio-economic characteristics of households to identify the real poor rather than simply drawing a line between the poor and the non-poor on the basis of income and expenditure to allocate resources for poverty reduction, and to monitor progress against a clear benchmark.

Making cities, towns more socially and environmentally sustainable A working group of experts, set up by the Ministry for Urban development, has come out with a strong call to increase the excise duty and registration costs on diesel-powered private vehicles, ban hoardings on pedestrian walkways and cut down the taxes on buses and other public transport vehicles as part of measures to make cities and towns more socially and environmentally sustainable. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, has argued for an increase in the excise duty at the national level and registration costs at the State and city-levels for diesel-propelled private vehicles. It contended that increased use of diesel vehicles was only adding to the burden of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, key pollutants of concerns in Indian cities, even while defeating the objective of improving the country's energy security. Studies in Europe show [that] even at the level of Bharat stage III and IV the cancer potency of diesel emissions remains higher than the petrol emissions As regards taxes on public passenger transport vehicles, the panel rued that the total tax burden per vehicle km is 2.6 times higher for public transport buses than cars in India. It suggested that the State and city governments could go in for cascade registration tax for owning more than one private vehic Good pedestrian facilities with appropriate design based on weather conditions [can] reduce dependence on motor vehicles for such short trips. Diesel-run vehicle added to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, two key pollutants in cities European studies show that cancer potency of diesel emission higher than petrol emission How Tripura overcame insurgency This State demonstrated that insurgency was not an insurmountable phenomenon. What were needed to tackle it were a well-crafted, multidimensional strategy and a positive mindset. Tripura was, at different points of time, caught in the wave of insurgency that arose from Nagaland in the 1950s. What brought the region in its sweep was the geographical trap, the abysmal socio-economic-physical deficits in contrast to the mainland, dysfunctional governance in the region in general, rampant corruption at both the administrative and political levels, demographic changes and the alienation of tribal land. What gave punch to the insurgency was striking logistic and monetary prowess acquired from the rough, rugged terrain, and the porous and extensive trans-border corridors with Bangladesh. Safe havens in Bangladesh, logistic support from the then solicitous Bangladesh establishment and the external intelligence agencies based there, and networking with potential insurgent outfits aided it. A build-up of weapons, explosives and wireless communication systems, and extortion and levies, went into the making of the volatile insurgency. The State took on the problems in a strategic and resolute manner under the sagacious and visionary leadership of Chief Minister Manik Sarkar. It formulated a multi-dimensional and fine-tuned construct to respond creatively to the situation. The control mechanism was subsumed in counter-insurgency operations intent on swift area-domination and ascendancy, as well as psychological operations and confidence-building measures. An accelerated development thrust, management of the media, civic action programmes of the security forces, and the political process were additional factors. Counter insurgency operations (C.I.Ops), a potent instrument in any fight against insurgency, formed the core of the interventions. These were not set as exclusive, hawkish, one-dimensional combat in the nature of conflictmanagement. The combat was invested with a broader meaning and constructive contents in the nature of a productive conflict-resolution aimed at defusing insurgency. Confidence-building exercises and healing touches encompassed special recruitment to the security forces and other government services, especially in the insurgency-bound pockets. The provision of jobs to tribals in particular, and to the family members of victims, attractive rehabilitation packages comprising monetary benefits, and vocational training to induce insurgents to return to the mainstream and earn a peaceful living and decent livelihood, were other features. Tripura scripted a story of triumph over insurgency and conflict-resolution, and demonstrated that insurgency was not an insurmountable phenomenon. What was needed to tackle it was a well-crafted, multi-dimensional strategy, a positive mindset, resolute will, the right vision and direction, sagacious, honest and credible leadership, sincerity of intent, creative responses to the challenge, even socio-economic-infrastructure dispensation to all sections of society, and modulated and humane combat operations intertwined with psychological operations to set a change in the psyche of the turbulent mind. 67 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Delhi's solar car revs up for Australian challenge A highly innovative solar car designed by students of Delhi Technological University will take part in the week-long 3,000-km World Solar Challenge 2011 race due to begin in Australia on October 16. The car, christened Avenir, which means the future Haryana catches up on plastic road The Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi, has been engaged as the technical consultant for the pilot project. The institute has recommended use of plastic waste up to 10 per cent in road construction. 3 institutions sign MoU for Takeout Finance scheme A memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed between IIFCL, LIC and IDFC on Saturday in the presence of Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee here to provide Takeout Finance for infrastructure projects. The MoU between IIFCL and LIC and IDFC will provide for takeout up to 50 per cent of the total project cost in the ratio of 20:20:10 by these institutions respectively. I expect this mechanism will help financing to the tune of Rs.30,000 crore under the scheme Underlining that Swabhimaan' was an ambitious plan for financial inclusion launched by the Central Government, Mr. Mukherjee said 73,000 habitations were set to be covered by banking services "Swabhiman - a nationwide programme on financial inclusion, estimated to cover approximately five crore households, is now ready for roll out." He said the government has also launched 'Swavalamban', a pension scheme for workers in the unorganised sector, who do not have access to the social security net. Under the scheme subscribers would get Rs 1,000 from the government each year for a subscription amount of Rs 12,000 per year. The scheme will remain valid for this financial year and for the next three consecutive fiscals. "Government has targeted ten lakh workers from un- organized sectors each during the initial four years of the implementation of Swavalamban Scheme totalling to 40 lakh subscribers by March 2014," U.S. making India-Iran trade a hard struggle: envoy Iran is a major source of oil for India, accounting for about 10 per cent of its energy imports Some countries have been acting out of context of the U.N. resolutions against Iran. For example, banking relations is out of the framework of U.N. resolutions, but unfortunately some countries do not think so. First, American influence in Europe affected the easy flow of oil money. Later they tried to push Asian countries to follow this trend. It culminated in affecting the Asian Clearing Union, Bilateral trade this year is expected to tumble from last year's $14.9 billion to $13.3 billion with most of the decline taking place in non-oil trade. Indias trade policy lacks transparency The US has expressed concern over Indias lack of transparency in its trade policy, as a result of which small and medium-sized enterprises have difficulties in investing and doing business in the country. This contributes greatly to the difficulties of firms, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, trying to invest in and trade with India, and helps explain Indias ranking of 165 out of 183 countries in the World Banks 2011 Doing Business report, he said. Traders often face difficulties in areas like customs valuation, tariffs and other charges, internal taxation, import licensing, and trade remedies, because of opaque or inconsistently-applied procedures, Punke said, adding that a uniform, all-of government approach to the development of regulations would go a long way to addressing these concerns. Developers oppose draconian' Land Acquisition Bill The National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation & Resettlement Bill tabled in Parliament last week to update the century-old Land Acquisition laws, has proved to be contentious. those in favour of the bill seeking interests of the landowner (farmer) have welcomed it while real estate developers have opposed it. While the bill does not prevent private developers from acquiring land from farmers directly after negotiations, if the size of the land being acquired is over 100 acres, then the developer will have to provide for rehabilitation and resettlement benefits. Also, land buyers are to pay land owners four times the market rate in rural areas and twice the market rate in urban areas. 68 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

The draft bill intends to protect the interest of and adequately compensate both land-owners and those whose livelihood depends on the land being acquired. While some of these initiatives and processes are indeed lengthy and time-consuming, the gradual changeover will become a crucial milestone in the country's history of giving its citizens inclusive rights and ownership over growth, participation and development SCs, STs do not have much access to public infrastructure: report National Infrastructure Equity Audit conducted in 125 gram panchayats in five States The Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST) and minorities do not have access to functional infrastructure facilities as they are merely situated in the general or backward classes habitations,' according to the National Infrastructure Equity Audit done by the Social Equity Watch. The public infrastructure include, primary school, anganwadi centre, health sub-centre, drinking water, primary health centres, community centre, Panchayat Bhavan, road, Public Distribution System, post office, secondary school, telephone and information kiosk. The rating of services by SC/ST and minorities in accessing these facilities was much lower than their backward class and general counterparts in the same habitations. The satisfaction gap was largely due to location of services in other habitation. From the findings, it emerges that the task ahead is to monitor the location of new infrastructure in such a way that the existing equity gap can be filled over the years. This would be crucial for scarce resources such as drinking water and certain newer infrastructure such as internet kiosks in the coming years, Dadasaheb Phalke Award for K. Balachander Director K. Balachander, one of the influential filmmakers and trendsetters in Indian cinema, will receive the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2010, From BITS Pilani, a robot with a mind Students of Birla Institute of Science and Technology (BITS) Pilani have developed an autonomous ground vehicle named Robot Shaurya which has applications in critical military and industrial sectors. Shaurya, measuring 65 cm x 65 cm x 50 cm, is an autonomous robot, not remotely controlled. It can travel from place to place all by itself, avoiding obstacles, and can take images and transmit them as signals to the computer. Shaurya can create a 3D map of the environment as opposed to conventional 2D maps. Its creators envisage a variety of applications for Shaurya, including mine mapping, urban mapping and geological surveying. India to cut tariff lines by 20 % under SAARC pact Trade with SAARC stands only at $13 billion India would meet its commitment of reducing tariff lines under sensitive list by 20 per cent for all by next month under the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) agreement signed by South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries. The Pakistani side has assured India that they would also work internally towards meeting its SAFTA obligation. India has already allowed zero duty access for the SAARC least developed countries (LDCs), for almost 97 per cent of the total tariff lines. India is keen to engage more with Pakistan and develop deeper economic linkages. That will give more depth and width to our relationship, Working towards a greener India The world's largest solar photovoltaic plant will start delivering up to 125 megawatt (MW) of clean, sustainable solar energy in Maharashtra in March 2012. This is just one example of the flourishing Indo-German partnership in the energy sector, aiming to strengthen energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies. In June 2008, India launched the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), which envisions creating a selfsustaining economy. Under the NAPCC, India has outlined present and future policies to control the growth of emissions in eight different sectors. In the framework of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, it has set an ambitious goal of achieving 20 GW of solar capacity by 2022. COMSolar (Commercialisation of solar energy), we are focusing on developing partnerships with private companies in order to promote commercialisation of solar energy in the urban and industrial sectors. Since 2009, Germany and India have been organising a Carbon Bazaar' every year. This event provides a platform for entrepreneurs to establish direct contact with various stakeholders in the energy sector, with the sole purpose of reducing the carbon footprint of economic activities. 69 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

Last but not the least, the Indo-German Energy Forum, established by Chancellor Angela Merkel and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2006, focuses on promoting cooperation in energy security, energy efficiency, renewable energy, investment in energy projects, and collaborative research and development in the energy sector. This has proved to be an important tool in our bilateral relationship. Germany considers India a key partner. A combination of India's positive outlook on renewable energy and Germany's expertise and technology will help us in achieving a sustainable, climate friendly energy mix of the future. Between 1994 and 2007 its annual greenhouse gas emissions increased by 58 per cent as an effect of rapid economic growth, higher industrial activity and consequent increase in energy production, consumption and transportation. The second draft of land history The national Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement bill (LARR), 2011, The bill seeks to replace the 117-year-old Land Acquisition Act. Its underlining principle was that land acquisition and rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R) need to be seen necessarily as two sides of the same coin... R&R must always, in each instance, necessarily follow upon acquisition of land. Not combining the two within one law, risks neglect of R&R. In its earlier attempt to replace the 1894 Act, the UPA passed two separate bills the Land Acquisition (Amendment) Bill and the Resettlement and Rehabilitation Bill in February 2009, after which both the bills lapsed following the Rajya Sabhas inability to pass them. However, the LARR law will not supersede 16 other Central laws for land acquisition. Sections 97 and 98 of LARR say that it shall be in addition to and shall not apply to existing Central laws governing acquisition for specific sectors like mining, SEZs, etc. * How does the draft impact state-level laws? The bill allows all states to enact any related law or policy, provided they do not contradict or reduce the LARR bills entitlements. Thus any state can offer higher compensation, or make provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement which go beyond those provided for under the bill. * When would the new rules be triggered? Both acquisition and R&R provisions will be triggered when the government acquires land for its own use, hold and control. This includes land acquired for projects developed by the private sector for stated public purpose, including PPP projects other than for highway projects. However the land purchase can take place only if 80 per cent of project-affected families give prior informed consent. The R&R provisions will apply also when private companies buy land for a project of over 100 acres in rural areas, or over 50 acres in urban areas. * What are the provisions for compensation? What is the minimum R&R package? Minimum compensation would be four times the market value. For landowners, the bill has provided for a subsistence allowance of Rs 3,000 per month per family for 12 months. Affected families will be entitled to a job for one family member; or Rs 5 lakh per family; or Rs 2,000 per month for 20 years, indexed to inflation. The bill also provides for awarding one acre of land to each family in the command area, if the land is being acquired for an irrigation project. * Are there special provisions for multi-cropped land, and for SCs/STs? The draft allows the acquisition of only 5 per cent land of a districts multi-cropped land, and only as a last resort; an equal area of wasteland within the district will have to be developed. The earlier version did not allow the acquisition of any multi-cropped land. Land-losing SC and ST families will be offered 2.5 acres of alternative land; the earlier version had set aside 5 acres. * What safeguards exist for land already acquired? As suggested by West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, the bill says that, if the land acquired is not used for the stated purpose within 10 years, it will not be returned to the original owner, but become part of that states land bank. The bill further stipulates that no change from the purposes specified in the land use plan submitted at the time of land acquisition will be allowed. No change of ownership without specific permission of the appropriate government authority will be allowed, either. MGNREGS to be demand-driven, focus on durability The ministry of rural development is mulling over changes in the implementation guidelines of the countrys largest rural employment guarantee programme, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). The ministry has constituted a committee to be chaired by member Planning Commission Mihir Shah that will look into issues such as ensuring legal compensation for not providing work on demand, reducing distress migration from rural areas, cutting down on delays in payments to workers and improving the quality of assets created. MGNREGA promises to compensate any person not provided work within 15 days of application. On the ground, however, compensation is rarely given. The ministry wants a mechanism that will make it mandatory for states to take Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 70

stock of the work demand and provide compensation if the demand is not met. The government is already considering issuing dated receipts to applicants, and penalising officials who do not comply. Water jet fast attack craft commissioned INS Karuva to strengthen Navy's coastal patrolling, anti-pirate, anti-smuggling, search and rescue operations INS Karuva, named after an island in Kerala, has a displacement of 325 tonnes and is equipped with a 30 mm CRN91 gun produced by the Ordinance Factory at Medak with a range of 4 km, and other weapons. It has a complement of four officers and 39 sailors. Transforming child nutrition Undernutrition causes 35 per cent of under-5 child deaths, impairs learning outcomes, increases the likelihood of being poor and is linked to illness or death during pregnancy. India is estimated to reach its Millennium Development Goals (MDG) nutrition indicator by 2043. China has already met its goal, halving its 1990 rate of underweight a few years ago. For Brazil, the Goal will most likely be met by 2015. Over the period 1981-2005, China's poverty rates declined from 40 per cent to 29 per cent, while India's rates declined from 60 per cent to 42 per cent (both represent about a 30 per cent proportionate decline). For most countries we would expect agricultural growth to have large impacts on the nutritional status of children. But the latest most authoritative study concludes that agricultural growth in India does not seem to have an impact on child undernutrition An evaluation of the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) by the Indian Planning Commission in 2005 concluded that the majority of subsidised food does not reach its intended recipients. On the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), the evidence is mixed. The Midday Meals Scheme tends to be evaluated positively in terms of child growth, but it does not help infants in the two-three-year age group who are the most vulnerable to nutrition insults. Discrimination against women in South Asia has long been thought to be one of the key drivers of the high levels of infant undernutrition in the region levels that are well above those in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Indian public health system spends less than 1 per cent of GDP, and 80 per cent of health expenditures are incurred out-of-pocket. They call on the government to increase spending to six per cent of GDP by 2020 and outline actions needed to strengthen the system. according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), India accounts for 56 per cent of the world's total cases of open defecation. We know that infection rates are powerfully associated with such unsanitary conditions, leading to an increased need to ingest nutrients and fluids and a depressed appetite. Social discrimination is a powerful exclusionary factor in many Indian States. Research following children over time finds that being from a Scheduled Caste or a backward tribe substantially increases the probability of a child being stunted and persistently so The main nutrition intervention, the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), has a positive and significant impact on infant nutrition, but at a cost that is four times higher than elsewhere. The Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) programme pays community health workers to reduce infant and maternal mortality, control specific diseases, and improve young child nutrition Action is needed to: make agriculture more pro-nutrition by focussing it more on what people living in poverty grow, eat, and need nutritionally experiment with cash-based alternatives to the TPDS promote community led approaches to sanitation increase coverage of essential nutrition interventions in the context of a stronger public health system focus ICDS resources more on children under two, on severe undernutrition and locate centres where most needed continue the fight against gender and social exclusion But most importantly, India needs a national nutrition strategy with a senior leader within the government who is empowered to implement that strategy. Successful implementation needs civil society to play its part, helping shape and deliver the strategy and promoting greater transparency and accountability in the fight against undernutrition.

Integrated postal services will be in place in two years Integrated postal services will be in place in two years, says Sachin Pilot There is a plan to add banking facilities in post offices at a cost of Rs. 19,000 crores' India today had 1,55,000 post offices with 5,80,000 employees a floating post office in the Dal Lake. This project is being revived after many years. Similar post offices will be revived in Pahalgam and Gulmarg, 300 digital satellite phones be made available in border areas where the people did not have access to mobile phones 71 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

S&P chief Deven Sharma resigns Deven Sharma (55), Indian-American president of credit rating agency Standard & Poor's, has resigned less than three weeks after his company found itself at the receiving end of the Obama administration's ire following its downgrade of the United States' credit rating from AAA to AA+ The collegium controvers What is the collegium system? It is a system under which appointments and transfers of judges are decided by a forum of the Chief Justice of India and the four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. It has no place in the Indian Constitution. Article 124 deals with the appointment of Supreme Court judges. It says the appointment should be made by the President after consultation with such judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court as the President may deem necessary. The CJI is to be consulted in all appointments, except his or her own. Article 217 deals with the appointment of High Court judges. It says a judge should be appointed by the President after consultation with the CJI and the Governor of the state. The Chief Justice of the High Court concerned too should be consulted. Experts point to systemic errors such as: * The administrative burden of appointing and transferring judges without a separate secretariat or intelligencegathering mechanism dedicated to collection of and checking personal and professional backgrounds of prospective appointees; * A closed-door affair without a formal and transparent system; * The limitation of the collegiums field of choice to the senior-most judges from the High Court for appointments to the Supreme Court, overlooking several talented junior judges and advocates. The Law Commission in its 214th Report on Proposal for Reconsideration of Judges cases I, II and III recommended two solutions: * To seek a reconsideration of the three judgments before the Supreme Court. * A law to restore the primacy of the Chief Justice of India and the power of the executive to make appointments What is the suggested alternative to the collegium? A National Judicial Commission remains a proposal. The Constitution (98th Amendment) Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha by the NDA government in 2003. It provided for the constitution of an NJC to be chaired by the CJI and with two of the senior-most judges of the Supreme Court as its members. The Union Law Minister would be a member along with an eminent citizen to be nominated by the President in consultation with the Prime Minister. The Commission would decide the appointment and transfer of judges and probe cases of misconduct by judges, including those from the highest judiciary. China maps Brahmaputra, Indus Chinese scientists have completed a first of its kind study to pinpoint the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus rivers using satellite images, and have found that the length and drainage areas of both rivers exceeded earlier estimates. They located the source of the Brahmaputra, or Yarlung Tsangpo as it is known in Tibet, on the Angsi glacier on the northern side of the Himalayas, in the Tibetan country of Burang. The source of the river was earlier thought to be on the Chemayungdung glacier, further south. The dam at Zangmu is the only one of 28 proposed hydropower projects on the river that has been approved by the Chinese government. Chinese hydropower groups have been lobbying the government to give the go-ahead for other dams. Delay in NREGA payments causing distress migration The Planning Commission has raised concerns over people migrating from the countryside to cities in search of jobs. The Plan panel says that this distress migration is mainly due to delayed disbursement of wages under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, or MGNREGA. The Commission has also criticised the current practice of preparing Labour Budget, which has been supply-driven rather than demand driven. This, the panel says, is leading to a situation where potential NREGA workers are not assured of work when they need it. Commission Member Mihir Shah, who oversees the sector in the Plan panel said in a note to the rural development ministry. New technologies to boost banking sector; India to be 3rd largest by 2025

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The Indian banking sector is poised to become the worlds third largest in asset size over the next 14 years with the growth in the usage of new channels like mobile phones, propelled by 3G and smart phone technology characterising the next decade in Indian banking, says a report by Boston Consulting Group. Expanding RTE to next level: scope for media The RTE Act provides for free and compulsory education only up to class 8. The universalisation of secondary education would make education up to class 10 free and compulsory The Indian Education Commission (1964-66), or Kothari Commission, made excellent recommendations which included expansion of educational facilities broadly on the basis of manpower needs with an accent on equalisation of educational opportunities, education of improving productivity, education for accelerating the process of modernisation, educating people of all straits of society. Interestingly, it favoured introducing common school system of public education and also emphasising teaching of vocational subjects and science. second and final phase of samacheer kalvi under the Uniform System of School Education Act of Tamil Nadu, 2010 would not be taken up for implementation this year in classes 2 to 5 and 7 to 10. (The new system was introduced in class 1 and class 6 in the academic year 2010-2011.) Historian R.S. Sharma passes away Eminent Marxist historian and Indologist Ram Sharan Sharma, known for his trenchant observations on institutions in ancient Indian society and his report on the Bihar-Bengal boundary dispute, passed away late Saturday night. He was 92. Bihar celebrates own I-Day Act to keep officials, corruption in check Starting August 15, the Right to Public Service (RTPS) Act, 2011, came into effect in the state. In the five days that have followed, the legislation that ensures that officials down to the lowest level are held accountable for the services they are meant to provide, within a fixed time frame, has received 2.80 lakh applications. The body monitoring the Acts implementation is the Bihar Prashasnik Sudhar Mission Society (Bihar Administration Clean-up Mission Society). first implemented by Madhya Pradesh at a time when corruption has caught the national imagination, Chief Minister Nitish Kumar says: The RTPS Act is just another way to curb corruption and to provide services to all sections within a limited time. In a matter of year, people can apply for services online and get certificates online too. This is how the Bihar RTPS works: It covers 50 services provided by the 10 key departments of Health, Transport, Education, Food and Civil Supplies, Registration and Social Welfare. It was a conscious decision to narrow down the Act to 50 services, instead of going for random services, unlike Madhya Pradesh, says GAD Principal Secretary Kumar. A devoted team of 1,948 people, besides the existing government set-up, has to ensure that the services sought are delivered within the stipulated time varying from seven to 30 days with a provision of right to appeal in case of delays before two layers of appellate authorities. An officer is to pay Rs 250 fine for delay per day, with the maximum penalty not exceeding Rs 5,000. Though the primary responsibility for work disposal rests with the designated officers (BDO/SDO/DM/ SP), all employees involved in the process till the lowest level are given a fixed time to dispose of work. An Information Technology manager (who has to be a software engineer) in each district is to coordinate with respective district magistrates. The 10 selected departments also have an IT manager each to coordinate with respective principal secretaries. This works out to two IT managers at the Bihar Prashasnik Sudhar Mission Society, besides 729 IT assistants across the state. Employees have the right to appeal in case of vindictive behaviour by seniors. To avoid crowding, each block counter has to put up a disposal list for the next working day, says the Principal Secretary. Action would be taken against a block counter in case of reports of massive jump in serial numbers of applications disposed of, indicating involvement of middlemen. One can know the status of the application online either on the General Administration Department website or by sending an SMS. By January 2012, the government plans to allow online applications against registration of an applicants mobile number. But certificates would still be handed over manually. By end of next year, the entire process may become online, though manual services will run parallel. A helpline in Patna guides people on the services. Besides, help counters are to be put up at headquarters of all 38 districts. Navy gets its 2nd indigenous stealth frigate Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 73

INS Satpura, the second indigenous stealth frigate of Project 17 class of the Indian Navy, was commissioned by Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Nirmal Verma on Saturday. INS Shivalik, the first of the class, has already been commissioned in April last year while the third ship INS Sahyadri is in final stages of construction at Mazgaon Docks Limited. Reforms to get top priority in 12th Plan period: PM As long as these resources are alloted on a non-transparent manner, the likelihood of corruption increases, the Panel said. It said that in the absence of effective mechanisms for investigating corrupt practices, an increase in corruption is unavoidable. Recalling that there was a lot of opposition to reforms when they were launched in 1991, the PM said, The subsequent governments at the Centre during the last 20 years have broadly kept to the path which was outlined during 1991-95. The PM said it is possible that the Plan panel may raise the growth rate to 9.2 per cent but warned that the GDP growth target is feasible only if we can take some difficult decisions. Time for India to invigorate disarmament plan: panel India must breathe fresh life into its proposal for universal disarmament by assuming a high profile in advocating its basic ideas and goals, according to the Report of the Informal Group on carrying forward the Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan (RGAP) on disarmament unveiled in 1988. Further doubts on Lumbini project A Chinese foundation's plans to build a $3-billion special development zone to transform the town of Lumbini into a major Buddhist pilgrimage centre have been cast in further doubt after a United Nations agency thought to be backing the project stressed it had no involvement in the plan. The Asia Pacific Exchange and Cooperation Foundation (APECF), a China-based organisation, last month unveiled plans to build highways, hotels, tourism centres and power projects to transform Lumbini, the Buddha's birthplace, into a major tourist hub Activists oppose BRAI Bill BRAI Bill proposes to create a new regulatory body The BRAI Bill is a blatant attempt to bulldoze through the public resistance and genuine concerns about genetically modified crops, and to deny state governments their constitutional authority over Agriculture and Health India had become the second largest exporter of cotton by adopting Bt technology. Technology is not solely the domain of multinational companies as Indian companies, universities, and research institutes across India were testing technologies or conducting field trials. There should be a level playing field for all companies investing millions in research and the government should ensure effective policies to encourage further research on Indian soil to benefit our farmers 150 million hectares of area was under biotech crops globally and said the challenge before India now was how quickly it could leverage technology and achieve the goal of a four per cent growth in the agriculture sector

DoT nod for VNL solar-powered mobile tower In a step that would help boost rural tele-density, the Central Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has recognised Vihaan Networks Limited (VNL)'s solar-powered mobile tower WorldGSM as a cost-effective and efficient telecom solution best suited for remote and rural areas. This move would prompt operators and tower companies in India and abroad to opt for VNL's mobile towers.

IRCON-Sri Lanka pact An agreement for supply and installation of an $86.5-million signalling and telecommunication system for railway network in Northern Province of Sri Lanka was signed between IRCON and Sri Lanka Railways. Common syllabus, curriculum will help achieve RTE objectives A common syllabus and common curriculum is required to achieve the objectives of the Right to Education (RTE) Act, to provide free and compulsory education to every child of 6 to 14 years, the Supreme Court said on Tuesday. Uniform education system would achieve the code of common culture, removal of disparity, depletion of discriminatory values in human relations. It would enhance the virtues and improve the quality of human life, elevate 74 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

the thoughts which advance our constitutional philosophy of equal society. In future, it may prove to be a basic preparation for uniform civil code as it may help in diminishing opportunities in those who foment fanatic and fissiparous tendencies. For a new and improved NRHM The bidirectional relationship between economic development and health justifies greater investment in the health sector. It seeks to provide universal access to health care, which is affordable, equitable, and of good quality. It has increased health finance, improved infrastructure for health delivery, established institutional standards, trained health care staff and has provided technical support. It has facilitated financial management, assisted in computerisation of health data, suggested centralised procurement of drugs, equipment and supplies, mandated the formation of village health and hospital committees and community monitoring of services. It has revived and revitalised a neglected public health care delivery system. Challenges and solutions Health as a State subject: The location of health in the State list rather than the concurrent list poses major problems for service delivery. This is also compounded by the fact that the NRHM funding is from the Centre while the implementation is by the State governments. Health care delivery cannot be improved to provide a seamless service without the removal of these barriers. Project mode and problems: The NRHM is currently functioning as a project of the Government of India and is due to end in 2012. Its significant contribution to improving health care infrastructure and service delivery across the country will be frittered away if its funding ceases with the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). The NRHM should be not only included in the 12th FYP but also be changed from its limited term project mode to a permanent solution to India's health problems. Improving governance: A comparison of data between States and within regions and social groups suggests marked variations in the NRHM process indicators, utilisation of funds, improvements in health care delivery, health indices and in community participation. Regions with prior good health indices have shown marked improvements, while those with prior poor indices have recorded much less change. This is true, despite a greater NRHM focus on and inputs to poor-performance States. Improving governance and stewardship within the NRHM programmes mandates general improvement in the overall governance of States and regions. Increased funding: Health care costs for the average Indian usually results in catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure and is a well recognised cause of indebtedness in the country. The total health budget for India is about 1 per cent of the country's GDP. Most developed nations prioritise health care and provide 5-10 per cent of their GDP. The 12th FYP should increase funding for health to the tune of 2-3 per cent as promised by the United Progressive Alliance. The diversion of funds, through private health insurance schemes for the care of rare disorders to be treated in corporate hospitals, takes away funding from the public health care system. The injection of such money into the public system would allow for the provision of universal health care, improve government health systems and provide for common health conditions benefiting larger numbers. Urban health: The NRHM has focussed on rural health. Many parts of urban India have similar health care needs and currently have glaring deficiencies. The National Urban Health Mission should be accorded the same status as the NRHM. Both efforts should be coordinated and combined into a National Health Mission. Expand focus: The major focus of NRHM is on maternal and child health. While this is vital, there is a need to expand the vision to other common general health problems. There is evidence to suggest that other crucial government programmes (e.g. blindness) have taken a back seat. Cash transfers and outcome: The NRHM currently employs process indicators to measure its implementation. The measures used are mainly related to finance, infrastructure and personnel. There is need to shift over to indicators of efficient functioning and examine their impact on health outcomes. The initial high rates of mortality tend to reduce rapidly with early inputs but require fully functional, efficient and effective systems for sustained results. The Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer scheme to incentivise the use of health services to reduce maternal and neo-natal mortality among poor women, has become a success by encouraging institutional deliveries. However, the evaluation of its success should be based on its impact on the health outcome of the mother and baby, rather than on financial process indicators. Similarly, the diverse and difficult circumstances of medical practice across the country mandate a differential reinforcement for health professionals. There is need for differential payments to health care staff who work in remote situations and difficult contexts. Health information and monitoring: The NRHM has provided for infrastructure, personnel and training for Health Management Information Systems. However, these are not optimally utilised. There is need to improve the information system as part of the process of monitoring health indices of populations and functioning of the public Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 75

health care system. The NRHM already has a programme of community monitoring and social audit. This should be strengthened in order to monitor the use of funds and empower local communities. Social determinants and public health approaches: The goals of the NRHM clearly state the need to impact on the social determinants of health by coordinating efforts to provide clean water, sanitation, nutrition, housing, education and employment. It should, in conjunction with other government programmes, work towards the reduction of poverty, social exclusion and gender discrimination, all of which have a significant impact on health. There is need to increase the synergy and coordination between government programmes (e.g. the Integrated Child Development Scheme, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, etc.) and the NRHM. Funding priorities Improvements in health of populations contribute to economic development and vice versa. This bidirectional relationship justifies increased investment in health. The NRHM should become an integral part of the Five Year Plans and the health budget should be increased to 2-3 per cent of GDP. The National Urban Health Mission should receive equal funding priority and be coordinated with the NRHM. Greater financial inputs to improve governance and specific funding to coordinate NRHM programmes with those of the State health services are crucial, as is cooperation with other government programmes to target social determinants of health. Strengthening of health information, community monitoring and social audits to assess its impact on health outcome indicators is necessary. Improved funding for the public health sector to treat common health conditions, rather than providing private health insurance for uncommon disorders, is mandatory. State governments also need to prioritise health and increase their share of the health budget. The NRHM has made a significant impact on health care delivery. However, greater political, administrative and financial commitment is required for it to make a substantial impact on health outcomes. The 12th Plan should allocate ring-fenced budgets for specific operations. There is need to develop systems to monitor and audit performance and health indices; this will allow for course corrections. The health care system has flaws, both at the conceptual and operational levels. However, there is no simple, band-aid solution to the problem. There is a need for continuous monitoring and appraisal, allowing for regular course corrections. Unfortunately, health is a prime example where good politics and good policy diverge. One cannot ignore the economic interests of the health education-hospital-pharmaceutical-insurance industries who directly profit from tertiary specialist care, indirectly when public health delivery systems are run down and when the social determinants of health are neglected. In our capitalistic world, these interest groups cannot be expected to look beyond their strategy to generate profit. Politicians and governments are also unable to see the ethical issues related to equity and lack the conviction to provide services for the poor. Health, a human right, and universal health care should not remain an aspiration but should become operational in the near future. The global financial markets are again in turmoil over the possibility of a double dip recession in the West, as the US economy shows continuing weakness after two huge monetary and fiscal stimuli failed squarely over the past three years. a liquidity trap is a condition in which you keep trying hard to stimulate the real economy with excess finance capital (by printing money and reckless government borrowings). However, the lack of basic long-term growth impulse results in debt accumulating at a much higher rate than an increase in output or income. For instance, Japan kept pumping more and more liquidity into the banking system to stimulate growth in the early 1990s after the twin collapse of both its stock and real-estate markets. But it managed to generate a long-term average GDP growth of just 1 per cent over the past 20 years. Economists feel the US is in a similar situation today. Its longterm average GDP growth had been 3 per cent in the past but could come down to a new normal of less than 2 per cent in the next few decades. A liquidity trap is characterised by a condition in which investment confidence is so low that there is a lot of cash lying around but no one has the confidence to invest it, largely because of the entrenched perception that real growth of income will not occur. American corporations are today hoarding about $2 trillion in cash but are not investing because they do not have the confidence that America will produce enough growth. India will also have to prepare for the increasing internationalisation of the Chinese currency in this region. With the relative confidence in the dollar declining, China will push for greater weight being assigned to its currency in the IMFs Special Drawing Rights (SDR). India too will have to analyse how its currency will evolve internationally over the next decade. It will be a pity if SAARC nations start adopting the yuan as part of their reserves ahead of the Indian rupee. Gradual easing of capital controls will become necessary as global money starts to chase safer instruments like the currency and government bonds of emerging markets in a big way. India will be called upon to rise to this challenge with internal reforms. Not doing anything will not work beyond a point.

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The Eurozone whirlpool


What is the crisis? Its a debt crisis in the European Union and is taking a heavy toll day after day. Weak and over-leveraged economies such as Greece, Portugal and Spain, and now Italy, are finding it tough to repay their debt and many are on the verge of default. Stronger economies like Germany are being sucked in to bail out the weaker ones. In the process, financial markets across the globe are getting nightmares as these are integrated and big banks are involved. In the EU, where sovereign debts have increased sharply due to bank bailouts, a crisis of confidence has emerged, threatening its very existence as well as its currency, the Euro When did it start? Though its seeds were sown when the EU came into being, it got manifested when a financial crisis hit the globe in 2009. It became full blown from late 2009 with fears of a sovereign debt crisis developing among fiscally conservative investors concerning some European states; the situation became tense from early 2010 and the crisis exacerbated in 2011. It initially started with Greece, Ireland, Portugal and later spread to larger economies such as Italys and the rest are also being dragged in for bailouts. Now other countries, outside the zone, will pay a price as borrowings may become tougher and costlier. How did the problems crop up? When the Eurozone was formed in the late 90s, the plan was that weak countries like Greece would be able to borrow money at cheap rates to help them develop economically and responsibly. Greece, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Ireland borrowed, but instead of using the money to build a strong economic infrastructure, they spent recklessly, failing to generate any money for repayment. Ten years later, these countries have spent so much and made such irresponsible agendas that they are now having trouble repaying. How did the crisis worsen? Once its known that you are financially weak, lenders will think twice before loaning again. To make matters worse, investors who put money in these countries are now demanding more yield to hold the debt of these countries, making it even harder for the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, Spain) to pay back. The Eurozone has come through and promised to loan these countries the money they need. The problem is very severe in Greece. The Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund will now give it a second bailout, $153 billion, on top of the $154 billion granted a year ago. Which countries followed Greece? The loan to Greece was followed by a bailout of Ireland; bailouts of Spain and Portugal are still possible. The problems have spread to Italy and Spain, both seeing the cost of their borrowing soaring. The problem is that the European banks have lent huge amounts to one another; Italy has lent Spain $31 bn, Germany has lent $238 bn to Spain, and Italy has borrowed $511 bn from France. Smaller East European countries that joined EU may be asked to share the bailout bill. The worry is that it is like a pack of cards once one goes they will all fall. With Italy now reeling under debt, central bank leaders will discuss possible purchases of Italian government bonds amid concerns that Italy would need a rescue as its borrowing costs climb. Whats the crux of the problem? Ever since its inception, Eurozone members have been aware of a potential conflict of interest because monetary policy is set by the ECB for the entire euro area, while government spending is managed by each country. This divergence between monetary and fiscal policy remained merely potential, however, until the eruption of the global financial crisis in September 2008 symbolised by the collapse of Lehman Bros, and the lending freeze instituted by too-big-to-fail US banks and insurance companies, which are refusing to lend again until reassured that the US government will take responsibility for their losses, while they keep their profits. Whats the way ahead? Eurozone could witness more bailouts soon. EU needs to calm financial markets across the world with determined steps. The affected nations will have to cut spending and quickly regain competitiveness with wage deflation. Cuts in wages should result in lower production costs and higher competitiveness of producers in relation to producers in strong nations like Germany. As an analyst said, The only viable model in the long run is that Germans (savers) would become a bit like Greeks (spenders) and Greeks would become a bit more like Germans. To put it simply, Germans need to spend more, Greeks and others need to save more. Danger Zone Greece: Debt burden threatens to turn into debt deficit. European Commissions second financial package aims to lower debt to 22 per cent of GDP by 2020 with lower interest rates, longer terms on loans, and private sector involvement in countrys financial restructuring. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 77

Spain: Second quarter growth slows to 0.2 per cent. Desperate Bank of Spain urges Eurozone leaders to take decisive action. Italy: Yields on Italian bonds hit a 14-year high. Leaders in Europes second biggest debtor nation begin emergency consultations. Portugal: EU and IMF officials begin first review of impact of 78-bn-euro bailout package, focusing on how government plans to cut spending. Review results will determine contours of second package. Ireland: Budget deficit hit 18.9 billion euros in July. Standard & Poors gives some hope, confirming Ireland's investment-grade rating and signalling it may be able to return to debt markets in late 2013. Draft Mining Bill The government plans to repeal the existing Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 and instead place a new Bill in Parliament in the Winter session. To tackle illegal mining, the Bill proposes punitive action, as well as creation of special courts at the state level for speedier disposal of cases. It will also make it compulsory for all non-coal mining companies to share an amount equal to their royalty payment to State governments for the benefit of project-affected people. In the case of coal companies, the amount will be equal to 26 per cent of their profit. This will directly impact purely mining companies like Coal India, Sesa Goa and NMDC, as well as companies like Tata Steel, SAIL, NTPC and RPower that have captive mines associated with their projects. Besides, it will increase the cost of companies into the businesses of cement, aluminium and other mineralbased produce. The industry had opposed the benefit-sharing proposal, saying it would squeeze their margins. In the case of coal, the effective rate of taxation will rise to 61 per cent from 43 per cent at present. On iron ore, it will increase to 55 per cent from 43 per cent. The Bill also had punitive provisions to prevent illegal mining. The new Bill would introduce a better legislative environment for attracting investment and technology into the mining sector. SabMiller Plc (SAB), the worlds second biggest brewer by volume, has agreed to acquire Fosters Group Ltd (FGL) in a $10.2-bn deal. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has selected Anil Ambani, Chairman of Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) to head the ambitious India-China CEO Forum. The Forum aims to achieve $100 billion worth of twoway trade by 2015. The CEOs Forum was announced during the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao to India in December 2010.

In the first public-private participation in defence sector, Pipavav Defence and Offshore Engineering Company (earlier Pipavav Shipyard) has entered into a joint venture with Mazagon Dock to build warships for the Indian Navy. AdAsia, the Asian Advertising Congress, has come back to India after eight years. It will be held in New Delhi from October 30 to November 3, 2011. TRAI has renamed the National Do Not Call list as the National Consumer Preference Registry. Indias first Bamboo Museum is located at the Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology (IHBT) in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. The museum happens to be the largest bamboo structure in India. It has been built by the Uttarakhand Bamboo Board at a cost of Rs 65 lakh. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), the regulatory body which makes rules for food safety, has recommended the use of Stevia, a natural sweetener, for use in carbonated water, soft drink concentrates, chewing-gums and table-top sweeteners. Goldplus is the worlds first pure gold jewellery car. It has been made jointly by Tata Motors and Titan Industries, on a Nano car platform, to celebrate 5,000 years of Indian jewellery The annual Global Competitveness Report (GCR) of the World Economic Forum (WEF) has ranked Switzerland as the most competitive country globally. Singapore is the second most competitive country. China is ranked 26, while India is ranked 56th. India has fallen 5 notches since 2010. Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM 78

On September 16, 2011, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) raised the repo rate (the rate at which it lends to the bank) and the reverse repo rate (the rate at which it borrows from the banks) by 25 basis points each (100 basis points equals one per cent). These now stand at 8.25 per cent and 7.25 per cent, respectively. Former atomic energy commission chairman Anil Kakodkar has been made head of the high-level committee to review railway safety. In 2011 Delhi is celebrating 100 years of completion. As per data compiled on participation of women in the Parliaments, by Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), a group of 154 national Parliaments across the world, India ranks 100th, with just 10.8 per cent women in the Parliament. The highest representation of women is in Rwanda (56.3%), followed by Sweden (46.4%) and South Africa (44.5%). The lowestnilis in Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. In South Asia, Nepal is best placed at 17th rank, with 33.2% women in Parliament, beating Germany which stands at rank 18th. Also ahead of India are Singapore, Pakistan and China, at 44th, 49,th and 55th levels, respectively. The Union government has decided to reduce the lock-in period of investment by FIIs in long-term infra bonds to one year. Sustainable Competitiveness Report 2011 The States have been divided into three categories based on the density of population and Delhi tops the sustainable competitiveness index in the high density States. Goa and Sikkim top the list for the medium and low population density States, respectively. When seen as an overall ranking, the top three winners are Goa, Delhi and Sikkim, followed by Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Mizoram, Kerala, Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh. Among the laggards, West Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand fared the worst. Heavyweight States such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh showed disappointing results. On environment and climate change, it is Arunachal Pradesh that tops the national rankings, though overall the State ranks number 10. Mizoram ranks as the number one State nationally on social inclusion. The IFC-RICS Sustainability Competitiveness Report seeks to raise awareness and promote inclusive growth amongst cities. K.V. Kamath has taken charge as the first non-founder chairman of INFOSYS in its three-decade history. Kris Gopalakrishnan has been appointed as executive co-chairman, making way for another co-founder, S.D. Shibulal, as MD and CEO Future is Me is the tag line of advertisement campaign by AMD India, the worlds second-largest chipmaker. The Parliament has permitted the government to mint coins of Rs 1,000 denomination. The Coinage Bill, 2009, passed by Rajya Sabha in August 2011, limits payment through coins up to Rs 1,000. The Lok Sabha had passed the Bill without discussion in March. Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) is a national programme implemented by the Union Ministry of Science and Technology to attract talent amongst students to study science and pursue career with research. INSPIRE programme covers students in the age group 10-32 years and has five components: INSPIRE Awards (for 10-15 age group), INSPIRE Internship (for 16-17 age group), INSPIRE Scholarship for Higher Education (for 17-22 age group), INSPIRE Fellowship (for 22-27 age group) for doctoral research, and INSPIRE Faculty (for 2732 age group) for assured career opportunity. Pandit K. Santanam was the man who first bared the horrors of Jallianwala Bagh massacre to the world. He was a conservative Iyengar from Tamil Nadu but chose to make Lahore his permanent home. On August 25, 2011, the Department of Posts released a commemorative stamp in Santanams memory, 62 years after he passed away. The Reserve Bank of Indias gross income for 2010-11 rose by 12.73 per cent to Rs 37,070.12 crore, from Rs 32,884.14 crore a year ago, due to increase in earnings from domestic assets.

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India and South Africa have decided to increase two-way trade between both the countries to $15 billion by 2014, from $10.64 billion now. The decision was taken at the India-South Africa CEOs Forum, held in New Delhi in August 2011. HDFC Bank has launched a premier credit card, Infinia, for the high net-worth community in India. The card is expected to compete with American Express or Amex card. BLB Limited, Indias largest arbitrage and proprietary book player has decided to shut shop. Punjab, Kerala and Karnataka are now among the most urbanized States in India, having more than 35 per cent of their population living in urban areas. Uttar Pradesh has the maximum number of its people living in rural areas; 55.5 crore people in UP live in rural areas. Mumbai tops the list of places having maximum number of people in urban area at 5 crore. Punjab has become the first State in India to start an integrated solid waste management programme in the entire State. News of the World, 168-year-old newspaper of Britain, is closed down in a breathtaking response to a phonehacking scandal engulfing the media empire of Rupert Murdoch. Juba is the capital of the new nation of South Sudan which declared independence on July 9, 2011 On July 8, 2011, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee launched a new set of coins and Rs 10 notes bearing the rupee symbol. With this India became the second country after England to have its currency symbol printed on its notes. National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a judicial body constituted to try all matters related to environmental issues. The Tribunal is headed by Justice L.S. Panta. The first sitting of NGT was held on July 4, 2011.

Prahaar is a surface-to-surface quick-reaction tactical missile of India. It has a range of 150 km and is capable of carrying different types of warheads. The uniqueness of the missile is that in one salvo six missiles can be fired at multiple targets in all directions. The missile can also be launched form a road mobile system. India has slipped from being the 8th largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2009 to the 14th largest in 2010, according to the World Investment Report, 2011, brought out by UNCTAD. Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill 2011 specifies, for the first time, criminal sanctions for acts of omission and commission against the disabled; bars discrimination on grounds of disability and proposes enhanced job quota for the disabled from 3 to 7 per cent in all establishments. The quota is to be distributed among seven listed categories of the disabled. Twenty forms of disability, including intellectual disabilities, thalassemia, dwarfism and haemophilia, are covered by the new law (against seven currently covered). a provision to create a National Disability Regulatory Authority to prescribe standards on accessibility and rules for service providers. All disabled children (0 to 18 years) will be entitled to the Right to Education though the RTE Act covers those from 6 to 14 years. Draft Manufacturing Policy approved National Manufacturing Policy (NMP). The policy seeks to create 100 million industrial jobs by 2025. The NMP has set a target of increasing manufacturing sector growth to 12-14 per cent over the medium term. The policy wants the sector to contribute at least 25 per cent to the GDP by 2025. A comprehensive exit policy has been conceptualised which will promote productivity Union Cabinet okays affordable housing project Union government has approved the development of housing and basic facilities in slums across 250 cities in the country, under the Rajiv Awas Yojana. 80 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

The scheme aims at helping re-development of slums, stopping proliferation and providing a dignified life, besides property rights to the dwellers. The foundation for the scheme was first laid by the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) NATGRID gets in-principal approval the National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) NATGRID will have access to about 21 categories of databases like phone records, credit card transactions, travel details, bank accounts, income tax returns and visa and immigration records. The database will be available to 11 law enforcement and intelligence agencies. The ambitious "Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) will lay the ground work for the NATGRID. India gets first e-waste management rules Personal Computer manufacturers, mobile handset makers and white goods makers will be required to come up with e-waste collection centres or introduce take back systems. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain electronic components contain substances such as lead, cadmium, lead oxide (in cathode ray tubes), toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. These substances are considered hazardous depending on their condition and density. Under the new rules, producers will have to make consumers aware about the hazardous components present in the product. They will also have to give information booklets to prevent e-waste from being dropped in garbage bins. according to the rules, bulk consumers such as enterprises and government will be responsible for recycling of the ewastes generated by them. Global FMCG giant Unilever has appointed India-born Harish Manwani as its Chief Operating Officer (COO). According to a survey conducted by Thomson Reuters Trustlaw Women, a hub of legal information and legal support for womens rights, India is the fourth most dangerous place for women in the world. Afghanistan is the most dangerous place for women, followed by Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan, India and Somalia. India ranked fourth primarily due to female foeticide, infanticide and human trafficking. According to TLGs Index of Emerging Market Thought Leaders, seven out of the top ten brands in India are indigenous firms. Infosys and Tata group have piped global majors like Google, Nokia and Facebook to the top two spots. Google is at number 3, followed by Maruti Suzuki, L&T, Nokia, SBI, Facebook, Hindustan Unilever and Mahindra Group. Apple, which leads the pack in Britain and USA, failed to make a mark in the top 20 list in India. China has become the worlds largest energy consumer, overtaking the USA. Chinese energy consumption grew by 11.2 per cent between 2009 and 2010, the highest for any country. India was not far behind, recording a high 9.2 per cent increase in energy consumption. IBM, also called the Big Blue, completed 100 years of operation on June 16, 2011. Over the last 100 years, it garnered over $100 billion in revenue, carved a global footprint in over 160 countries. Collected over 6000 patents worldwide (the highest fo any company in the world), developed a computer system called Watson which even outsmarted skilled Jeopardy players and created smart grids and cities globally. IBMs success can be traced back to history of inventions, including the punch card, electric typewriter, mainframe, scanning tunneling microscope, web server, hard drive and nanotubes. India is now ranked 12th in the world in terms of the number of millionaires, according to the Capgemini and Merrill Lynchs World Wealth Report, 2011. It has moved one notch up in the ranks, pushing Spain behind. Indias performance on global environment index has improved, earning it the 123rd rank, primarily because of progress made in renewable. On June 17, 2011, the University of Oxford celebrated an Oxford-India day to mark 400 years of links with India. Rashtriya Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram is a scheme to provide all required healthcare facilities to pregnant women and infants free of cost. The scheme has been adopted for the entire country under the National Rural Health Mission. Tata Consutancy Services (TCS) has become Indias third most valuable company in terms of market capitalisation. RIL continues to hold the first position, followed by Coal India Ltd. ONGC is at the fourth spot. 81 Love is all we want ..Like our fanpage at https://www.facebook.com/IASOURDREAM

The Punjab Mail, which runs from Ferozepur to Mumbai, has entered its 100th year of service. Once known as the pride of Punjab, the train was introduced by the British in 1912 between Peshawar and Mumbai.

(Special thanks to our member Anil Arorawho compiled all this for us )

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