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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MEFB211 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES LAB

AUTHOR

: Maarij Anjum

SID

: ME087122

SECTION

: 02

INSTRUCTOR

: HAJI ZAINUDDIN BIN YAHYA

GROUP MEMBERS:

NAME Ali Hajbarat Tirish Amir Umair

SID ME 084912 ME 086982 ME 086550 ME 086553

OBJECTIVE Introduction about the purposes of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling machine. Knowing the purposes of the main operational parts of a CNC machine. Learning the step of using CNC machine. Recognize and state the purposes of milling machine accessories and attachments.

INTRODUCTION Milling is the process of cutting away material by feeding a work piece by the rotating of the cutter. Like the other machine, it is a power-driven machine used for the complex shaping of metal parts. Milling is also one of the most useful processes as its capability to produce a variety of shapes from work pieces. For milling process, there are a few types of milling cutter that are used depend on the machines and type of milling operations such as plain milling cutter which used for peripheral or slap milling, T-slot cutter where cutting edges usually oriented at a helix angle, form milling cutter which cutting edges have a special profile that is to be imparted to the work, face milling cutter which designed with teeth that out on both side as well as the periphery of the cutter, and end milling cutter which designed with square ends, ends with radii, and ball end and this cutter looks like drill bit. CNC Milling machine which is categorize under special type of milling technology, is using the cutter path that controlled by numerical data. This will produce better product and can improve the automation. Furthermore, the operator intervention related to producing work pieces can be reduced or eliminated, and CNC Milling machine also can reduce mistakes cause by human error and give consistent and predictable machining time of each work pieces. So, thousand of identical work pieces can be easily produced with precision and consistency. The CNC Milling machine use a word address format for programming and run the machine. By word address format, CNC program is made up of sentences like command and this program is found in any set of step by step instructions. Each CNC word has a letter address and a numerical value to tell the CNC Milling machine what to do at that time.

EQUIPMENT 1. Milling Machine 2. Hammer To knock the cube (work piece) slightly to ensure the tightness and parallel positioning. 3. Spacer To support the cube (work piece) from the bottom so that it is at a parallel and tight position. 4. Wire Brush To clean away ashes, dust, chips or excess materials from the table.

5. Goggle To protect our eyes from ashes, dust or chips produced during the process.

6. Bench Vise 7. As a clamp, this is bolted to hold the work piece during the milling processes.

PROCEDURE

1. Measured the work pieces by using vernier caliper which the measurement was 76mm x 120mm x 19mm. 2. The work was tapped several times to make sure the tightness and in parallel position with the plain vise before it being locked. 3. CNC Milling machine was set up by using word address format, as a command for a CNC Milling machine and being sure that the work-holding clamps do not interfere with the cutting action. 4. The work piece was adjusted to make it located under the cutter.

5. Then, the machine was turned on. While the machine on, rotation and speed of cutting tool was adjusted. 6. Then, after the machine was turned off, open the door and clean the dust on the top of work pieces by using wire brush. 7. This is the work piece that we have got:

(before milling process)

(after milling process)

DISCUSSION:

Milling machine are machine tools used to produce one or more machined surfaces accurately on a piece of material, the work piece; this is done by one or more rotary milling cutters having single or multiple cutting edges. The work piece is held securely on the work table of the. It is then brought into contact with a revolving cutter. The milling machine is a versatile machine tool which can handle a variety of operations normally performed by other machine tools. It is used not only for the milling of flat and irregular shaped surfaces but also for gear and thread cutting, drilling, boring, reaming, and slotting operations. Its versatility makes it one of the most important machine tools used in machine shop work. The milling process comes close to turning extensive industrial since the geometrical possibilities are enormous and the removal rates are high. Its performances depend on the cutting speed, machining time and its length of cut. Milling cutter resemble gears but with cutting teeth. It is made of high-carbon steels, high-speed steel tungsten carbides, cerement and ceramics. The high-speed steel tungsten carbide cutter, on the other hand, is used for low quality requirements machining process. It is a type of soft material or special shaped cutters.

MILLING MACHINE SAFETY The milling machine, like any other machine, demands the total attention of the operator and a thorough understanding of the hazards associated with its operation. The following precautions should be taken during operation of a milling machine: 1. Be sure that the work and the cutter are mounted securely before taking a cut. 2. Always wear a goggle (safety glass). 3. Be sure that the cutter and machine parts clear the work. 4. Never attempt to mount, measure, or adjust work until the cutter has completely stopped. 5. Keep your hands, brushes, and rags away from a revolving milling cutter at all time. 6. Before making a cut be sure that the arbour and arbour support will clear the work piece.
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7. Always use a brush, not a rag, to remove the cuttings after the cutter has stopped revolving. 8. Keep the floor around the machine free from chips, oil, and cutting fluid.

CONCLUSION

From this activity, we have learned how to organize the CNC milling machine and understand the operation involved. Besides that, we also know the purpose of the main parts of this machine. From the laboratory practice also we realize that the cutter diameter should be chosen in such a manner that it will not interfere with fixtures and other components in the setup. Before begin the operation, we must make sure that the milling cutter that would be used was not dull. The laboratory activities also provide us the information about the various type of milling machines and cutters available for different milling process in the manufacturing world process. In addition, we had gained the knowledge of understanding their usage and function where it can produce different shapes of work piece with different types of surfaces smooth or rough. This lab session also provide a student how to calculate and estimate a suitable FEED and RPM. Moreover, student should are given to do their project individually. The purpose behind this is to improve their skills and give more confidences once they do that. Besides that, students also should be neat, tidy, and safely dressed, develop a responsibility for personal safety and the safety of other students. We should never think that because we are wearing safety goggles our eyes are safe. If the lenses are not made of approved safety shatterproof glass, serious eye injury can occur. All safety precautions are also taken seriously with the clear explanation from the instructor.

REFERENCES Introduction to Manufacturing Process-3rd Edition: John A. Schey Processes and Design for Manufacturing-2nd Edition: Sherif D. El Wakil Principle of Engineering Manufacture-3rd Edition: S C Black, V Chiles, A J Lissaman, S J Martin Manufacturing Process and Equipment George Tlusty Technology Of Machine Tools-4th Edition: Krar Oswald (McGraw-Hill) Internet database / websites: www.mfg.mtu.edu/marc/primers/milling http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milling_machine http://ase.tufts.edu/mechanical/shop/classes/me1/milling.html