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VeterinaryAcupuncture
AlanM.Klide,VMD. ShiuH.Kung,Ph.D.

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Copyright1977byALANM.KLIDEandSHIUH.KUNG Allrightsreserved PRINTEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA Pages8187,22425,and23031fromCompendiumofVeterinaryandHumanAcupuncture. Copyright1975bytheNationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture.Reprinted withpermissionofthepublisher. Pages118119fromCatCatalog,editedbyJudyFireman.Copyright1976byWorkman Publishing,NewYork,N.Y.Reprintedwithpermissionofthepublisher. Fig.226copyright1974bytheAmericanJournalofChineseMedicine. Figs.38to310copyright1974bytheInternationalAcupunctureResearchSociety. Fig.311copyright1976bytheAmericanJournalofAcupuncture. Figs.373to378copyright1975byAndyShores. Figs.3108to3116copyright1975bytheNationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture. Figs.61to64copyright1974byCharlesCThomas,Publisher. LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData Klide,AlanM Veterinaryacupuncture. Includesindex. 1.Acupuncture,Veterinary.I.Kung,ShiuH., 1939jointauthor.II.Title. SF914.5.K58636.089'5'8927722703 ISBN081227721X Fifthprinting1993

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DEDICATEDTO Folly* Charlie(Abracadabra)** Donna*** whoseresponsestoacupuncturetherapyprovidedcontinual amazementandstimulationduringthewritingofthisbook.


* **

LabradorRetriever

Thoroughbred Morgan

***

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Contents
Acknowledgments Foreword Introduction 1.BasicPrinciplesofTraditionalChineseVeterinaryMedicine YinYangTheory TsangandFuOrgans TsangOrgans FuOrgans TheoryofFiveElements Characteristics MutualRegulation RelationshipwithYinYangTheory AcupuncturePointsandtheMeridianTheory StructureofChingLo ApplicationofChingLoTheorytoDiagnosis ApplicationofChingLoTheorytoTherapy ClassificationandNomenclatureofChingLoorMeridians 2.AcupunctureTechniquesandEquipment MethodsofStimulationofAcupuncturePoints ChineseVeterinaryNeedleAcupuncture ModernNeedleAcupuncture Bleeding Injection Implantation Pressure AcousticEnergy ElectromagneticEnergy Electroacupuncture Moxibustion Ryodoraku RegionalAcupunctureTherapy AncillaryDrugAdministration ImportationofForeignEquipment Appendix:InstructionGuidesforElectricalAcupunctureStimulators 3.AnimalAcupuncturePoints DeterminingtheLocation AnatomicTransposition PublishedCharts ElectricPointfinding Provocation AcupuncturePointsinLargeAnimals Horse SobinHorseModel Ottaviano Shin ChineseVeterinaryHandbook CattleChineseVeterinaryHandbook PigChineseVeterinaryHandbook GoatChineseVeterinaryHandbook CamelChineseVeterinaryHandbook xi xiii xv 1 1 2 3 6 9 9 10 10 16 17 17 17 18 21 21 22 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 40 42 45 55 55 57 67 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 81 82 88 96 100 106 110

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AcupuncturePointsinSmallAnimals Dog Cat FigurestoChapter3 4.AcupunctureTherapy ChoosingPoints LocalPainfulPoints DistantPainfulPoints ChineseMethod AcupuncturePrescriptions AllSpeciesChen Horse ChineseVeterinaryHandbook Shin PigChineseVeterinaryHandbook Dog Milin Shin Quotations,Abstracts,andCaseReports LargeAnimals SmallAnimals 5.ThePhysiologyofAcupuncture PhenomenaofTeCh'i RelationshipofSpecificMeridianstoSpecificOrgans BiochemicalResponses LocationofAcupuncturePoints 6.AcupunctureAnalgesia ExperimentalResults UseofAcupunctureAnalgesiainChina ElectroacupunctureAnalgesiausingtheSanYanLoPoints VeterinaryElectroacupunctureMachineCircuitDiagramandTechnical Characteristics HorseandDonkeyEarAcupunctureAnesthesia StructureoftheEar LocationoftheAuricularAcupuncturePoints ProceduresforAcupunctureAnalgesia MethodsofNeedleInsertion ElectricalStimulation Restraint AssessmentofResults ACaseHistory AcupunctureAnesthesiainVariousAnimals Horse Cattle Dog AcupunctureAnalgesiainMan 7.ThePresentStatusofVeterinaryAcupunctureintheUnitedStatesand Canada 8.TheHistoryofVeterinaryAcupuncture PrehistoricChineseVeterinaryMedicine AncientChineseVeterinaryMedicine ModernDevelopmentofChineseVeterinaryMedicine VeterinaryAcupunctureOutsideChina JapanandKorea France Austria GreatBritain UnitedStatesandCanada Index

112 112 118 120 211 211 211 212 212 212 212 212 212 212 225 229 229 230 231 231 238 249 250 251 251 252 255 255 259 259 263

265 265 267 268 270 270 270 270 270 270 270 271 271 273 277

281 281 281 284 286 286 287 288 289 290 295

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Tables
11.TheFiveCategoriesinNatureandLivingBeings 21.TechniquesforTonifyingandSedatingAcupuncturePoints 22.15NeedleChineseVeterinaryAcupunctureSet 23.18NeedleChineseVeterinaryAcupunctureSet 24.20NeedleChineseVeterinaryAcupunctureSet 25.ManufacturersofAcupunctureNeedles 26.GaugeversusDiameterofHollowandSolidWireNeedles 27.ElectricalConversions 28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints 29.PrescriptionsforAuriculotherapy 61.EffectivenessofElectroacupunctureAnalgesiaUtilizingtheSanYanLo Points 62.AcupunctureAnalgesiaoftheUdderTeatoftheCow 71.Totals,byState,ofIVASCertifiedIndividuals 3 22 25 25 25 32 35 36 49 53 259

272 280

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Acknowledgments
Iwouldliketothankthepeopleandanimalswhohelpedduringmyacupuncturestudiesandthewritingofthisbook: CarolynArnold,whoworkedlaboriouslytotransfermyhandwrittencrypticnotestotypedmanuscript.ArtSiegel,whotransformedsketchesandillustrationsto finishedphotographs Allofthepeoplewhograciouslyallowedtheuseoftheirvariousmaterials:S.H.Chen,O.Kothbauer,T.Matsumoto,M.Okada,T.Okada,A.Shores,J.M.Sobin, E.C.Wong,andH.G.Young TheNationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture:R.E.Glassberg,J.Ottaviano,S.H.Shin,andH.E.Warner. TheMcCabeResearchFund,whichprovidedfundsformyacupunctureresearch Allofthecompanieswhopermittedtheuseoftheirmaterial:AckLaboratories,Inc.AmericanJournalofChineseMedicineBrethrenCorporationB.X.&L. Industries,Inc.EastWindMedicalInstrumentsCompany,Ltd.IntertronicSystems,Ltd.NikkaOverseasAgency,Ltd.ProfessionalMedicalDistributors,Inc. SobinChemicals,Inc.WrightOkada,Inc. TheUniversityofPennsylvaniaPressfortheirwillingnesstoundertakethisproject JaniceHealdforherremarkableassistanceinlocatingobscurereferencesfromallovertheworldandprintedduringtwocenturies TheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietyanditsmemberswhosecasereportswereused:R.Buchli,M.J.Cain,M.Chaney,D.Darlington,W.J.Davis,J. Finkelstein,G.Fox,J.A.Garon,L.Gideon,W.Grogen,W.J.Hankins,R.M.Heath,G.R.Holt,R.A.Jaeger,D.H.Jaggar,D.K.Johnson,H.R.Johnson,J. Landholm,S.L.Maas,S.C.Miller,M.S.Newman,G.A.Petkus,J.A.Purvis,R.F.Reichard,S.Stern,W.R.West,B.J.Woodruff,H.G.Young,J.P.Young,Jr. J.Beech,L.Cushing,D.Freeman,D.Koch,M.MackaySmith,D.Marks,W.Moyer,andC.W.Rakerfortheirhelpwithclinicalcases C.Baetjer,J.Kritchevsky,andJ.Shermanfortheirhelpwithmyacupunctureprojects R.Cimprich,K.Homer,andE.Ledyardfortheirconfidenceandinterest "MoDaddy","Junior"and"Snow"fortheirpatienceandunderstandingduringmyearlyprobings. ALANM.KLIDE Iwouldliketoacknowledgetheassistanceofthefollowingpeople:1)MartinCummings,MD,DirectoroftheNationalLibraryofMedicineforpermissiontomake thecollectionofthelibraryavailable2)Ms.MaryE.Corning,AssistantDirectorfortheInternationalProgramoftheLibraryofMedicineforarrangementswithother librarieswheretherearecollections3)Mr.LawrenceBlack,ChiefLibrarianoftheInstituteofBasicResearchinMentalRetardationforhelpinliteraturesearch4) Ms.AnnaKrauthammerforeditorialassistance5)VivianCheng,MD,WaiY.Kwok,DCM(DoctorofChineseMedicine,China),andKun,C.Lem,DMV (China),fordiscussionduringthepreparationofthemanuscript. SHIUH.KUNG

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Foreword
Acupuncture,inthemindoftheAmericanpublichasalwaysbeenaccompaniedbyacertainmystique.Whatisacupunctureallabout?Whatdoesitdo?Ifitis effectiveasstatedwhydonotmorephysiciansandveterinariansintheUnitedStatesroutinelyemployacupuncture?Theseandmanysimilarquestionshavearisenin themindsoftheAmericanpublic,especiallysincethevisitstoChinabeginningthisdecadebywesternscientists,physicians,andhighofficialsinthegovernment. AcupunctureintheUnitedStatesisnowreceivingseriousattentionasevidencedbythedevelopmentofNationalandInternationalorganizationsofacupuncture,both ofwhichareheadquarteredintheUnitedStates,thepresentationofmanyseminarsandshortcoursesonthesubject,andtheappearanceofnumerousscientific publications. ThistextbyDrs.KlideandKungreviewsindepththeancientChineseartofacupunctureandexploresanddescribesthetheoriesuponwhichthetherapyisbased. TheYinYangandtheMeridianTheories,whereinallorgansystemsandtissuesaredefinedandclassified,aretwoofthemostsignificanttheoriesuponwhich acupunctureisbased. Dr.ShiuH.KungisascientistandascholaroftheclassicsoftraditionalChinesemedicine,includingacupuncture.Hiscollaborator,Dr.AlanM.Klide,Associate ProfessorandChief,SectionofAnesthesia,UniversityofPennsylvania,SchoolofVeterinaryMedicine,hasanintenseinterestinacupuncturebothasaformof anesthesiaforsurgicalproceduresandforthereliefofsignsofdisease.Thetrainingandexperienceofthetwocoauthorscomplimenteachother,resultinginan interestingandusefultextonveterinaryacupuncture. ReadingthroughthetextgavemetheopportunitytobeginanunderstandingofthehistoryoftheChineseartandscienceofacupuncture.Thisreviewwasinteresting andusefulasanintroductiontothismethodoftherapy.Theindepthinformationonthephysiologicactionandeffectsofacupuncturehelpspreparethereaderfora firstattemptatclinicalapplication. Theapplicationoftheprinciplesofacupuncturedependuponanaccurateandindepthknowledgeofthedesignatedacupuncturepointsasdeterminedforeach speciesofanimalandman.Inveterinarymedicinethesehavebeenworkedoutwellforsomespecies,butareincompleteinothers.Thetextsummarizesandsupplies allavailableinformation,especiallygraphicinthemanyfigures.Activationofthesepointsissaidtorestoreamorenormalbalanceofactionandinteractionbetween tissuesandorgansleadingtoareliefofsignsofdisease.Severaltechniquesbywhichacupunctureisappliedaredescribed,suchastheinsertionandmanipulationof needles,supplementationbystimulationwithelectriccurrent,andtheusebysomeacupuncturistsofheatorfire.Toeffectivelyaccomplishthevariousformsof acupuncture,sourcesofequipmentandtheiruseiscoveredindetail. Theauthorshavecompiledanimpressivenumberofcasereportsthatillustratetheuseandeffectsofacupunctureinveterinarymedicine.Asacolleague

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ofDr.Klide,Ihavehadtheopportunitytoobservetheapplicationofacupuncturetosomeofmyequinepatients.Myexperiencehasstimulatedaninterestin acupunctureassomeofmypatientshaveshownmarkedclinicalimprovement.Iamalsoawareofotherhorseswithclinicalsignsofchronicpainthatwererelieved andrestoredtoastateofusefulnessfollowingacupuncturetherapy.Onthebasisofthisknowledgeandexperience,Ianticipatethatintimeacupuncturewillprove usefulinthemanagementofsomediseasesofouranimalpopulation.Acupuncturealoneorincombinationwithwesternmedicineshouldimproveourabilitytomanage disease,reducesuffering,andrestoretheanimaltoastateofhealth.Frommyobservations,chronicpainseemstobeoneoftheareasinwhichacupunctureholds greatpromiseaseffectivetherapy. Thisbookwillserveasaveryusefulsourceofinformationforveterinariansandotherqualifiedpersonswhonowemployacupunctureasamethodoftherapyaswell asforthosewhocontemplatedoingsointhefuture.Tobetterunderstandthemeritsandapplicabilityofacupuncture,andtoremoveitfromtheareaofmystiqueto onebaseduponsoundmedicalprinciples,extensiveresearchmustbedone.Ingeneral,thebasicChineseworklacksscientificcontrolasweknowitinthewestern world.Controlledstudiesarenowinprogress,andadditionaloneswillberequiredforscientificdocumentation.Clinicalresultsandexperiencesstronglysupportsome ofthebasicChineseclaims.Acupunctureshouldnotbethoughtofasa"cureall,"butratherasamethodoftreatmentofdiseasethatmaysupplementandonoccasion replacewesternmedicinetoimproveourabilitytorendereffectivetherapy.Asadditionalinformationbecomesavailablethroughresearchandexperience,itshouldbe possibletodevelopadefinitesetofguidelineswithindicationsandcontraindicationsfortheapplicationofacupuncture. Drs.KlideandKungaretobecomplimentedforthepreparationofthisusefulandinterestingtextbook. CHARLESW.RAKER,V.M.D. LAWRENCEBAKERSHEPPARD PROFESSOROFSURGERY

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Introduction
Acupuncturewasbroughttotheattentionofthewesternworldintheearly1970sthroughnewspaperaccounts,magazinearticles,andmoviesmadebypeoplevisiting China.Discussionsaboutacupuncturewereoccurringdaily.Thetechniques,equipmentandtheoriesconcerningthisancientpracticeweredifficulttounderstandor believe.Manypeoplebeganpromotingacupunctureasapanaceafortheillsoftheworld. Atpresent,thewaveofintenseinteresthaspassedstudiesfromtheverybasictocompletelyclinicalhavebeenstartedsomearejustbeginningtobereported.Many ofthestudiesareprovidingmuchneededinformationinpaincontrolandpainmechanisms.Peoplehavebeenhelpedbyacupuncturetherapywhowerenotbeing successfullytreatedbystandardmedicalmeansothershavebeenhurtphysically,emotionally,andeconomicallybypeoplewhoofferedclaimsforacupuncturethat wereunfounded,orbypeoplewhowerenotqualifiedtoadministeracupuncturetherapy.Muchmoreworkmustbedonebeforethevalueofacupunctureasa treatmentormethodofanalgesiacanbeknownwithanydegreeofcertainty. Asimilarsequencehasbeenfollowedintheuseofacupunctureinanimals,althoughinformationonacupunctureinanimalshasbeenmuchmoredifficulttoobtain. ThroughtheeffortsofpeoplelikeH.GradyYoungandMarvinJ.Cain,andthetwoveterinaryacupuncturesocieties(theInternationalVeterinaryAcupuncture Society[IVAS]andtheNationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture[NAVA]),muchinformationonthissubjecthasbeenbroughttotheUnitedStates. However,intensive,carefulinvestigationatboththeverybasicandtheveryclinicallevelmustbecarriedoutbeforeanyattemptscanbemadetosuggestwhat conditions(andinwhichspecies)mightrespondtoacupuncturetherapy,whattreatmentschedulesshouldbeusedand,whichtypeofstimulationisbestforaspecific pointoraspecificdisease.Thereisnoquestionthatunscrupulousindividualsmaytoutacupunctureandtheirabilityinthisfieldasapanaceaandthatsomeindividuals withlittleornotrainingwilltreatsomeanimals.Itishopedthatthesefewindividualsdonotgiveacupuncturesuchabadreputationthatinterestwilldecreaseand legislationbedirectedagainstitbeforethefactualinformationhasbeencollectedandproofpresentedthatwilldemonstratethebenefitsacupuncturecanofferto animalsandtheirowners. Itistheauthors'intenttoprovideabookthatpresentstheavailableworld'sinformationonacupunctureinanimals:tomakeavailableastartingpointfromwhichbasic orclinicalinvestigatorscanbegintodevisestudiesforsortingouttheriddleofacupuncturetomakeavailabletoanimalownerstheinformationonthissubjectthatwill helpthemtobetterunderstandacupunctureandthepossiblebenefitsitmayoffertheiranimalstomakeavailableasourcefromwhichveterinarianscanfindoutwhat hasbeendoneinthetheoryandpracticeofveterinaryacupuncture.Wehopethebookwillbeinformative

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andusefultoanyoneinterestedinthesubjectofacupuncture. ThewritingofthisbookbeganwiththecontributionsofDr.KunginNewYork,usingmaterialsofChineseinorigin(chapters1,2,3,4,5,6,and8)thiswas subsequentlymergedwiththecontributionsofDr.Klide(chapters2,3,4,6,7,and8).Dr.Kung'scontributionwaseditedbyMissAnnaKrauhammerinNewYork whileDr.Klidedidtheoverallediting.Wehopethatthiscoauthorshiphasproducedabookthatwillbeinformativeandusefultoanyoneinterestedinthesubjectof acupuncture. Manysourcesofinformationwereusedforthisbook:theEnglishliteraturethenewslettersandpamphletsoftheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietyandthe NationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncturecasereportsfrommembersoftheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietychartsandinformationfrom variousauthorsandpublisherstheclinicalandresearchexperienceofDr.Klideequipmentmanufacturers'brochuresandletterstranslationsofChinese,French, German,andJapanesebooks,chapters,andjournalarticlesandaChineseveterinaryhandbook. Mostofthetranslatedmaterialispresented''asis"sothatthereadercangetthefeelingandflavorofthematerialasitwasoriginallywritten.Transliterating,or "Romanizing,"ofChinesecharacterspresentsaparticularprobleminthatthereareseveraltransliteratingsystems,eachproducingwordsthatarespelleddifferently. ThesystemusedinthisbookisWadeGiles,aBritishsystemthatisthemostwidelyacceptedandisusedforcataloguesinmostlibrariesintheEnglishspeaking world.

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1 BasicPrinciplesofTraditionalChineseVeterinaryMedicine
TheYinYangTheory* TheYinYangTheorydescribestheprincipleunderlyingthelawsgoverningtheuniverseinitsphysicalandmetaphysicalaspects.Thetheoryisbasedonobservations ofnaturalphenomena.ItwasformulatedduringtheChouDynasty,whenitwaspublishedinShangShu(TheAncientBook).DuringtheSpringandAutumnPeriod,it wasappliedasaguidelineforthepracticeofChinesemedicineinhumansandanimals.ItwasincorporatedintoabookcalledtheNeiChing,whichisthemost importantbookoftraditionalChinesemedicine.Itscompilationbegansometimeafter722BC.Thepurposeofthebookwastosetstandardsofacupunctureforthe benefitoflatergenerations.Itisatimelessworktowhicheachsuccessivegenerationhasleftitsmark(seepage281). Afterobservingthepatternandtheregularityofmovementofthestars,theChineseassumedthattheheavensmovedandtheearthwasstationary.Theyclassifiedthe heavensasyang,orhavinganactive,positivequalityandtheearthasyin,orhavinganegative,passivequality.Othernaturalphenomenawereclassifiedinthesame way.Thesunwasclassifiedasyang,becauseitsheatandlightmadethingsgrowanditwasconsideredactive.Themoonwasclassifiedasyin,becauseitrepresented diminishedlightanditwasconsideredpassive.Theseasonsanddirectionswerealsoclassified:Thenorthandwestwereyin,theeastandsouthwereyangautumn andwinterwereyin,summerandspringwereyang.Accordingtothistheory,everyorganicandinorganicthingintheuniversewasclassifiedeitherpredominantlyyin oryang. ThebasicprincipleoftheYinYangTheoryisthatyinandyangconstantlyinteractwith,andreactto,eachotherinordertoachieveabalancethus,onecannotexist withouttheother,andeachconstantlyaffectstheother.Accordingtothetheory,theuniverseisalwaysinadynamicstate,tryingtoachieveanequilibriumbetweenyin andyang.Theinteractionsandreactionsofalltheorgansandfunctionsofhumansandanimalsarethoughtofinthesameway. TheYinYangTheoryseparatesorgansinthebodyintothecategoriesofts'angandfu.Thets'angorgansareyin,andthefuorgansareyang.Eachorganofthebody anditsfunctionsinteractwithandreacttootherorganstomaintainabalance.Accordingto
*

From"Shuwen",NeiChing,inthechapter"Yinyangyinghsingtalun"("Therelationshipofyinandyanganddiseases").Alsoin"Shuwen'',NeiChing,inthechapter"Yin yangp'iehlun"("Furtherdiscussionofyinandyang").

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traditionalChinesemedicine,diseasesoccurwhentheyinyangbalanceinthebodyisupset.Chinesemedicinethereforeattemptstocurediseasebyreestablishingthe body'snaturalbalanceofyinandyang. AccordingtotheYinYangTheory,yangisactiveandyinispassive,butthesecategoriesarenotabsolute.Theassignmentofthebasiccharacteristicisrelative.For example,thets'angorgansareconsideredessentiallyyinbecausetheyarelessactiveandaremorereactivethanthefuorgans.However,thisdoesnotmeantheycan't beactiveundercertaincircumstances.Thesecategoriesonlydescribethedominantcharacteristicsoftheorganorfunctionwhenthebodyisinbalance. Thetermbalanceinreferencetothebodyisalsoarelativeone,becauseaccordingtothetheory,thebodyisnevercompletelybalanced.Thatwouldimplystasis. Rather,thebodyisconstantlyinastateofattemptingtoachievebalance,asindicatedbytheinterdependenceofyinandyangintheirreactionsandinteractions. Thephysiologicalprocessofdigestionillustratestheconceptoftheinterdependenceofyinandyang.Theanimalmustingestfoodtoabsorbthenutrientsthatenable theorganstofunction.Conversely,theabsorptionoffooddependsonthefunctionalactivityofthevisceralorgansthatprocessthefoodsothatthebodymaybe nourished.Thefunctionitselfisyinandthenutrientisyang.Withoutnutrients,functionalactivitycannotexist,norcanitcontinue.Withoutfunctionalactivity,the nutrientscannotbeabsorbedandutilized.Thus,yinandyangareintrinsicallyinterdependentinhumansandotheranimals. Ifeitheryinoryanggoestoextremesininteractingorreacting,theoppositestateresultsthatis,anexcessofyinwillproduceyang,andviceversa.Thiscanbe illustratedbytherelationshipbetweentheinhibitoryandstimulatorymechanismsofthebody,whicharealsoknownasthe"feedback"mechanism.Ifthereisan undersupplyofaspecifichormone(yin),productionofthehormonewillincrease(yang).Conversely,ifthebodyproducestoomuchhormone(yang),thefeedback mechanismwillinhibitandreducetheproduction(yin). Acupunctureattemptstocorrecttheimbalancecausedbyanextremeofyinoryangwhenthebodyitselfcannolongercorrectit.However,acupuncturedoesnot correcttheimbalancebydirectlymanipulatingyinoryang.Itmanipulatesch'i,thebasicdynamicenergyoftheuniverse,whichflowsinaspecificpatternthroughout thebody.Ch'iisanexpressionoftheinteractionbetweenyinandyang.Itflowsinthemeridians,whichlinkallthebodyorganstoeachotherandtothesurfaceofthe body.Yinandyangflowintheformofch'iwithinthemeridians,andacupuncturetriestokeepthebalanceofyinandyanginthebodythroughthemanipulationofch'i bytheneedle. TheTheoryofFiveElements,theclassificationofthetsangandfuorgans,the"ChingLo",orMeridianTheory,theconceptsofch'i,wei,ying,hsueh,spiritand fluid,theclassificationofChiHengChihFuandthefourmethodsofdiagnosisallextendthebasicprinciplesoftheYinYangTheory. TheTs'angandFuOrgans AnorganintraditionalChineseveterinarymedicinediffersfromitsWesterncounterpartinthatitsdefinitionincludesmorethanthefunctionoftheisolatedorganitself. Anorganisdefinedasthephysicalorganitself,includingallitsfunctions,therelationshipofitsfunctionstotheotherorgans,andthefunctionsoftheotherorgansthat specificallyinteractwithit.Ithasaspecificyinoryangcharacteristic,anditpossessesaspecificandindividualch'ithatinteractswiththech'ioftheotherorgansand thetotalch'iofthebody. Thesixts'angandsixfuorgansarevisceralorgans.Thets'angorgansareyinthefuorgans,yang.Eachisassignedanelementaswellasaspecificfunction.Ingeneral, thets'angorgansareresponsiblefortheabsorption,transformation,andtransportationofnutritiveelementsthefuorgansareresponsibleforstorageandexcretion. Thevisceralorgansmediatebetweenthech'ioftheuniverseandthech'iofthebody.Theyabsorbthech'ioftheuniverseasthenutrientsandexcretethech'iofthe organismsbackintotheuniverseaswaste. Thets'angorgans,whicharerelativelysolid,aretheheart,pericardium,lung,liver,spleen,andkidney.Thefuorgans,whicharehollow,arethegallbladder,small intestine,stomach,largeintestine,tripleburner,andtheurinarybladder. Thets'angandfuorgansinteractwitheachothertoformaclosedandbalancedsysteminwhichalllifesustainingfunctionstakeplace.Eachts'angorganhasa correspondingfuorgan,withwhichithasapermanentrelationshipandwithwhichitmustbeinbalanceinaccordancewiththetheoriesofYinYangandofFive Elements.Becauseofthecloserelationshipoftheseorgans,pathologicchangesinoneorganinfluenceandarereflectedinotherorgans.Thesigns

Page3 TABLE11.TheFiveCategoriesinNatureandLivingBeings Fiveelements Fivestagesoflife Fiveseasons Fivedirections Fivech'i Fivetsangorgans Fivefuorgans Fivet'i Fivech'aoorifices Fivefluids Fivepulses Fivecolors Fivetastes Wood Embryo Spring East Wind Liver Gallbladder Muscle Eye Tear Taut(hsien) Green Sour Fire Adolescence Summer South Fire,heat Heart Smallintestine Bloodvessels Tongue Sweat Full(huang) Red Bitter Growth Earth Adulthood Latesummer Center Moisture Spleen Stomach Fat Mouth Saliva Slow(ch'ih) Yellow Sweat Maturation Metal Oldage Autumn West Dryness Lung Largeintestine Skinandhair Nose Mucus Light(fu) White Spicy Fruitproduction Water Death Winter North Cold Kidney Urinarybladder Bone Ear Urine Deep(ch'en) Black Salty Dormancy

Fivefunctionalprocesses Germination

ofdiseasearebothonthesurfaceandreadilyapparent,andsubsurfaceandnotreadilyapparent.Indiagnosis,ifdiseaseofats'angorganissuspected,its correspondingfuorganischeckedandviceversa.Generally,diseasesofthefuorgansarelesssevereandaremoreresponsivetotreatmentdiseasesofthets'ang organsaremoresevereandlessresponsive.Eachorganmanifestsitspathologicconditionthroughaspecificorifice,color,pulse,taste,andfluidsecretion,allofwhich arecheckedwhendiseaseissuspected.Basically,Chinesemedicineassumesthatananimalisaharmoniousunitandthatimbalancesinsidethebodyaremanifestedas diagnosticcharacteristicsonthesurfaceoftheorganismandviceversa.(SeeTable11). TheT'SangOrgans TheHeart Bloodconvergesintheheart,andissentouttovariouspartsofthebody.Thepulsereflectsthecharacteristicsofbloodflowandthestateofcirculation. Becausetheheartisthemainorganofcirculation,anychangesinheartfunctionaffectthephysiologicalactivityofthebloodandpulse.Thephysiologicalconditionsof theheart,blood,andpulsearereflectedbytheconditionoftheinsideofthemouthandthecolorandbrightnessofthehair,becausethech'ithatcarriesthenutritive elementsofthebloodmakesthehairsmoothandshiny,andthemouthred.Whentheheartisoverworkedorweak,theblooddoesnottransportnutrientsproperly, andthehairlooksdryanddull,andtherearechangesinthecolorofthemouth. Clinicalpracticehasproventhatifthetongueisscarletred,itisasymptomofanexcessoffire(seeTheTheoryofFiveElements,p.9).Ifthetongueislightred,itisa symptomofaninsufficientamountofbloodandch'i*furuncleonthetongueisasymptomofheataccumulationintheheartmeridian.** Theheartisrelatedtothesmallintestine,afuorgan. ThePericardium Thepericardiumsurroundstheheartandhastwofunctions:toprotecttheheartandtoenablethebloodtoflowtoandfromtheheart. Whendiseaseinvadesthebody,theprimaryfunctionofthepericardiumistofighttheinvasionandprotectthech'ioftheheartfrombeingdestroyed,becausetheheart bycontrollingthebloodflow,controlsthelifesustainingactivitiesoftheorganism.*Thepericardiummaybeconsideredaseparatets'angorgan(bringingthetotal numbertosix),orpartoftheheart.Whencountedasaseparateorgan,itisrelatedtothetripleburner,afuorgan.Thepericardiumisalsoknownas"circulationsex", "heartconstrictor",and"envelopeoftheheart." TheLiver Theliversupportsandnourishesgrowthandpromotesthech'irelatedtoallgrowthfunctions.Itismostimportantfortheliverch'itoavoidcongestion
*

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"WangLianghsienshiht'ient'iwuts'anglun"("Thetheoryoffivets'angorgansaccordingtomylateteacherWangLiang"),the relationshipofheartandtongueisexplained. **InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Shuichingwuts'anglun"("Collectionsofimportantfactsofthetheoryoffivets'angorgans"). *In"Lingshu"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"Hsiehk'ep'ien"("Theevilanduninvitedvisitors").

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andretardation. Liverdiseasesproduceyinsymptoms.Thesignsincludeanupwardgazeanddazedexpression,unstablegait,foamingatthemouth,tightjaw,stiff neck,distendedabdomen,dsypnea,andconjunctivitis.* Theliverandkidneyarerelated(seeTheTheoryofFiveElements,p.9).Ifthekidneycannotnourishtheliver,adiseaseresultinginanexcessofliveryangwilloccur. Herbalmedicineoracupuncturepointsareusedtopromotethestrengtheningofthekidneyyinandthemoderationofliveryang.** Theliverretainsthemostnutritiveelementsofthebloodandregulatesthequantityofbloodinthebody.Whentheanimalisquietandatrest,partofthebloodflows intotheliverandisstoredthere.Duringactivity,whentheenergyofthebodyisbeingspentatafasterrate,therateofbloodflowincreases,andthebloodstoredin theliverisreleasedintothemeridianstobecirculatedthroughthetsangandfuorganstoprovidenourishmentforthebody.* Nourishmentoftheeyesoriginatesintheliver.Undernormalconditionsandwithpropernourishment,theeyesaresharp,bright,andclear.Withimproper nourishment,theeyesappeardullandaredriedandirritated.Alsovisionseemstobeimpairedanddizzinessoccurs.Whenanimalsareinfectedbydisease,the symptomsoftheeyesdifferaccordingtothetypeofresultingimbalance.Forexample,ifthereisexcessivewindandheatoftheliveranditsmeridian,theeyeballs protrude,therearecongestion,opacity,andstickyeyelids.Forexcessivecold,theeyesarehypersensitivetoexternalirritation.|| Theliversuppliesbloodtothemusclesfortheiractivities,andisrelatedtotheflexionandextensionofthejoints.Undernormalconditions,thelivernourishesthe musclesbyprovidingthemwithnutrientladenblood,resultinginnormalmuscularactivities.Iftheliverisnotfunctioningproperly,nourishmentofthemusclesand jointsisnotnormal.Thefollowingsymptomsmayappear:convulsion,opisthotonus,stiffneck,andmusclespasm.Aninsufficientamountofthebloodfromtheliver resultsinsoftnessandthicknessofhoofandpawkeratin,andretardationanddisturbanceoftheirdevelopment.* Theliverisrelatedtothegallbladder,afuorgan. TheSpleen Afterfoodisabsorbedanddigestedinthestomach,somech'imustbeabsorbedforuseandsomech'imaybeexcreted.Thefunctionofthespleenistoextractthe useful(nourishing)ch'ifromtheuselessch'ianddispatchittothelungs,whereitcombineswiththech'ioftheuniversetoformchingch'i.Thechingch'ientersthe meridiansandistransportedtotherestofthebody.Also,thespleensendsthegaseousch'itothelungtobeexcreted.** Ifthespleenisweakanddigestionofwater,grain,andgrassisinsufficient,thesymptomsareabdominal
*

Thepathologicmanifestationsoftheliver,describedinthisparagraphofthetextarefoundinYuanHengLiaoMaChi,in"The25thsectionofthe81questionanswersections byChaoFu",andinthe19thsectiondiscussingtheliver"wind". **The"mother"oftheliver"wood"isthekidney"water",andinsufficiencyofkidney"water"cannotnourishtheliver"wood''andinadiseaseduetoanimbalanceofyinandyang, anexcessofyangwilloccur(SeeTheTheoryofFiveElements,p.9). *InNeiChing,"Lingshu"section,inthechapter,"Penshenp'ien"("Theoriginandpreservationofthespirit")alsoinNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter,"Wuts'ang shentsanglun"("Discussiononthedevelopmentoffivets'angorgans"). AncientChineseclassicsofveterinarymedicineemphasizethecloserelationshipoftheliverandeyes.InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Motup'ien",("Onpulse measurement"),itsays,"Livercommunicateswiththeeyes."InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Chingkueichenyenlun"("Thetruthofmedicine"),itsays,"Theorifice oftheliveristheeyes."InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Kuyenlung"("Thetheoryofbonesandeyes"),itsays,"Theliveristheoriginoftheeyes."InNeiChing,"Shu wen"section,inthechapter"Wuts'angshentsanglun",itsays,"Liverreceivesbloodandmakesvisionpossible."InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"MaShihHuangwuts'ang lun"("MaShihHuang'stheoryoffivets'angorgans"),itsays,"Theexteriorcorrespondenceoftheliveristheeyesingoodcoordination,theeyesproduceproperlacrimation." ||FromYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Shuichingwuts'anglun"("Collectionofimportantfactsonthetheoryoffivets'angorgans"). FromSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"T'ienhuangchih36pingyuanke",("The36originsofyellowdiseases").
*

TherelationshipoftheliverandpawsisfoundinmanyclassicsofChineseveterinarymedicine.InChao'sChuPingYuanHouLun(TheEtiologyofVariousDiseases),itsays,"The pawsaretheextensionofmuscles."InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Liuchiehts'anghsianglun"("Sixsegmentsofthephenomenaofthets'angorgans"),itsays, "Thecreamoftheliver,...isfoundinthepaws".InCh'uanCh'iT'ungHsienLun,itsays,"Thesubstanceoftheliver...appearsinthepawsandscales."Discussionoftheseliver disordersisfoundintwochaptersofYuanHengLiaoMaChiinthechapter"Kuyenlun"andinthechapter"Chaofu81nanching",inthe30thquestionandanswer. **InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Chingmopiehlun"("Discussionofchingandmo"),itsays,"Thestomachstorestheingestedfoodthatisfullofnutritive essenceandCh'ithespleencollectstheseandtransportsthemtothelung."

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distensionanddiarrhea.Thesickanimalsareskinny,suffergeneralmalaiseandtheirlimbsarefatiguedandweak. Thespleenfunctionstotransformwaterandmoistureintothech'iofthebody.Aweaknessinsplenicch'idecreasestheefficiencyofthiswaterandmoisture transformation.Inmilddisorders,thereisaloosestool.Inseveredisorders,waterandmoistureoverflowbelowtheumbilicus,becomingedemaandascites.* Ifwindandcoldinvadethebodyandaffectthespleen,coldnessoftheearsandnose,excessivemotionsoftheheadandtail,lyingonthegroundwithbodybent, twistinglimbs,rumblingintestines,anddiarrheamayresult.Thesesymptomsarecausedbyextendedperiodsofexposuretocoldwindsandrainduringfeeding, exposuretofrostandsnow,excessivethirst,andexcessivedrinkingofcoldwateronanemptystomach.** Thegrowthofthemusclesofthemouthandlipsdependsonthenutrients(whicharetheessentialpartsofthewater,grains,andgrass)transformedbythespleen. Withinsufficientnutrients,theanimalbecomesskinnyandweak,andthehaircoarseandloose.Inclinicalpractice,itispossibletoappreciatetherelationshipofthe mouthandtonguemusclestothespleenforexample,whensplenicfunctionisnormal,themusclesarerichandfull,andtheinteriorofthetongueandlips(oral mucosa)ismoistandshiny.Whensplenicfunctionisabnormal,musclebulkisleanandtheoralmucosaispale.Ifthespleeniscold,thelipistwistedifthespleenis poisoned,thelipsbecomeswollen.* TheLung Ch'imaybeunderstoodintwoways:oneisthefunctionalch'iofrespirationtheotheristhech'ioftheanimal.Thech'iforrespirationistheprocessinwhichthelung continuouslyinhalesuncontaminatedch'ioftheuniverseandexhalestheunwholesomech'i.Thus,undernormalconditions,thelungisabletodistinguishtheclearfrom thecontaminatedch'iofthebody,andthelungprovidesswiftandcomfortablerespiration.Ifthelungissick,theclearch'icannotbeinhaledandthecontaminatedch'i cannotbereadilyexhaledandcough,shortnessofbreath,andpurulentnasaldischargeresult.Thisdemonstratesthatthelungcontrolsthech'iofrespiration. Thech'ioftheanimaliscomposedofthevitalelementsofthebody,withoutwhichthebodydies.Thech'iofthebodyisconstantlyrenewedfromtheintakeofch'i fromthewater,grains,andgrass.However,withoutthech'iofrespirationtoinhaletheclearandexhalethecontaminatedportions,thech'ifromwater,grass,and grainscannotsustainthelifeoftheanimal.Intheprocessofrespiration,thecontaminatedch'iisexhaledandtheclearch'iisinhaled,combiningwiththech'iofthe water,grass,andgrainstobecomethech'iofvitality.Thus,thelifeprocessesaremaintained.Clinically,thehighandlowlevelsoflungch'ideterminethestrongor weakphysicalconditionofanimals. Thelungscontrolthech'iofbreathing,butinhalationandexhalationtakeplacethroughtheairwaysofthenose,clearlyindicatinganintrinsicrelationshipbetweenthe noseandthelungs.||Clinically,thesignsfromthenosearerelatedtothefunctionalstateofthelungs.Forexample,inpigdiseaseswherethereisashortnessofbreath, andinhorsesanddonkeyswithasthmaticlungdisorders,noisybreathing,flaringofthenostrils,purulentdischarges,andoffensiveodorsfromthenoseareevident. Thesecanbetreatedbyneedlingthelungmeridians. Someoftheusablech'iderivedfromundigestedfoodcollectsinthelungs.Aftercombinationwiththeclearch'iofrespiration,itistransportedfromthesurfaceofthe lungstothesurfaceofthebody,wheretheskinandmusclesarelocated.Itthenbecomesweich'i,whichprotectsandfortifiesthebodysurfaceagainsttheinvasionof diseases.Ifthech'ifromthelungisweak,theweich'iisinsufficient.Thedefensemechanismisthenweakened,anddiseasemayinvadethebody.Thesickanimals maydevelopfever,chills,fupulse,andnasaldischarges.Ifthesedisordersarenottreatedsoonenough,symptomssuchascoughing,shortnessofbreath,andredness ofthemouthappear.* Treatmentconsistsofcleaningthelungandfortify
*

InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"Chingchuwuts'anglun"("Thediscussiononusableandunusable"),itsays,"Thespleendigestsallkindsofrice."

**InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Chenyaotalun"("Discussionofthetruthandessentials")alsointhechapter''Hsuanmingwuch'ip'ien"("Clarificationoffive ch'i"). *InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"MaShihHuangwuts'anglun". InNeiChing,inthechapter"Tungpingshulun"(Discussionondeficiencyandfullness"). ||InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthediscussionofthelung. InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inadiscussionoftheoffensiveodoranditsrelationtothelung.


*

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi.

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ingthebodysurfacetopreventfurtherinfluencebythewind.Theskinmustalsobecleaned.Ifdomesticanimalsarenotbathedinthesummer,dirtmayobstructthe hairorifices,causinganimbalancebetweenthetemperaturesoftheinteriorandexteriorofthebody(yinandyang).Thus,heataccumulatesintheheartandthorax, affectingthelungandtheheatofthelungproducesthewindthatcausesitchyskin.Sickhorsesmaybeitchyovertheentirebodysurface,ortheymayhavesmall extremelyitchypapillaryrashes.Thesickanimallosesnormalappetite,becomesskinny,loseshair,andhascrustedskin.* Thelarynx,locatedtheupperendofthetrachea,isthepassageofinhalationoflungch'i.Itisalsotheorganofvocalfunction.Whenthelungmalfunctions,vocal changesoccur.Forexample,aftershortnessofbreathhasaffectedthepigforaconsiderabletime,vocalizationisweakandhoarse.Othersymptomssuchaslaryngeal edemaandfrequenthemorrhageofthelarynxandlungarerelated. Diseasesofthelarynxalsospreadtothelungsforexample,iflaryngealedemaisnotdiagnosedandtreatedearlyenough,coughingandpurulentnasaldischargeswill develop.*Treatmentforthistypeofdiseaseexpelstheheatofthelung,cleansthelarynx,andrelaxestherespiratorymuscles,thusopeningthethoraxandcreatinga favorableconditionforthediaphragmbymanagingthefire.* TheLungisrelatedtothefuorgan,largeintestine. TheKidney Thekidneystoresthesurpluschingch'i.Thewater,grain,andgrasspossesstheirownchingch'iwhentheyenterthebody.This,plusthesurpluschingch'inotusedby thebody,isstoredinthekidney.Thechingch'iisstoredinfluidformandiscalledkidneyfluid.Thereisaconstantconversionofthebodychingch'iintostoredch'i andasimultaneousconversionofthestoredch'ifortheuseofthewholebody.**Thekidneyalsocontrolstheflowofexcessivewaterforexcretionandtherefore regulatesthequantityofwaterretainedbythebody. Acoordinationoftherightandleftkidneyscateringtotheneedoftheindividualdependsonthebalanceofyinandyang.Aninsufficiencyofyangcausesdiarrhea,and aninsufficiencyofyincausesconstipationandoliguria.Treatmentfortheformeris"warmstrengthening"ofthekidneytreatmentofthelatterincludesthenourishment ofkidneyyin.Furthermore,whenkidneyfunctionisdisordered,adisturbanceofthetransformationofch'imakesitimpossibleforthech'itocondenseintokidneyfluid andmaycauseanaccumulationofthefluid,resultinginedema,ascites,andbladderretention. Fortreatingthesediseases,itisnecessarytostrengthenthekidneyyinandkidneyyangsothatthetwomayproperlyregulatethefluidofthebody.Thekidneyhasits ownch'i,whichisalsoreferredtoaskidneyyin.Thisch'icontrolsreproduction. Thech'istoredinthekidneyincludesthech'iforcopulation.Whendomesticanimalsbecomemature,theyhaveasufficientamountofch'iforreproduction.Whenthey growold,theproductionofch'idiminishesorevenstopsandreproductiveabilityisreducedorlost.Clinically,reproductivedisordersincludeaninsufficientsexdrive inthemaleanimal,sterility,andaninconspicuousandinaccuratematingperiodinthefemale.Thetreatmentforthistypeofdisorderistostrengthenthekidneys. Thekidneyproducesandregulateswater.Thekidneyfluidisyinandwherethereisyin,thereisyang.Ifphysiologicalconditionistobenormal,yinandyangmustbe inbalance.Therefore,abalanceofwaterandfireismandatorytomaintaingoodhealth(seeTheTheoryofFiveElements,p.9).Thefireofthekidneyisthefireofthe "gateoflife",themanifestationofwhichisthesexdrive.Ifthefireofthegateoflifeisinsufficient,impotencyandothersymptomsofreproductivedisorderswill appear.Ifthefireofthegateoflifeisinexcess,thesexdrivewillbehyperactive.Therefore,thetreatmentoftheformerdisorderistonification(seepp.2122)ofthe kidneyandstrengtheningoftheyangtreatmentofthelatteristonificationofyinandloweringofthefire. TheFuOrgans Becauseeachfuorganhasarelationshiptooneofthets'angorgans,illnessinafuorganisfirstmanifestedinats'angorgan.Thesemanifestationsareeasily recognized. TheGallbladder Thegallbladderstoresbile.*Itisconsideredthe"pure"organbecause,whiletheotherfuorgans
*

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi.

**InNeiChing,"Shuwen"section,inthechapter"Shangkut'ienlun"("Ancienttheoryoftheconstituentsoftheuniverse"). *InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,"Liveristhets'angorganofwindandgallbladderisthefuorganofclearness." InLuiChing(TreatiseofClassification)andinYuan

(footnotecontinuedonnextpage)

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storethenutrientsandresiduesofthedigestedwater,grass,andgrains,bilefromthegallbladderisapureproductthatissecretedintothesmallintestinetohelp digestion. Theliverisyinandthegallbladderisyang.Inclinicalpractice,itisnotuncommontoseegallbladderdisorders.Inmostcasestheyareapathologicalsignthattheyang oftheliverhasoverflowed.* TheStomach Thestructureofthestomachisdifferentindifferentanimalsforexample,cattle,goats,andcamelshavefourstomachs.Chineseveterinarymedicineconsidersthese stomachsasingleorgan. Thestomachabsorbswater,grain,andgrass,andseparatesthemintousableandunusablenutrients.Thech'iofthestomachisessentialtolifebecauseitaidsin transformingthenutrientsintochingch'i,whichsupportsthech'iofthebody,inturnmaintainingandperpetuatingthelifesustainingfunctions.Ifthegastricch'iisweak, thecapacityofthestomachforstorageandseparationisreduced,andsplenicfunctionisimpaired.Thesupplyofnutrientstotheotherts'angandfuorgansandother partsofthebodyisreduced,andillnessresults.** TheRelationshipbetweenSpleenandStomach Thespleenandthestomachcooperatetosupplythebodywithnutrientsasfarasthefunctionalcharacteristicsareconcerned.Thespleenisyinandthestomachis yang.Undernormalconditions,thecharacteristicsinteractwitheachother,establishinganequilibrium.However,underpathologicconditions,disordersofoneorgan adverselyaffecttheother. Iftheyangofthestomachisinsufficient,andthereisanexcessofcold,therewillbecoldsymptoms.Forexample,iftheanimalhasastomachcold,salivationbecomes excessive.Ifapighasastomachcold,vomitingoccurs.Indisordersofthisnature,thepulseisslowandweak,andthecolorsofthemoutharegreenandyellow.*** Totreatthisdisease,thespleenshouldbestrengthened,thestomachandtheintestineshouldbewarmed,andthets'angorgansshouldbetonified.Foracupuncture treatment,hotneedleinsertionismadeintopishu(T10). Ifhorsesareexcessivelylaboredandheataccumulatesandspreadsinthestomach,thefireofthestomachisdistributedthroughoutthesixts'angorgans,resultingin heatsyndrome.Thesymptomsaregeneralmalaise,lossofappetite,lungweakness,anddislikeofwater.Treatmentofthisdiseaseincludesprescriptionsforclearing stomachheat,coolingthespleen,andsweepingawaytheaccumulation. Indigestioninhorses,camels,andgoatsarediseasesofstomachheat. TheSmallIntestine Thesmallintestineextractsthechingch'ioriginallyinfoodandsendsittothekidneyforstorage.Italsoseparatesthech'itobeexcretedintofluidandsolidpartsand sendsthefluidtotheurinarybladderandthesolidtothelargeintestine. Ifthebasicfunctionofthesmallintestineisimpaired,diseasesresult.Ifmorefluidthannormalstaysinthelargeintestine,lessurinewillbesecretedanddiarrheawill result.Ifanexcessiveamountoffluidisretainedbytheurinarybladder,therewillbeexcessiveurinesecretionandconstipationtherefore,intreatingdiarrhea,diuretic medicineisusedsothatmorewaterwillenterthebladder.|| TheRelationshipoftheHearttotheIntestine Theheartisrelatedtothesmallintestine,afuorgan.Theclinicalsignsthatillustratethisrelationshipareared,swollen,ulceratedtongueandtheproductionofsparse, coloredurine.Thetongueisrelatedtotheheart,andsymptomsrelatedtothetonguemayindicateexcessiveheatintheheart.Symptomsofabnormalurineprovide evidencethatthefireoftheheartissoexcessivethatitrunsdownwardintothesmallintestine.Asaresult,thenutrients,ch'i,andbloodarenotinharmony,causing productionofurinewithabloodycolor.Theprinciplefortreatingthediseaseistocleartheheatoftheheartusingthediureticmethod. (footnotecontinuedfrompreviouspage)
HengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"WangLianghsienshiht'ient'iwuts'anglun".
*

InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapters"MaShihHuangwuts'anglun"and"Chingchuwuts'anglun".

**InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"MaShihHuangwuts'anglun",itsays,"Thestomachisthefuorganforwaterandrice".Also,seethechapter"MaShihHuangpahsieh lun"("EightevilsbyMaShihHuang"). ***InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"Shuichingwuts'anglun"theidenticalchapterisfoundinYuanHengLiaoMaChi. InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"Mashihhuangwuts'anglun". ||InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Cheworyiehsoulun"(Themanagementofcommondiseases"). InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"Mashihhuangwuts'anglun".

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TheLargeIntestine Thelargeintestineisthefuorganfortransportingmaterialtobeexcreted.Differentanimalspecieshavestructuraldifferencesinthelargeintestineforexample,the cecumofthehorseisbetterdeveloped.TheprinciplesofChineseveterinarymedicine,however,applytothesevariationsinstructure. Thelargeintestineisrelatedtothelung,ats'angorgan.Thelargeintestineconsolidates,clears,anddriestheresiduepassingfromthesmallintestineandreducesitfor passagefromthebody. Thelargeintestineisthemainthoroughfarebywhichcontaminatedch'iisexcreted,expellingtheportionofthecontaminatedch'inotexcretedbyrespiration.The contaminatedch'iisthenexcretedthroughtheanusintheformofsolidwaste. Diseasesofthelargeintestineareshownbythestateofthesolidwaste.Forexample,ifthelargeintestineisexcessivelydry,constipationisevident.Iftheorganis excessivelymoist,diarrhearesults.Thelargeintestineisresponsiblefortheexcretionofthecontaminatedch'i.Whenthereisnoobstruction,descendenceofthe contaminatedch'iisrapid,correspondingtotherapidascendenceofthecontaminatedgaseousch'ifromthelungs.Theexcretionofthegaseousch'iisinbalancewith theexcretionofthesolidch'i.Ifthelungisnotfunctioningproperly,thegaseousch'iwilldescendtoseekexcretion,causingintestinaldifficulties.Iftheexcretionof solidwasteisinefficient,thecontaminatedch'iwilltrytoascendandinvadelungch'i,causingrespiratoryailments.Theseconditionsfurthercausetheheatofthelung andasthmaticdisorders.Treatmentshouldfocusonsweepingawaytheobstructionsfortheswiftflowofch'iandtodispersetheaccumulationofheat.Forconstipated animalswithoutasthmaticdisorders,itshouldaidthelungtoresistascendenceofch'iandhelpcontaminatedch'itodescend. Treatmentoflargeintestinech'ideficiencyisbytonificationofthelungch'i.*Inhorsesanddonkeys,thedeficiencytypeofanalprolapsesyndromeismostlycausedby theoverlaboringofthelung.Theeffectofthelunginjuryistransmittedintothelargeintestine,causingweaknessandlossoflargeintestinefunction. TheUrinaryBladder Theurinarybladderstorespollutedfluidforexcretion.Becausethequantityofwaterinthebodyofananimalisconstant,andexcessivewaterisexcretedthroughthe surfaceofthebodyassweatandthroughtheurinarybladderasurine,thereisacloserelationshipbetweenfluid,sweat,andurine. Bodyfluidisdepletedrapidlywhenperspirationanddiarrheaareexcessive.Thus,theamountofurineoutputisdiminished.Conversely,urineoutputisincreasedas thebodyfluidincreasesforexample,whentheanimaldoesnotperspireafterdrinkingalargequantityofwater.** Theyangch'iofthekidneyisnecessaryfortheformationofurine.Therefore,ifkidneyyangisweak,ch'iformationisinsufficient.Thefluiddoesnotbecomeurine, causingdiarrheaandedema.Reducedurinesecretioncausedbykidneych'iinsufficiencycanbetreatedbytonificationofthekidneych'iandstrengtheningofthe originalyang. Urinarybladderdisordersaremanifestedbyabnormalurine.Theaccumulationofmoistureandheatdisruptsurinarybladderfunction,causinganaccumulationofsand andstones,andthusblockingtheureter. TheTripleBurner Thetripleburnerisoneofthesixfuorgansandtheonlyfuorganwithoutafixedanatomiclocationandmorphology.Twotheoriesaboutthisfuorganarewidely acceptedtoday.Thefirsttheoryproposesthatthetripleburnerhasadefinitemorphologyandperformsspecificfunctions.Thesecondtheoryproposesthatthetriple burnerrepresentsagroupofspecificfunctions.Thetripleburnerasanorganinitselfisphysicallynonexistent. Thesphereoffunctionalinfluenceofthetripleburnerincludesthewholetrunkandthesixts'angandsixfuorgans.Itfacilitatesandsynchronizesthephysiological activitiesandpathologicchangesofthewholeorganism.Itfacilitatestheflowoffluid,blood,andch'ipromotesthecirculationandaidsdigestion,excretion,andother vitalfunctions.Itisamediumoftransportationandexchange. Theorganisdividedintothreeparts:theupper,middle,andlowerportions.***Theupperburnerincludestheareacephaladtothediaphragmorpylorus.Includedare thehead,neck,thorax,heart,andlungs.Themiddleburnerincludestheregionbetweentheumbilicusandthediaphragm,includingthecranialabdomen,thespleen, andstomach.Thelowerburner
*

InNeiChing,itsays,"Lungisthemasterofch'iwhenthereisadeficiencyofch'i,thereisdeficiencyofthelung." InCh'ao'sChuPingYuanHouLun. InSzuMuAnCh'iChi,inthechapter"Chingchuwuts'anglun".

**

***

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includestheregioncaudadtotheleveloftheumbilicus,includingthecaudalabdomen,theliver,largeandsmallintestines,andurinarybladder. Althoughthetripleburnerconsistsofthreeseparateportions,thesearecloselyinterrelated.Inageneralsense,thefunctionofthetripleburneristofacilitatethe circulationofch'i,blood,andfluidintheskinandmuscleandinandbetweenthets'angandfuorgans. Theupperburnerincludesthelung.Althoughthemovementofch'iisregulatedbythelung,theoriginofch'iisthemiddleburner,wheregrainandwateraredigested beforebeingtransformedintominuteelementsthatcondenseinthelungtoformchingch'i.Inthisway,themuscleandskingetthenutrientsneededtoformthewei ch'i,ordefensemechanism.Theupperburneralsoservesasthepassagewayforgrain,water,andgrasstopassthroughtothestomach.Disordersoftheupperburner arecausedbytheaccumulationofheatinthelung.Anexampleofthedisorderinthehorseisacoughandserousnasaldischarge. Themiddleburnerincludesthespleenandthestomach.Theseorgansreceivefood,whichisthendigested.Thech'i,blood,andfluidthusproducedthennourishthe wholebody.Thefunctionofthemiddleburner,therefore,istofacilitatethedistributionofch'i,blood,andfluidthroughoutthebody.Toassurethatthestomachand spleenfunctionproperly,themiddleburnerhasaregulatoryandmoderatingeffect.Thus,disordersofthemiddleburnercauseindigestion.Inthehorsethisis manifestedbylossofappetite,andincattle,bygaseousdistension. Themainfunctionsofthelowerburneraretoensuretheproperdrainageoffluid,toseparatetheclearfromthecontaminatedch'i,andtoensuretheexcretionofthe contaminatedch'iasfluidandsolidwastes.Disordersofthelowerburnerdisrupttheformationoffluidintheurinarybladder,andedema,ascites,andreductionin urineproductionarefound.* TheTheoryofFiveElements** TheYinYangTheoryandtheTheoryofFiveElementswereestablishedasindependentbranchesofChinesephysiologyduringthetimeoftheSpringandAutumn andtheWarringStatesperiods.AftertheCh'inandHandynasties,thesetwotheorieswerecombinedasbasicconceptsunderlyingChinesemedicine. TheTheoryofFiveElementspostulatesthatfiveelementsWood,Fire,Earth,Metal,andWatermakeupthefundamentalmaterialsoftheuniverse.Theindividual propertiesandinterrelationshipsofthesefiveelementsformthebasisofthetheorytoexplaintheworkingsoftheuniverse. Everythingoftheearthisconsideredtobelongtooneorseveralofthefiveelements.TheTheoryofFiveElementscategorizesallmaterialsoftheuniverse,livingor nonliving,intothefivecategoriesandthenpostulatestheirinterdependenceintermsofstimulationorinhibition,creationordestruction. ThebasicimplicationoftheYinYangTheorythatpeopleandanimalsaremicrocosmsoftheuniversewasintegratedintotheTheoryofFiveElementssothatit couldbeusedtoexplainthephysiologicalandpathologiccharacteristicsofboth.Everyorganofthelivingorganismisassignedanelementthatinteractswithelements ofotherorgansinthesamewayastheelementsintheuniverseinteractwitheachother.TheTheoryofFiveElementspostulatesthattheenvironmentaffectsthe physiologicandpathologiccharacteristicsofanimals,anditexplainsmotionandchange,notonlyintheuniversebutalsoinanimals,byconsideringtheanimalasa wholeunit,andbydescribingtheinterdependenceandselfregulatorymechanismofeachorgan. Thefiveelementsrefertocategoriesthatareeuphemisticandsymbolicforasetofcharacteristicsandfunctions.Theyarenottobetakenliterally. CharacteristicsoftheFiveElements Thefiveelementsarenotstatictheyarealwaysdynamicallyinmotionthroughtheprocessesofgrowthandtransformation. Therearetwoaspectsofchangeintheuniversethechangesresultingfromthegrowthanddevelopmentoflivingorganismsandthetransformationofnonliving materials,andchangesintheenvironment.Environmentalchangesdirectlyaffectthegrowthandtransformationoflivingandnonlivingmaterials.Chinesephilosophy postulatesfivefundamentalchangesthattakeplaceinnature.Thesearerelatedtothefiveelementsoftheuniverseandtoenvironmentalchanges.Humanbeingsand animalsalsogothroughfivefundamentalchangescorrespondingtothechangesinnature.TherelationshipsareshowninTable11.Theinteractionofthefiveelements servesasadescriptionoftherulethatregulatesthe
*

InNanChing,the31stquestionandanswer. InShangShu,inthechapter"Hungfan"("Granddimension").Alsoin"Shuwen",NeiChing,inthechapter"Yinyangyinghsingtalun".

**

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Figure11. DiagramaticrepresentationoftheTheoryofFive Elements.Thesolidlineisthecreationcycleandthe brokenlineisthedestructioncycle.SIsmall intestineHheartSTstomachSPspleen LUlungLIlargeintestineKkidney BbladderGBgallbladderLIVliverTH tripleburnerPpercardium.

universalpatternofchanges.Thisinteractionisduplicatedintheorganisms. Thebasicrulegoverningtheinteractionofthefiveelementsisthatofmutualcreationandmutualdestructionbothofwhichoccursimultaneouslyintheuniverseandin theorganismtomaintainequilibrium.Pathologicconditionsoccurwhentheregulatedrelationshipofcreationanddestructionisdisrupted. TheorderofmutualcreationisshowninFigure11:woodcreatesfirefirecreatesearthearthcreatesmetalmetalcreateswaterandwatercreateswood. Woodmaybeburnedtherefore,itcreatesfire.Thematerials,beingburnedinthefire,becomeashtherefore,firecreatesearth.Earthiswherethemineralsare locatedfromwhichthemetalisextractedtherefore,earthcreatesmetal.Themoistureoftheaircondensesonmetaltobecomewaterdroptherefore,metalcreates water.Waterprovidesthemoisturenecessaryforthegrowthofvegetationtherefore,watercreateswood. Atthesametime,mutualdestructiontakesplace.Mutualdestruction,orinhibition,isdesignedtolimitoverdevelopmentandexcessivecreation.Theorderofmutual destructionisalsoshowninFigure11:wooddestroysearthearthdestroyswaterwaterdestroysfirefiredestroysmetalandmetaldestroyswood. Therootsofthetreestretchintotheearthandabsorbthenutrientstherefore,wooddestroysearth.Anearthendamcanlimittheflowofwatertherefore,earth destroyswater.Firemeltsmetaltherefore,firedestroysmetal.Metalcanbeanaxetocutdownthetreetherefore,metaldestroyswood.Itcanbeseenthateach elementcreatesanddestroysanothersimultaneously,whileitisbeingcreatedanddestroyedbyanotherelement.Forexample,woodcreatesfireanddestroysearth whileitiscreatedbywateranddestroyedbymetal. Thesameprinciplesareapplicabletothets'angandfuorgans.Eachts'angorganstimulatesandinhibitsanotherts'angorganandstimulatesandinhibitsafuorgan,and atthesametimeitisbeingcreatedanddestroyedbyanotherts'angorganandanotherfuorgan.Thesameistrueforthefuorgans.(Fig.11). Thereiswhatiscalledthemotherandsonrelationshipinmutualcreationanddestruction.Becausewatercreateswood,itissaidthatwateristhemotherand woodistheson. Themotherandsonrelationshipisalsoimportanttotheconceptofmutualdestruction.Bothcreationanddestructionarenormallyunidirectionalhowever,under pathologicconditions,thereisaphenomenonofreverseinhibition.Forexample,whentherelativestrengthofthewaterdiminishes,firewilldestroywater.This conceptisalsoapplicabletothets'angandfuorgans. MutualRegulationoftheFiveElements Mutualregulationisthestateofequilibriumhavingabalanceofcreationanddestruction.Equilibriumisthefundamentalruleoftheuniverse.Ifcreationordestruction dominates,theanimalcannotmaintainanormal,wellbalanceddevelopment.Forexample,waterdestroysfirehowever,watercreateswood,andwoodcreatesfire. Therefore,equilibriumisgainedthroughthewellcoordinatedprocessesofmutualcreationanddestruction.Noneofthecategoriesdefinedbyeachofthefive elementsisabsoluteorstatic.Undercertainconditions,allofthesecategoriesareinthestateoftransformation. TheRelationshipoftheYinYangTheoryandtheTheoryofFiveElementsinChineseMedicine TheTheoryofFiveElementsutilizesallthebasicconceptseitherstatedorimpliedbytheYinYang

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Theory:(1)theneedforbalance,(2)theinterdependencebetweenlivingorganismandenvironment,and(3)therelationshipofthedestructionofimbalance(dueto excessordeficiency)topathologicconditions.DiagnosisandtherapyinChinesemedicineutilizetheYinYangTheoryasaframework,andtheTheoryofFive Elementsforspecificguidelinestorecognizepathologicconditions. Etiology InChineseveterinarymedicine,diseaseresultsfromanimbalanceinyinandyangtosuchanextentthatthebody,byitself,cannotreestablishthebalance.Thus,the veterinarianattemptstoreestablishthebalancebystrengtheningthehealthy,orthenormal,signsoftheorganismanddestroyingtheunhealthyorabnormal,signs. Thesesignsarecalledchen,orhsieh.* Diagnosis Inordertotreatsuccessfully,theChineseveterinarianattemptstodiagnosebygoingthroughaseriesofsteps.Hefirstchecksthecolorofthemouthandtongue,the typeofpulses,andtheconditionoftheorifices(eyes,mouth,nose,ears,andtongue)(seeTable11).Eachofthesemaymanifestabnormalsignsofthets'angorfu organs. Eachabnormalsignmaybeclassifiedashotorcold(yinoryanginnature),**deficientorfull(duetodeficiencyoroverabundanceofch'iandblood),*andsuperficial ordeep(inaccordancetoitsseverity,itsrelationshiptots'angorfuorgan,oritsactuallocation).Afterhehasdeterminedallthatisabnormal,heascribesthesignsas belongingtooneorseveralsyndromes:moisture,dryness,heat,cold,wind,fire.Thesenamesareeuphemisticandserveonlytocategorizecertainsigns,for acupunctureprescriptionsalsoincludethesecategories.Thesenames,ratherthandescribingthenatureofthedisease,refertoaninternalorexternalfactorcausingthe diseasebecauseitisbelievedthatdiseasesarecausedbyenvironmentalfactorsthatinfluenceinternalweaknessorabuses. FourProcedurestodeterminetheAbnormalSigns Therearefourstepsinthediagnosticprocedure:observation,listening,questioning,andpalpation. Observation Observation,vitalsigns,color,posture,actions,andotherexternalsignsareobservedbytheveterinarianandcombinedwithotherinformationinordertofinda properdiagnosisanddetermineaprescription. Accordingtotheconceptsofthets'angandfuorgans,observationoftheexternalfeaturesofthedomesticanimalprovidesinformationonthephysiologicalconditions oftheinternalorgansforexample,thetonguecorrespondstotheheartandtheeyescorrespondtotheliver.Fromtheurine,itispossibletodeterminediseasesofthe urinarybladderfromstoolexamination,pathologicchangesinthestomachandintestine.Fromobservationofthelimbs,diseasesofthelegsandhoovescanbefound. Skindiseasessuchasfuruncles,pustules,andcarbuncles,indicateconditionsofthebloodandch'i. Becausedifferentspeciesofanimalshavedifferentmorphologies,toproperlynoticetheabnormalsignsitisessentialthatthenormalsignsoftheindividualanimalare known. Observationemphasizesdifferentfactors.Forexample,inthepig,behaviorduringfeeding,urine,andstoolexcretionshouldbenotedincattle,normalorabnormal sweatingonthenoseinhorses,thestandingandlyingposturesbecausetheyindicatepainfulspotsinsheep,whetheritstayswiththeflockinchickens,thecondition ofthecrownandthewings.ObservationofthecolorofthemouthisaveryspecialfeatureofChineseveterinarymedicine,becausethestateofch'iandbloodis shownbythecolorofthemouth. Therelationshipofcolortothevariouspartsofthemouthandtheintestinesisdescribedinthefollowingparagraphs. 1.Thelips.Thespleencorrespondstothelips,andthespleenisrelatedtothestomach.Therefore,changesinthelipsreflectdiseasesofthespleenandstomach. Ifthesickanimalhasredlips,excessive"heat"ispresentinthespleen.Yellowlipsindicateexcessive"coldmoisture"ofthespleenmeridian.Whitelipsindicate"cold" inthespleenandstomach.Greenlipsindicateapoorprognosis. 2.Theteeth.Thegumsoftheteetharerelatedtothestomachandintestinestherefore,changesinthegumsoccurifthestomachandintestinesaresick.
*

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapters"Chenchenlun"(Chensyndrome),and"Hsiehchenlun"(Hsiehsyndrome).

**InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapters"Hanchenlun"(Hansyndrome)and"Jechenlun"(Jesyndrome). *InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapters"Shuchenlun"(Shusyndrome)and"Sseechenlun"(Sseesyndrome). InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapters"Piaochenlun"(Piaosyndrome)and"Leichenlun"(Leisyndrome).

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Ifthegumsarescarletanddry,thereis"heat"inthestomachandintestinesifwhite,moistandslippery,thereis"cold"inthestomachandintestine.Ifthegumsandthe tipofthetonguearescarlet,thereis"heat"intheheartmeridian,asincasesofhematuria.Ifthegumsarewhiteandthetongueisafaintyellowwithadditionaldifficulty inthemovementofthelowbackregion,backpaincausedby"cold"ispresentifthegumsareulcerousandbleeding,withbadbreathandthirst,thereisa''fullness" typeof"heat". 3."Silkworms."Thereareelevatedareasonbothsidesofthebaseofthetongue,saidtoresemblesilkworms,theleftonecorrespondstotheliver(goldengate)the rightcorrespondstothelung(jadehouse).Thesetwoareasreflectdiseasesofthesetwoorgans. Ifthegoldengateisgreen,thereis"wind"inthelivermeridianifyelloworincombinationwithayellowcoloroftheinsidemembranesoftheeyes,mouth,andnose, jaundiceispresentifred,thereisliver"heat".Thejadehousecorrespondstothelung.Ifitiswhite,thereis"cold"anddeficiencyinbothch'iandblood. 4.Thetongue.Thecornifiedcoatingofthetonguereflectsthefunctionalstateoftheheart.Clinically,observationsofchangesincolor,temperature,andmoistureof thetongueprovideevidenceoftheconditionsofch'iandblood,thetypeofsyndrome("cold"or"hot","fullness"or"deficiency","external"or"internal")andthe prognosis. Therearetwocategoriesofchangesinthetongue:coldorhot.Incoldsyndromes,circulationofch'iandbloodisslow.Ifthisconditionismild,thetongueisdarkred ifsevere,itisgreenpurple.Ifthetongueisdarkgreen,anemergencyisindicated.Inhotsyndromes,thecirculationofch'iandbloodareaccelerated.Ifthecondition ismild,thecolorisredifsevere,scarletifdarkpurple,anemergencyisindicated. Differenttechniquesareusedforobservingmouthcolorindifferentanimals.Theemphasisisalsodifferent.Inthepig,thecolorofthetongue,gum,lips,silkwormand mouthcornerismostimportant(thecharacteristicsarethesameasforthetongue).Incattle,thetongueandsilkwormareemphasizedingoatsandcamels,thecolor ofthetongue. Listening(IncludingHearingandSmelling) Thesoundstheveterinarianshouldlistenforarecrying,coughing,heavybreathing,shortnessofbreath,belching,grindingofteeth,andarumblingstomach.Heavy breathingandshortnessofbreatharerelatedtolungdisordersbelching,todisordersofthespleenandstomachthegrindingofteethandmoaning,tokidney disordersrumbling,tointestinaldisorders.Theabilitytodistinguishthenatureofsoundishelpfulindeterminingthenatureoftheorganindisorder. Underhealthyconditions,thech'iandbloodoftheanimalarewellregulated,andtheanimaldoesnothaveanyparticularodorsexceptitsown.Whentheanimalis sick,thecirculationofch'iandbloodisnotproperlyregulatedandmetabolismisabnormal,thusproducingchangesinsecretions,suchasthosefromthemouth,nose, anus,andskin,andchangesinodor. Questioning Inthisdiagnosticprocedure,thecasehistoryoftheanimalistakenfromitsowner.Understandingthemanagementandfeedingofthesickanimalandthecourseofthe diseaseisnecessarytoformacorrectdiagnosis.Theage,sex,andhistoryofthesickanimalmustberecorded. Theownershouldalwaysbequestionedaboutsigns,appetite,respiration,abdominalpain,feces,andurine.Forexample,ifthesickanimalhaslostitsappetiteand alsodrinksverylittlewater,thereisadeficiencyorweaknessofstomachch'i.Ifthesickanimalhasagoodappetite,thediseaseismild.Ifthereisacompletelossof appetite,thedisorderissevere. Palpation Inadditiontoordinarypalpation,pulsereadingsonthemedialsideofthefemur,characteristicchangesinsensoryresponse,andchangesinbodysurfacetemperature andconditionmustbechecked.Pulsediagnosisisthemostimportantpartofpalpation,becausechangesinpulsesexplaintheriseandfallofthelevelsofch'iand bloodinthebody.* Sitesfortakingthepulsevaryindifferentspecies,andevenwithinaspeciesseveralsitescanbeused. HorseMostveterinariansagreethatthepreferredsiteforpulsediagnosisisonthechest,lateraltothetrachea.Thepointsarelocatedcephaladanddorsadtothe sternum,atthedepressionlateraltothetrachea.Thisisthepassagewayofthech'iandblood.Eacharea(oneoneachsideofthetrachea)isdividedintothree sections.Ontherightside,there
*

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Mosselun"(Onpulseandcolor).

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Figure12. Locationofthepulsesinthehorse.

arethree"gates".Ontheleft,therearethree"portions". Thethreeportionsaretheupper,middle,andthelower.Thethreegatesarethefenggate,thech'igateandtheminggate.Thethreeportionsandthethreegates correspondtothevariousts'angandfuorgans.Theleftupperportioncorrespondstotheheartandthesmallintestinetheleftmiddleportioncorrespondstoliverand gallbladdertheleftlowerportioncorrespondstokidneyandurinarybladdertherightfenggatecorrespondstothelungsandlargeintestinetherightch'igate correspondstothespleenandstomachtherightminggatecorrespondstothetripleburnerandthechingch'iofthekidney(Fig.12). Inpulsediagnosis,theanimalshouldbekeptcalm,anddiagnosisshouldstartontheleftsideoftheanimal.Theveterinarianstandsontherightsideoftheanimaland useshisrighthandinthediagnosis.Theindexfingerpressestheupperportionthemiddlefingerpressesthemiddleportiontheringfingerpressesthelowerportion. Then,theveterinarianturnstotheleftsideoftheanimalanduseshislefthandtopalpatetherightsideoftheanimal.Theindexfingerpressesthefenggatethemiddle fingerpressesthech'igatetheringfingerpressestheminggate. ThemethodjustdescribedisusedbythosepracticingChineseveterinarymedicine.However,afewpractitionersusethesubmandibularareaofthehorsein diagnosingtherightside.Theveterinarianstandsontheanteriorrightsideoftheanimaltherighthandonthehead.Theindex,middle,andringfingersofthelefthand arepressedonthefacialarteryofthesubmandibulararea.Then,theveterinarianturnstotheothersidethelefthandfixestheheadoftheanimaltheindex,middle, andringfingersoftherighthandpressthearteryoftheleftsubmandibulararea. Ineachoftheportionsorgates,therearethreelevelsofpulsediagnosisthatis,threelevelsofpressureareappliedtothepulse.Thelightlevelofpressureisthefu, or"superficial,"levelthemediumlevelofpressureisthechunglevelandthech'enlevelisthedeeppulsetakenbyheavyfingerpressure. Pulsediagnosisshouldbedonewhentheanimaliscalm.Thethumbisfirstpressedhardontheside

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contralateraltothepulsetakingposition,andthethreefingersforpulsetakingareslightlycurvedtodeterminetheaccuratepositionformeasuringthepulserateand pulsephenomena,suchas"large"or"small",''hung"or"hsien","fu"or"ch'en"and"hua"or"sse"(seeTypesofPulse,below). Thepractitionercarefullyexaminestheindividualpulsephenomena.First,theindexfingertakesthefuleveloftheheartpulse.Hethenpresseshardertotakethechung orthemediumlevel.Finallytheveterinarianusesthemiddlefingertoconcentrateonthefu,chung,andch'ensectionsandgates. SwineThesitefortakingthepulseisatthemedialsideoftheposteriorthigh.Whenthepulseisbeingtaken,theownerofthepigmustkeepthesickanimalcalmand atrest,andtheveterinarianshouldstayonthelateralsideofthepig,withhishandinsertedalongtheabdominalwalltowardtheposterior,topressonthearteryatthe medialsideofthethigh. CattleThesitefortakingthepulseincattleisusuallythetailarteryattherootofthetailneartheanus.Whentakingthepulse,theveterinarianstandsattheimmediate posterioroftheanimalthelefthandslightlyraisestheanimal'stailwiththeindexfinger,themiddlefinger,andtheringfingeronthemiddleoftheproximalthree segmentsofthetail.Thevariouspressuresofthefingerswillhelplocatethecorrectpositionfortakingthepulse.Otherlocationssuchastherootoftheearandthe legareseldomused. GoatThesitefortakingthepulseisatthearteryofthemedialsideofthethigh.Themethodisthesameasthatusedinswine. Askillfultechniqueisveryimportantinpulsediagnosis.Toachieveanaccuratediagnosis,itisnecessaryforbeginnerstopracticefrequently.Duringpulsetaking,itis necessaryforthepractitionertostaycalmandconcentrate. Changesinpulsephenomenaindomesticanimalsoccurnotonlyindiseases,butalsoinhealthyanimalswhenthereareweatherchanges.Inhotweather,thecirculation ofch'iandbloodiscomparativelyfaster."Hsien"and"huang"typesofpulseappear.However,incolderweather,thecirculationofch'iandbloodisslower."Mao" and"shik"typesofpulseappear. Changesinpulsephenomenamayberelatedtopoormanagementinfeedingandlabor.Forexample,inafullyfedhorse,hungpulsemaybefound.Ifthehorseis improperlyfed,deficiencytypesofpulseappear.Aftergalloping,theshupulseisusuallyfound. Pulsephenomenaarealsorelatedtotheageandphysicalconditionoftheanimal.Forexample,inhealthyadultsthepulseisstrongandconspicuous.Fat,strong animalshavestrongpulsesskinny,weakanimalsusuallyhaveweak,threadypulses. TypesofPulseThereareonlyfourtypesofpulseforpigs,cattle,andgoatstheyarefu,ch'en,shu,andch'ih.Horseshaveallthedifferenttypesofpulsediscussed below(Fig.13).Ingeneral,thenatureofthepulsecanbedividedintop'ing(normal),fan(reversed),andyie(changed): 1.P'ingmo(normalpulse).Thispulseispeacefulandmoderate.Inhealthydomesticanimals,thenumberofpulsebeatsare:pigs,5080/minutecattle,6080/minute horses,3644/minutegoats,7080/minuteandcamel,3252/minute. Pulsephenomenainthehealthyanimalchangewiththeweather:spring,hsienmosummer,maomoandwinter,shihmo.However,whateverthevariation,thepulse mustflowevenlywithoutinterruption. 2.Fanmo(reversepulse).Thispulseistheoppositeofthenormalpulse,asignthattheanimalissick.Forexample,inspringandsummer,thetemperatureisrelatively high.Physiologicalactivitiesintheanimalareattheirpeakandthepulseshouldbehsienandhung.Ifthepulseisfastandstrong,itisanindicationofanexcessch'i, andtheanimalissick.Differenttypesofreversepulsearedescribedinthefollowingparagraphs. Fumoisalight,flowingpulse,thenatureofwhichisyang,indicatingwind,andadeficiencysyndrome.Thesymptomsareforcold(seepp.11and12):haironthe end,feverandcough,gaseousdistensionandnasaldischarge.Thispulsemaybedividedintofloatingfirm,orfloatinginfirm.Thefloatingfirmpulseindicates superficialheatsyndromesthefloatinginfirmpulse,superficialanddeficiencysyndromes. Ch'enmoisadeeppulsethatcanbefeltonlyiftheveterinarianpressesdeeply.Thech'enmoindicatesdeepsyndromes.Itappearsinindigestionandoverlabor.Itis dividedinto"deepfirm"or"deepinfirm"types.Ifitisdeepandfirm,thereisadeepandfullnesssyndrome.Ifitisdeepandinfirm,thereisadeepanddeficiency syndrome. Ch'ihmoisaslowpulse,mainlyindicatingcoldsyndromes.Ch'ihmoappearsinsickanimalswithexcessivelaborproducingweaknessofch'iandindeficientand coldsyndromesofthespleenandstomach.Ch'ihmoalsohasfirmandinfirmtypes.Ifthech'ihmoisfirm,excessivecoldsyndromesare

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Figure13. Diagramaticrepresentationofthecharacteristicfeelingofthequalityofthedifferentpulses.

mostlikelyindicatedforexample,gastroenteritisandgastrointestinalspasmodicpain.Ifthech'ihmoisinfirm,deficientcoldsyndromesareindicatedforexample, droolingandanalprolapse. Shumoisaquickpulse,whichcanbefeltwithalight,superficialpressure.Shumoindicatesmainlyexcessiveheatsyndromes.Thesickanimalhasadrymouthand tongue,oligurea,andconstipation,andheataccumulationofthets'angandfuorgans.Shumomaybefirmorinfirm.Iftheshumoisfirm,anexcessandheatsyndrome isindicated.Iftheshumoisinfirm,adeficientandheatsyndromeisindicated. Hsienmoisatautpulse,thefeelingofwhichislikeatremulousmusicalstring.Superficialsyndromesareindicatedbythehsienmo,anditisfoundinanimalswithwind andobstructionofthecirculationofch'iandblood,as,forexample,intetanus.Furthermore,italsoindicatesaliverdisease,suchasinliverheat(influenza). Huangmoisafull,overflowingpulse,boundingandforceful.Huangmoisyanginnatureandindicatesheat,asinanaccumulationofheatinthetripleburner,oral sores,abscesses,andothersyndromesofexcessiveheat. Huamoisaslipperypulse.Thepulseisstrongandforceful,yetrolling(likerollingpearlsinthetray).Theslipperypulseindicatesthattheanimalisfullofch'i,anditis anindicationofthecompetitionofthech'iofthebodyandtheinvadingch'i.Huamoisoftenfoundconcomitantlywiththeshumopulse.Huamoisequivalenttoshu andfirmpulsephenomena,anditindicatesafullnesssyndromeorfullnessandheatsyndromes. Ssemoisafeebleandintermittentpulse.Itiscausedbyadeficiencyofbloodandfluid,oranobstructionoftheflowofch'iandblood.Theanimalshowsageneral malaise,chronicdiarrhea,andacoldnessofearsandnose.Itindicatesadeficiencyandcoldsyndrome. K'oumoisalarge,hollow,superficial,softpulse.Itfeelslikeoneissqueezinganonionstalk.Itindicatesdeficiencyandfeebleness,andiscausedbyasuddenlossof bloodandfloatinganddispersionoftheyangtypeofch'i.Thispulseisusuallyfoundinanimalswithexcessivebleedingduetotraumaticinjury,hematuria,adeficiency ofch'i,andaweaknessofblood. Hsimoisasmall,slender,feeblepulse.Itfeelsperceptibleandthin,likeasilkthread.Itisfoundinchronicallydebilitatedanimals. 3.Yiemo(changedpulse).Therearefivekindsofyiemo.Thepulsephenomenaindicatesignsofcriticalstagesofthelifeoftheanimal.

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Thepickingpulseisirregularwithamissingbeatineverythreeoffourbeats.Itisfoundinthelatestagesofgangrene. Theleakingpulsehasanirregulartimeintervalbetweenfeeblebeats.Itisfoundinlatestagesofacuteheartfailure.Adescriptivefeatureofthepulseisthatitislike leakingwaterdropsfromtheceiling. Theentangledpulseisfastandfeeblethebeatisirregularandintermittent.Itisfoundinhorsegangrene. Thedashingpulseisverysuperficialitmaysuddenlydisappearandreappear.Itisfoundingastrointestinalruptureinhorse,andhasbeendescribedasashrimp swimmingveryclosetothesurfaceofwater. Thepuffingpulseislikepuffingbubblesfromboiledwater.Itindicatestheterminalstagesofadiseaseresultingfromafailureofthefivets'angorgans. Ifproperlymastered,pulsediagnosisinChineseveterinarymedicineissupposedtobeofgreatprognosticvalue. AcupuncturePointsandtheMeridianTheory Anacupuncturepointisaspecificallydesignatedlocationonthebodysurface.Itissometimescalledthestimulatingpoint.AccordingtoChinesemedicalconcepts, thepointsarenotisolatedsitesonthesurfaceofthebodyofhumansandanimals,butarelinkedwithvisceralorgans.* Therelationshipsbetweentheacupuncturepointsonthesurfaceofthebodyandtheviscerainsideareasfollows:Fromtheinsideofthebodytotheoutsidedisease ofanareacauseslocalpointsonthesurfaceofthebodytobecometender.Fromtheacupuncturepointsonthesurfaceofthebodytowardtheviscerastimulating theacupuncturepointonthesurfaceofthebodycauseshealingoftheproblem.Whenapersonoranimalissick,certainsitesonthesurfaceofthebodydemonstrate sensitivityoralocaltendernesswithappliedpressure.Forexample,inhumanstomachdisease,therearelocal"tenderpoints"intheregionsoftheskincorresponding totheheartinhumanappendicitis,thetenderpointsappearonthesurfaceofthelowerrightabdomenandonthelateralsurfaceofthetibia.Thetenderpointsarethe basisofthelocationofacupuncturepoints. Anaccumulationofclinicalexperienceindicatesthatmanyacupuncturepointsarefoundtohavehealingeffectsnotonlyonlocalizedoradjacentareas,butalsoon distantareas.**Inordertoexplainthisrelationship,theChingLo,ortheMeridianTheory,wasestablished. Forthousandsofyears,diagnosisandtreatmentusingherbalmedicineoracupuncturedependedheavilyontheMeridianTheory.Thepracticalapplicationofthe MeridianTheoryislateincomingtoChineseveterinarymedicinecomparedwithitsapplicationinChinesehumanmedicine. ThechingloinChinesearethechannelswherethech'iandthebloodcirculate.TheChingLoTheorystatesthat,inthehumanbodyisaseriesoflargeandsmall pathwaysinterconnectedonthesurfaceandintheinteriorofthebody.Thesechannelsarecalledchingmoandlomo.Thechingmoarethemaintrunks,andthelo moarethesmalltributariesbranchingoutintheformofaweblikestructureamongthelargemaintrunks.Thelargechannelshavealargequantityofch'iandblood flowinginside,andthesmallerchannelshavesmallerquantities.Thelargechannelsaresometimescalledmeridiansthus,theChingLoTheory,orMeridianTheory. Wheneverthereisadisturbanceintheflowofch'iandbloodinthechingandlo,thereisdisease.Thesiteatwhichtheregulationorreadjustmentoftheflowofch'i andbloodcanbeachievedismainly,butnotexclusively,onthe14classicmeridians.***Theregulationofch'iandbloodisnecessaryinthetreatmentofdisease. Thechingloprovidesacommunicatingnetwork,linkingindividualacupuncturepointsonthebodytothevisceralorgans.Specificgroupsofacupuncturepointsbelong toaspecificmeridianandprovidealinktoaparticularvisceralorganthroughthedistributionofthelargechannels. Essentially,theChingLoTheoryexplainstherelationshipbetweendifferentareasofthebodysurface,therelationshipbetweenthebodysurfaceandtheinternal viscera,andtherelationshipbetweenone
*

InNanChing,the"23rdquestionandanswer",itsaysthatthetwelvemeridiansbelongtotheorgansintheinteriorofthebody,andthemeridianscommunicatewithjointsand limbs.
**

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Hsingchenlun"(Thesyndromes).Alsointhe"Shuwen"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"P'ipulun'',(Ontheskin).Literally,it says,"Theskinandthehairaresitesfromwhichdiseasesmayoriginate.Theetiologicfactorsofdiseasefirstinvadethehair,skin,andsubcutaneoustissues,enteringthechingand lo,thenintothets'angandfuorgansandatlasttheyaccumulateinthestomachandintestine.Thetwelvemeridiansaredistributedonthesurfaceoftheskin."


***

The"Lingshu"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"Chingmop'ien"(Themeridianchannels)saysthe"meridiansdeterminethediagnosisandtreatmentofdiseases".

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visceralorganandanother.TheserelationshipsprovidethemostimportantruleintheuseoftheMeridianTheoryfortherapeuticpurposes:theacupuncturepointsare prescribedonthemeridianintheareawherediseasesymptomsaremanifested. TheStructureofChingLo Thechinglohasaphysiologicandapathologicfunction.Thesixts'angorgansandsixfuorgansandothertissuesandorganshavedifferentphysiologicfunctions.The chingandloformanetworkinterconnectingallorganstomaintainanequilibrium.*Thechingandlonotonlypassivelyserveasaninterconnectingpathway,butalso havethefunctionofpromotingthecirculationofch'iandblood,sothatthets'ang,fu,andothertissuesandorganscanbeproperlynourished,maintainnormal physiologicactivities,andsustainanequilibriumofyinandyang. Thereisalwaysacloserelationshipbetweentheorganicbodyofthedomesticanimalandchangesinthesurroundingenvironment.Becausethechingandloprovidea networkbetweentheinteriorofthebodywiththeexteriorsurface,anequilibriummustalsobemaintainedbetweenthephysiologicactivitiesofthebodyandthe externalenvironment. Undernormalphysiologicconditions,themeridianfacilitatestheflowofch'iandblood,sothatwhenthediseaseinvadesthebody,thechingandloregulatethelevelof activitiesofthedefensemechanism(wei)andphysiologicactivitiesoftheorganssothatthebodyisdefendedagainstdisease.Ifthenaturaldefensemechanismofthe organicbodyisweakened,yinandyangloseequilibrium,anddiseaseentersthroughthesurfacetothechannelsofchingandlo.Forexample,"wind"and"cold"cause abdominalpainanddiarrhea.Theyenterthebodythroughtheskin,andusingthechannelsofthechingandlo,theyreachandaccumulateintheintestine.**Onthe otherhand,diseasesoftheintestinearemanifestedonthesurfacethroughchingandlo. TheApplicationofChingLoTheorytoDiagnosis*** Becausethechingandloprovidethenetworkbetweentheinternalvisceraandtheskinsurface,adiseasecanaffectthevisceralorgansthroughthesechannels.When avisceralorganisdiseased,symptomsoccurintheformoftenderpointsalongtherelatedmeridian.Accordingtothecasehistory,symptoms,andthediagnostic examinationofthetenderpoints,itispossibletodeterminewhetherthediseaseisrelatedtoonemeridianortoseveralmeridians.Fromtherelationofthemeridianto theorgans,itisthenpossibletodeterminetheaffectedorgan(s). Pathologicchangesintheacupuncturepoints(orthesiteoftenderness)haveanimportantdiagnosticsignificance.Forexample,acoughmaybecausedbydisorders ofthelungmeridianandthekidneymeridian.Todistinguishtowhichmeridianthedisorderbelongs,observationofchangesinthelocaltendernessofacupuncture pointsisessential.Furthermore,systematicknowledgeofthesymptomsofthetwomeridiansisuseful.Forexample,theasthmaticcoughofthelungmeridianindicates emphysema.Theanimalwalksslowlywiththefrontlimbfullyextended.Ontheotherhand,thecoughofthekidneymeridianisacoldcoughthatis,thetypeof coughthatismoresevereatnightandisassociatedwithothersymptoms.Duringthiscough,thehindlimbmaybeflexedtoreducethepainofthelowbackregion. TheApplicationofTheChingLoTheoryinTherapy Intherapy,medicinalherbsandacupunctureadjustthechingandlothatarenotfunctioningproperly.Therearemanywaystotreatthediseaseofoneorganbecause morethanonemeridianmayaffecttheorgan.Inotherwords,thesamediseasemaybetreatedbyusingherbsondifferentmeridians. Thepharmacologiccharacteristicsofherbsdiffer,sothatthemeridianroutesthatthepharmacologiceffectwilltaketoreachthediseasedorganandtoregulatethe obstructedch'ioftheorgandiffer.Forexample,anorallyadministeredherbordrugcantreatthediseasesofats'angorganthepharmacologicpropertyofadrugmay reachtheareaofpathologicchangeofthepropertyofchinglothatis,transportation.Therefore,thenatureofthedruginChinese
*

The"Lingshu"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"Chingmop'ien"(Themeridianchannels)says''Meridiansdeterminethediagnosisandtreatmentofdiseases."

**

InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"Hsingchenlun"(Thesyndromes).Alsoin"Shuwen"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"P'ipulun"(Ontheskin).Literally,itsays "Theskinandthehairarethesitesonwhichdiseasesmayoriginate.Theetiologicfactorsofdiseasefirstinvadethehair,skin,andsubcutaneoustissues,enteringthechingandlo, thenintothets'angandfuorgans,andatlasttheyaccumulateinthestomachandintestine.Thetwelvemeridiansaredistributedonthesurfaceoftheskin."


***

The"Lingshu"sectionofNeiChing,inthechapter"Chingmop'ien"(Themeridianchannels)says"Meridiansdeterminethediagnosisandtreatmentofdiseases."

Page18

Figure14. Drawingofahorseshowingthelocationofthetwelvemeridianpoints.LIVLiver,HN6LULung,HN18 HHeart,FL16PPericardium,FL24SPSpleen,T13KKidney,HL15THTripleBurner,FL20STStomach, FL18GBGallBladder,FL19LILargeIntestine,HL16BBladder,HL19SISmallIntestine,frontleg, TungChin(cephalicvein,justventraltothesternum).

medicineisclassifiedaccordingtoitsinteractionwiththemeridians,inadditiontothekindofdiseaseagainstwhichitiseffective.Inotherwords,toproperlyprescribe theherbalmedicineforaparticulardisease,knowledgeoftheMeridianTheoryisfundamental. Inacupuncturetreatment,somediseasesaretreatedusingacupuncturepointsclosetothesiteofdisorder.Inotherdiseases,theprescriptionofacupuncturepoints followsthelocationandflowofthemeridian.Inthehorse,forexample,acupuncturepointHN6isusedinheatsyndromeofthelivermeridian,beingtransmittedfrom thelivertotheeyesfortheheatsyndromesoftheheartmeridian,FL16isusedforthecoldsyndromeofthespleenmeridian,T10isusedforthepainsyndromeof thelungmeridian,T12isusedandfortheheatsyndromesofthekidneymeridian,HL15isused. InYuanHengLiaoMaChi,thedefinitiveworkonveterinarymedicine,thenamesoftwelveacupuncturepointsrepresentingeachofthetwelvemeridiansare mentioned(Fig.14andFig.312).TheInstituteforResearchinChineseVeterinaryMedicineoftheChineseAcademyofAgriculturalSciencetooktheposition,in June1972,thatfurthereffortisnecessarytodeterminetowhichmeridianstheunassignedacupuncturepointsbelong.1 TheMeridianTheoryisfundamentaltotheapplicationoftheYinYangTheoryandtheTheoryofFiveElementsfortheprescriptionofacupuncturepointsfollowing theflowofmeridiansindiagnosisandtreatment. TheClassificationandNomenclatureofChingLoorMeridians Inhorses,therearethreeyinandthreeyangchingineachoftheforelimbsandasimilararrangementinthehindlimbs.Thethreeyinare:lesseryin,absoluteyin,and greateryin.Thethreeyangare:sunlightyang,greateryangandlesseryang.Thesixyinandsixyangvesselsaresometimescalledthe

Page19

twelvemo.Meridiansaresometimescalledchingmo. Theclassificationandnomenclatureofmeridiansarebasedontherelationshipofparticularmeridianstospecificorgans.Becausetherearesixts'angandsixfuorgans, andthereisameridian,orching,responsibleforthelinkingoftheseorganstoeachotherandtothesurfaceofthebody,thetwelvemeridianslinkthefourlimbsand thets'angandfuorganstogetherasaunit. Themeridiansaredistributedinthelimbs,andtheyarelocatedeitherintheforelimborinthehindlimbthereareforelimbmeridiansandhindlimbmeridians. Furthermore,thets'angmeridiansflowonthemedialsurfaceofthelimbsthefumeridiansflowonthelateralsurface.Therefore,thets'angmeridiansareinterioror subsurfacethefumeridiansareexteriororsuperficial.Therelationshipsbetweenexteriorandinteriormeridians,respectively,areasfollows:forelimbgreateryinlung meridianandforelimbsunlightyanglargeintestinemeridianhindlimbgreateryinspleenmeridianandhindlimbsunlightyangstomachmeridianforelimblesseryinheart meridianandforelimbgreateryangsmallintestinemeridianhindlimblesseryinkidneymeridianandhindlimbgreateryangurinarybladdermeridianforelimbabsolute yinpericardiummeridianandforelimblesseryangtripleburnermeridianandhindlimbabsoluteyinlivermeridianandhindlimblesseryanggallbladdermeridian. Themeridiantheoryisnotaswelldevelopedforanimalsasitisforhumans.YuanHengLiaoMaChiwastheonlysourcethatdescribesanyrelationshipofindividual pointstoaspecificmeridian,anditonlyindicatesonepointforeachmeridian(inthehorse)(Fig.14andFig.312). "ThepointHN6(yanmai)isintheabsoluteyinmeridian,goodforthemoderationofliverfire.ThepointHN18(chingmai)isinthelunggreateryinmeridian,goodfor distinguishingtheheatofthefivets'angorgans.ThepointFL16(hsiungt'ang)produceslesseryinneedleinsertionintothepointextinguishesthefireoftheheart.The pointFL24(yehyan)isnotforneedleinsertionitisrelatedtoabsoluteyinandthepericardium.ThepointT13(taimai)drainsthegreateryinitdrainsthefireof spleen.TheheatofthekidneyproducesswellingofthekidneymeridianthepointHL15(shent'ang)ofthelesseryinmeridianistheonetouse.Fortheobstructionof lesseryangandthetripleburner,thepointFL20(t'it'ou)isgoodtoclearthepassageofdrainage.ThepointFL18(hsihai)isinthegreateryangmeridian,goodto absorbtheheatofsunlightyang.ThepointFL19(ch'anwan)istoattainbalanceofthegallbladdermeridian.Toextinguishthefireofthesunlightyang,thepointHL16 (chuchih)istheone.Forthedrainageoftheurinarybladderofthegreateryang,thepointsHL18(weiken)andHL19(weipen)arethechoice.ThepointS53(tung chin)drainsthesmallintestine,extinguishingtheheartfireofthegreateryang."*ThelocationofthesepointsisdescribedinChapterThree. Thereisconsiderablecontroversyovermodernchartsthatgroupmanypointsonspecificmeridiansforthehorse.ChapterThreecontainsanextensivediscussionof thisproblem.ClassicsofChineseVeterinaryMedicinehavenoinformationonmeridiansinanyotherdomesticanimals. Reference 1.Anon.1972."Themeridians."InChungSauIChiangDunTsueh(DiagnosisinChineseVeterinaryMedicine),ed.ChineseAcademyofAgriculture,Research InstituteofChineseVeterinaryMedicine.Peking:AgriculturePress.
*

InYuenHengLiaoMaChi,inthechapter"PaiLomingtonglun"(AcupuncturepointsofGeneralPaiLo).

Page21

2 AcupunctureTechniquesandEquipment
MethodsofStimulationofAcupuncturePoints Acupuncturetherapyrequiresthestimulationofoneormoreacupuncturepoints.Therearemanymethodsofproducingthisstimulation.Afewarecommonlyused, somearerarelyused,andsomenewonesarebeinginvestigated. Needle.Needlesareplacedthroughtheskintotheleveloftheacupuncturepoint.Theneedleisusuallythenmanipulatedtostimulatethepoint.Thisisthemost commonlyusedtechniqueandwillbedescribedingreatdetail. Bleeding.Thismethodusesvarioustypesofneedlestocutorpiercetheskin,withtheintentionofcausingavariablebutcontrolledamountofbleeding.Manyofthe pointsinfarmanimals,describedintheChineseliterature,arepointsthataresupposedtobestimulatedbybleeding.Thistechniqueisalsousedinhumans,butithas notreceivedmuchpopularattentioninNorthAmerica. Injection.Avariantofthetraditionalneedletechniqueistheinjectionofvariousmaterialsneartheacupuncturepointsomeofthesubstancesinjectedhavebeen5% dextrose,vitaminB12,localanesthetic,sterilewater,methylphenidate,volatilebasesfromSarraceniapurpurea,epinephrineinoil,andcamphorinoil. Implantation.Thereareseveralvariantsofthistechnique:(1)Anacupunctureneedle(usuallyverysmallwitharoundhandle)ispositionedandleftinplacefora periodofdaysorweeks.(2)Anacupunctureneedleispositioned,andtheshaftcutsothatpartoftheshaftremainsintheanimal.(3)Asmallstainlesssteelorgold ballisplacedsubcutaneouslyeitherthroughasurgicalincisionoralargeboreneedle.(4)Apieceofstainlesssteelorgoldwireisplacedthroughaneedleandleftin thesite.(5)Oneoftheseveralsurgicalstaplesorclipsisimplantedatthesitethroughasurgicalincision. Temperature.Heatorcoldcanbeusedtostimulatethepoints. Electromagneticradiation.Variousformsoflightandsoundhavebeenused,suchasultravioletlight,visiblelightfocusedbyalens,laserbeams,andultrasound. Electricfieldsandmagneticfieldshavealsobeenused. Externalpressure.Pressureisappliedtotheskinbyseveralmethods:(1)finger(2)teishin,whichisaspringloaded,bluntmetalprobeand(3)granules,whichare verysmallstainlesssteelballsappliedtotheskinwithasmallpieceoftape. SedationandTonification Regardlessofthemethodchosenforstimulatingthepoints,twodifferentlevelsofstimulationare

Page22 TABLE21.TechniquesforTonifyingandSedatingAcupunturePoints METHOD Needle TONIFICATION Slowmovement Gentlemovement Rotateclockwise Insertormanipulateduringexhalation Insertinthedirectionoftheflowofch'i Goldneedle Bleedingsmallquantity Injectionsmallvolume InjectionvitaminB12 Lowfrequency:0.51Hz Positiveelectrode Gentle Shortduration:510min Fastmovement Roughmovement Rotatecounterclockwise Insertormanipulateduringinhalation Insertinthedirectionoppositetotheflowofch'i Silverneedle Bleedinglargequantity Injectionlargevolume Injectionlocalanesthetic Highfrequency:13Hz Negativeelectrode Strong Longduration:1530min SEDATION


Electric

AllMethods

classicallydescribedoneistotonifythepoint,andtheotheristosedateit.Tonificationisproducedbythegentlestimulationoftheacupuncturepointsedationis achievedbyamorevigorousstimulation(Table21).Ingeneral,tonificationtechniquesareusedinchronicconditions,andsedatingtechniquesareusedinacute conditions. VeterinaryNeedleAcupuncture ThefirstpartofthissectionwillbealmostadirecttranslationofarecentlypublishedveterinarybookfromChina.1 Thetablesgivingdimensionsweremadeby measuringcommerciallyavailableChineseneedles. DifferenttypesofacupunctureneedleshavetraditionallybeenusedtotreatanimalsinChina(Fig.

Figure21. DrawingsofcommonlyusedChineseveterinaryneedles.

Page23

Figure22. SetofChineseveterinaryneedles(variety).

21).Theacupunctureneedle,orhaochen,iswidelyusedinboththeEastandWest.Otherneedletypesareoflimiteduseforexample,thepiercingjaundiceneedle maybereplacedbysurgicalinstruments. SeveraldifferentsetsofveterinaryneedlesarecommerciallyavailableinChinaatpresent.Onesetconsistsofonlyhaochenofvarioussizes.Othersetscontainseveral differenttypesofneedle,includinghaochen,wideneedles,prismneedles,hotneedles,andpiercingjaundiceneedles(Figs.22,23)(Tables22to24). OwingtothelargediameterofmanyoftheChineseveterinaryacupunctureneedlesandthethicknessoftheskinofsomespecies,adeviceknownasaneedlehammer issometimesusedtoplacetheneedle(Figs.21,29to211).Thehammerisbasicallyawoodenhandle(likeanaxehandle)inwhichtheneedleisinserted.The handleisthenusedlikeanaxe,impalingtheneedleatthechosensite.Thehammeristhenremovedfromtheneedle. NeedleTypesandUses HaochenThisisthemostcommonlyusedneedleandconsistsoftwopartsthehandleandtheshaft(Figs.21to24).Thediameterrangesfrom22to19 gauge,andthelengthsvaryfromabout2to12inches.Thelongerneedlesareusedforinsertionintoseveralpointsatonce. Fourmajortechniquesareusedforinsertionofthisneedle(Fig.25): 1.Pressingwiththefingernailthefingernailoftheindexfingerorthethumbofonehandisusedtoapplydigitalpressureatthesiteimmediatelyadjacenttothesiteof theacupuncturepoint.Theneedleisheldbetweentheindexfingerandthethumboftheotherhandforforcefulwhirling.Themiddleandringfingerssupportthe needle.Theneedleisthendirectedtowardthelocusoftheacupuncturepointandisinsertedthroughtheskintothedesireddepth.Coordinationisessential. 2.Holdingthehandleoftheneedlewiththethumbandtheindexfingerofonehand,theneedleispresseddown.Atthesametime,thethumbandindexfingerofthe otherhandholdtheneedleattheacupuncturepoint.Thismethodisalsousefulwhenalongneedleisusedwheretheskinormusculatureofthesiteisthickfor example,HL3andHL4inthehorse. 3.Spreadingtheskinoverthepointtheskinisspreadbyusingthethumbandindexfingerofone

Page24

Figure23. SetofChineseveterinaryneedles(haochenonly).

handtoproducetensionoftheskinattheacupuncturepoint,tofacilitateneedleinsertion.Theotherhandholdstheneedlebetweenthethumbandtheindexfingerand insertstheneedle.Thetechniqueisusedinareawheretheskinislooseforexample,pointsontheabdomen. 4.Liftingtheskinupwiththethumbandindexfingerofonehand,theneedleisintroducedwiththeotherhandfromalateraldirection.Thistechniqueisusedinareas wheretheskinisthinforexample,pointsovertheface. Differentanglesofneedleinsertionareused,dependingontherequirementsofindividualacupuncturepointsandneedlesused(Fig.26).Instraightinsertion,the needleisperpendiculartotheskin.Thismethodissuitableformostacupuncturepointsindomesticanimals.Inslantinginsertion,a45degreeinsertionisusedfor acupuncturepointslocatedinthedepthofbonyjoints,orwherevitalorgansarelocatedunderneath.Inlateralinsertion,a15to25degreeangleforslanting insertionisusedwheretheskinisverythinandthepointissuperficial. Insertionmaybeslantingorperpendicularformethods1,2,and3.Method4alwaysrequiresslantinginsertion.Needleinsertionforanyofthetechniquesjust describedmaybedoneintwoways:Inquickinsertion,withtheinitialactofinsertion,theneedlereachesthesubcutaneoustissue.Theneedle

Page25

Figure24. Haochen.

isthentwirledtoadesireddepth.Intwirlinginsertion,afteraquickinitialinsertionthroughtheepidermis,gentlepressureisapplied,andthehandleiscontinuously twirled.Theneedlethenfinallyreachesthedesireddepth. Asuccessfulneedleinsertionwillelicitacertainresponsefromtheanimalknownastech'i.Theneedleoperatorwillfeelasinkingandtighteningoftheneedle.The animalwill,intime,raisethelimb,bendtheback,swingthetail,and/orhavemuscularcontractions.Itismostlikelythatthepointhasnotbeenhitiftheacupuncturist feelsalooseneedlewithoutanyresistance.Ifthisisthecase,theneedleisraisedtothesubcutaneouslocationandinsertedagaininthecorrectdirection. Thepurposeofthefollowingproceduresistoprovidestimulationoftheacupuncturepointaftertheactofinsertionissuccessful,asindicatedbythestateoftech'i: 1.Insedation(suspension)andtwirling,periodicandalternatingclockwiseandcounterclockwisetwirlingandvibrationoftheinsertedneedleareuseduntiltheneedle isverytightlygraspedbythesurroundingtissue.Theneedlethenremainsundisturbedfor23minbeforethisprocedureisrepeated. 2.Outwardinwardmovementsoftheinserted


TABLE22.15NeedleChineseVeterinary AcupunctureSet DIAMETER (INCHES) .035 .040 .038 .0425 .042 .042 .0775 .077 .203 .270 .125 .18 .2 NA NANotapplicable. APPROX. GAUGE 20 19 19 19 19 19 14 14 NA NA 11 NA NA NA 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 2 3 23/4 27/8 23/4 31/2 33/16 NA LENGTH (INCHES) NUMBER INSET 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 NEEDLE TYPE Haochen Haochen Haochen Haochen Haochen Haochen Hot Hot Wide Wide Prism Cutting Cutting Spay hooks

TABLE23.18NeedleChineseVeterinary AcupunctureSet DIAMETER (INCHES) .268 .268 .180 .2015 .032 .0375 .0455 .075 .0765 .071 .0745 NA .025 APPROX. GAUGE NA NA NA NA 21 19 18 15 14 15 15 NA NA 4 41/8 41/4 41/2 2 23/4 3 17/8 2 21/8 21/2 NA 35/16 LENGTH (INCHES) NUMBER INSET 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NEEDLE TYPE Wide Wide Wide Wide Haochen Haochen Haochen Hot Hot Hot Hot Piercing jaundice Cutting Unknown

NANotapplicable.

TABLE24.20NeedleChineseVeterinary AcupunctureSet DIAMETER (INCHES) .037 .022 .0365 .0365 .0285 .037 .036 .037 APPROX. GAUGE 19 24 19 19 22 19 19 19 LENGTH (INCHES) 27/8 315/16 4 5 61/2 81/8 10 11 NUMBER INSET 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 NEEDLE TYPE


Allhao chen

Page26

Figure25. Techniquesforneedleinsertion.Upperleft,Pressingwithfingernail. Upperright,Holdinghandleandpoint.Lowerleft,Spreadingtheskin.Lowerright, Liftingtheskin.

needle.Whentheneedleisatthedesireddepthintheacupuncturepoint,itiswithdrawnlightlyandslowly,theninsertedinwardbacktothedesireddepthofthe acupuncturepointforcefullyandrapidly.Thismethodprovidesamuchstrongerstimulationthansedationandtwirling,anditisgenerallyusedatpointswithwell developedmusculature.Theoperationlasts25min,anditisusedevery2or3days. Afterthetreatmentwithanyneedleandmethod,theneedleisgentlywithdrawnbywhirling.Afterwithdrawal,thelocusoftheacupuncturepointissterilized. Iftheneedleislong,specialprecautionsshouldbetakentopreventbendingorbreaking.Theveterinarianshouldminimizeanymovementoftheanimalandalsoavoid excitingit.Iftheneedlebendsduringtreatment,itisslowlywithdrawnbygentletwirling.Iftheneedleisbrokenduringtreatment,theskinsurroundingthepointof insertionispressedhard,andifpossible,thebrokensegmentiswithdrawnwiththehelpofapairofforceps.Ifthatisunsuccessful,asurgicaloperationisnecessary. HotNeedleTheuseofthehotneedleissimilartothatofthehaochenhowever,itprovidesastrongerstimulationthanthehaochen(Figs.21,22,27).Hot needlescausemoretissuedestructionandthereforerequirealongerrecoveryperiod.Inhotneedletreatment,theprescriptionofpointsshouldbeplannedsothatnot morethanthreetofiveacupuncturepointsareusedatonetime.Thesameacupuncturepointsshouldnotbeusedmorethanonceaweek.Impropersterilization, insufficientburning,ordampeningoftheneedleholemaycause

Figure26. Anglesofneedleinsertion.

Page27

Figure27. Hotneedles.

abscesseswhenthehotneedleisused.Itis,therefore,essentialthatprecautionsaretaken. Theprocedureofhotneedleinsertionisasfollows:Theneedleiscleaned,wrappedinacottonball,andthenimmersedinvegetableoiloralcohol,andburneduntilthe cottonballcontractsandbecomesblack.Whenthefirebecomesdim,theburntcottonisremovedwithforceps,andtheneedleisthenreadyforuse. Beforetheneedleisheated,thesiteoftheacupuncturepointisshavedandsterilized.Assoonastheneedleisready,itisinsertedtotherequireddepththeneedle shouldstayinplacefor25min.Thetherapeuticeffectcanbeachievedwithouthavingtheneedlestayinafterinsertion. Theneedleiswithdrawn,andthesiteissterilizedwithiodine. WideNeedleThisneedlehasawide,spearshapedtip,anditis2.53incheslong(Figs.21,22,28)(Table22,23).Therearethreesizes:small,medium,and large,withwidthsof0.15,0.20,and

Figure28. Wideneedles

0.25in.Theyareusedprimarilyfordrawingbloodandfrequentlycalledbloodneedles. Theneedleistightlygraspedduringinsertion.Ifaneedlehammerisused,theneedleissecuredtightlyinaccordancewiththedepthofinsertion.Insertionshouldbe fastandaccurate,andtheneedlebladeshouldbeparallelwiththebloodvessels(Fig.29).Thebuildandsizeoftheanimal,characteristicsofthedisease,and seasonalfactorsdeterminetheamountofbloodtobedrawn.Forexample,morebloodcanbedrawnfromastronglyandbulkilybuiltanimalthanfromathinand weakanimal. Thecolorandviscosityofthebloodshouldalsobetakenintoconsiderationachangefromdarkbrowntobrilliantredisanindicationthatenoughbloodhasbeen drawntoachieveatherapeuticeffect.Ingeneral,lessbloodshouldbedrawninthewinterthaninthesummer.Afterbloodisdrawnfromacupuncturepoints,bleeding willstop.Ifbleedingcontinues,itisappropriatetostopit.Ifthebloodinvolvesthecarotidarteryorvesselsofthetemporalregion,arodshouldbeattachedtothe neckofthesickanimal.As

Page28

Figure29. Useofwideneedle.Upperleft,Wideneedleinsertedin theneedlehammer.Lowerleft,Wideneedleheldby hand.Right,Wideneedlebeinginsertedintoandparallel withalargevein.

soonasasufficientamountofbloodhasbeendrawn,therodisusedasatourniquettostopthebleeding.Ifthebleedinginvolvesotherpartsofthebody,asterilized pieceofcottonsoakedwithiodineispressedfor510minonthesite,orabandageisused. Iftheneedleisappliedtotheacupuncturepointsofthelimbs,animalsshouldbekeptdryinordertolessenthechanceofinfection.Thebloodneedleshouldnotbe usedforanimalswhohavelostlargequantitiesofbloodbecauseofillnessorlatestagesofpregnancy. Inthehorse,thelarge,wideneedleisusedtobleedHN18andFL20,wherelargebloodvesselsarelocated(Fig.210).Themedium,wideneedleisusedtobleed HN5,FL16,FL19,HL15,HL19,andFL20ofthebabydonkey(Fig.211).Thesmall,wideneedleisusedtobleedHN4andHN15atthelocationofvenulesor venousplexuses(Fig.212). Inusingthelargeormedium,wideneedletobleedHN18orFL16,ahammer,fittedwiththeappropriateneedleissometimesused.However,ahandheldneedleis stillapracticalalternative.TheinsertiontechniquefordifferentpointsisfoundinFigures29to212. PrismNeedleThisneedlewithatriangularorprismlikeheadisalsousedfordrawingblood(Figs.21,22,213).Thethumb,index,andmiddlefingers

Figure210. Wideneedle,heldbyneedlehammer,beinginserted intoHN18.

areusedtoinsertthisneedle(Fig.214).TheneedleisusedinthehorseforHN16,HN15,HN4,andHN14,wherethereisdenseconnectivetissue(Fig.214).If thereisbonytissueunderneath,cautionshouldbeusedtopreventneedlebreakage. PiercingJaundiceNeedleThisneedleisusedonlyatch'uanhuang(piercingjaundice,T14)(Figs.22and215).Theskinofthethoracicregionoftheanimalis squeezedfromtheunderlyingconnective

Figure211. Wideneedle,heldbyneedlehammer,beinginserted intoFL16.

Page29

Figure212. TwomethodsofinsertingwideneedleintoHL15.

tissuebyusingtheindexandmiddlefingersandthethumb,andalargewideneedleisusedtopiercetwoholesintheskin,approximatelyoneinchapart.Thepiercing jaundiceneedle,whichisthreaded,directsthethreadthroughtheholes.Thetwoendsofthethreadarethentiedtosomeheavyobjecttoavoidocclusionofthe woundandtoallowsatisfactorydrainage,untillocalswellingduetoedema

Figure213. Prismneedle.

improves.Thethreadismadeofhorsetail,hair,orhemp.Thediameterofthethreadisaboutthecombinedthicknessof20hairsofthehorse'stail.Thethreadis soakedwithadruglikesecretiobufonisorarsenicumsublimatu. GasReleasingThisneedleisusedonlyforchiach'i(gasreleasing,FL15)(Fig.21).Itisalongneedlewitharound,dullend,0.15inchesindiameterand11.5ft long.Itismadeofbambooorametalalloy.Aftertheneedleandthesiteofinsertionaresterilized,theskiniscut,usingalargewideneedle

Figure214. Useofprismneedle.Left,Holdingprismneedle.Right, InsertingprismneedleintoHN16.

Page30

Figure215. Piercingjaundiceneedle.

thenthegasreleasingneedleisinsertedintothelooseconnectivetissuebetweenthearmandtheshoulder(Fig.216).Thedirectionofneedleinsertionmustbedorsal andlateral,amedialdirectionperpendiculartotheskinsurfacewouldproducepneumothorax. CommonlyusedMethodsofStabilization Asuitablestabilizationmethodisessentialforensuringthesafetyoftheanimalandtheaccuracyofneedleinsertion: 1.Headloweringstabilizationmethod.Theforelimbisencircledwiththerein,whichisthentiedaroundthebridle,underneaththemandible.Itisthenpulledup frombetweenthetwolimbs.Theheadofthehorseisloweredwhenthereinispulled.Thebloodvesselsoftheheadwillswellandbeclearlyseen.Thismethodis suitabletodrawbloodfrom,forexample,thesanchiangpoint(threerivers,HN4)andthet'aiyangpoint(greateryang,HN5)(Fig.217). 2.Doublehindlimbstabilizationmethod.A15ftreinisusedtotiearoundtheneckofthehorse.Itisalsoknotted.Thelongendofthereinisthenusedtocirclethe lumbarareaandthenispulledoutbetweenthetwohindlimbs.Thereinisthenmovedaroundtheabdomen,andbackward,aroundthethightothestifle.Thereinis pulledtight,andtheanimalthenremainscalmandcannotkick.Aftertheneedleinsertionoperation,thereinaroundtheneckandotherareasisunfastened.This methodissuitable

Figure216. Insertionofgasreleasingneedle.

forpointsonforelimbsandthelumbarandthighregions(Fig.218). 3.Thetwopolestabilizationmethod.Theneckropeisfirsttiedupandthenthecircumferenceropeandthetwohangropes(Fig.219).(EndofChinese translation) CompositionofNeedles Inthepast,needlesweremadefromstoneflints,sharpenedbamboo,fishbones,iron,gold,andsilver.Themostwidelyusedmaterialtodayisstainlesssteel.There aremanytypesofstainlesssteel,eachofwhichhasdifferentcharacteristics.Someofthenecessarypropertiesofstainlesssteelusedforacupunctureneedlesare: machinability,workability,corrosionresistance(tissuefluidandsomesterilizingtechniquesareverycorrosive),andstrengthwithoutbrittleness. Stainlesssteelsarealloysofirontowhichaminimumofabout12%chromiumhasbeenaddedto

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Figure217. Headloweringstabilizationmethod.

Figure218. Doublehindlimbstabilizationmethod.

Figure219. Twopolestabilizationmethod.

impartcorrosionresistance.A12%chromiumstainlesssteelwillnotcorrodeor''rust"whenexposedtotheweather.Toobtaingreatercorrosionresistance,more chromiumisaddedtothealloy.Corrosionresistanceistheresultofaninvisible,selfformingandselfhealingpassivefilm(nonreactivechromiumoxide),whichforms inthepresenceofoxygen. Alongwithironandchromium,allstainlesssteelscontainsomecarbon.Itisdifficulttogetmuchlessthanabout0.03%carbon,andsometimesitisdeliberatelyadded upto1.00%ormore.Themorecarbonthereis,themorechromiummustbeused,becausecarboncantakefromthealloyabout17timesitsownweightof chromiumtoformcarbides.Thechromiumintheformofcarbidesisoflittleuseforresistingcorrosion.Thecarbonisaddedforthesamepurposeasinordinarysteel, tomakethealloystronger. Otheralloyingelementsareaddedforimprovedcorrosionresistance,variationsinstrength,andspecialmodificationsforoptimumfabricability.Someoftheseadded elementsarenickel,molybdenum,copper,titanium,silicon,aluminum,andselenium.Themostimportantoftheseisnickelifenoughnickelisadded,theentirenature ofthealloychangesandcorrosionresistanceisconsiderablyenhanced. Type304stainlesssteelismostcommonlyusedintheproductionofmedicalhypodermicneedlesandcontainsthefollowing:carbon,0.08%max.manganese,2.00% max.phosphorous,0.045%max.sulfur,0.030%max.silicon,1.00%max.chromium,18.0020.00%andnickel,8.0010.50%.

Page32 TABLE25.ManufacturersofAcupunctureNeedles

MANUFACTURERS Trueline,Inc. P.O.Box1357 Englewood, Colorado80110 3037816621 J.M.Dean,Inc. Peter&MechanicSts. Putnum, Connecticut06260 Attn:P.J.Lamont 2039287701 AcuTubeCorp. 3211W.BearCreekDr. Englewood, Colorado80110 3037612258

TYPEOFSTAINLESSSTEEL NEEDLE 302 HANDLE 321

TAPER RATIO 4:1

GAUGE 25,28,30,32

316L

316L

any

28andspecial order

304

321

6:17:1

25,28,30,32

Corrosionandoxidationresistanceisprovidedbythe18%minimumchromiumcontent.Thealloy'smetallurgicalcharacteristicsareestablishedprimarilybythenickel content(8%min.),whichalsoextendsresistancetocorrosioncausedbyreducingchemicals.Carbon,anecessityofmixedbenefit,isheldatalevel(0.08%max.)that issatisfactoryformostserviceapplications. Thisstainlessalloyresistsmostoxidizingacidsandcanwithstandallordinaryrusting.Itisimmunetofoodstuffs,sterilizingsolutions,mostoftheorganicchemicalsand dyestuffs,andawidevarietyofinorganicchemicals.Type304,oroneofitsmodifications,isthematerialspecifiedmorethanhalfthetimewheneverastainlesssteelis used. Type316ismoreresistantthan304,especiallytosodiumchloride.Itcontainsthefollowing:carbon,0.08%max.manganese,2.00%max.phosphorous,0.045% max.sulfur,0.030%max.silicon,1.00%max.chromium,16.00to18.00%nickel,10.00to14.00%andmolybdenum,2.00to3.00%.Byvirtueofthe molybdenumaddition,Type316canwithstandcorrosiveattackbysodiumandcalciumbrinesandisusedextensivelyforsurgicalimplantswithinthehostile environmentofthebody.316Lissimilarexceptthatithaslowercarboncontent. GoldandsilverneedleshavebeenusedintheOrient.IncontemporaryFranceandGermany,stainlesssteelneedleswithalayerofgoldorsilverelectricallyappliedto themarecommonlyused. SourcesofVeterinaryAcupunctureNeedles TherearenowseveralmanufacturersandmanydistributorsofacupunctureneedlesintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.TherearealsomanyimportersofChinese, Korean,andJapaneseneedles.Thereare,ofcourse,manyneedlesforuseinhumans,buttherearealsosourcesforneedlesmadespecificallyforanimals(Table25). Thebasicacupunctureneedleiscomposedofahandleandshaftwithapoint.Thehandleenablesmoreeaseofhandlingandmanipulating.Handlelengthsvarybutone longenoughtoallowtwo,preferablythree,fingersisbest.Thelengthoftheshaftvariesbecauseacupuncturepointsareatdifferentdepths.Thediametervariesandis increasedtoaddstrengthforgreatereaseofinsertionintothickortoughskin.Thepointoftheneedleisimportantandcanbedescribedbyitstaperratiothisisthe lengthofthepointdividedbythediameteroftheshaft(Fig.220).Itseemsthatpenetrationiseasierusingpointswithahightaperratio. Hypodermicneedlescouldbeusedforacupuncturebuthaveseveraldrawbacks:(1)Theyarehollowthus,theycanfillwithacoreoftissueorcausebleeding.(2) Thecuttingedgesoftheneedlecoulddomuchdamage.(3)Manysizesarenotavailableasdisposableneedles,andthecostofregularandespeciallyspecialorder hypodermicneedlesmightbemoreexpensivethanacupunctureneedles.(4)

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Figure220. Taperratiosofneedlepoints.Thetaperratioisthe lengthofthepointdividedbythediameter oftheneedle.

Thehollowneedlesmightbelessresistanttobendingthanthesamediametersolidneedle.(5)Oncebent,thehollowneedlesaremoredistortedatthebendand wouldbemoredifficulttostraightenwithoutbreaking. Acupunctureneedlesforuseinhumanscanbeusedinsmallanimals,especiallythedog,andinpartsoflargeanimals.Itisverydifficulttogeta30gaugeneedle throughtheskinovertherumpofthehorsehowever,itcouldbeusedonthelegs.Chineseneedlesusuallyhavewoundwirehandles.Japaneseneedlesusuallyhavea verynarrowsmoothcylindershapedhandleitismadenarrowerthanotherstopermittheuseofaneedletube(seep.34).Koreanneedlesareusuallyonepieceand havebeennoteworthyinthatrelativelyfineneedlescanpenetratetoughskin.(Fig.221).Americanmadeneedlesusuallyhaveacylindricalhandlethatiswiderthan theJapaneseneedle.Somehandlesaresolderedonsomearecompressedon. Needlesforhumansareavailableinmanylengths,from1/4in.to8in.andinseveralgauges,from32to28gauge(Fig.222).Thetaperratiovariesbetweenthe differentmanufacturers,fromabout7:1to4:1.Mosthavesmoothorcylindricalhandles,andonehaswirewoundhandles.Severalmanufacturersnowhavealineof veterinaryneedlesthatarefrom1in.to4in.and25gauge(Fig.223).Somemanufacturerswillsupplyspeciallymadeneedlesoflongerlengthsandheaviergauge (Table25). Indescribingthediameterofneedles,severalmethodsmaybeusedgaugeordiameterininchesormillimeters.Theuseofgaugehasbeensomewhatconfusing. Thereareatleasttwodifferentgaugesystemsoneforhollowtubingandtheotherforsolidwire(Table26).Somemanufacturersandauthorsusedthehollow needlegaugetodescribetheacupunctureneedlesothersusedthesolidwiregaugetodescribetheneedles.Asaresultofthis,itispossible

Figure221. Koreanneedles.

tobuytwo28gaugeneedlesthataredifferentdiameters. SterilizationofNeedles Needlesusedforacupunctureshouldbesterilized.Thiscanbedoneanyoftheseveralcommonwayscoldsterilizingsolutions,autoclaving,orgassterilizingwith ethyleneoxide.Gassterilizationisprobablythebestmethod,becauseitwillhavetheleasteffect

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Figure222. Humanneedles.

onthesharpnessofthepointandtheneedleswillbedrywhenused. InsertionofNeedles Ingeneral,theinsertionofacupunctureneedlesismoretimeconsuminganddifficultthaninsertionofhypodermicneedlesusedforinjection.Thereareseveralreasons forthis:acupunctureneedlesareusuallyfinergaugethanhypodermicneedlesacupunctureneedlesmaybelongerthanthecommonhypodermicneedlesthesiteof insertioninacupunctureismorecriticalsomeofthesitesforacupuncturearedifficultintermsofrestrainingtheanimalandthelongertimeforinsertionmaymake restraintmoredifficult,whichmay,inturn,increasethetimeforinsertion. Thebasictechniqueforinsertionistoapplygentlepressurefromthehandle,andatthesametime,rotatetheneedlealongitslongaxis,clockwiseand counterclockwise.Whentheneedleisverythin,theneedlelong,ortheskinverytough,thepressure

Figure223. Veterinaryacupunctureneedlesmanufacturedin theUnitedStates.

appliedmustbesmallortheneedlewillbend.Thiscanbeovercomeinseveralways:(1)Don'tpresstoohard.(2)Useaneedletubeasmalldiameterhollowtube thatisalittleshorterthantheneedle.Placethetubeonthesiteinserttheneedletotheskin(about1/8to1/4in.ofthehandleisabovethetube).Nowtaptheneedle handle,causingthepointtopenetratetheskin.Thenremovethetubeandadvancetheneedletothedesiredlevel.(3)Useaheaviergaugeneedle.(4)Supportthe needlewiththefingersoftheotherhandattheleveloftheskin.(5)Inserttheneedlebyapplyingthepressureontheshaftclosetotheskin. Techniques4and5areveryusefulbutpresentsterilityproblemsthatcanbeovercomeinseveralways,theeasiestofwhichistousealcoholswabstoholdtheneedle forthosetwotechniques.

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NeedleManipulation Thestimulationofacupuncturepointsbyaneedlecanbedoneinmanyways.Theclassicalliteraturecontainselaboratedescriptionsofneedlemanipulationtoproduce certaineffectsandtreatdifferentconditionssuchasinsertingneedlesduringspecificphasesoftherespiratorycycle. Totonifyapoint,theneedleisinsertedattheendofexhalationtotherequireddepthwithoutrotation.Theneedleisthenrotatedslowlyuntilthetissueclingstoitthe needleisthenquicklywithdrawnduringinspirationwhileitisbeingrotated.Theholeisrubbedfirmlywiththefinger(called"closingthehole").Theentireprocedure takeslessthan30seconds. Tosedateapoint,theneedleisinsertedrapidlywhilebeingrotatedduringinspiration.Theneedleisusuallyleftinpositionforabout10min,butitshouldbeleftin placeuntilthetissueletsgoandnolongerclingstotheneedle.Theneedleiswithdrawnslowlyduringexhalationdonot"closethehole". Otherdirectionsformanipulationinclude:twirlingoftheneedlewithemphasisonclockwisedirectionfortonificationandoncounterclockwisedirectionforsedation slowtwirlingfortonification,rapidtwirlingforsedationandmanipulatingtheneedleinandoutwithemphasisonthepushinfortonificationandemphasisonthepull outforsedation.Ingeneral,gentletechniquesareusedfortonificationandvigorousonesforsedation(Table21). Theneedorefficacyforthesevariousmanipulationshasbeenquestionedbysomepractitionersofacupuncture.However,therecertainlyaremeasurabledifferencesin thetypeofneurophysiologicaleffectproducedbystrongandweakstimulation,andtheChineseliteraturestressesthatitisthe"quantity"ofstimulationthatisof importanceinthetreatmentofvariousconditions.Othermethodsforstimulatingpointswiththeuseofneedlesinvolvetheapplicationofelectriccurrentorheattothe needles.Electricdevicesandtheirusearedescribedinthesectiononelectroacupuncture(p.36).Generally,pointsaretonifiedbytheapplicationoflowfrequency alternatingcurrent,withtheneedlebeingconnectedtothepositivesideofthecircuit(Table21),andsedatedbytheapplicationofhighfrequencyalternatingcurrent, withtheneedlebeingconnectedtothenegativesideofthecircuit. IntheJapanesesystemofryodoraku(seep.22),directcurrentisappliedtotheneedleforaveryshort
TABLE26.GaugeversusDiameterof HollowandSolidWireNeedles GAUGE 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 HOLLOWTUBING (INCHES) 0.083 0.072 0.065 0.059 0.05 0.0425 0.0355 0.032 0.028 0.025 0.022 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.013 0.012 0.010 0.009 SOLIDWIRE (INCHES) 0.080 0.072 0.0625 0.054 0.0475 0.0410 0.0348 0.0317 0.0286 0.0258 0.0230 0.0204 0.0181 0.0173 0.0162 0.0150 0.014 0.013 0.012

time,7secgenerallybeingrecommendedthenegativesideofthecircuitisusuallyconnectedtotheneedle. Thepointscanalsobestimulatedbytheapplicationofheattotheneedles.Thesourceofheatusuallyisburningmoxa(driedplant,Artemesiavulgaris).Moxaand moxibustionaredescribedonpage40.Electricalmoxadevicesarenowavailablethatessentiallyarebatteriesconnectedtoahighresistancewire.Thiswireheatsup andisheldnearortouchedtotheneedle.Prolongedstimulationwithdirectcurrentmaybepainful. Bleeding Thepiercingofabloodvesselstronglystimulatesthenerveendings(receptors)intheconnectivetissuecoatofbloodvessels.Otherfactorssuchastissuerepairand hematomamayincreasethequantityofstimulation.Theneedlesmostoftenusedforthispurposearethewideneedleandtheprismneedle(seep.28).Manybleeding pointsareveryclosetolargenervetrunks,suchasFL19(medialandlateral)inthehorsebeingadjacenttothemedialandlateralvolarnerves.Becauseofthis proximityofnervesandbleedingpoints,thepossibilityofinadvertentneurectomymustbeconsideredinthemechanismofactionand/orcomplicationofthistechnique. Therearemanybleedingpointsinanimals.Becauseanimalscannotcommunicateanytech'i,orneedlesensation,

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bleedingindicatesthatreceptorsinthebloodvesselwallhavebeenstimulated.Therearebleedingpointsandtechniquesforthehuman,butthesetechniquesare generallynotnecessarybecausetheachievementofneedlesensationcanbecommunicatedtotheacupuncturistbythepatient,andadequatestimulationcanusuallybe achievedbyneedlingclosetothevesselwithoutactuallypuncturingit. Onecommonmethodofenhancingthebleedingistheuseofcups.Essentially,thesearesmallmetalorglasscupsinwhichignitedpaperoralcoholsoakedcottonhas beenplaced.Themouthofthecupisplacedontheskin,andtheoxygenconsumptionduetothefireproducesavacuumthatholdsthecuptotheskinandincreases thebleedingofthepreviouslyneedledpoint.Thecupisappliedwithitsmouthupwardsothattheburningmaterialdoesnotfallontheskin. Injection Anothertechniqueusedtostimulateacupuncturepointsistheinjectionofvariousmaterialsintotheacupuncturepoint.Manymaterialshavebeeninjectedthemost commonaresterilesolutionsofwater,salinesolution,dextrose,localanesthetics,vitamins(especiallyB12),internalblisters,andcamphorinoil.Thevolumeofliquid cancausepressurethatstimulatesthepoint,andthematerialinsolutioncanhaveaneffectonthepoint. Implantation Variousmaterialshavebeenimplantedundertheskintocontinuouslystimulateacupuncturepoints,themostcommonbeinggoldwire,stainlesssteelwire,surgical staplesorclips,andBB's.Therealsoisanappliancecalledagranule.TheBBfromithasbeenusedforimplantation,eitherthroughasurgicalincisionoralargegauge hypodermicneedle. Pressure Severalsystemsutilizeexternalpressure(massage)appliedtotheskinoveracupuncturepointsasthemethodofstimulation.Themostcommonoftheseisthe Japanesesystem(shiatsu)andtheChinesesystemoffingeracupuncture(tuinar).Anothercommonmethodofstimulatingpointsbyexternalpressureistheuseof granules.ThesearesmallmetalBB'sheldontotheskin(overapoint)byasmallpieceofadhesivetape. AcousticEnergy Themostcommontypeusedisultrasound. ElectromagneticEnergy Varioustypesofelectromagneticenergysourceshavebeenusedtostimulateacupuncturepoints,themostcommonbeingultravioletlight. Electroacupuncture Thistechniqueinvolvestheuseofelectricitytostimulateacupuncturepoints.Mostcommonly,thesourceofelectricityisconnectedtoneedlesintheacupuncturepoint. Analternative,usedbysome,istheapplicationofelectricitytotheskinsurface.Electroacupunctureisespeciallyusefulwhereonemightwanttostimulateseveral needlescontinuouslyforalongtime,suchasduringthetechniqueofacupunctureanalgesia.Manytypesofelectricenergycanbeapplied,andmanytypesof equipmentareavailableintheUnitedStates,Canada,China,Japan,andothercountries. BasicElectronics Electricityistheflowofelectronsthroughamaterial.Thissystemcanbequantifiedinseveralways.Therateofflowofelectronsperunittimeiscalledthecurrentand ismeasuredinamperes(A)theforcecontrollingthisflowiscalledthevoltageandismeasuredinvolts(EorV)andtheresistanceofthematerialtotheflowof electronsiscalledtheresistanceandismeasuredinohms(Ror ).TheprimarylawrelatingthesefactorsiscalledOhm'sLawandhasthreeforms:E=IR,I=E/R, andR=E/I.Givenanyofthetwofactors,itisasimplemattertocalculatethethird.Thesebasicparameterscanbemodifiedbytheappropriatescientificnotationsto makethemmoreconvenienttowriteforexample,microamperesinsteadof0.000001A(Table27).Fortherangeoftheseparametersfoundin
TABLE27.ElectricalConversions 1Ampere=1000milliamperes(ma) 1Ampere=1,000,000microamperes(a) 0.001ampere=1milliampere 0.000001ampere=1microampere 1ohm=0.001kilohm(k ) 1ohm=0.000001megohm(m ) 1000ohms=1kilohm 1,000,000ohms=1megohm

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acupunctureequipment,itismostconvenienttousemilliormicroamperes,volts,andkiloormegohmsthatis,intheOhm'slawcalculations,usevolts, milliamperes,andkilohmsorvolts,microamperesandmegohms. Therearetwotypesofcurrentflow:directcurrent(dc)andalternatingcurrent(ac).Directcurrentisoneinwhichtheelectronsflowthroughacircuitcontinuouslyin onedirection,thetypeofcurrentproducedbyabattery.Theamplitudeofthecurrentmaybepositiveornegative,andtheflowisusuallycontinuous. Alternatingcurrentisoneinwhichtheelectronflowthroughacircuitperiodicallychangesdirection.Tworeversalsofdirectionconstituteacycle,andthenumberof cycles,inhertz(Hz),occurringinonesecondiscalledthefrequency.Theshapeofaplotofcurrentversustimeiscalledthewaveformforexample,sinewave, squarewave. ElectronicEquipment Thetwobasicpiecesofacupunctureelectricalequipmentarepointfindersandstimulators. PointFinders Itisreportedthattheskinaboveacupuncturepointshasamuchlowerresistancetotheflowofcurrentthantherestoftheskin.Ifalargeindifferentelectrodeis attachedtothebodyandasourceofcurrentatconstantvoltageisappliedtoasearchingelectrode,theresistancecanbemeasuredbythechangeincurrentflow.This changecanbereadfromanammeterormaybeindicatedbythelightingofalamporanincreaseinfrequencyofanaudiblesound(Figs.224,225).Thesefinders mayseemtobeaverysimplewaytofindacupuncturepoints,buttheyarenot.Therearemanyproblemsassociatedwiththeiruse,especiallyinanimals. Thepressureatwhichthesearchingelectrodeisappliedtotheskincanmarkedlyaffecttheresistance,andapointcanbeindicatedatanysitemerelybypressingthe electrodefirmlyontheskin.Therateatwhichtheelectrodeismovedoverthesurfaceoftheskinwillmarkedlyaffecttheresistanceand,ifthesearchingelectrodeis leftatoneplaceonthesurfaceoftheskinforafewseconds,theresistancewillfalldramatically,resultinginthecreationofapseudoacupuncturepointthatmayremain forseveralhours. Iftheappliedvoltageistoohigh,theremaybemanyfalsepoints.Ifthevoltageistoolow,manypointswillnotbeindicated.Ifthevoltageistoohigh,

Figure224. Acupuncturepointfinderandmeridianbalancemeter. ModelDHW1A. (CourtesyofBX&LIndustries,Inc., Irvine,California.)

Figure225. TheAcuprobeIasmall,handheld,unitforpoint locationbyskinconductancemeasurement,capableof sensingwithverylowcurrentsintheregionof0.51.0 microamperes.Indicationisbymeansofanaudible soundplusavisualredlightoutput.Probesensing isadjustablebymeansoftwosensitivitycontrols, coarseandfine,forafullrangeofskinresistances.The powersourceisastandard9volttransistorybattery. (CourtesyofIntertronicSystems,Ltd.,Ontario,Canada.)

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Figure226. DrawingofthevoltagewaveformfromtheChinese 6261stimulator.Thenegativeportionofthewave hasadurationof400msecandthepositiveportion hasadurationof40msecat50%ofthepeakamplitude. (FromBabich.1974.TheAmericanJournalofChinese Medicine,1:34150.BypermissionofTheAmerican JournalofChineseMedicine.)

theskinwillbeburned,andablistermayappear.Iftheanimalissweating,therewillbemanymorepointsthanwhentheskiniscoldanddry.Ifthehaircoatofan animalisverydense,therewillbenoresponsetheseinstrumentsdonotworkonunshavedcatsbutdoondogs.Iftheskinisirritatedduetodiseasesorhair clipping,therewillbepointsalloverthearea. Itappearsthatthelowresistancepointsareintheskin.Ifapointisfoundandtheskinisthenmovedseveralinches,thepointmoveswiththeskin.Iftheskinis removedfromtheanimal,thepointremainsintheskinthatis,theareaoflowelectricalresistancecanoftenbelocatedinapieceofskinlyingonatable. Themobilityoftheskinofanimalsinrelationtotheunderlyingtissue,andthefactthatthepointtobestimulatedisofteninthedeepertissues,providefurther complicationintheuseofpointfindersinanimals.Asystemofdiagnosisandtreatmentbasedontheactualvaluesofcurrentflowforcertainpointsiscalledryodoraku (seep.22).Thismethod,whichoriginatedinJapanforthetreatmentofhumans,isbeingexaminedthereandinothercountriesforpossibleapplicationtoanimals. Stimulators Thesedeviceshavemanybasicfeaturesincommonsomemodelsareverysimplewhileothersareveryelaborate.Theirbasicfunctionistoproduceacurrentto stimulateacupuncturepoints.
SOURCEOFPOWER

Mostofthestimulatorsusedarebatterypowered,usuallywithseveral1.5voltDbatteries,several9volttransistorradiobatteries,orwithrechargeablebatteries.
CURRENTTYPE

Therearetwobasicgroupsofstimulatorsthosewhoseoutputisdcandthosewhoseoutputisac.
WAVEFORM

Theacstimulatorsmayhaveonewaveformorachoiceofseveralwaveforms.Themostcommonwaveformusedissomevariationofaspike(Figs.226to228). Otherpossiblewaveformsaresquarewave,sinewave,andsoon.
FREQUENCYCONTROL

Mostmachineshavesomemethodofcontrollingthefrequencyofstimulation.Onecommonsystemisacontinuouslyvariablefrequencycontrol,fromabout0.52Hz to100Hz.Somedeviceshaveonlypresetfrequenciesthatcanbedialed.
MODEANDMODULATION

Manydeviceshavecontrolsthatcanvarythetimebetweenburtsofstimuliforexample,thefrequencyofstimulationmaybe10Hz,butthesestimulimayoccurfor only3secandthennostimulioccurfora3secperiod.Duringtheperiodsofstimulation,thefrequencyofstimulationis10Hz.Onmanymachines,anothercontrol variestheamplitudeofthesignalinacontinuingconsistentmannerforexample,asignalmayoccurwithafrequencyof10Hz.Theamplitudeofthissignalmaybe20 volts.Normally,allthesignalshavethesameamplitudehowever,withthiscontrol,thismaybevaried.Forexample,atrainofimpulsescanbegeneratedwith increasingamplitude,decreasingamplitude,orboth.

Figure227. Drawingofaphotographofanoscilloscopescreendisplay ofthevoltagewaveformfromanAcuflexCZ110Dual NeurMetron. (CourtesyofProfessionalMedical Distributors,Wixom,Michigan.)

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Themannerinwhichtheseamplitudechangescanoccurcanbevariedinsomemachines.
AMPLITUDE

Thereisalwaysacontrolthatvariesthevoltageappliedandthereforethecurrentflow,becausetheresistanceremainsconstant.Inmanydevices,thevoltagecontrols areconnectedtoeachothersothatasthevoltagetoonepairofneedlesisincreased,thevoltageatanotherpairofneedlesdecreases.Theoppositealsooccurs,so thatwhenthevoltagebetweenonepairofneedlesisdecreased,thevoltageatanotherpreviouslyconnectedpairofneedlesincreases.Therefore,greatcaremustbe takentodecreasethevoltagecontrolinsmallstepsandtodecreasethevoltagetoallthepairsofneedlessequentiallyinsteadofjustturningeachcontrolcompletelyoff beforechangingthenextcontrol. UseofElectricStimulators Greatcaremustbeexercisedwhenusingelectricstimulators.Beforetheconnectorsfromthedeviceareattachedtoimplantedneedles,thevoltagecontrolsmustbe checkedtodeterminethattheyareintheoffpositionorlowestpossiblesetting.Thevoltageisthenslowlyincreasedtoamaximumthatthepatientwillcomfortably tolerate.Whenneedlesareplacedinornearmuscleorappropriatenerves,themusclewillcontract.Whenthestimulusissuchthatthemusclesaregentlycontracting, theanimalwillusuallytoleratetheprocedurehowever,someanimalsareverysensitiveandbecomeagitatedevenwithastimulusthatonlycausesbarelyperceptible musclecontractions. Whenthestimuliareappliedatsitesthatdonotcausemusclecontraction,itismoredifficulttodetermineifthestimuliarereachingthesite,iftheanimalfeelsthe stimulus,andifthestimuliareasstrongastheanimalwillcomfortablytolerate.Iftheappliedvotageisslowlyincreasedwhiletheanimaliscarefullyobserved,itis usuallypossibletodetermineif,when,andtowhatextenttheanimalisfeelingthestimuli.Thepersonrestrainingtheanimalshouldbeawareofwhatisgoingonandthe possibilitythattheanimalmayreactvigorouslyiftheappliedstimulusistoogreat. Inthehorse,needlesplacedinsomemuscularsites,especiallywhenelectricallystimulated,maybeexpelledbythevoluntarylocaltwitchingoftheareabytheanimal, whichoftenoccursthatis,thehorserespondsasifaninsectwerebotheringit.Tapingtheneedlesinplaceusuallyovercomesthisproblem.

Figure228. Drawingofaphotographofanoscilloscopescreen displayofthevoltagefromanAkupunctuer716. (CourtesyofAckLaboratories,NewYork,N.Y.)

Careshouldbetakentomakesurethestimulatorisinarelativelysafeplace,protectedfromtheanimaljumpingonitorpullingitoffatablebecausetheleadsaretoo shorttoaccommodatemovementoftheanimal. Itisgenerallythoughtthatapairofneedlesshouldnotbeconnectedacrossthechestbecauseofthepossibilityofcausingcardiacarrhythmias.Thenegativeelectrode isusuallyconnectedtoamoreimportantpoint.Whendecreasingthevoltageordisconnectingleads,caremustbeexercisedasdescribedunder"Amplitude"(above). Thediscussionoftheuseofthestimulatorsofarhasappliedonlytoalternatingcurrentstimulators.DirectcurrentstimulatorsarecommonlyusedintheJapanese systemofryodorakuandmustbeuseddifferently.Theapplicationofdirectcurrentmaybepainfulandwillbetoleratedonlyforashortperiodsogenerallythe stimulusisappliedtooneneedleatatimeandfor7sec.(seep.38). Whenusinghighfrequencyacstimulation,thefeelingismoreuncomfortableataparticularvoltagesettingthanthatsamevoltagewouldbeappliedatalower frequency.Therefore,ifananimalisbeingstimulatedatalowfrequencyandthefrequencyisgoingtobeincreased,theappliedvoltageshouldbereducedfirst.After thefrequencyhasbeenincreasedtoitsnewhigherrate,thenthevoltagecanbeincreasedtoacomfortablelevel. CommercialAcupunctureStimulators Therearemanyelectricstimulatorssold.Someareprecisioninstrumentsandwellconstructedothersareverypoorlydesignedandconstructed.Theoriginalandthe mostwellknownequipmentworldwidecomesfromChinaandJapan(Figs.229to232).ManydevicesarenowmanufacturedintheUnited

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Figure229. Chinesemodel6261multipurposeelectrotherapeutic apparatus.Thisequipmentismanufacturedbythe People'sRepublicofChinasoledistributor,East WindMedicalInstrumentsCompany,Ltd.,589Nathan Road,Kowloon,HongKong. (CourtesyofEastWind MedicalInstrumentsCo.,Ltd.)

States(Figs.233to238).ImportationofacupunctureequipmentisstrictlycontrolledbytheFoodandDrugAdministration(seealso"ImportationofEquipment",p. 55). Toexemplifytheoperationandusesofelectricacupunctureequipment,theinstructionsforuseofseveraldevicesarereproducedintheappendixtothischapter.The inclusionofthesespecificmodelsshouldnotbeconstruedasanindicationofsuperiorityorinferioritybutmerelyexamplesofavailableequipment.Themultiple ChineseexamplesaretoprovideaninsightintothemethodsofoperationandtheequipmentusedbytheChinese.

Figure230. PaneldiagramforChinesemodel711.Thisequipment ismanufacturedbythePeople'sRepublicofChinasole distributor,EastWindMedicalInstrumentsCompany,Ltd., 589NathanRoad,Kowloon,HongKong. (CourtesyofEastWindMedicalInstrumentsCo.,Ltd.)

Moxibustion Thereareseveralvariationsofthetechniquecalledmoxibustion.Alluseheattostimulateacupuncturepointsorthelocalsiteofadiseaseproblem.Severalofthe techniquesareverysimilartothecommonpracticeoffiringandblisteringknowntoveterinariansthroughouttheworld.Moxamoxibustionisalsousedintreating humans. ThefollowingdescriptionofthevarioustechniquesofmoxibustionisfromamodernChineseveterinarytextbookandispresentedbelowwithoutchangeoreditorial comment.1


Moxibustionistheuseofheattostimulateacupuncturepoints.Severalmethodsareused:cauterization,oatvinegarmethod,vinegarliquormethod,cupping,andmoxa moxibustion. Cauterization.Thistechniqueiscommonlyusedinchronicdiseasesofthelimbs,andindiseasesnotrespondingtodrugorneedletreatment. Theassistanttotheveterinarianshouldberesponsibleforthefireandthebrandingiron.Theanimalshouldbestabilized.Inthetwopolestabilizationmethod,theneckisfirsttied upandthecircumferenceropeandthetwohangropesarethentied.Accordingtothesiteofcauterization,thelimbsshouldbefurtherstabilized(Fig.217).Twelvehoursbefore theoperation,feedingoftheanimalshouldbestoppedsothatitwillnotfeeldiscomfortduringtherapy. Thefirststepofcauterizationemploysasharp,pointed,knifelikebrandingirontoimprintadiagramofthecauterization.Then,thesquaredheadbrandingironisusedtoaugment thebrandingeffect(Fig.239).Thebrandingironshouldmovetowardthewaveofhair,andshouldbepressedlighterinitially,andheaviergradually.Thebrandingironshouldbe flatagainsttheskin,toavoidcutaneousinjurythatwouldaffecttheoperation.Thesequenceoftheoperationisfrommedialtolateral,andfromcranialdorsaltoventralcaudal. Assoonasthebrandingareabecomesagoldenyellow,thebrandingironshouldnotbepressedtoohard. Precautionsshouldbetakentogettherightcauterizationtemperature.Thebrandingironshouldbeofsandyyellowcolor.Iftheflameistoohot,thebrandingironbecomesa yellowishwhitecolor.Itburnstheskin,andthepurposeofcauterizationisnotfulfilled.Possibleinjurytolargenervetrunksandbloodvesselsshouldbeavoided.Theareaofthe joint,forexample,orthemedialsideofthefourlimbsoranareaoftraumaticinjuryshouldnotbecauterized.Aftercauterization,thesweatofthebodysurfaceiscleaned.The animalshouldnotdrinkwateraftercauterizationandshouldbefedbeforeanyliquidisallowed. Thecauterizedsurfaceshouldbekeptcleananddry,andnosoftpasteshouldbeused.Theanimalmayitch

Page41 duringtherecoveryperiod.Precautionsshouldbetakentoprotecttheanimalfrombitingthewoundtoavoidpossibleinfectionorulceration. Thecauterizedanimalshouldworkasusual.Ifitisbeingkeptinthestable,withoutphysicallabor,thetherapeuticeffectwillbereduced. Ingeneral,cauterizationisperformedonlyoncetoeffectacure.Ifitisnecessarytocauterizetwiceatthesamesite,itisessentialtoavoidtheareaaltogetherorwaituntilthe woundfullyheals. Incoldweather,hotweather,orduringrainyorwindydays,cauterizationshouldnotbeperformed.Thismethodshouldnotbepracticedonold,veryyoung,weak,orpregnant animals.Theanimalshouldbestrongandfullymature. OatVinegarMethod.Thisisusedmainlyforarthritispaininthelumbarregion.Twentypoundsofoatsfriedinfourpoundsofvinegarisused.Thepreparationisthendivided intotwopacksusedalternatelyashotpacks,anditisappliedtotheaffectedareaonceeverydayforoneortwohours. VinegarLiquorMethod.Thisisusedmainlyforlumbarorhindlimbarthritis.Theanimalisfirststabilized.Thehairismoistenedwithwarmvinegar,fromthewithers,alongthe spine,towardthelumbosacralregion.Thisareaisthencoveredwithvinigratedpaper.Theliquoristhenpouredtocreateflame.Iftheflameisnotsufficient,liquorisaddedif thereisexcessiveflame,vinegarisadded.Cauterizationiscontinueduntilthethoraxandtheupperlimbareaoftheaffectedanimalbegintosweat.Thequantityofliquorand vinegarusedvariesinaccordancewiththediseasehowever,approximately23lbofliquorand5lbofvinegararenecessary.Aftertheoperation,theanimaliscoveredwith blanketsforwarmthandplacedinawarmroomtorest.Iftheweatherisnice,theanimalmaybetakenoutinthesun.Thismethodis,again,notsuitableforweak,veryold,very young,orpregnantanimals. Cupping.Thiscanbeusedinrheumatoidandparalyticdiseasesofthelimbsincombinationwithacupuncture.Therearemanykindsofcups:ceramic,bamboo,andglass.A ceramiccup23in.deepwithadiameterof2in.isthetypecommonlyused.First,theareaaroundthepointismoistened.Acottonballsoakedwithalcoholisthenlitandput insidethecup.Whenheatisfelt,theacupuncturepointiscoveredquickly.Thecupisleftinposition510minbeforerelease.Atthetimeofthisoperation,thesuckedareaisseen toswell.Ifcuppingisperformedafteruseoftheneedle,asmallamountofbloodmaybesuckedout. MoxaMoxibustion.Thisisusedmainlyinchronicpaindiseases.Theleavesofthemoxatreeareusedasarawmaterial.Therearetwomethods.Inthedirectmoxibustionmethod, moxaisrolledintheformofacigarettewithalengthof5inandadiameterof0.6in.Theendofthemoxaisburnedatadistanceof0.51in.fromtheskinwherethelociofthe acupuncturepointsarelocated.

Figure231. PaneldiagramforChinesemodel713.Thisequipment ismanufacturedbythePeople'sRepublicofChinasole distributor,EastWindMedicalInstrumentsCompany,Ltd., 589NathanRoad,Kowloon,HongKong. (CourtesyofEastWindMedicalInstrumentsCo.,Ltd.) Thesickanimalwillfeelwarmthandnotburningpain.Moxibustionmaylastafewminutestohalfanhour(Fig.240).Forastrongerstimulation,theburnedmoxacantouchthe skinmomentarily.Forindirectmoxibustion,themoxaisplacedonapieceofgingerorgreenonion.Themoxaisintheformofaroundbottomedpyramid

Figure232. JapanesemodelNeurometerLC. (CourtesyofNikkaOverseasAgencyLtd.,Vancouver, BritishColumbia,Canada.)

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Figure233. Auriculotherapypointfinderandstimulator,model DHW38AT. (CourtesyofBX&LIndustries,Irvine, California.)

Figure234. Multiwaveformstimulator,pointfinder,andmeridian balancemeter.ModelDHW384WF. (Courtesyof BX&LIndustries,Irvine,California.) andisplacedandburnedonthetopofathinlayerofperforatedgingerorgreenonionabout0.1in.thick.Whenthethinpieceofgingerorgreenonionbecomesdried,anewpiece shouldbeused(Fig.240).Thedurationofthetreatmentdependsonthediseaseandthephysicalconditionoftheanimal. Amodificationofmoxibustionistheuseofmoxatoheatanacupunctureneedlethatisinplace.Theburningmoxarollisbroughtnearthehandleoftheneedleormaytouchit directly.Thehandlebecomesveryhot,butwithreasonableapplicationthereisonlyaslightfeelingofwarmthinthetissuearoundtheneedle.Greatcareshouldbeexercisedwhen removingtheneedlessothatthefingersarenotburned.Theonlyadvantagethatmoxahasovertobaccosuchascigarettesorcigarsisthatmoxaprobablyburnsatacooler temperature. Thecomplicationsofmoxibustionareobvious:injurytothepatient(infectionandpain),injurytotheacupuncturist,andriskofstartingafire.Someofthepointsforbiddento moxaareunderstandableforexample,atthemedialcanthusoftheeye.

Ryodoraku RyodorakuisaveryspecificformofacupuncturedevelopedinJapanbyY.Nakatani.4 ,1214,16Hisworkbeganin1950,andhesoonfoundedtheRyodoraku AutonomicNervousSystemSocietyofJapan.

Figure235. AcupunctureModel716. (CourtesyofAck Laboratories,NewYork,N.Y.)

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Figure236. Acupuncturestimulatorandpointfindermodel CZ110DualNeurMetron. (CourtesyofProfessionalMedical Distributors,Wixom,Michigan.)

Nakatani'sworkandsysteminvolvemeasuringtheelectricalresistanceoftheskin,makingcertainconclusionsfromthemeasurements,andthentreatingaccordingto thesefindings.When21voltsdcisappliedtotheskin,manyspecificpointsofhighcurrentflowarefound(describedunder''PointFinders",p.37).Thesepointsare called"ryodopoints"andareclosetoorexactlyatthesiteoftraditionalChineseacupuncturepoints.When12voltsisappliedonlyafewpointsaredistinct. Ryodorakuarelinesformedbylinkingryodopoints,andtheycorrespondtotraditionalChinesemeridians.Thereare

Figure237. TheAcustimulatorIanAC(biphasic)pulsegenerator.Fivetreatmentchannelstotallyindependentofoneanother areprovidedthroughseparatetransformers.Eachchanneliscontrolledbyitsownoutputcontrol.Theoutputleads arecolorcodedforeachpair.Polarityisindicatedbytheclipsontheend.Thepulserateiscontinuouslyvariable from1to250cycles/sec. (CourtesyofIntertronicsSystems,Ltd.,Ontario,Canada.)

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Figure238. TheAcustimulatorDeluxeIIAtherapeuticresearchinstrument,theAcustimulatorDeluxeIIissimilartothe AcustimulatorI,butisamoresophisticatedmodel.Twooutputwaveformsareavailablebyswitchposition biphasicandpulsedsquarewave.Thepulsedwaveisusedfortreatmentwhilethebiphasicisgenerallyusedfor analgesia.Thepulseratemaybeselectedfrom1to250Hz,andeachoutputistotallyisolatedfromtheothers.Ifthe unitisturnedonwithanoutputabovezero,theunitwarnsoftheconditionbybuzzeraction(avoidingpossible stimulationofthepatientwhennotdesired).Twooutputrangesareavailable,low015voltsandhigh0150volts. Thelatterisgenerallyforlesssensitivepatientsandfordorsalstimulation(bilateraltranscutaneousdorsalstimulation). Polarityischangeablebyflickingaswitch.Anotherfeatureisthetimerunit,whichmaybeturnedonatthebeginning oftreatment.Whenthetimeisreached,theunitshutsoff.Thisisacompletelysolidstatetimerofmodern integratedcircuitconstruction,withnomechanicalpartsorclockworktowearout.Thebatteryprovidesabout100hours ofuse,atwhichtimethechargershouldbeused.Rechargingtimeisindicatedbyabatterylowlight.Eachoutput iscolorcoded. (CourtesyofIntertronicsSystemsLtd.,Ontario,Canada.)

Figure239. Cauterizationirons.Top,Sharppointedironforimprinting pattern.Bottom,Squareheadironforcompletionofthe procedure.

Page45

sixoneacharm,H1H6,sixoneachleg,F1F6,andtwoonthemidline,oneanterior(VM)andoneposterior(HM).Thepointsarenumberedstartingatthedistal endoftheextremity. Thebasicoutlineofryodorakumeasurementandtherapyisasfollows:Currentflowismeasuredatadistalpointofeachryodorakuonthelimbs.Thecurrentflowis measuredwith12voltsappliedandwiththedevicecalibratedsothatwiththeelectrodesshortedtogetherthecurrentflowis200microamperes.Theaverageofthe currentflowatthe24pointsiscalculated,andalineisdrawnonachartthathasarangeofreadingsforeachryodoraku(Fig.241). Allthe24measurementsshouldfallwithinaspecificrangeoftheaveragelinedrawn.Anyreadingsthatdonotfallintothisrangeindicatethatthereisanabnormalityof thatryodoraku.Ifthereadingishigherthantheaverage,theryodorakuishyperactiveandneedstobesedated.Ifthereadingislowerthantheaverage,theryodoraku needstobetonified.Needlesareplacedintheappropriatepointsandstimulatedwithadirectcurrentstimulatorfor7seconds.Aftersuccessfultreatment,thereadings ofthetreatedryodorakusshouldfallwithintheaverage. Thistechniquehasnotyetbeenadaptedtoanimalshowever,someresearchisbeingconductedonthisinJapanandintheUnitedStatesonthis. RegionalAcupunctureTherapy Severalbranchesofacupuncturehavedevelopedthatutilizeonlyonesmallpartofthebodyasthesitefortreatingvariousdiseasesoccurringthroughoutthebody. Themosthighlydevelopedofthesebranchesisauriculotherapy.Inthissystemofdiagnosisandtreatment,thewholebodyisrepresentedasaninvertedfetusfitting withintheear(Figs.242and243).Thepointsatthevariousanatomicsitesbecomesensitiveandmoreelectroconductivewhenthereisdiseaseoftheanatomicsite itrepresents(Fig.244).Themostwellknowntreatmentsinvolvingthistypeoftherapyaretheplacementofsurgicalstaplesinaspecificregionoftheeartotreat obesityandtodecreasethevisceraleffectsofnarcoticwithdrawalinaddicts.Therehasbeenrelativelylittleworkdoneintheareainanimals.Thereareearpointsin thehorsefortheproductionofacupunctureanalgesia(seeChapterSix).Thereisareportofastudyinwhichproduction

Figure240. Top,Directmoxibustionwithmoxaroll.Bottom,Indirect moxibustionwithmoxaseparatedfromtheskinbyaslice ofgingerorgreenonion.

ofperitonitisinrabbitsproducedpointsintheearwithlowerelectricalresistancethannormal.11Anotherreportdescribedtheproductionofpointsintheearsof rabbitsbytheintramuscularinjectionofturpentine.Thesepointshadlowerelectricalresistanceandalsobecamestainedbluewhentrypanbluewasinjected intravenously.Thelocationofthepointsintheearwasspecificfortheanatomiclocationoftheturpentineinjection.6 ListedinTable28arethepointsintheearofthehumanlistedaccordingtotwosystemsofnamingpoints.OneisthetranslationoftheChinesenameandtheotheris thenumberingsystemcreatedbyE.C.WongkeyedtoFig.245.Afterthelistofpointsisatableofprescriptions(Table29)fortreatingvariousdiseaseconditionsin thehumanaspublishedbyWong. Otherregionaltreatmentmethodssuchasthoseutilizingthehand,foot,ornosearemuchlessdeveloped.

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Figure241. Dr.YoshioNakatani'schartforryodorakuautonomicnerveregulatorytherapy. (CourtesyofMr.E. C.Wong.)

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Figure242. Relationshipoffetalshapeandpositiontolocationofauriculotherapypoints. (CourtesyofProfessionalMedicalSpecialties,Inc.,Orlando,Florida.)

Figure243. Areasoftheearrelatedtovariousorgansandstructures. (Courtesy ofProfessionalMedicalSpecialties,Inc.,Orlando,Florida.)

Figure244. Treatmentareasintheearforcertainconditions. (CourtesyofProfessionalMedicalSpecialties,Inc., Orlando,Florida.)

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Figure245. ChartofthehumanearshowingnumberofpointsaccordingtoWong. (CourtesyofMr.E.C.Wong.)

Page49 TABLE28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints REGIONS Auricularlobule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 WONG'SEAR POINTNO. EARPOINT Anesthesiaforextractionofteeth1 Upperjaw Lowerjaw Tongue Shanghe(maxilla) Hsiahe(mandible) Anesthesiaforextractionofteeth2 Eye Internalear Tonsils4 Cheeks Apexoftragus LOTION Attheposteroinferiorpartofthe1starea.* Atposteroinferiorpartofthe2ndarea. Atanterosuperiorpartofthe2ndarea. Atcentralpointofthe2ndarea. Atcentralpointof3rdarea. Atcentralpointofsuperiorlineof3rdarea. Atcentralpointof4tharea. Atcentralpointof5tharea. Atcentralpointof6tharea. Atcentralpointof8tharea. Lyingaroundborderlinebetween5thand6th areas. Theupperprojectionoftragus(atupperbrimof projectionifonlyoneprojectionis found). Thelowerprojectionoftragus(atlowerbrimof projectionifonlyoneprojectionis found). Atthecentralpointofrootregionofthetragus. Atinnersurfaceoftragusoppositingtoorificeof externalauditorymeatus. Atinnersurfaceoftragus,slightlybelow acupuncturepointsofpharynxandlarynx. Themiddlepointbetweenlineconnecting acupuncturepointsofapexoftragusandexternal nose. Themiddlepointbetweenlineconnecting acupuncturepointsofadrenalglandandexternal nose. Themiddlepointbetweenlineconnecting acupunctureofadrenalglandandeye. Atdepressioninfrontofsupratragicincisure. Themiddlepointoflineconnectingacupuncture pointsofapexoftragus,andexternalear,slightly towardtheposteriorside. Thebottompartofintertragicincisure. Lyingbetweenacupuncturepointsofsubcortex andinternalsecretion. Atinferiorpartofintertragicincisurewith acupuncturepointofeye1infrontandeye2 behind. Atcentralpointofsupratragicincisure. Atinnersurfaceofacupuncturepointofbrainaxis andoppositingtotheHouya. Lyingbetweenacupuncturepointsofcervical vertebraeandbackofhead. Atcentralpointofonethirdofsuperiorbrimof theantitragus. Atposterosuperiorpartoftheantitragus. Atcentralpointofonethirdofmiddlebrimof antitragus. Atapexofantitragus(maylocateatcentralpoint ofbrimofantitragusifapexofantitragusisnot prominent). About0.2mminsidetheacupuncturepointof parotidatmedialsideoftheantitragus.


Tragus


Supratragicincisure

13

Adrenalgland

14 15 16 17

Externalnose Pharynxandlarynx Internalnose ThirstFluidremovaltherapy

18

Hunger

19 20 21

Highbloodpressure Externalear Heartpoint

Intertragicincisure

22 23 24

Internalsecretion Ovary Eye1,2


Antitragus

25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Brainaxis Toothache Houya(Throatandteeth) Brain(pituarybody) Backofhead Parotid Pingchuan(antihistamine)

32

Testicle

Thesurfaceoftheauricularlobuleisdividedintonineequalareastheyarethe1starea,the2ndareaandthe3rdareaandsoon.

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TABLE28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints(continued) REGIONS WONG'SEAR POINTNO. 33 34 35 Forehead Subcortex Thesun(temple) EARPOINT LOCATION Attheanterointeriorpartofantitragus. Atinnersurfaceofantitragus. Themiddlepointbetweenlineconnecting acupuncturepointsofbackofheadandthe forehead. About0.15mmbelowacupuncturepointof backofhead. Aseriesofacupuncturepointsofvertebral column,lyingalongcurvedbrimofcavumconchae onantithelix. Thislineofacupuncturepointscouldbeseparated bysamelevelofacupuncturepointofthelower segmentofrectumandthesamelevelofthe acupuncturepointsoftheshoulderjointintothree segments. Theuppersegmentbelongingtothefieldof lumbosacralvertebraethemiddlesegment ofthethoracicvertebraeandthelowersegmentof thecervicalvertebrae. Atthelowerprojectionofantihelix. Atthenotchbetweentheborderlineofantihelix andantitragus. Attheantihelix,atthesamelevelofsupratragic incisure. Attheantihelix,withthesamelevelofthelower borderoftheinferiorcrusoftheantihelix. Attwosidesoftheupperpartoftheacupuncture pointofthethoracicvertebraewiththispoint becomeanequilateraltriangle. Atthesuperiorpartoftheacupuncturepointofthe cervicalvertebraeneartothescapha. Attheposterosuperiorpartofsuperiorcrus oftheantihelix. Attheanterosuperiorpartofsuperiorcrusof antihelix. Attheanterosuperiorpartofthesuperiorcrusof theantihelix. Atsuperiorcrusofantihelix,withsamelevelof superiorborderofinferiorcrusoftheantihelix. Atsuperiorcrusofantihelixandtheposteroinferior partoftheacupuncturepointofkneejoint. Attheborderlinebetweenbrimofinferiorcrusof antihelixandcurvedbrimoftheanteriorportionof helix. Atthemiddlepointofsuperiorborderofthe inferiorcrusoftheantihelix(slightlytowardthe anteriorside). Atthemiddlepointofthesuperiorborderofthe inferiorcrusoftheantihelix(slightlytowardthe posteriorside). Atthelowerprojectionofantihelixwithsamelevel ofacupuncturepointofcoccygeal vertebrae. Atthebifurcationofcruraoftheantihelix.


Antihelix

36 37

Vertex Cervicalvertebrae

38

Thoracicvertebrae

39

Lumbosacralvertebrae


Superiorcrusofthe antihelix

40 41 42 43 44

Coccygealvertebrae Neck Thorax Abdomen Mammarygland

45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Thyroidgland Toes Heel Ankle Kneejoint Hipjoint Sympathetic


Inferiorcrusofthe antihelix


Triangularfossa 52 Sciatica

53

Buttock

54

Lumbago

55

Wonderpoint

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TABLE28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints(continued) REGIONS WONG'SEAR POINTNO. 56 57 Pelviccavity Buttock EARPOINT LOCATION Atinnersurfaceofthebifurcationofthecruraof theantihelix. Atbrimoftheinferiorcrusoftheantihelixwith acupuncturepointofischiumandbuttockbecome anequilateraltriangle. Atthemiddlepointoftheanteriorportionofthe triangularfossajustbehindanteriorportionofthe helix. Attheborderlinebetweenthesuperiorcrus ofthehelixandantihelix.

58

Uterus

59

Depressingpoint Temp BP Tension PingchuanAntihistamine) Hepatitis Fingers Clavicle Shoulderjoint Shoulder Elbow Wrist Appendix Appendix2


Scapha

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

About0.2mmfromtheposteroinferiorpartofthe acupuncturepointoftheuterus. About0.2mmlateraltotheacupunctureof pointoftheuterus. Atthescaphaabovetheleveloftheauricular tubercle. Atthescaphawiththesamelevelofthe acupuncturepointoftheneck. Atthescapha,lyingbetweenacupuncture pointoftheshoulderandclavicle. Atthescaphawiththesamelevelofthe supratragicnotch(incisuraanterior). Atthescapha,lyingbetweentheacupuncture pointsofthewristandshoulder. Atthescaphawiththesamelevelofthe auriculartubercle. Atthescapha,justabovetheacupuncture pointofthefingers. Atthescapha,atthesameleveloftheacupuncture pointoftheshoulder(slightly towardthemedialsideoftheantihelix). Atthescapha,justbelowtheacupuncture pointoftheclavicle. Lyingbetweentheacupuncturepointsof thefingersandwrist(slightlytowardthe medialsideoftheantihelix). Atequalintervalsofsixpointsbeginning fromtheauriculartubercleofthehelix downwardtothemiddlepointofthelower marginofauricularlobule. Lyinginthesuperiormarginofthehelix, verticallyabovetheacupuncturepointof thetonsils4ontheauricularlobule.


Helix

70 71

Appendix3 Districtofurticaria

72

Helix1,2,3,4,5,6

73

Tonsils1


74 Tonsils
2

Atthehelixwiththeacupuncturepoints ofthetonsils1andtonsils4becomean equilateraltriangle. Themiddlepointbetweenthelineconnectingthe acupuncturepointoftonsils2and tonsils4. Atthehelix,abovetheleveloftheauricular tubercle. Atthehelix,onthelowermarginoftheauricular tubercle. Attheupperpartofthehelixandfacing towardtheterminalportionofthesuperior crusoftheantihelix.

75

Tonsils3

76 77 78

Kanyang1(positiveliver) Kanyang2(positiveliver) Apexoftheauricle

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TABLE28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints(continued) REGIONS WONG'SEAR POINTNO. 79 80 EARPOINT Externalgenitalorgans Urethra LOCATION Attheanteriorpartofthehelixwiththe sameleveloftheinferiorcrusofantihelix. Attheanteriorpartofthehelixwiththe sameleveloftheacupuncturepointofthe urinarybladder. Attheanteriorportionofthehelixwithsamelevel ofacupuncturepointofthelargeintestine. Atthelowerpartofthecrusofthehelix. Attheendofthecrusofthehelix. Attheposteriorwalloftheorificeoftheexternal auditorymeatus. Attheupperportionofthecavumconchaejust belowthecrusofthehelix. Attheupperportionofthecavumconchaeandjust belowthecrusofthehelix.Itsacupuncturepoint liesbehindthatoftheesophagus. Attheupperportionofthecavumconchaeandjust belowthedisappearance ofthecrusofthehelix. Lyingabovethecrusofthehelixoppositetothe acupuncturepointofthecardiacorifice. Atthelowerportionofthecymbaconchaeand abovethecrusofthehelix.Itliesatpointwhere slightlylateralto1/2ofcrusofhelix. Justabovethecrusofthehelixandlying amongtheacupuncturepointsofthelarge intestineandsmallintestine. Attheanterointeriorportionofcymba conchaeandjustabovethecrusofthehelix. Attheanterosuperiorpartofthecymba conchae,justbelowtheinferiorcrusof antihelix. Atthemedialsideoftheacupuncturepointofthe urinarybladder. Inbetweentheacupuncturepointofthe urinarybladderandkidney. Lyingintheupperpartofthecymbaconchaeatthe superiorportionoftheacupuncturepointofthe smallintestine. Attheposteriorpartofthecymbaconchae,just anteriortotheacupuncturepointofthethoracic vertebrae.Thispointliesbetweentheacupuncture pointsoftheliverandkidney.Ontheleftauricle, thispointrepresentsthepancreas,whileonthe right,thegallbladder. Lyingimmediatelyposteriortotheacupuncture pointofthestomachintheposteroinferiorpartof thecymbaconchae. Thelowerhalfofliverontheleftauricle (ontherightauriclethepointofliverremainstobe liverexclusively). Lyingamongtheacupuncturepointsofthekidney, pancreas,gallbladder,andsmallintestine.


Crusofthehelix

81 82 83 84 85 86

Lowersegmentoftherectum Diaphragm Pointofsupport Mouth Esophagus Cardiacorifice

Cavumconchae


Cymbaconchae

87

Stomach

88 89

Duodenum Smallintestine

90

Appendix4

91 92

Largeintestine Urinarybladder

93 94 95

Prostate Ureter Kidney

96

Pancreas,gallbladder

97

Liver

98

Spleen

99

Ascites

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TABLE28.ChineseAuriculotherapyPoints(continued) REGIONS Cavumconchae WONG'SEAR POINTNO. 100 101 102 103 104 Heart Lung Bronchi Windpipe Sanchiao(tripleburner) EARPOINT LOCATION Theacupuncturepointlyingatthecenterofthe deepestpositionofthecavumconchae. Lyingaroundthecircumferenceoftheacupuncture pointoftheheart. Attheacupuncturepointoflungarea. Lyingbetweentheacupuncturepointsoftheheart andexternalauditorymeatus. Inthecavumconchaeandlyingamongthe acupuncturepointsoftheinternalnose, lung,andinternalsecretion. Acurvedverticalgrooveonthebackoftheauricle. Attheuppercartilaginouseminence. Atthelowercartilaginouseminence. Lyingbetweentheacupuncturepointsoftheupper backandlowerback. Atthesuperiorwalloftheorificeoftheexternal auditorymeatus. Attheinferiorwalloftheorificeoftheexternal auditorymeatus.


Backoftheauricle

105 106 107 108 109 110

Depressinggroove Upperback Lowerback Middleback LowerAbdomen Upperabdomen


Others

TABLE29.PrescriptionsforAuriculotherapy DISEASE 1.InfectiousDiseases Commoncold Chickenpox Whoopingcough Bacterialdysentery Tuberculosisoflungs Malaria 2.DigestiveSystemDiseases Acuteandchronic gastritis Gastriculcer Duodenalulcer Gastroenteritis 87,51,55 87,51,55 88,51,55 87,51,55,97 98,43 34,88 34,87 88 16,13,33,101 101,22,13,29,55 101,102,13 91,89,81,55,22,29 101,42,13,22 34,22,97,13,98 34,29 MAINPOINTS SECONDARY POINTS

51,29

34,104

Spasmofthe diaphragm Enteritis Colitis Intestinaltuberculosis Indigestion Nauseaandvomiting Diarrhea Constipation GIColic Functionaldisorderof theGIsystem 82,55,34 91,81,51,55 91,22,51 91,22,51,89,55 89,87,51,98,96 29,87,51,55 91,89,51,55 91,89,51,87 55,89,51 91,89,51,87

89,98 89,55 29,104, 91,104 34,85 81,98 43,104 110,109 55,104, 98

3.RespiratoryDiseases Bronchitis Acutelobarpneumonia Bronchopneumonia Asthma Vesicularemphysema Pleurisy Pleuraladhesions Cough Pressureonchest Chestpain 4.CardiovascularDiseases Myocarditis Rheumatoid cardiopathy Cardiacarrhythmia Hypertension Hypotension Peripheralcirculatory disturbances 5.DiseasesoftheBloodSystem Leukopenia Thrombopenic purpura Jaundice
*

102,55,31,13 101,42,22,13 101,102,51,55,31 55,31,51,13 101,102,51,55,31 101,42,22,13 13,42,22 55,31,13 100,51,42 55C.P.
*

51,29 55,34 13,29, 22 101,29, 22,60 13,29 34,104 34,55 29,101 29,101

29 89,37 34 105

100,51,89,55 100,51,22,55 100,51,55 100,51,55,19 100,51,29,13 C.P.*22,13

97,98,22,95,100

29,82, 51 29,100

97,98,82,51,55,22 98,89,87,22,82

C.P.=CorrespondencePart

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TABLE29.PrescriptionsforAuriculotherapy(continued) DISEASE 6.GenitourinaryDiseases Acutenephritis Pyelonephritis Renaldysfunction Hematuria Urineretention Incontinenceofurine Impotence,frigidity inmale,female Prostatitis 7.EndocrineDiseases Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Diabetesinsipidus 8.DiseasesoftheLocomotionSystem Neckpain Hypertrophicspondylopathy Periarthritisofshoulder Rheumatoidarthritis 9.NeurologicDisorders Trigeminalneuralgia Facialparalysis Facialspasm Meniere'sdisease Intercostalneuralgia Sciatica Multipleneuritis Amyotrophiclateral sclerosis Cerebellarataxia Epilepsy Migraine Excessivesweating Neurasthenia Aftereffectsofmeningitis 10.OtherDiseases Furuncle,carbuncle,and paronychia Cellulitis Erysipelas Mastitis Mammaryabscess Appendicitis Gallstone Chronicpancreatitis C.P =CorrespondencePart Paralyticintestinal obstruction Ureteralcalculus Hernia Analfissureand prolapse Chrinccholecystitis Internalandexternal piles Cystitis Prostatis Orchitisand epididymitis Fracture,contusion, sprain,andinjuries Renalcalculus 11.GynecologicDisorders Dysmenorrhea Amenorrhea Functionaluterine hemorrhage Endometritis Uterineprolapse Vulvarprutitus 12.OphthalmologicDisorders Hordeolumand chalazion Acuteconjunctivitis Follicularconjunctivitis Glaucoma Opticatrophy Nightblindness Myopia Diplopia 58,22,51,55 58,22,23,13,95 58,22,97,98,95,28 58,23,22,13 58,34 59,29,13,55,101, 22 13 79 79
*

MAINPOINTS

SECONDARY POINTS

95,92,51,55,97 95,92,51,55,97 95,92,51,55 95,92,97,82,13 95,92,51,79 28,92,83 58,79,32,22,95 93,92,95,22 13,29

13,98, 22 13,98, 22

34 29,95

29

45,22,28,55 45,22,28,55 98(L),95,55, 96(L),28,22 37

37,41,55 C.P.*22,13,34 55,64,65(C.P. ) 22,29,95,55(C.P. )


* *

95,55 13,63 34,55

11,5,6,55,29 11,8,84,29 11,55,34,35 95,55,29,9 42,29 52,55,29,53 C.P. 55,13,22 95,22,25,29,104 25,29,37 95,55,29,100,87 35,55,95,34 51,101,13,22,29 100,95,55,29,87 95,25,29,55,100
*

20 2,3,97

34,87

13


95,55 34


34 87,34

C.P.*55,13,29 C.P.*55,13 C.P.*55,13,101,29,22 44,22,13,29 44,22,13,29 68,91,51,55 96,51,55 96,22,51,55


97,88

91,89,51,34,43 94,95,51,55 110,34,22 55,81,91,34 96,97,51,55 81,91 92,95,51,55 93,92,95,22 32,55,13,22 C.P.*55,34,95 95,94,55


98 22 34,98, 13 13,29 29 79,57 13 34

8,97,98 8,97 8,97 8,97,95,24 8,97,95 8,97,24 8,97,95,24 8,97,95,24


20 20 101

13.Otorhinolaryngologic(ENT)Disorders Tinnitus Lossofhearing Furunculosisofthe externalmeatus Otitismedia Rhinitis Epistaxis Chroniclaryngitis Chronicpharyngitis Chronictonsillitis Hoarseness Acutetonsillitis Uvularedema 14.StomatologicDisorders Toothache Periodontitis C.P. =CorrespondencePart
*

95,9,20,29 95,9,20,29 95,9,22 95,9,22 16,13,33 16,13,33,22 16,13,33 15,55,100,22 15,55,100,22 15,55,100,101 15,10,73,74,75 15,55,13


101,27 22 72

27 95

5,6,55,26 5,6,84,13

(tablecontinuedonnextpage)

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(tablecontinuedfrompreviouspage)
TABLE29.PrescriptionsforAuriculotherapy(continued) DISEASE Mycoticstomatitis Glossitis 15.DermatologicDisorders Folliculitisand herpeszoster Dermatitissolaris Urticaria Cutaneouspruritus Neurodermatitis Acne Sunburn 16.OtherDisorders Heatstroke Shock Alcoholism Seasickness C.P.*=CorrespondencePart 29,100,34,13 13,100,29 33,34,29 29,87 C.P.*101,29,22,13 101,22,13,29 101,55,13,29,22 101,22,13,29,55 C.P.*101,22,29,13 101,22,32,11 55,101,22,13 MAINPOINTS 84,22,13,98,29 4,84,22,100 SECONDARY POINTS


28

9,55

AncillaryDrugAdministration Theeffectofconcomitantdrugadministrationonacupuncturetherapyoranalgesiaisnotwellknown.Theuseofmanytypesofdrugsbeforeandduringsurgeryunder acupunctureanalgesiaisreasonablywelldocumentedintheChineseliterature.Drugssuchasphenothiazinetranquilizers(chlorpromazine,promethazine),narcotics (meperidine),barbiturates(phenobarbitalsodium),anticholinergics(atropine,scopolamine),andlocalanesthetics(procaine,lidocaine)haveallbeenusedextensively duringacupunctureanalgesia.2 Limitedclinicalexperiencehasshownthatdrugssuchasdiphenylhydantoin,phenylbutazone,andcorticosteroidshavenotpreventedaresponsefromacupuncture therapy.5 Someexperimentalstudieshavemeasuredcardiovascularresponsestoacupuncturestimulationindogsundergeneralanesthesia.Thesedogshadbeengiven thiopentalandwereunderhalothaneanesthesiaatalevelofabout1MAC,receivingacontinuousintravenoussuccinycholinedrip.710 Itisoftentaught,however,inhumanandveterinaryacupuncturecoursesthattheadministrationofsomedrugs,especiallycorticosteroids,inhibitstheresponseto acupuncturetherapy. Theproblemofdruginfluencesisespeciallyimportantinveterinarymedicine,whereitisoftendifficulttotreatananimaladequatelywithouttheadministrationofsome drugforchemicalrestraintsuchasphenothiazinetranquilizers,narcotics,xylazine,oroccasionallygeneralanesthesia. ImportationofForeignEquipment EquipmenthasbeenmanufacturedandsoldintheUnitedStatesforafewyearshowever,muchequipmentismadeinmanyothercountries,especiallyChinaand Japan.ThisequipmentisimportedandsoldintheUnitedStates.SuchimportationiscontrolledbyveryspecificregulationsenforcedbythefederalFoodandDrug AdministrationintheDepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare.Themajorreasonforthedetentionofequipmentatportsofentryisinadequatelabelingofthe items.ThefollowingexampleoccurredduringanattempttobringseveralsetsofveterinaryacupunctureneedlesintotheUnitedStatesfromChina.5 Thepackage, whichwasbeinghandcarried,wasdetainedattheportofentry(Anchorage,Alaska).Theform''NoticeofDetentionandHearing"wasissuedalongwithacopyofa pageoftheFederalRegisterandasheettitled"Warning". ThetextfromtheFederalRegisterisasfollows:
FromtheFederalRegisterofMarch9,197338F.R.6419 DEPARTMENTOFHEALTH,EDUCATIONANDWELFARE FoodandDrugAdministration AcupunctureDevicesLabelingNoticetoManufacturers,PackersandDistributors TheCommissionerofFoodandDrugsisawareofthecurrentinterestintheUnitedStatessurroundingtheuseofacupunctureneedles,stimulators,andotheraccessoriesfor medicalpurposes.Acupunctureparaphernaliaarebeingimportedintothiscountryandarealsobeingmanufactureddomesticallyforvariousmedicaluses,includingthetreatment anddiagnosisofseriousdiseases,anesthesia,andpainrelief.TheseproductsaredevicesandmustcomplywithallapplicableprovisionsoftheFederalFood,Drug,andCosmetic Act. ItisthepositionoftheFoodandDrugAdministrationthatthesafetyandeffectivenessofacupuncturedeviceshavenotyetbeenestablishedbyadequatescientificstudiesto supportthemanyandvariedusesforwhichsuchdevicesarebeingpromoted,includingusesforanalgesiaandanesthesia.Althoughvarioustheorieshavebeenadvancedasto howmedicalresultscanbeobtainedthroughtheuseofacupuncture,nonehasbeenprovedorgenerallyaccepted,andthereisabodyofscientificopinionwhichquestionsthe safetyandeffectivenessofacupunctureinmanyoftheusesforwhichitisnowbeingapplied.

Page56 UndertheFederalFood,Drug,andCosmeticAct,alldevicesmustbeproperlylabeledtobeincompliancewiththelaw.Deviceswhicharenotsafeforusebythelaity,orfor whichadequatedirectionscannotbewrittenforsafeusebythelaity,mustbelabeledasprescriptiondevicesandmustbeaccompaniedbylabelingwhichprovidestheprescribing practitionerwithadequatedirectionsfortheirsafeandeffectiveuse.Becausethesafetyandeffectivenessofacupuncturedeviceshavenotyetbeenadequatelydemonstrated, andlabelingthereforecannotbedevised,whichwouldprovideadequatedirectionsforsafeandeffectiveuse,theymaynotbelabeledinaccordancewiththerequirementsfor prescriptiondevicesasstatedin21CFR1.106(d).Untilevidenceisobtaineddemonstratingthatacupunctureisasafeandeffectivemedicaltechnique,acupuncturedevicesmust belimitedtoinvestigationalorresearchuse. CurrentFoodandDrugAdministrationregulationsdonotcontainspecificprovisionsgoverningtheshipmentofinvestigationaldevicesininterstatecommerceforclinical researchorexperimentaluse.TheCommissionerofFoodandDrugsisawareoftheneedforsuchregulationstoprovideadequateguidanceastothelabelingforexperimental devicestobeusedonhumanbeings.Therefore,theCommissionerintendstopublishatalaterdateproposedregulationswhichwouldgovernallinvestigationaldevices.Inthe interim,thisnoticewillapplytoallacupuncturedevices. Inordertoestablishguidelinesunderwhichmanufacturers,packers,anddistributorscanproperlylabelacupuncturedevicesforinvestigationaluse,theFoodandDrug AdministrationmetonSeptember22,1972,withindividualsconcernedwiththeuseofacupunctureintheUnitedStates.TheseincludedrepresentativesoftheStatesofCalifornia andNewYork,thecityofNewYork,theAmericanSocietyofAnesthesiologists,theNationalInstitutesofHealth,theFederationofStateMedicalBoards,theAmericanMedical Association,medicalpractitioners,andtheFoodandDrugAdministrationMedicalDeviceAdvisoryCommittee.Itwastheconsensusofthisgroupthatacupuncturedevices shouldberestrictedtoinvestigationalusebylicensedpractitionersandthatthelabelingforthesedevicesshouldincludethisrestrictioninadditiontootherinformation. Accordingly,theCommissionerofFoodandDrugsconcludesthatuntilsubstantialscientificevidenceisobtainedbyvalidresearchstudiessupportingthesafetyandtherapeutic usefulnessofacupuncturedevices,theFoodandDrugAdministrationwillregardasmisbrandedanyacupuncturedeviceshippedininterstatecommerceifthefollowing informationdoesnotappearinthelabeling: (a)Thenameofthedevice. (b)Thenameandplaceofbusinessofthemanufacturer,packer,ordistributor. (c)Anaccuratestatementofthequantityofthecontents. (d)Thecompositionofthedeviceandwhetheritissterile,nonsterile,reusable,ordisposable. (e)Thedimensionorotherpertinentphysicalcharacteristicsofthedevice. (f)Thefollowingstatement:"Caution:Experimentaldevicelimitedtoinvestigationalusebyorunderthedirectsupervisionofalicensedmedicalordentalpractitioner.Thisdevice istobeusedonlywithinformedconsentunderconditionsdesignedtoprotectthepatientasaresearchsubject,wherethescientificprotocolforinvestigationhasbeenreviewed andapprovedbyanappropriateinstitutionalreviewcommittee,andwhereconditionsforsuchuseareinaccordancewithStatelaw." Instructionsfortheuseofthedeviceforthepurposeforwhichitisbeinginvestigatedand,totheextentsuchinformationisknown,anyhumanhazards,contraindications, precautions,orsideeffectsassociatedwithitsuse,shouldbeprovidedtoresearchersandinvestigators.TheFoodandDrugAdministration,however,willregardasmisbranded anyacupuncturedeviceshippedininterstatecommerceifaccompaniedbyclaimsofdiagnosticortherapeuticeffectiveness. Pendingpromulgationofseparateregulationsforconductingclinicalinvestigationsofinvestigationaldevices,researchersandinvestigatorsshallassureadequateinformed consentandinstitutionalcommitteereviewforsuchinvestigations,utilizingasaguidelinethestandardsestablishedforinvestigationaldrugsin21CFR136.37andinDivision10, unitCofformFD1571,in21CFR130.3(a)(2). Dated:February21,1973. SHERWINGARDNER, DeputyCommissionerofFoodandDrugs

Thetextofthesheettitled"Warning"isasfollows:
WarningPleasereadenclosednoticescarefully.Ifsubmittedlabelsarenotinstrictaccordwithsections"a"through"f"oftheFederalRegisternoticeofMarch9,1973,theywill notbeacceptable.Youwillberequestedtoresubmitthelabels.Thismightcauseadelayofseveralmonthsinyourreceivingtheshipment.Alargenumberofacupunctureentries andthefailureofconsigneestoprovideproperlabelshaveresultedinaheavybackloginourwork. Yourcooperationinthismatterwillenableustoserveyoumoreefficiently.Thankyou.

AftersendingthelabelsasproscribedintheFederalRegister,thematerialwasimmediatelyreleasedhowever,arrangementsthenmustbemadewithcommercial customhousebookerstopickupthematerials,packthem,andthenshipthem.Thisisattheimporter'sexpense.Theimportationofthesematerialsshouldbegreatly expeditediftheappropriatelabelsarepreparedbeforehandandattachedtotheitemsbeforethetimeofentry.

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References 1.Anon.1972.ChineseVeterinaryHandbook(inChinese).LanChouVeterinaryResearchInstitute.Ganshu,China:ThePeoplesPublishingCo. 2.Anon.1974.ThePrinciplesandPracticalUseofAcupunctureAnalgesia.HongKong:MedicineandHealthPublishingCo. 3.Babich,A.M.1973.AnanalysisofaportableelectronicstimulatormanufacturedinthePeoplesRepublicofChina.Amer.J.ChineseMed.1:34150. 4.Gunji,R.1973.ElectricAcupuncture(IntroductiontoSimpleRyodorakuTreatment).Tokyo:BunkodoCo. 5.Klide,A.M.197476.Unpublishedobservations. 6.Kvirchishvilli,VI.1974.Projectionsofdifferentpartsofthebodyonthesurfaceoftheconchaauriculaeinhumansandanimals.Amer.J.Acupuncture2:208. 7.Lee,D.C.1976.Inhibitionofthecardiovasculareffectsofacupuncture(moxibustion)bypropanololindogsduringhalothaneanesthesia.Canad.Anaesth.Soc.J. 23:30718. 8.Lee,D.C.etal.1974.Cardiovasculareffectsofacupunctureinanesthetizeddogs.Amer.J.ChineseMed.2:27182. 9.Lee,D.C.etal.1975.Cardiovasculareffectsofmoxibustionatjinchung(GV26)duringhalothaneanesthesiaindogs.Amer.J.ChineseMed.3:24561. 10.Lee,M.O.,etal.1975.Cardiovasculareffectsofacupunctureattsusanli(ST36)indogs.J.Surg.Res.18:5163. 11.Li,C.,etal.1973.Surveyofelectricalresistanceofrabbitpennaduringexperimentalperitonitis.ChineseMed.J.No.7,July:94. 12.Nakatani,Y.1961.ActualRyodorakuClinic.(inJapanese).Japan:RyodorakuResearchInstitute. 13.Nakatani,Y.1961.DetailedExplanationofRyodoPointsandRyodorakuTreatment(inJapanese).Japan:RyodorakuResearchInstitute. 14.Nakatani,Y.1966.OutlineofRyodorakuMedicalScience.(inJapanese).Japan:RyodorakuResearchInstitute. 15.Nogier,P.1972.TreatiseofAuriculotherapy.Lyon,France. 16.Sato,T,andNakatani,Y.1974.AcupunctureforchronicpaininJapan.InAdvancesinNeurology,4:81318.NewYork:RavenPress. Appendix: InstructionGuidesforElectricalAcupunctureStimulators ChineseModel6261,MultipurposeElectrotherapeuticApparatus(FIG229) DESCRIPTION Thismodelisaportabletypeoftransistorized,multipurposeelectrotherapeuticapparatusthathasawideapplicationwithhightherapeuticeffects,anditcanbeused fortreatment,acupuncturalanesthesia,artificialrespiration,anddiagnosticpurposes. Itissmall,lightweight,portable,andconvenienttouse.Thepowerissuppliedbya9Vdrybattery,andthisapparatusisthereforeextremelysuitableforthemedical unitandtheelectroacupuncturaltherapy. METHODOFUSE: Methodofoperationforthetreatment: 1.Thepositionofthepatient,eitherinsittingorsleepingposture,shouldbetotheutmostkeptcomfortably. 2.Afterselectingthepointsforstimulationwiththeelectrodes,firstinserttheneedleswellintothesepointsasdirectedbythenewmethodofgeneralacupunctureor theelectricconductionmethod. 3.Connecttheneedlestotheelectrodesoftheoutput.Generally,thepositiveelectrodebearstheauxiliarypoint,whereasthenegativebearstheprincipalpoint,andas arule,theprincipalpointmustbecoupledwiththeauxiliary,justastheupwiththedown,butthiscanbemodifiedaccordingtotheconditionswhenrequired. 4.Turnthepowerswitch,adjustthedesiredmodeofcurrentandfrequency,thenturntheoutputcontrol,andadjusttotheappropriatecurrentofstimulativeintensity wherethepatienthasamarkedfeelingofstimulationwithoutanyintolerablepain.Beforetheoperationstarts,theoutputcontrolshouldbeturnedtotheleftbackon the"O"position,andwhentheoperationstarts,theoutputcontrolisthenturnedslowlytotherightsothattheoutputcanbegraduallyincreased. 5.Attheendofthetreatment,firstturnofftheoutputcontrol,thenthepower,andthentakeawaytheoutputterminals(theclips)beforeremovingtheneedles. 6.Thisapparatusisseparatedintothreeoutputleads,whichcanbeappliedsimultaneouslytosixpointsortoseveralpatternsforthetreatmentand/ortheacupunctural anesthesia. Methodofoperationfortheacupuncturalanesthesia: Operatethesamewayasabove.Allthreemodesofcurrentcanbechosenfortheacupuncturalanesthesia,butingeneral,theadjustablemodeismorepreferable. Methodofoperationfortheartificialrespiration: 1.Firstselectthepointsforstimulationfromthebilateralphrenicnervesoftheneck,andthenplungetheneedles.

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2.Connecttheneedlestotheelectrodesoftheoutput. 3.Turntheoperationmodeknobtotheripple(sawtoothed)modeposition. 4.Adjustthefrequencyandthestimulativeintensitysuitablefortherequiredtimesperminuteoftheartificialrespiration. MethodofoperationfordetectingtheAuricularPoint: 1.Turntheoperationmodeknobtotheadjustablemodeposition,andplugthejacksocketoftheprobeintothepointdetector.Whilethepatientisgraspingthemetal tubewithonehand,usetheprobetotouchtheearlightlyanduniformlyinordertofindouttheauricularpoint.Whenthesiteofthepointistouched,asoundofhigh frequencywilloccurimmediately.Ifthesoundistoosmall,firsttrytomakeashortcircuitbetweenthemetaltubeandtheprobe,andthenreadjustthefrequency regulatorforagreatersound. 2.Theplacetobedetectedshouldbecleananddryotherwisethefindingwillbecomeinaccurate. MethodofoperationfordetectingthesitesoftheMeridianPoints: 1.Turntheoperationmodeknobtotheadjustablemodeposition. 2.Plugthejacksocketoftheprobeintothepointdetectorandwhilethemetaltubeisgraspedinthehandofthepatient,usetheprobetotouchtheskinwherethe meridianpointistobedetected.Ifthesiteofthepointistouched,asoundofhighfrequencywilloccurimmediately.Accordingtoindividualsensitivity,fitlyreadjust thefrequencyregulatorsoastocontrolthecurrentofthestimulativeintensity. 3.Theplacetobedetectedshouldbecleananddry. ChineseModel711,AcupunctureAnesthesiaApparatus(FIGS.230,231) Thisisanewtypefullytransistorizedelectricalacupunctureanesthesiaapparatus,andalsocanbeusedasanelectrotherapeuticapparatus.Itsendspulsatingcurrents ofadjustableintensitiesandfrequenciestransmitsthroughtheacupunctureneedlestohumanbody.Fortherapeuticoranesthesiapurposes,thenervousormuscular systemisexcitedorinhibitedbymeansofstimulation.Thisapparatusissuitableforuseinacupunctureanesthesiaofvariouskindsofsurgeryandmayalsobeusedin associationwithacupuncturetreatmentformanykindsofdiseases.Itisanidealtoolinmodernmedicalscience. Asthecircuitistransistorized,theaveragepowerconsumptionisverysmall,yettheinstantaneousoutputishigh.Inadditiontotheabovementionedfeatures,this apparatusissimpleinmanipulation,compact,lightweight,andeasytocarry. RANGEOFAPPLICATIONS Anesthesia:Thisapparatusissuitableforuseinacupunctureanesthesiaofvariouskindsofsurgery. Therapeutic:Itcanimprovetheperipheralcirculationandadjustthetonicityonthenervousandmuscularsystems.Itistobeusedinassociationwithacupuncture treatmentinvariousdiseasessuchascontusion,sprain,strain,lumbago,sorelegs,andtenosynovitis. DIRECTIONSFOROPERATION 1.Turnthechangingswitchtotherequiredwave.Theilluminationofthefrequencypilotlightindicatesthattheapparatusstartstooutputpulsecurrent. Thisapparatusisprovidedwitharangeofthreewaveforms: a.Turnthechangingswitchto b.Turnthechangingswitchto c.Turnthechangingswitchto 2.Connecttheoutputelectrodewireplugtotheoutputsockets(No.1to4)byplugging.Oneachelectrodewire,therearetwoclipsthatcanbeheldfirmlyonthe acupunctureneedles.Thefoursetsofoutputsocketscanaffordeightpoints,ofwhichcurrentstrengthcanbeadjustedbyturningthecurrentregulators. POWERSUPPLY DC9Volts.InsertsixNo.1batteries. NOTES 1.Whentheapparatusisnotinuse,turnthechangingswitchto"off"position. 2.Forthepurposeofcheckingthepowerconsumption,youmayturnthechangingswitchto"battery"position.Thepilotlampsituatedattheleftundersidecornerwill lightandaccordingtoitsbrightnessyoucanjudgewhetherthebatteriesshouldbechangedornot. 3.Thisapparatushasbeenputinclinicalpracticebutitsefficiencyiscloselyrelatedwithagoodgraspoftheexactlocationofthemajorpoints,aswellastheclinical experienceofaphysician. ofwhichstimulatingeffectiscomparativelyweak.

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ChineseModel713MultipurposeTherapyApparatus(FIGS.232,233) Thisisafullytransistorizedmultipurposetherapyapparatus,whichtransmitspulsatingcurrentsofdifferentintensitiesandfrequenciesthroughtheacupunctureneedles tohumanbody.Fortherapeuticoranesthesiapurposes,thenervousormuscularsystemisexcitedorinhibitedbymeansofstimulation.Thisapparatusisusedinthe treatmentofvariousdiseases,inclinicaloperationsusingacupunctureanesthesiaandintherescueofpatientsfromthefailureofrespiration.Itisalsosuitableforusein findingtheexactlocationofpointinordertopromotetheefficacyofacupuncturetreatmentoracupunctureanesthesia.Thisapparatusisequippedwithanultraviolet lamp,whichgivestheactionofradiationtherapy.Itisanidealtoolinmodernmedicalscience. Asthecircuitistransistorized,theaveragepowerconsumptionisverysmall,yettheinstantaneousoutputishigh.Inadditiontotheabovementionedadvantages,this apparatusissmall,lightweight,ofrobustconstruction,andeasytocarry. RANGEOFAPPLICATIONS 1.Therapeutic:Itcanimprovetheperipheralcirculationandadjustthetonicityonthenervousandmuscularsystems.Itissuitableforallkindsofdiseasesthatcanbe treatedbyacupuncture,suchascontusion,sprain,strain,lumbago,sorelegs,andtenosynovitis. 2.Anesthesia:Foracupunctureanesthesiainvariouskindsofclinicaloperations. 3.Respiration:Forpatientswithfailureorsuddenstopofrespiration. 4.Detection:Tofindtheexactlocationofpoints,inordertoenhancetheefficacyofacupuncturetreatmentoracupunctureanesthesia. 5.Ultraviolet:Itgivesasterilizationeffectandisindicatedforthetreatmentofvariousskindiseasesandthepromotionofhealing. DIRECTIONSFOROPERATION 1.Fortherapeuticoranesthesia: a.Turnthechangingswitchto"therapeutic"or"anesthesia"asrequired. b.Turnthewaverangeswitchtotherequiredwave.Thisapparatusisprovidedwitharangeoffivewaveforms: Adjustablewave(rangeoffrequency:250cycles/sec,andcanbecontrolledbyanadjustableregulator).Densedispersewave,discontinuouswave,ripplewave, sawtoothwave(rangeofmodulationfrequencies:1525cycles/min,andcanbecontrolledbyapulsatingregulator) c.Connecttheelectrodewireplug(accessoriesA)totheoutputsocket(No.14)byplugging.Oneachoutputelectrodewiretherearetwoclipswhichcan beheldfirmlyontheacupunctureneedles.Thesefoursetsofoutputcurrentcanaffordeightpoints,whoseoutputcurrentstrengthcanberegulatedby "CurrentRegulator"individually.Therefore,itcanbeusedfortreatmentoranesthesiaofonetofourpatientsatthesametimewithoutanymutualinterference onoutputstrength. d.Turnthepowerswitchto"on".Theilluminationofthefrequencypilotlightindicatesthattheapparatusstartstooutputpulsecurrent. 2.Forrespiration: a.TurntheChangingSwitchto"respiration". b.TurntheWaverangeSwitchto"red,yellow,green"threecolorpoints. c.Regulatethepulsatingregulatortotherequiredfrequency.Rangeoffrequencyforrespiration:1525cycles/min.Itissuitablefordifferentfrequencies requiredbyadultsandchildren. d.Connecttheelectrodewireplug(accessoriesA)toanyoneoftheoutputsocket.Theelectrodewireisfittedwithtwoclipscapableofholdingfirmlyonthe acupunctureneedlesusedonthepatient'sphrenicnervepoints.Adjusttheoutputcurrentstrengthbyturningthecurrentregulator,whichisabovetheoutput socket. e.Turnthepowerswitchto"on".Theilluminationofthefrequencypilotlightindicatesthattheapparatusstartstransmittingpulsecurrent. Remarks: Thephrenicnervepointisatthelocation12cmabovethemiddleofeachcollarbone.Therearetwopoints,oneisontheleftandtheotherisontheright. Whenthepatientisunderanacupuncturetreatmentwithpulsatingcurrentandrhythmicalabdominalrespirationappears,itmeansthathehasobtainedthetherapeutic effect. 3.Fordetection: a.Turnthechangingswitchto"detector". b.Turnthewaverangeswitchto"red,yellow,green"threecolorpoints: c.Connectthedetectorwireplug(accessoriesB)totheprobesocketbyplugging.Thetestprobeisusedfortracingpoints,anearphoneisusedbyadoctor andtheelectrode,madeofbrasswithchromiumplating,istobeheldtightlybypatient. d.Turnthepowerswitchto"on".Theilluminationofthefrequencypilotlightindicatesthattheapparatusstartstransmittingpulsecurrent.Becausethe frequencyandoutputarefixed,alltheregulatorslosetheirfunction. e.Whenthetestprobetouchesthepoint,youmayhearimmediatelysuchanoise"po,po,po,..."fromtheearphone.

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Remarks: 1.Whenthesensitivityofdetectionisaffectedduetothedifferenceoftemperature,humidity,andtheskinresistance,youmayremovethebackcoverplateofthis apparatusandtakeoutthebattery,thenuseascrewdrivertoadjustthepotentialmetreontheleftsidehole,clockwiseforincreasingsensitivity:counterclockwisefor decreasingsensitivity. 2.Fordetection,thefrequencypilotlampisinlightonlywhenthepointisfound.Buttheexactpointissubjectedtosuchanoise"Po,Po,Po,..."heardfromthe earphone. 4.ForUltraviolet: a.Turnthechangingswitchto"Ultraviolet". b.Turnthewaverangeswitchto"red,yellow,green"threecolorpoints. c.Connecttheultravioletlampwireplug(accessoriesC)intoultravioletsocketbyplugging.Removethecoverfromtheultravioletlamp.Theultraviolet therapyistobedirectedbyaphysician.Ingeneral,thepatientcanobtainsatisfactorytherapybyusingoneerythemadoseinclinicwhentheaffectedareais exposedtotheultravioletnotexceeding1minatadistanceof1cm. d.Turnthepowerswitchto"on".Theultravioletlampisinlightandthetimeforstabilitytakesabout12min.Becausetheultravioletfrequencyandoutputare fixed,allregulatorslosetheirfunction. Remarks: Iftheroomtemperatureiscomparativelylow,theworkingcurrentofultravioletmaydropandthelamptubemayprobablynotlight.Then,youmayremovetheback coverplateofthisapparatus,takeoutthebatteryanduseascrewdrivertoadjustthepotentialmeterontherightsidehole,clockwiseforincreasingcurrent, counterclockwisefordecreasingcurrent. POWERSUPPLY D.C.9Volts.InsertsixNo.1batteries. NOTES 1.Donottouchtheultravioletlamptube.Ifitisdirty,youmaycleanitwithapieceofalcoholcotton. 2.Youshouldpayattentiontothebatteryconsumptionfrequently.Whenthefrequencypilotlampisdim,itshowsthatthebatteryshouldbechanged. 3.Thisapparatushasbeenputinclinicalpracticebutitsefficiencyiscloselyrelatedwithagoodgraspoftheexactlocationofthemajorpointsaswellastheclinical experienceofaphysician. ACCESSORIES a.Outputelectrodewireswithplugsandclips(4sets). b.Detectionwirewithplug,testprobe,earphoneandchromiumplatedbrasselectrode(1set). c.Ultravioletlamp(withanextraspareultraviolettube)(1set). TechnicalData: AcuflexModelCZ110DualNeurMetron(FIG.238) PHYSICALDATA 15"Wide41/8"High93/4"Deep UnitWeight:11lbs. Portablewith21/2inchremovablesteellegs,rubberprotectorsonlegsandcase. FINISH Steelcaseandcover,beigeandbrownbakedenamel. POWERREQUIREMENTS Selfcontained:Battery(rechargeable)19VBattery2U6 CONTROLSANDINDICATORS Meter:300ampwithnomenclature. BatteryConditionPushbutton:Pushtotest. CalibrateProcedure:Withsensitivityon,adjustto200microamps,calibratepositiononmeter. SolidStateLamp:Indicateswhenunitison.Ifnotonwhenunitisturnedonrechargebattery. Treatment(silver)Jack:Harnessconnection. Negative(black)Jack:Probeconnection. Positive(red)Jack:Gripconnection. ModulationKnob*:DetentPositioncontinuous(steadyrate)andadjustablefrom15100groupsofpulses/min.In"cont."position,theoutputpulsesarecontinuous attheratesetontherateknob.Atotherthanthe"cont."position,thetrainofpulsesisinterruptedsothatthepulsesareonforaspecificimeandthenoffforthesame lengthoftime.Thismodulationisadjustablefrom15to100times/min. RateKnob*:Adjustablefrequencyfrom1100pulses/sec.
*

Withmodulationincontinuousdetent,rateknobcontrolsoutputfrequency.Withmodulationinadjustablesectionthefrequencyisstillcontrolledbyrateknob,but groupsofpulsesarecreatedaccordingtosettingonmodulationknob. Voltage:Adjuststheoutputvoltagefrom"0"toamaximumof250voltspeaktopeak(notcalibrated). ModeKnob:Controlswhetherthetreatmentsideortheanalyticalsideisoperable.Waveformontreatmentsideisbipolarwithslightlymoreenergyinonedirection. Thepulseisofveryshortduration(lessthan1msec)ineach

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directionanddecayswithashortRCconstant.Themodeswitchhastwopositions,whichinternallyinterchangetheoutputleads.Whenthemodeisatthe10o'clock position,moreenergyeminates(higherpulse)throughtheblacklead.Whenthemodeissetin"revpol."moreenergyeminatesfromtheredlead.Whenusingthe analyticalside,therangesetsvoltageavailableattheprobeandgrip(red,positivepotentialblack,negative).Thisisadirectcurrent(dc)anditsmaximumcanbeset byturningonthesensitivityknob,shorteningtheprobeandgriptogether,andreadingresultantmicroamps(300maximum).WhentherangeisinX,thevoltageis12 volts,butthemeterisshuntedtoproducea450microamp,fullscalereading(usedwithneedleinjection).Theaudiosignalissynchronizedwiththeoutputofthemeter andincreasesinfrequencyasthecurrentincreases. SensitivityKnob:Rotateclockwisetoturnmachineon,adjustto200microampsbyshortingprobeandgriptogether. AudioKnob:Rotateclockwisetoturnaudioon,adjusttoacceptablelevel(turnoffafteruse,sonottodepletebattery). Range: 1212voltposition 2121voltposition 12voltpositionwithdampedmeter(=450microampmax.)capacity.

STANDARDACCESSORIES 1Treatmentharness. 1Probewithcolorcodedretractablecord. 1Gripwithcolorcodedretractablecord. Rechargeable12voltbatterysystemincludesrecharger. Unitisinoperativewhenchargerispluggedintorearpanel. ELECTRONICCONSTRUCTION Allsolidstate,mountedontwoqualityprintedcircuitboards. CONTRAINDICATIONS Usestandardelectricalprecautionswhenanalyzingandtreatingpatientswithpacemakers. InstructionGuideSheetfortheAcuflexDual: C2110Neur.Metron ThisinstructionsheetistobeusedasanaddedguidefortheuseoftheAcuflexCZ110Dualandisnottobeconstruedastheonlywayofuse. ANALYSIS StepOne: Turnthemodeswitchto"Analysis." StepTwo: Turnonthesensitivityswitchandtheaudioswitch,withtherangeswitcheitherin12voltor21voltposition.Nowyoumustplacetheprobeandgriptogetherby placingmetaltometal.Thiswillshortthetwo,enablingyoutotunethesensitivityswitchtothe200microamparrowonthemeter.Atthispoint,youarereadyto analyze.Youmustrecalibrateifyouchangefrom12to21ontherangeswitch. Note: TheXpositionontherangeswitchisforusewithaneedlegun,whichwouldreplacetheprobeandyouwouldthenselecttheoutputbyturningthesensitivitytothe outputdesired. TREATMENT Turnthemodeswitchtotheleft,pointingto"treatment." StepTwo: Turnthevoltageswitchonandsetthepulseratetothedesiredsetting.Therateis60timeswhateverisshownontheratescale. StepThree: Modulationisasfollows:Inthe"cont."position,youcandopaincontroloranesthesia.From15to35isthestimulationrangeandfrom35to100isthesedationrange dependingonthemethodoftreatment. BATTERY Tocheckthebatterylevel,turnthemodeswitchto"analysis"position.Withallknobsinthe"off"position,pushthebatterycheckbutton,whichputstheneedleonthe meterinthebatterygoodrange.Ifthebatteryreads"low,"chargethesystemwiththebatterychargersuppliedwiththeinstrument.Whenyoupluginthebattery charger,theinstrumentwillnotoperate,thuseliminatinglinehazardtopatient. Note: Youcannotoverchargethissystem,sodonotworryaboutleavingitchargingoveraweekend. PROBE Theprobehasmanyusesbutoneistoplacecottoninthecupendanddampenitwithaconductivematerial,salinesolutionforexample.

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User'sManualfortheMultiwaveformStimulator/AcuPointFinderandMeridianBalanceMeterModelDHW3B4WF(FIG.236) CONTENTS 1.ImportantStatementtoAllUsers 2.Introduction 2.1SummaryoftheWorkingPrinciplesoftheInstrument 3.Specifications 4.OperationalProcedures AImportantBasicProcedures BAcupointLocation CMeridianBalanceDeterminationinConjunctionwithCupElectrodes DElectricalStimulationinConjunctionwithAcupunctureNeedles EElectricalStimulationinConjunctionwithCupElectrodes FMeridianDiagnosisPriortoApplicationofStimulation(withneedlesinposition) GHowtoUsetheMicroammeter 1.IMPORTANTSTATEMENTTOALLUSERS UntilsubstantialscientificevidenceisobtainedintheU.S.byvalidresearchstudiessupportingthetherapeuticusefulnessofacupuncture,theFoodandDrug Administrationrequiresthefollowingstatementtobeincludedinallacupuncturedevices:"Thisexperimentaldeviceislimitedtoinvestigationalusebyorunderthe directsupervisionoflicensedmedicalordentalpractitioners.Itistobeusedonlyunderconditionsdesignedtoprotectthepatientasaresearchsubjectandwherethe scientificprotocolforinvestigationhasbeenreviewedandapprovedbyanappropriateinstitutionalrevieworwhereconditionsforsuchuseareinaccordancewith statelaw."Usersarealsourgedtoreadthisoperationalmanualcarefullybeforeusingthisinstrument. 2.INTRODUCTION Thismodelcombinedinoneinstrumentthethreefunctionsmostoftenperformedinacupuncturetreatment,acupointlocation,meridiandiagnosis,andelectrical stimulation.Therangeofdifferentwaveformsandoutputlevelsavailablecoverthoserequiredfortherapeutictreatment,anesthesia,andartificialrespiration,etc.In fact,therangesarewiderthanthoseavailableininstrumentsimportedfromChinaandJapan.Thisisintentionalbecauseitisbelievedthatfurtherexperimentationis probablyrequiredinordertodeterminetheoptimumconditions(parameters)foreachapplication. 2.1SummaryoftheWorkingPrinciplesoftheInstrument Inthe1950's,JapaneseresearchersheadedbyDr.KyugoSasagawastudiedthephysiologicbasisofacupunctureandarrivedattwomainconclusions:First,there existsonthehumanbodypointsoflowelectricalresistancethatthetraditionalChinesemedicalliteraturereferstoasacupuncturepoints.Second,theyreported pathwayswithgoodelectricalconductivity(lowelectricalresistance),whichtheytermed"ryodoraku."Thesepathwaysagainagreeverywellwiththoseofthe meridians.Finally,inaboutthesameperiod,ithasbeendiscoveredbyacupuncturepractitionersinChinathatthedelicateneedlemanipulationtechniquescanbe replacedbytheapplicationofelectricalstimuli.Theyhavefoundbyexperimentationthewaveformsandpulseratesmostlikelytoproduceresults. Thisinstrumentisdesignedontheseprinciples.Itisasophisticatedelectronicinstrumentthat,whenusedasanacupointfinder,cansensesuddenreductioninelectrical resistancewhenusedasameridianbalancemeter,itcanmonitorthecurrentthroughthemeridianforafixedvoltagewhenusedasastimulator,itdeliversatrainof pulsesofadjustablepulseratesandismodulatedbyavarietyofwaveforms. 3.SPECIFICATIONS A.OnOffSwitch Alwaysswitchofftheinstrumentifitisnotbeingusedtoavoiddrainingthebatteries. B.PointFinderandNormalSwitch Iftheinstrumentisbeingusedasanacupuncturepointfinder,slidetheswitchtotheleft,asmarked.Thisactivatesthesoniccircuit.Foranyotherapplicationsofthis instrument,slidethisswitchtotheright,marked"normal." C.WaveformControlSwitch Thisswitchcontrolsthewaveform,orshape,oftheelectricstimulus.Inthe"off"position,allelectricaloutputsareswitchedoff. C.1Intheuniformpulseamplitudeposition,thestimulusisatrainofpulsesafractionofamillisecondinduration,havinguniformamplitudeandpulserate.Thepulse ratecanbeadjustedbythepulserateswitchfromalowrateof1pulseevery2sectoahighrateof200pulses/sec.Everystepoftheswitchapproximatelydoubles thepulserate.Atthepositionmarked"DC",thepulserateissohighthatthestimulationcanbeconsideredcontinuous.Atthisposition,thelightshouldblinkatthe pulseratecontrolledbythepulserateswitchmarked. C.2Inthedensedisperseposition,thestimulusisatrainofpulseshavinguniformamplitudebutchanging

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automaticallyfromahighpulserateof200pulses/sec(dense)toalowrateof0.5pulses/sec(disperse).Theperiodthehighratepersistsistypically1,2,or0.5sec, andtheperiodthelowratepersistsistypically4,2,1,or0.5sec.Theexactperiodsarecontrolledbythefrequencyswitch. C.3Inthesquarewaveposition,theenvelopeorthemodulatingwaveformisrectangular.Thismeansthatthetrainofuniformamplitudepulsesisturnedon(typically forabout1,2,or0.5sec)andthenoff(typicallyforabout4,2,1,or0.5sec).Theexactonperiodandoffperiodarecontrolledbythefrequencyswitch. C.4Inthetriangularwaveposition,theenvelopeorthemodulatingwaveformistriangular.Thismeansthatthetrainofpulseshasuniformpulserate,buttheir amplitudesfluctuate,risingsteadilyfromzeroamplitudetoapeakwave(whichisadjustablebyoutputlevelswitches)andthenfallsgraduallytozero.Theentire sequencetakestypically16sec.Thepulsetrainremainsofffortypically0.54secbeforeitsamplituderisessteadilygain.Again,theonperiodandoffperiodare controlledbythefrequencyswitch. D.TheFrequencySwitch Theswitchcontrolsthewaveformoftheenvelopeorthemodulatingwave.Itsapplicationhasbeenreferredtoinparagraph3.Themeaningofeachswitchpositionis detailedasfollows: Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 OnTimeor denseperiod 1sec 2sec 1se 2sec 1sec 05sec OffTimeor disperseperiod 4sec 2sec c2sec 1sec 1sec 05sec

E.PulserateSwitch Thisswitchcontrolsthepulserateorfrequency,asreferredtoinsectionC.2above.Thepulserateforeachpositionistypicallyasfollows: Position 0.5pps(1) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DC(9) PulseRate 1pulse/2sec 3pulses/2sec 2pulses/sec 3pulses/sec 5pulses/sec 10pulses/sec 20pulses/sec 40pulses/sec 200pulses/sec

F.TheMultifunctionSwitch Whentheinstrumentisusedasapointfinder,theswitchshouldbesetatoneofthesensitivitypositions(9,12,21,or30).Eachnumberindicatesthenumberof volts(DC)beingappliedacrosstheexploringandholdingelectrodes.The12voltpositionismoresensitivethanthe9voltposition,andsoon. Whentheinstrumentisusedasameridianbalancemeter,usingtheexploringelectrodeandthecupelectrode,turnthisswitchtothe"meridianbalance"position, (and,ofcourse,thepointfinder/normalswitchseeparagraph2aboveshouldbeinnormalposition).Whentheinstrumentisusedasastimulator,thisswitchis turnedtooneofthefourpositionsunder"monitor."Forexample,atposition3,themicroammeterismonitoringthecurrentinmicroamperesbeingdeliveredthrough theleadspluggedintooutputjacknumbered"3".Whenthepushbuttonswitchispusheddownthepointerofthemicroammeterwillmovetogivetheappropriate reading.Therefore,byturningthisswitchtoanyofthefourpositions(marked"1",''2","3","4"under"monitor"),thefouroutputcurrentscanbemeasured. G."MBS"SlideSwitches (MBMeridianBalance,S=Stimulator) Eachofthesefourslideswitchesisrelatedtotheoutputlevelcontrolandoutputjackdirectlyunderit.Thus,iftheswitchaboveoutput1isslidedtothe"MB" position,thevoltageacrosstheoutputclipsfromjack1isaconstantDCvoltage.Themicroammeterwillread(pushpushbutton1down)theDCcurrentthroughthe meridian.(Itisassumedthattheclipsareattachedtotwoneedlesinsertedintothesamemeridian).Thisreadingwilltellthecognizantpractitioneraboutthestateofthe meridian(hyperorhypoactive).Iftheslideswitchaboveoutput1isonthe"S"position,thevoltageacrosstheclipsfromjack1wouldbethestimulatingvoltage withawaveform,frequency,andpulseratedeterminedbyswitchs3,4,and5,respectively.Themicroammeterthenreads(pushpushbutton1down)thestimulating current. H.OutputLevelControl Eachofthese4controls,controltheoutputvoltagescomingoutofthejackimmediatelybelowit.Theoutputvoltageismaximumwhenthecontrolisatthemost clockwiseposition(zerooutputvoltages)beforetheinstrumentisswitchedon. I.PushButtonSwitches Thissetof4pushbuttonswitchesare"normallyclosed"switches.Theyareconnectedacrossthemicroammeter,andassuch,willnormallyallowthestimulating currenttobypassthemicroammeter. However,when,forexample,oneoftheswitchesispusheddown(andthemultifunctionswitchisturnedtotheappropriateposition),thepushbuttonswitchis openedandthemicroammeterwillmeasurethecurrentthroughoutput1.

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J.StimulatorOutputJacks Thissetof4outputjacksdeliveraconstantDCvoltageifslideswitchesmarked"MeridianBalance/Stimulator"areinpositionMBanddeliverthestimulating waveformsifitisinpositionS.Thesejacksareusedifthemeridianbalancefunctionisperformedinconjunctionwithneedles. K.PointFinderandMeridianBalanceJack Thisjackisusedforacupuncturepointlocationandifthemeridianbalanceisperformedinconjunctionwiththecupelectrodes. L.IndicatorLight Iftheinstrumentisusedasastimulator,thislightwillblinkatthepulserateandfrequencyused.Itgivesaroughindicationofthewaveformbeingused.Ifexcessive currentisdrawnfromanyoneoftheoutputjacks,thislightmaybecomeratherdim.Thismayalsobebecauseoneormorebatteriesisdead. M.Microammeter Thismicroammetercanmonitorthemeridianbalanceorstimulatorcurrentthroughanyoneofthe4stimulatoroutputs,andthemeridianbalanceorpointfindercurrent throughthepointfinderandmeridianbalancejacksbyappropriatepositioningofthemultifunctionswitch. Toobtainthecorrectcurrentreading,multiplythemeterreadingbyafactorof2.Thus,thefullscalereadingforthemeteris200microamperes. N.SensitivityControl Thiscontrolisusedforthemeridianbalancemetersetup.Whenevermeridianbalancediagnosisisperformed,itshouldbeusedtoadjustthereadingofthemeterto read200(1002).Bothelectrodesmustbeshortedwhileadjustingthismeterreading.Foranyothermonitoringpurposes,thiscontrolmustbeturneduptothe maximum(allthewaytotheright)sothatthemeterwillgiveanaccuratereadinginmicroampsofthestimulatoroutput. 4.OPERATIONALPROCEDURES A.ImportantBasicProcedure Beforeturningtheinstrumenton, a.Checkthatall4outputlevelcontrolsareinthemostanticlockwisepositions.IMPORTANT:Thismustbedoneinordertoavoidadministeringdangerousand unpleasantshockstothepatients. b.Checkthatthemultifunctionswitchisinthe9voltposition. c.Checkthatthewaveformswitchisintheoffposition. d.Readandrefreshyourmindbyrereadingthisuser'smanualuntilyouaresureofthefunctionofallthecontrols. Beforeputtingthisinstrumentaway, e.Checkthatthepoweronoffswitchisinoffposition. Thisistoavoidtheunpleasantexperienceoffindingallthebatteriesdrainedanddead. f.Gothroughstepsa,b,andcabove. g.Checkthattheindicatorlightisnotblinking. B.AsanAcupuncturePointFinder B.1PreliminaryChecking Checkthatthemultifunctionswitchisinthe9voltposition.Inserttheplug(withthetwoleadsprovided)intothesocketlocatedintheleftmostposition. B.2Turnthemultifunctionswitchtothe12voltposition,andtheslideswitchtothepointfinderposition.Avoidcontactingtheelectrodesbecausethiswouldsendina currentofamagnitudesufficienttodamagethemeter. B.3Theinstrumentisnowreadytobeused.Askthesubjecttoholdcylindricalelectrodewithonehand.Theexploringprobeisthenappliedwithmoderatepressure tothevicinityoftheacupuncturepointtobelocated.Theexactlocationofthispointisalowresistancepointandisindicatedbyarapidincreaseincurrentmeter reading,accompaniedbyacorrespondinglyhighpitchedaudionote.Thisinstrumentisuniquelydesignedsothatthefrequencyoftheaudionoteincreasesasthe exploringprobegetsnearertotheexactpointlocation. B.4Precaution Somepointshaveareaintheorderofonly1sqmm,andhencecarefulsearchingisnecessarybeforetheycanbelocatedaccurately.Theskinshouldbekeptdry otherwise,thepointlocationmaynotbefoundeasily. B.5SensitivitySwitch Inthepointfindingprocess,ifthemeterreadingremainslowandtheaudionotelowpitched,itmaybenecessarytoturnthesensitivityswitchtothe21voltor30 voltposition.Ingeneral,pointsonthechest,shoulder,andthefacerequirelessvoltage,andpointsonthelimbsrequirehighervoltages. B.6Criterion Thepresenceofapointisnotindicatedbylowresistancealone,butbyasuddendropinresistance,asevidencedbyajumpinthecurrentmeterreadingandahigher pitchednote.Inotherwords,itisthechangeinthesequantitiesthatisimportantnottheirabsolutevalues.Insomecases,inordertoobservethesechanges,proper selectionofthesensitivityswitchisnecessary.Forsomesubjects,thedropinelectricalresistanceattheacupuncturepointrelativetothatofthesurroundingtissueis notmarked,andonehastobecontentwithanotsopreciseindication.Erroneousacupointlocationmaybecausedbymoistureandbyscratchingthesurfaceofthe skin.Toavoidtheformer,thepartofthebodybeingstudiedshouldbekeptdry. C.AsaMeridianBalanceMeterinConjunctionwithCupElectrodes C.1PreliminaryChecking

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Turnthemultifunctionswitchtothemeridianbalancepositionandtheslideswitchtothe"normal"position. C.2SettingUp Inserttheplugintothesocketintheleftmostposition. C.3Fillthecupintheexploringelectrodewithcottonsoakedinsalinesolution. C.4Askthesubjecttoholdthecylindricalelectrodeinonehand.Thepractitionerwillplacethecupelectrodeovertheyuan,orsource,pointofeachofthe12 meridians,leftsidefirst,thenrightside.Thecupelectrodeshouldmakeuniform,firmcontactwiththepoint,andasthemeterneedlesrisestoasteadyfinalreading, thisthenistakentobethemeasuredvalue. C.5The24measuredvaluesareplottedongraphpaperandeachvalueiscomparedwiththeaverageofthe24readings.Onecandrawgeneralconclusionsas follows: a.Forthesamemeridian,markeddifferencebetweenreadingsfortheleftandrightsidesimpliesunbalance. b.Ahigherthanaveragereadingindicatesthatthemeridianishyperactivealowerthanaveragevalueimplieshypoactivity. D.ElectricalStimulationinConjunctionwithAcupunctureNeedles D.1PreliminaryChecking. Beforeturningtheinstrumenton,checkthatalltheoutputlevelcontrolsareinthemostanticlockwisepositions. D.2Selecttheappropriatewaveforms.Ifthefirstwaveformisselected,alsoselectapulserate(rangingfrom05ppstoDC).Ifoneoftheotherthreewaveformsis selected,turnthepulserateswitchtoahighpulserateposition(forexample,thelastpositionnexttothatmarked"DC").Nowselectafrequency.Thefirstfrequency switchpositionhasastimulationperiodof1sec.followedbyarelaxationperiod(absenceofstimulation)of4sec.(seeSect.3.4). D.3MakingSureThattheOutputLevelControlIsintheMostAnticlockwisePosition. Nowinserttheplugintooneofthefouroutputjacksandattachtheclipstotheacupunctureneedles,whichweassumehavebeeninsertedintotheappropriate acupuncturepoints.Slowlyturntheoutputlevelcontrolclockwiseuntilthesubjectcanfeeltheelectricimpulses.Atthisstage,proceedverygraduallyuntilthesubject experiencesanumbingandpulsatingfeelingandyetwithoutfeelingundulyuncomfortableandpainful.Thisthenistheappropriatevoltagesetting. D.4MeasuringtheOutputCurrents. Iftheoutputcurrentistobemeasured,turnthemultifunctionswitchtotheappropriateposition(1,2,3,or4,dependingonwhichoutputcurrentistobemeasured) under"monitor"andpressthecorrespondingpushbuttondown.Thereadingobtained,whenmultipliedbyafactorof2,istheoutputcurrentdeliveredtothepatientin microamperes. D.5FourIndependentOutputs. Thefouroutputsdeliverthesamewaveform,frequency,andpulserate,buttheoutputlevelcanbecontrolledindependently.Theinteractionbetweenoutputsis minimal.Asasafetyprecaution,ifmorethanoneoutputisbeingused,andthenoneoutputistobeturnedoffcompletely,alwaysdothisgradually,and reducetheotheroutputswhenevernecessary. E.ElectricalStimulationinConjunctionwithCupElectrodes Forthisapplication,proceedasdescribedintheprevioussection,exceptthatattachtheclipsontothepairofcupelectrodesprovided.Thecupsarefilledwithaball ofcottonsoakedinasalinesolution.Applytheelectrodestotheacupuncturepointsselectedfortheparticulartreatment. F.MeridianDiagnosispriortoApplicationofStimulation(withNeedlesinPosition) BeforeorintheproceduresdescribedinSections4.5and4.6,ifitisdesiredtodeterminetheconditionthemeridianbeingused(forexample,tofindwhetheritis hyperactiveorhypoactiveortoseeiftheelectricalstimulationhasresultedinanychange)justslidethe"MBS"switchtothe"MB"position,pressthepushbutton downandnotethecurrentreading(ofcourse,themultifunctionswitchshouldmonitortheappropriateoutputjacks). G.HowtoUsetheMicroammeter PleaserefertoSect.3.13foradetailedexplanation. AcuStimulatorIPortableElectronicPulseGenerator(FIG.239) PLEASEREADTHESEPAGESBEFOREYOUPLACETHEINSTRUMENTINUSE ThebasicactionoftheAcuStimulatorissimple.Controlsonthedeviceallowtailoringoftheoutputforspecifictreatmenteffects. Thefrequencyandamplitudeoftheoutputmaybeindividuallyadjusted.Therearefiveoutputs,whichareallisolatedfromeachother.Theuseofseparateoutput transformersforeachoutputachievesthisandprovidesgreaterflexibility.
OPERATION

FrequencyControl Thiscontroladjuststheoutputpulserateandisadjusta

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blefrom1to250pulses/sec.Thereisavisualmonitoroftheoutputfrequencybesidethiscontrol. OutputControls Theseshouldbelefttotheirextremecounterclockwisepositionwhennotconnectedtothepatient.Thus,iftheoutputwiresarebeingconnectedtothepatient, thereisnopossibilityofshock.Thisisveryimportantasfailuretodosocouldstartlethepatient.Thecontrolmaythenbeadjustedfromthelowpositiontothe desiredlevelofstimulation. Note Theoutputwiresshouldbepluggedintothejackundertheappropriateoutputcontrol.Thealligatorclipsontheendsofthesewiresshouldbeconnectedtothe electrodeinsuchamannerthattheydonotputunnecessaryleverageontheskin.Theredclipispositiveandtheblackisnegative. Wiresthatarenotinuseshouldbestoredneatlytoavoidwiretangling. Adequateprecautionsshouldbetakentoensurethepatient'ssafetywhentheregionextendingbetweentheelectrodespassesnearthevicinityoftheheart.Although thecurrentfromthestimulatoriswellbelowlevelsthatcouldinducecardiacfibrillation,thefactthatsomepeoplemaybeunusuallysensitiveshouldbeconsidered. Notestshavethusfarbeenmadethatwouldpredicttheeffectofelectrostimulationontheoperationofcardiacpacemakers.Cautionshouldbeexercisedifthepatient hasanyimplantedelectricalorelectronicsdeviceswithinthebody. IntertronicSystemsLimitedassumesnoconsequentialdamagesforuseormisuseofthisdevice.
TECHNICALINFORMATION

Frequencyrange:1250Hz PeakcurrentatmaximumO/Pinto500ohmsload:100ma PeakpoweratmaximumO/Pintoa500ohmsload:5WMaximumRMScurrentintoa500ohmsload:8maMaximumdutycycle(positivehalfcycleonly):10%DC levelonoutput:notmeasurableat5mv/divisionZ1n=10Meg. Batteryvoltage:9V MAXoutputvoltagesatvariousloads VoltagePP 163 152 140 115 95 79 55 20K 10K 5K 2K 1K 500 LoadResistance(ohms)

Waveform:Positivecycle0.5m.s.Negativecycle0.4m.s.
ELECTRICALSTIMULATIONCONTRAINDICATIONS

DirectandAlternatingStimulation a.Astingingsensationmayresultfrompoorcontactbetweentheelectrodeandtheskin. b.Aburningsensationmayresultifthestimulatingelectrodesareincloseproximity. c.Incertaincasesofpatientswithsensitiveskin,theremaybeanunfavorableskinreactionorinfection. d.Acupunctureearstaplingisnotrecommendedbecauseanextremelyhighinfectionratehasbeenreported.Thiscouldresultinseriousinnerearinfectionwith consequenthearingloss. e.ElectricburnsmayresultfromahighintensitystimulationorprolongedDCstimulation.Thesemaycauseunforseennervedamage. f.Electrolyticburnsmaybecausedbypolarizationeffects. g.Unforeseenmuscleparalysisorspasmsmayresultfromimproperstimulation. h.DCstimulationhasaverystrongeffectandiscommonlyusedforskinproblems,neuralgia,andmentalillness.Itmay,however,causeelectrolysis,whichhasa corrosiveeffectontheskin.Itisadvisabletoswitchthepolarityorturnthecurrentoffevery13min.Treatmenttimesshouldnotexceed15min.PulsedDC decreasestheriskofelectrolysis. i.Instimulation,thepositiveandnegativeelectrodesmustbeconnectedtotherightpoints.Thepositiveelectrodecanrelievepainsyndromes,inflammation,and swellingthenegativeelectrodecanstimulateperipheralcirculation. j.Neverputtwoelectrodesacrossfromeachother,onthesidesofthespineabovethethirdlumbarvertebra. k.Nervousorhypertensionpatients,cardiacpatients,andpregnantwomenarenotgoodcandidatesforelectroacupuncture.

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3 AnimalAcupuncturePoints
InancientChina,practitionersofveterinaryacupuncturereliedonChineseveterinaryclassicsandtheexperienceofthefamilyormaster.Withtheadventof governmentsupportforresearchanddevelopmentofveterinaryacupuncture,theveterinaryclassicswereedited,andtheexperiencesofpractitionerswere documented.InmodernChinesepublications,thelocation,names,andfunctionsofacupuncturepointsinlargeanimalsis,ingeneral,consistent(seeChapterEight). Asclinicalstudiesprogressed,onlythoseacupuncturepointsthatshowedgoodtherapeuticefficacyweretaughttostudentsofveterinarymedicine.Therefore,in Chinesebooksofthe1950sand'60s,onemayfinddifferencesfrombookspublishedsince1970.ThelateststandardtextinChinaistheChineseVeterinary Handbook,compiledbytheLanchowVeterinaryResearchInstitutein1972. Largeanimalacupuncturepointsusedin,orderivedfrom,OrientalcountriesareessentiallybasedonYuenHengLiaoMaChi(1608).*Veterinaryacupuncture,asit hasdevelopedinEurope,appearstohaveasitsbasehumanacupunctureinformationandanatomicaltranspositionofhumanpointsontoanimals.Asitdevelopedin theUnitedStates,veterinaryacupunctureutilizedbothOrientalandEuropeaninformation.Severaldifferentchartsofthehorse,cow,dog,andcathavebeen producedintheUnitedStates(Figs.373to3993101to3117),andarebasedononeorseveralofthemethodsforlocatingpoints,asdescribedbelow. ThenomenclatureforacupuncturepointsintheWestisinaconfusedstateasituationattributabletoseveralcauses.TherapidacquisitionandtranslationintoEnglish ofOrientalinformationbymanyindividualsandgroupshasresultedintheuseofdifferentEnglishsystemsfornamingpoints.Therearetwopartstotheproblem,the firstconcerningthetransliterationofthesoundsproducedbyspokenChinese.Thistechnique,calledRomanizing,convertsthesoundsofthespokenChineselanguage intoRomanalphabetlettersandwords.Thereareseveralrecognizedsystemsforperformingthisconversion.ThesystemusedbytheauthorsisWadeGilesthe systemusedintheSobinhorsemodelbooklet(seepage69)isPinYin.WhenstandardizedsystemssuchasWadeGilesorPinYinareused,wordscanbe recognizedbyindividualsfamiliarwiththesystem.Buttothosenotfamiliarwitheithersystem,theRomanizedwordsforaparticularChinesecharacterwouldappear tobedifferent.Althoughthiscausessomeconfusion,theuseofrecognizedsystemsofRomanizingisthecorrectmethodforconvertingChinesewordstotheRoman alphabet.Unfortunately,manypeoplehaveRomanizedthenamesofacupuncturepointsusingvariousdialectsandunrecognizedconversionsystemsthisisfurther compoundedbytheadmixtureofotherOrientallangauges. WehaveincludedmaterialthathasbeenRomanizedbyothersinvariousways.Thismaterialisincludedasitwasprovidedbythevarioussourcesinordertoprovide asmuchaspossibletheavailableinformationonveterinaryacupuncture.NoattemptwasmadetochangethematerialintotheWadeGilessystemofRomanizing. ThesecondpartoftheproblemisthatasveterinaryacupuncturechartsandtextswerebroughtintotheUnitedStates,thepointsweregivenRomanlettersandArabic numeralsratherthan,andinadditionto,theChinesenames.Aseachpersonorgroupacquiredcharts,theylabelledthemdifferentlyconsequentlytheRomanletter andArabicnumeraldesignationforanyspecificpointvariesfromchartto
*

ThereisnoinformationonsmallanimalacupuncturefromancientChina.

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chart.Forexample,thepointwecallFL7(ch'angfeng)fromothersourcesiscalled42,FL9,orsmallintestine6,andismissingfromtwoothercharts. Anotherexistingproblemconcernsthequestionofwhethertherearemeridiansintheanimalscomparabletothoseofthehuman.InanancientChinesechartwith12 points(Fig.312,andFig.14),eachofthesepointsrepresentsawholemeridianasdescribedinman(seep.16).4 NoneoftheChinesehorsecharts,orother Chineseanimalcharts,havemeridianlinescomposedofmanypoints.Onechartofthehorse,showingmeridianlines,wasproducedbytheJapaneseacupuncturistDr. MeiyuOkada(Figs.313to318).ItreportedlyhasasitssourceanancientChinesetext,BaRyoTaizen,probablywrittenabout50150B.C.13Inthischart,the namesgiventothemeridiansarethesameasthoseinthehuman.However,thenumberofpointsoneachmeridianshownforthehorseisdifferentthaninthehuman. Thenamesofthepointswouldbeconfusingifonewerecommunicatingwithsomeonewhowasusinganatomictransposition(seebelow)forlocationandnamesof pointsforexample,thehumanpointstomach36(tsusanli)iscalledstomach21(tsusanli),AnothersetofhorsechartswereproducedbyDr.H.GradyYoung18 thesewerebasedonOkada'schart(Figs.319to326). DeterminingtheLocationofAcupuncturePoints Atpresent,thereareseveralwaysofdeterminingthelocationofacupuncturepoints.Therearetwopracticalmethods(anatomictranspositionandpublishedcharts) andtwoinvestigationalmethods(electricpointfindersandprovocation). AnatomicTransposition Themethodusedinitiallyandstillinuseinthewesternworldisanatomictranspositionofthehumanacupuncturepoints.Orientalinvestigatorsarealsousingthis methodinsmallanimals.Thehumanpointsarelocatedanatomically,andthenthesameanatomiclocationisfoundintheanimalspeciesofinterest,andthatpointinthe animalisgiventhehumannameandfunction.Somepointsareveryeasytotransposeforexample,conceptionvessel8islocatedintheumbilicus.However,other pointsaremoredifficulttotranspose.Theveryimportantassociationpointsofthebladdermeridianarelocatedontheback,lateraltothevertebralcolumnatalevel betweenvariousspinousprocesses.Forexample,bladder23islocatedbetweenthespinousprocessofthe2ndand3rdlumbarvertebrae.Thissitecanbefoundin thevariousanimalspecies,butthetotalnumberofprecedingvertebraevariesinthedifferentspecies:forexample,inthehumanthe2ndlumbarvertebraisthe21st vertebra(countingfromthehead).Inthehorse,itisthe27thvertebrainthedogitisthe22ndandinthepig,itisthe23rdor24th.Therefore,thequestioniswhether onecanusethe2ndlumbarvertebraasalandmarkindifferentspecies. Aproblemofevenmorecomplexityisthelocationofpointsintheareaofthephalanges:forexample,theextremelyimportantpoint,largeintestine4,islocatedinthe humanbetweenmetacarpals1and2.Inthehorse,metacarpal1ismissing,andmetacarpal2isverysmallandtightlyattachedtometacarpal3.Thecowhasthe3rd and4thmetacarpalbonesfused,andthe1stand2ndmetacarpalbonesaremissingaltogether.Metacarpal1ismissinginthepig. Theonlypublishedworkdescribinganatomictranspositioninanimalsisrelativelyoldandhasbeenmodifiedextensivelybytheauthorsincethatpublication.12 AcupunctureUnitsofMeasurement Inthehuman,distancesbetweenacupuncturepointsaremeasuredinacupuncture"inches"(alsocalledchun,tsun,orpouce)andfen,whichare0.1inch.These inchesaredifferentforeachindividualandaremeasuredusinganatomicrelationships.Theclassicdefinitionofaninchisthelengthofthesecondphalanxofdigit3of thehand.Otherlargernumbersofinchesaredefinedanatomicallyalsoforexample,thedistancebetweenthewristandtheelbowis12inches,andthedistance betweenthenipplesis8inches(Fig.3100). Inanimals,nosystemexists.Theonlyreferencetoaninchfoundisinthebookletaccompanyinganacupuncturemodelforthehorse(p.70below),whichstatesthat aninchinthehorseisthewidthofthe16thribatthelevelofthetubercoxae.Whethertherelationshipsdescribedforthehumanapplytothedogoranyotheranimal isnotknownatpresent. PublishedCharts Thevariouspublishedchartscanbeusedtolocatepoints.Thesechartsvaryconsiderably,andtheavailableChinesechartsareonlyforfarmanimals(Figs.31to37 and327to372).ChartsarenowavailableinEnglishforsmallanimals,butthesearebasedonanatomictranspositionandvarywiththeindividual'sopinionofthe precisewaytodothetransposition(Figs.373to399).Onecanattempt

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toverifythelocationsutilizingelectricpointfinders.However,eventhoughpointscanbefoundatapproximateanatomiclocations,onecannotbesuretheyare,infact, thesameinnameandfunctionasthehumanpoints.Manyextrapointscanbefound,andseveralpointsmaybefoundinanareasupposedtoanatomicallycontaina certainhumanpoint.Becauseofthelargenumberofchartsinthischapter,theyareallplacedtogetherattheendofthechapter(pp.120210). ElectricPointFinding Onecanfindpoints,withaninstrument,asareasoflowelectricalresistance(seechapter2).Manypointsarefoundinanimalsinlocationssimilartothoseinman. Whetherthesepointsservethesamefunctionsasinmanisnotyetknown. Theelectricallocatingofpointsinanimalsaddssomeinformationhowever,therearemorequestions.Thenumberoflowresistancepointsfoundonanyone individual,animalorhuman,isquitevariable.Itvariesinthesameindividual,fromdaytoday,withthevoltageoftheseekinginstrument,andwiththedurationof seekingintwoways.Ifthepointfinderelectrodeisheldinonepositionformorethanafewseconds,itwilldamagetheskin,producingafalselowresistancepoint.If oneseekspointsondogs,thelongertheprocesscontinuesduringanyonesession,themorepointswillbegintoappear. Provocation Pointscanbestudiedbyprovocationthatis,causingalesioninanorganandfindingpointsonthebodythatbecomepainfuland/orhavealteredconductivity.This hasbeendoneincattlebyDr.O.Kothbauer.710Heinjectedaniodinesolutionintovariousorgansandlocatedpointsontheskinthatwerepainfulandhadaltered electricalconductivity.Hisworkhasslowlyprogressedoveraperiodof20years.Mostofhisprovocationworkhasbeenrelatedtothereproductiveorgansofthe cow. Kothbauerhasalsotriedtorelatenaturallyoccurringdiseasesinanorgantotheappearanceofpainfulspotswithalteredelectricalconductivity.Theverificationofthe conditionwasbyclinicalexaminationand/orpostmortemexamination.Throughthiswork,Kothbauerhasbeenabletomapmanypointsincows(Figs.38to311). Thefindingofthesepainfulpointsisanotherpieceofusefulinformationindiagnosis. Aprovocationstudyhasalsobeendoneintherabbit,involvingauriculotherapy.11Accordingtothisbranchofacupuncture,theentirebodyisrepresentedinsidethe ear,diseaseofanorganproducesapainfulalteredelectricalresistancepointataconsistentlocation,andtheconditionmaybetreatedbystimulatingthatpoint.Ina rabbitstudy,turpentinewasinjectedintramuscularly,andpointswerelookedforintheear.Verysmallzonesofdecreasedelectricalresistanceappearedintheearin specificlocationsthatvariedwiththesiteoftheturpentineinjection.Thus,specificprojectionzonesseemtoexistintheearforvariouspartsofthebody.Notonlydid electricalresistanceofthepointschange,butsweating,hyperemia,andulcerationorintensivedesquamationoftheskinalsooccurred.Inanotherstudytovisualize thesepoints,therabbitsweregiventrypanblueIV,aftertheturpentineinjection.Withinashorttime,onlythecorrespondingprojectionzoneintheearwascolored. AcupuncturePointsinLargeAnimals Thefollowingdescriptionsoftheacupuncturepointsoflargeanimals,theirlocations,methodofstimulation,andindicationsfortheirusearefromSobin,Ottaviano,15 Shin,16andaChineseveterinaryhandbook.3 Horse SobinHorseModel(Fig.327)* ThisacupuncturemodelofahorseanditsaccompanyingbookletareimportedfromChina.Thebookletincludes:namesofthepoints,anatomiclocations,methodsof needling,andconditionsthepointshouldbeusedtotreat.Thenumbersaccompanyingthenamesofpointsrefertothenumbersinthehorsemodel.TheEnglishtextof thebookletisreproducedonpages7081.
*

ThismodelofthehorsewasimportedintotheUnitedStatesbyJulianM.Sobin,presidentofSobinChemicals,Inc.,Boston,Massachusetts02210.Mr.Sobinisveryinterested in,andhasbeenaleaderin,tradearrangementswithChina.HewasthefirstAmericanbusinessmaninvitedtoPeking,14andheattendedthe31stCantonTradeFair(Chinese ExportCommoditiesFairatKwangchow)in1972andeverytradefairsincethen.Mr.SobinnegotiatedthefirstsaleofU.S.goodsevermadeataCantonTradeFair,1whereitis estimatedthat50%ofChina'stradeisnegotiated.Mr.Sobinagreedtoallowustocompletelyreproducethebookletdistributedwiththehorsemodel,withnorestrictions,sothat wecouldproduceascompleteabookonthesubjectaspossible.

Page70 Localization NameofthePoint 1Tafengmen LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication

Onthetopofthehead, Puncturewithanewneedle Thetwoearsstanding Tetanus, middleofthenaturallineof 23tsun*downwardsunderthe upright encephalitis, therootofmane,namelyat skin. andbackwards. encephalomyelitis, thecrosspointofthe encephaledema. externalparietal crestoftheparietalbone. Atthecentreofthe forehead.Atthemidpoint inbetween thetwoeyes. Atthemidpointonthe lineinbetweenthetwo lateralcanthiofeyes. Atthemidpointin betweenthetwomedial canthi. Abovethemandibular articulation,inthe depressionbelowthe zygomaticarch.Bilateral. Cauterizewithmugwortor iron.

2Tungtien

Pusaccumulationin frontalsinus,cerebral hyperemia. Cerebralhyperemia, cerebral anemia,rheumatismof theneck. Sameas Lunghui. Tetanus,paralysis ofthefacial nerve. Sameas Shangkuan.

Head and Neck

3Lunghui

"

4Tungtang

"

5Shangkuan

Puncturewitharoundsharp Shakinghead, needleobliquely twitchingofthe downwardfrom8fento1tsun noseandlips. deep.

6Hsiakuan

Belowthemandibular Puncturewitharoundsharp SameasShangkuan. articulation,1tsunbelow needleobliquelyupward1.52 andinfrontofShangkuan. tsundeep. Bilateral. Onthebloodvessel about5fenbehindTai yang.Bilateral. Onthetransversefacial veinabout1tsunbelow andbehindthelateral canthus.Bilateral. Abovethelateral canthus,onthefoldofthe eyelid,attherimofthe supraorbitalprocess.One oneacheye. Atthemidpointofthe superiorpalpebra,onthe lowerrimofthesupra orbitalprocess.Onein eacheye. SameasTaiyang.

7Yanmo

Sameas Taiyang.

Puncturewiththesmall broadneedlealong thebloodvessel23fendeep. Bleeding.

8Taiyang

Conjunctivitis, Keratitis,periodical ophthalmia, heatstroke. Sameas Chingming.

9Chuannao

Presstheeyeball SameasChingming. downwards.Puncturewiththe roundsharp needlealongtherimofthe supraorbitalprocess22.5tsun deep. Presstheeyeball SameasChingming. downwards.Puncturewiththe roundsharp needlealongthelowerrimof thesupraorbital process22.5tsundeep.

10Chingshu

Sameas Chingming.

Tsun .ThewidthofribonthepointintercrossedbythelevelofTubercoxaeandthe16thribisonetsun.(Holdtheribwiththumbandforefingerand measurethewidthbetweenthetwofingers).

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Localization NameofthePoint 11Kaitien LocationofthePoint Atthemidpointofthe lowerborderofthecornea, onits lineofdemarcationwith thesclera.Oneoneach eyeball. MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Uselocalanaethsiawhenthe wormisinthe anteriorchamberofthe eye.Opentheeyelidsandfix theeyeball. Puncturequicklyand skillfullywiththethin triangularneedleorophthalmia needle1fen deep,quicklywithdraw, letthewormflowout togetherwiththeaqueous humor. Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication MicrofilariaofSetaria equi

Head and Neck

12Chingming

Inthelowereyelid1/3 pointoftheupperborder ofthe lacrimalbone.Onepointin eacheye.

Presstheeyeballupward, Closeandopenofthe Conjunctivitis, puncturewitha eyeintermittently,and keratitis,periodical roundsharpneedlealong lacrimation. ophthalmia,pannus. theupperborderofthelacrimal bone22.5tsun deep.

13Sanchiang

About1tsunbelowthe Puncturewithatriangular medialcanthusonthe needlealongthebloodvessel angularvein.Bilateral. upwardsfor23fendeepuntil bleeding.

Spasmofthe bowel,inflationof bowel,constipation, indigestion, conjunctivitis, keratitis,periodical opthalmia. Sameas Sanchiang. Rhinitis,overexertion, cerebralhyperaemia, congestionofthe lung. Sameas Hsuehtang. Rheumatismof theneck.

14Tamo

Ontheveinabout7fen SameasSanchiang. belowandbehindSan chiang.Bilateral. Atthetwosidesofthe nose,2tsunfromthe upperrimofthenostrils. Bilateral. 1tsunbelowHsueh tang.Bilateral. Puncturewithatriangular needletransversely throughtheseptumnasi. Bleeding. SameasHsuehtang.

15Hsuehtang

16Pishu 17Chochin

Inthefossabetween Makeacutinthefossa thetwonostrils.Onepoint about45fenlong,hookout only. thetendonof leavatorlabiisuperioris proprius,dragforcefully andrepeatedly. Inthecentreofthe vorticespilorumofthe upperlip.One pointonly. Ontheoutersurfaceof theupperlip,ontheline alongthelowerborderof thetwonostrils,3fen besidethemedialwingof nostril.Bilateral.

18Fenshui

Puncturewitharoundsharp Obviouscontraction needle11.5tsun andswingingofthe deep. upperlip.

Spasmofthebowel, inflationofthebowel, constipation,dilatation ofthestomach, indigestion. Commoncold,high fever,heatstroke,over exertion.

19Chiangwen

Puncturewitharoundsharp Obviouscontraction needleperpendicularly oftheupper 35fendeep. lip.

20Waichuenyin

Ontheoutersurfaceof PuncturewithaMiddle theupperlip,justin broadneedleperpendicularly3 betweenthelowerborder fendeep. ofthetwonostrstrils.One pointonly.

Stomatitis, indigestion,digestion, pharyngolaryngiis.

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Localization NameofthePoint 21Neichuenyin LocationofthePoint Ontheinnersurfaceof theupperlip,1tsunfrom thegumofteeth,58fen besidethefraenulalabii superioris.Bilateral. Onthetopofthe cartilageofthealaenasi. Bilateral. Ontheouterrimofthe orbicularisoris,7fen aboveand posteriortotheAnguli oris. Bilateral. Atthecrosspointofthe prolongedlineofthe commisurae labiorumandtheanterior borderofthemasseter. Bilateral. 2.5tsunbelowthefacial crest,andabout2tsun behindtheanteriorborder ofthemasseter.Bilateral. MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Puncturewithatriangular needle3fendeep. Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication Stomatitis,indigestion, digestion, pharyngolaryngitis.

Puncturewithatriangular needle3fendeep.

Head and Neck

22Chiangya

Spasmofthebowel, constipation,dilatationof stomach.

23Suokou

Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionofthelip Tetanus,paralysisof needleupwardand andmouth thefacialnerve. backward23tsundeep. muscles.

24Kaikuan

Puncturewitharoundsharp needleupwardand backwards3tsundeepor downwardsandforewards throughtoSuokou.

Obviousfibrillationof SameasSuokou. masseterand brachiocephalicus, fibrillationoflips,mouth, andbuccinator,when puncturethroughto Suokou.

25Baosai

Puncturewitharoundsharp needleorafire needleobliquelyupwards 68fendeep.

Swellingoftheface, osteomalacia, spasmofthemasseter. Paralysisofthefacial nerve, stomatitis. Stomatitis,indigestion, heat stroke,overexertion, commoncold.

26Chengchiang

Inthecentreofthelower Puncturewitharoundsharp lip,about1tsunfromthe needleabout3fen rim.Onepointonly. deep.


27Yutang 5fenbesidethemedian lineofthehardpalateon the3rd rugapalatinainsidethe mouth. Puncturewithatriangular needleupwardandforward3 fendeep.Rubwithsaltafter bleeding.


28Erhchien Ontheposterior auricularveinatthedorsal sideoftheearoratthetip oftheear.Bilateral. Puncturewithasmallbroad needleintothebloodvesselto bleedor puncturewithatriangular needleatthetipoftheear34 fendeepuntilbleeding. Puncturewitharoundsharp needleorafineneedle1tsun underthe skin.

Spasmofthebowel, commoncold.

29Tingerh

Atthemedialsideofthe rootoftheear,inthefossa infrontoftheoccipital crest. Bilateral.

Paralysisofanear, dullness, exhaustion.


30Fengmen 1tsunbehindtheear,2 Puncturewitharound tsunfromthenaturalline sharpneedleobliquely ofthemane,inthefossain upwards2tsundeep. frontofthewingofthe atlas.Bilateral. 2tsunbehindtheear,1.5 SameasFengmen. tsunfromthenaturalline ofthemane,inthefossa behindthewingofthe atlasBilateral. Standinguprightof theearofthesameside. Encephalitis,common cold, tetanus.

31Futu

SameasFengmen.

SameasFengmen.

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Localization NameofthePoint 32Chiuwei LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication Rheumatismofthe neck,tetanus.

Head and Neck

Thereareninepointson Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionofthe eachsideoftheneck.The needleperpendicularly1.53 neckandshoulder 1stpoint(Yiwei)is2tsun tsundeep. muscles.Fibrillationof belowandposteriorto themusclesofthe Fengmen,1.2tsunfromthe withers. lowernaturallineofthe maneTheNameofthe Point9th(Chiuwei)is1.5 tsuninfrontoftheanterior angleofthescapula(Bo chien),1.8tsunbelowthe lowernaturallineofthe mane.Thetotal lengthbetweenthe1stand 9thpointsisdividedinto8 equal parts.The8pointsfrom thefrontbackwardsare namedErhwei(2nd),San wei(3rd). Szewei(4th),Wuwei (5th). Liuwei(6th),Chiwei(7th), andBawei(8th).Allthe pointsaredistributedalone the lowermarginofthe rhomboideusformingan arc. Atbetweentheupper andmiddle1/3ofthe jugularvein. Bilateral. Maketheveincongestedat first,then puncturewithalargebroad needleorableeding needlealongthebloodvessel tobleed.

33Chingmo

Overexertion,heat stroke,toxication, cerebral hyperemia,congestionof the lung,laminitis,stomatitis.


34Bochien Inthefossabesidethe junctionofscapular cartilageandtheanterior angleofthescapula. Bilateral. Ontheanteriorborder ofthescapula,inthe middleoftheneck,4tsun belowandinfrontofBo chien.Bilateral. Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe needlealongthemedialborder musclesofthe ofthescapulaslightlydownw withers. ard34tsundeep. Paralysisofthe suprascapularnerve, arthritisoftheshoulder joint,rheumatismofthe forelimb.

35Feimen Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe needlealongthemedialborder shouldermuscle. ofthescapulabackwardand downward34tsundeep. SameasBochien.

Fore Limb

36Bochung

Ontheanteriorborderof Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe thescapula,2tsunbelow needlealongthemedialborder shoulderandelbow Feimen.Bilateral. ofthescapulabackwardand muscles. inwardobliquely2.53tsun deep.

Rheumatismofthefore limb,arthritisofshoulder andelbowjoints, paralysisof suprascapularscapular nerve,myositisof sternobrachiocephalicus. Rheumatismofthefore limb,arthritisofthe shoulderjoint,myositis ofsternobrachioceph licus,paralysisofthe suprascapular nerve. Paralysisofthe suprascapularnerve, atrophyoftheshoulder andbrachialmuscles, chronicshoulder lameness.

37Chienchin

Ontopoftheshoulder, Puncturewitharoundsharp Liftingofthefore inthefossaofthelateral needlebackwardand limb. upper downward22.5tsundeep. borderofthelateral tuberosityofthehumerus. Bilateral. 3tsunbelowthe midpointoftheupper borderofthescapular cartilage.Bilateral. Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe needledownwards shoulder obliquely45tsundeep. muscles.

38Kungtzu

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Localization NameofthePoint 39Bolan LocationofthePoint Inthefossaatthe junctionofscapular cartilageandthe posteriorangleofthe scapula.Bilateral. Ontheposteriorborder ofthescapula,4tsunin frontofandbelowBolan. Bilateral. MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication SameasBochien.

Puncturewitharoundsharp SameasBochien needlealongthemedialborder ofthe scapulaforewardand downward34tsundeep. Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe needletowardsthe shouldermuscles. shoulderofthesameside, alongthemedialborderofthe scapula2.53tsundeep.

40Feipan

Paralysisofthe suprascapularnerve, myositisof thesternobrachioceph licus,rheumatism oftheforelimb.

41Chungtien

Inthesulcusmuscularis Puncturewitharoundsharp Liftingofforelimb, SameasChiangfeng. 3tsunaboveandposterior needleperpendicularly33.5 contractionofshoulder toChiangfeng.Bilateral. tsundeep. muscles. Inthefossabehindthe Puncturewitharoundsharp Obviouscontraction humerus,merus,onthe needleperpendicularly ofthemusclesofthe posteriorborderofthe 2.53tsundeep. sameareaandliftingof deltoideusandinbetween thatlimb. thelongheadandthe lateralheadofthetriceps brachii.Bilateral. Arthritisofalljointsof thefore limb,myositisof sternobrachiocephalicus, paralysis ofradialnerve, rheumatismofthe forelimb. SameasChienyu.

42Chiangfeng

Fore Limb

43Chienwaiyu

Inthedepressionofthe posteriorborderofthe lateral tuberosityofhumerus. Bilateral. Ontopoftheshoulder, inthedepressionofthe lowerborderofthelateral tuberosity ofthehumerus.Bilateral. Ontheelbowlineinthe depression1.5tsunabove andposteriortothe Processusanconaeusof theulna.Bilateral. Inthedepressionabout 1.3tsunbelowand posteriortotheProcessus anconaeusonthemedial surface.Bilateral.

Puncturewitharoundsharp SameasChienyu. needlealongtheposterior borderofhumerus perpendicularly 2.53tsundeep. Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionof needlealongtheanterior musclesaroundthe borderofhumerususinward shoulder. andupward1tsundeep. Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe needleforwardand musclesaroundthe slightlyobliquelydownward8 elbow. fen1tsundeep. Puncturewitharoundsharp SameasYanchou. needleobliquelyforwardand upward8 fen1tsundeep.

44Chienyu

Arthritisoftheshoulder joint,myositisof sternobrachiocephalicus, paralysisofradialnerve. Rheumatismofthe musclesoftheelbowarea.

45Yanchou

46Chengdeng

SameasYanchou.

47Choushu

Inthedepressionjustin Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofmuscles Arthritisofthe frontofthetipofthe needleperpendicularly1.5 oftheelbow. elbowjoint. elbow.Bilateral. tsundeep. Ontheoutersurfaceof theforearm,inthe depressionbelowthe lateraltuberosityof radius,inthegrooveof commonextensortendon. Bilateral. Puncturewitharoundsharp Liftingofthelimb. needleslightly obliquelyforward1.52tsun deep. Rheumatismofarthritis ofthe elbowandcarpaljoints, paralysisofradialnerve, myositisandtenositis, tenovaginitis.

48Chengchung

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Localization NameofthePoint 49Chiensanli LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture '' Indication Besidesthesameas Chengchung,alsofor arthritisofthefetlockjoint, andtetanus.

2tsunbelowandinfront Puncturewitharoundsharp ofChengchung,inthe needleperpendicularly11.5 groovebetweenanteroir tsundeep. carpalextensorand commondigitalextensor muscles.Bilateral. 1tsunabovethelateral Puncturethroughwitharound sideofthecarpaljoint,in sharpneedleinwardfrom theepressionbetween outside. theposteriorborderof radiusandthelateral carpalflexor.Bilateral. Onthebrachial Puncturequicklywithalarge subcutaneousveininthe broadneedle3fendeepto lowerpartofthethoracic bleed. lateralgrooveneartothe upperpartoftheforearm. Bilateral. Intheaxilla,orinthe musculargrooveofthe upperpartoftheforearm, atthecentreofthe medialsurfaceandthe trunk.Bilateral. Liftupthesicklimb,dragit forwardandoutward.Cutalong thepoint,puncturewithChia chineedlebackwardand upwardtowardsChiangfeng7 8tsundeep.Withdrawandthen swaythelimbseveraltimes. Strictdisinfectionduring operationisneeded. Puncturewithasmallbroad needle3fendeeptobleed.

50Kuoliang

Contractionoftheelbow musclesandelevationof thelimb.

Arthritisofthecarpaljoint.

51Hsiungtang

Acutearthritisofthe shoulderandelbowjoints, myositisof sternobrachiocephalicus, laminitis,rheumatismofthe shoulderandarm. Chronicshoulderlameness, paralysisofscapular nerves.

ForeLimb

52Chiachi

53Tungchin

Onthesubcutaneous veinoftheforearm,2 tsunbelowChiachi. Bilateral.

SameasHsiungtang.

54Tsanchin

Onthelateralsuperficial Puncturewithasmallbroad volarveinatthelateral needle3fendeeptobleed. anteriorborderofthe deepflexordigital tendon,2tsunbelowthe lowerborderofthecarpal joint,atthelateralupper endofthevolarportion. Bilateral. Onthemedialandlateral Puncturewithasmallbroad digitalveinsontheupper needle23fendeeptobleed. borderofthefetlock joint.Twopointsoneach forelimb. Inthedepressioninferior Puncturewithasmallbroad tothesesamoidboneat needleupwards34fendeep. thelateralposteriorlower partofthefetlockjoint. Bilateral. Inthedepressionabove thebulb,inthemiddleof theposteriorsurfaceof thehoof.Bilateral. Liftthelimbandholdit. Puncturewitharoundsharp needle11.5tsundeeptowards thetipofthehoof.

Arthritisofthecarpaljoint, osteomaofthevolarbone (earlystage),tenositis, tenovaginitis,arthritisof fetlockjoint.

55Chienchanwan

Contusionofthefetlock joint,arthritisoffetlock joint,acutearthritisof carpaljoint,tenositis, tenovaginitis. Contusionofthefetlock joint,arthritisoffetlock joint,flexortenositis, tenovaginitis. Arthritisofthefetlockjoint, laminitis,tenositis,arthritis ofcarpaljoint,rheumatism offorelimb.

56Mingtang

57Chienchiu

Liftingupofthelimb.

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Localization NameofthePoint 58Chientimen LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupuncture orCauterization Animalresponseto Acupncture

Indication Inflammationofthebulbof thehoof.

Inthedepressionbehind Puncturewithasmall thecartilageofthehoof, broadneedle3fendeep. ontheupperborderofthe bulb.Onepointoneach sideofthehoof. 78fenlateraltothe medianpointofthe coronaryborderofthe hoof.Bilateral. Inthelastbut9 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut8 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut7 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut6 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut5 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut4 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut3 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbut2 intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastbutone intercostalspaceinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral. Inthelastintercostal spaceofthemusculus iliocostalisgroove. Bilateral. Puncturewithalarge broadneedlequickly3fen deeptobleed. Puncturewitharound sharpneedleobliquely inwardanddownward1 1.3tsundeep. SameasTushu.

Fore Limb

59Chientitou

Laminitis,colicpain, inflammationofthebulbs ofthehoof.

60Tushu

Fibrillationoftheintercostal Spasmofthebowel, muscles. overexertion.

61Feishu

SameasTushu

Pleuritis,bronchitis, pneumonia.

Lateralsideof thethoraxand abdomen

"

"

62Keshu

Gastroenteritis constipation,trachitis.

63Tanshu

"

"

Intestinalconstipation, fever,icterus,chill, laryngopharyngitis. Indigestion,spasmofthe bowel,inflationofthe bowel,dilatationofthe stomach. Conjunctivitis,keratitis, indigestion.

64Weishu

"

"

65Kanshu

SameasTushu.

SameasTushu

66Sanchiaoshu

"

"

Indigestion,spasmof bowel.

67Pishu

"

"

Indigestion,spasmof bowel,inflationofbowel. dilatationofstomach. Dilatationofthestomach.

68Chihaishu

"

"

69Tachangshu

Puncturewitharound sharpneedleobliquely inwardanddownward1.2 1.5tsundeep.

"

Indigestion,spasmof bowel,inflationofbowel, enteritis,constipation. Intestinalconstipation, indigestion,spasmof bowel,inflationofbowel, dilatationofstomach. SameasKuanyuanshu.

70Kuanyuanshu

Inthemusculus Puncturewitharound iliocostalisgroovebehind sharpneedle the18thrib.Bilateral. perpendicularly22.5tsun deep.Itwouldbebetterto useanelectricneedle. About1tsunbehind Kuanyuanshuinthe musculusiliocostalis groove.Bilateral.

Contractionofabdominal muscles,increaseof intestinalperistalsis, windinganddefecation whenuseanelectricneedle.

71Hsiaochangshu

Puncturewitharound Contractionofintestinal sharpneedleobliquely muscle. inwardanddownward1.2 1.51.5tsundeep.

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Localization NameofthePoint 72Tuanhsueh LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication Bleedingaftercastration, epistaxis,haematuria, hemofecia.

Onthedorsalmedian Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthe line,inthedepressionin needleperpendicularly8fento1 intercostalmuscles. betweentheProc. tsundeep. spinosisofthe17th18th Thoracicvertebrae,18th thoracic1stlumbar vertebrae,and1st2nd lumbarvertebrae.There arethreepoints altogether.

Lateralsideof thethorax andabdomen

73Chuehyinshu

Inthelastbut11 intercostalspace,inthe depressionatthelateral borderoftheM. iliocostalis,about6.3 tsunfromthedorsal medianline.Bilateral.

Puncturewitharoundsharp needleobliquelyinwardand downward1tsundeep.

Fibrillationofthe intercostalmuscles.

Heatstroke,spasmof bowel,polyhidrosis

74Taimo

About2tsunbehind Puncturewithalargebroad processusanconaeus,on needle3fentobleed. thelateralthoracicvein. Bilateral. 2tsuninfrontofYao chung.Bilateral. 2tsuninfrontofYao hou.Bilateral. 2tsuninfrontofthe Shenpeng.Bilateral. 2tsuninfrontofthe Shenshu.Bilateral. 2tsunlateraltoPaihui. Bilateral. Puncturewitharoundsharp needleinwardanddownward2 2.5tsundeep. " " SameasShenshu.

Enteritis,spasmofbowel, heatstroke.

75Yaochien

SameasShenshu.

Rheumatismoftheloin, paralysisoftheloin. " " SameasShenshu.

76Yaochung 77Yaohou 78Shenpeng

" " "

LoinandButtock 79Shenshu

Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionoftheloinand Rheumatismofthehind needleperpendicularly1.52tsun buttockmuscles. quarter,paralysisofhind deep. quarter,paralysisofthe loin. " " " Rheumatismofthehind quarter,arthritisofhip joint,paralysisofthehind quarter,commoncold, heatstroke,overexertion, tetanus,colic. Rheumatismofthehind quarter,paralysisofthe loin,paralysisofthe penis.

80Shenchueh 81Paihui

2tsunbehindShenshu. Bilateral. Inthedepressionin betweentheProcessus spinosusofthelast lumbarvertebraandthe Processusspinosusof the1stsacralvertebra. Onepointonly.

Puncturewitharoundsharp Archingoftheloin, needleperpendicularly33.5tsun fibrillationoftheloinand deep. buttockmuscles

82Pachiao

1.5tsunbesidethedorsal Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationofthebuttock medianline,inbetween needleperpendicularly11.5tsun muscles. theProcessispinosiof deep. thesacrum.Thereare fourpointsoneachside fromcranialtocaudal:Yi chiao,Erhchiao,San chiao,Szuchiao. Makeahorizontalline Puncturewitharoundsharp Fibrillationoftheloinand fromtubercoxaetothe needleperpendicularly22.5tsun intercostalmuscles. posteriorborderofthe deep. lastrib.Thenmake verticallinesfromthe tubercoxaeandthe posteriorborderofthe lastribtowardsthe dorsalmedianline.The midpointsofthetwo linesarethepoints.The anteriorpointisTung chang1.Theposterior pointisTungchang2. Bilateral.

83Tungchang

Intestinalconstipation, inflationofbowel,spasm ofbowel.

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Localization NameofthePoint 84Yanchih LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Fibrillationoftheloinand buttockmuscles. Indication Rheumatismofthehind quarters'muscles,arthritis ofthehipandkneejoints.

Makeaperpendicular Puncturewitharoundsharp linefromtheTubercoxae needleposteriorlydownward towardsthedorsal andinward2.5tsundeep. medianline.Thepointis atthelateral1/3ofthe line.Bilateral Inthedepressionbehind Puncturewitharoundsharp andbelowtheTuber needleperpendicularly2.53.5 coxae.Bilateral. tsundeep Atthemidpointbetween Puncturewitharoundsharp Paihuiandtheanterior needleperpendicularly33.5 convexityofthe tsundeep. trochantermajorfemoris. Bilateral. Atthelateral1/3between SameasPashan. thePaihuiandthe anteriorconvexityofthe trochantermajorfemoris. Bilateral.

85Tantien

SameasYanchih.

SameasYanchih.

86Pashan

Contractionofthebuttock Rheumatismofthehind muscles. quarters'muscles,arthritis ofhipjoint,myositisofM. bicepsfemoris,paralysisof sciaticnerve. SameasPashan SameasPashan.

87Luku

88Huantiao HindLimb

Inthedepressionatthe Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionofbuttock anteriorborderofthehip needleobliquelydownward muscles,liftingupofhind joint.Bilateral. inward,andbackward3.54tsun limb. deep.

Paralysisofsciaticnerve, paralysisoffemoralnerve, rheumatismofhind quarters,arthritisofhip joint,myositisof semitendinosusand semimembranosus,and bicepsfemoris. Arthritisofthehipjoint, rheumatismofthe posteriorlimb,paralysisof thefemoralnerve, paralysisofthetibialand fibularnerves. Rheumatismofthe posteriorlimb,paralysisof thefemoral,tibialand fibularnerves,myositisof bicepsfemoris.

89Takua

Inthedepressionbelow andinfrontofthe anteriorconvexityofthe trochantermajorfemoris. Bilateral. Inthedepressionbelow andbehindthe trochantertertiusofthe femur.Bilateral.

Puncturewitharoundsharp Contractionofthethigh needlealongtheanteriorborder andhipmuscles. ofthefemurforward,inwardand obliquely23.5tsundeep.

90Hsiaokua

Puncturewitharoundsharp needlealongtheposterior borderofthefemurslightly downward23tsundeep.

SameasTakua.

91Hsiechi

Besidetherootofthetail Puncturewitharoundsharp about2tsuninthe needleperpendicularly2.53 grooveofthebiceps tsundeep. femoris.Bilateral.

Fibrillationofthehipand Rheumatismoffemoraland thighmusclesswingingof rumpmuscles,arthritisof thetail, hipjoint,myositisof bicepsfemoris,myositisof semitendinosusand semimenbranosus, paralysisofsciaticnerve, paralysisoffemoralnerve. SameasHsiechi. SameasHsiechi.

92Hankou

Inthesamemuscle SameasHsiechi. grooveand3tsunbelow Hsiechi.Bilateral. Inthesamemuscle SameasHsiechi. grooveand3tsunbelow Hankou.Bilateral. Inthesamemuscle grooveand3tsunbelow Yangwa.Bilateral. "

93Yangwa

SameasHsiechi.

SameasHsiechi.

94Chienshen

"

"

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Localization NameofthePoint 95Houfutu LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Contractionofthethigh muscles. Indication Rheumatismofthe posteriorlimb,arthritisof thehipandstiflejoints.

Atthemidpointbetween Puncturewitharoundsharp theanteriorconvexityof needle1.52tsundeep. thetrochantermajor femorisandthepatella. Bilateral. Inthedepressionabove Puncturewitharoundsharp theupperborderofthe needleinwardanddownward1 patella.Bilateral. 1.2tsundeep. Belowthepatella,inthe Puncturewitharoundsharp depressionbetweenthe needleobliquelybackwardand lateralandmiddlepatellar upward1.52tsundeep. ligaments.Bilateral.

96Yinshi

Contractionofthe surroundingmuscles, liftingupofthehindlimb. Fibrillationofthemuscles aroundthestiflejoint.

Arthritisofthestiflejoint, rheumatismofthehind limb. Arthritisofthestiflejoint, rheumatismofhindlimb, paralysisoffemoralnerve, paralysisoftibialand fibularnerves,tenositis. Arthritisofstiflejoint, indigestion,rheumatismof thehindlimb.

97Luetsiao HindLimb


98Yangling

Behindthestiflejointin Puncturewitharoundsharp Liftingupofthelimb, thedepressionabovethe needleforwardandinward2.53 fibrillationofmuscles. posteriorupperborderof tsundeep. thelateralcondyleofthe tibia.Bilateral. Behindthestiflejoint,in Puncturewitharoundsharp Liftingupofthelimb, thedepressionofthe needleperpendicularly23tsun fibrillationoftheleg posteriorlowerborderof deep. muscles. thelateralcondyleofthe tibia.Bilateral. Obliquelybelowand Puncturewitharoundsharp behindLuetsiaoabout3 needleperpendicularly1.52 tsun,inthemuscular tsundeep. grooveoflongdigital extensorandlateral digitalextensormuscles, inthedepressionbelow theheadoffibula. Bilateral. Onthesamesaphenous SameasShentang. vein2tsunaboveShen tang.Bilateral. Onthesaphenousvein about4tsunbelowthe midpointoftherootof theinnersurfaceofthe thigh.Bilateral. Puncturewithasmallbroad needle3fendeeptobleed. SameasFenglung.

99Fenglung

Indigestion,rheumatismof hindlimb,paralysisofthe tibialandfibularnerves.

100Housanli

Indigestion,arthritisof stiflejoint,arthritisof tarsaljoint,paralysisof tibialandfibularnerves.

101Chiaodang

SameasShentang.

102Shentang

Arthritisofhipjoint, arthritisofstiflejoint, myositisof Semitendinosusand Semimembranosus, myositisofbicepsfemoris, orchitis,laminitis,edemaof hindlimbandscrotum. SameasShentang.

103Tuhseh

Onthesamevein2tsun SameasShentang belowShentang. Bilateral. Inthedepression1tsun Puncturewitharoundsharp aboveChuchih. needleobliquelyinwardand Bilateral. upward11.2tsundeep.

Liftingupofthatlimb.

104Chushang

Arthritisofmetatarsal joint,paralysisoftibialand fibularnerves.

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Localization NameofthePoint 105Chuchih LocationofthePoint MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication Acutearthritisofthe metatarsaljoint.

Onthemedialdorsal Puncturequicklywithasmall metatarsalveininthe broadneedle23fendeepto depressionlateraltothe bleed. metatarsaljoint.Bilateral. Onthemedialandlateral Puncturewithasmallbroad digitalveinsabovethe needle23fendeeptobleed. upperborderofthe fetlockjoint.Onepoint oneachsideonboth hindlimbs. SameasMingtangon theforelimb. SameasMingtangonthefore limb.

HindLimb

106Houchanwan

Contusionofthefetlock joint,arthritisoffetlock joint,acutearthritisof metatarsaljoint,tenositis, tendovaginitis. Contusionofthefetlock joint,arthritisoffetlock joint,tenositis, tendovaginitis. Laminitis,rheumatismof thehindlimb,paralysisof thetibialandfibular nerves,arthritisoffetlock joint,tenositis, tendovaginitis. Inflammationofthebulb ofthehoof.

107Laotang

108Houchiu

Inthedepressionabove thebulb,inthemiddleof theposteriorsurfaceof thehoof.Bilateral.

Liftthelimbandholdit. Puncturewitharoundsharp needle11.5tsundeeptowards thetipofthehoof.

Liftingupofthelimb.

109Houtimen

Ontheupperborderof Puncturewithasmallbroad thebulb,inthe needle3fendeep. depressionbehindthe cartilageofthehoof.One pointoneachsideofthe hoof. Atthemidpointofthe coronaryborderofthe hindhoof.Bilateral. Inthedepression betweenthe1stand2nd coccygealvertebrae,on thedorsalsideofthe rootofthetail.Onepoint only. Puncturewithalargebroad needlequickly3fendeepto bleed. Liftupthetailalittle,puncture witharoundsharpneedle perpendicularly5fento1tsun deep.

110Houtitou

Fibrillationofthehip musclesandswingingof thetail.

Laminitis,colicpain, inflammationofthebulbs ofthehoof. Rheumatismoftheloin, paralysisoftheloin.

111Chuifeng Tail

112Houhai

Inthedepression Puncturewitharoundsharp betweentheanusand needleupwardandforward46 therootoftail.Onepoint tsundeep. only.

Liftingupofthetail, contractionoftheanus.

Indigestion,diarrhoea, constipation,inflationof thebowel,paralysisof rectum.

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Localization Tail NameofthePoint 113Weipen LocationofthePoint Onthebloodvesselin themiddleofthelower surfaceofthetail2tsun fromtheroot.Onepoint only. MethodofAcupunctureor Cauterization Liftthetailstraightupward, puncturewithalargebroad needleupward3fendeepto bleed. Animalresponseto Acupuncture Indication Acutearthritisofhipjoint, constipation,rheumatism oftheloin.

114Weichien

Onthetipofthetail.One Puncturewithatriangularneedle pointonly. orbroadneedleperpendicularly 45fendeeptobleed.

Overexertion,heatstroke, commoncold,spasmof bowel.

Ottaviano15(Fig.3108) Foreleg FL1(Lateralsidepointabovecoronaryband)Laminitis,ringbone,sidebone,naviculardisease,allhoofafflictions. FL2(Centerpointabovecoronaryband)Sameasabove(FL1)plusconvulsionsandcolic. FL3(Medialpointabovecoronaryband)SameasFL1. FL4Arthritisoffetlock,bowedtendons,secondarypointforlaminitisandsidebones. FL5Arthritisoffetlock,bowedtendons,inabilitytoflexfetlock,secondarypointforlaminitis. FL6.Bowedtendons,inflammationinarea. FL7.Kneejointinflammations,bowedtendons. FL8Allmetacarpalproblems. FL9Guoliang.Importantpointforallafflictionsofthekneejoint,bowedtendons,arthritisofknee,fetlock,navicularbone,laminitis.Reflexpointtofetlock,hoof, andshoulderarea. FL10Localpointforjoint,muscle. FL11Energypoint,arthritisorpainofshoulder,scapularregion.Kneepain.UsewithFL21foranalgesiaofknee. FL12Paralysisofnerve,localjointandmuscleinflammation. FL13Paralysisofnerve,localjoint.(SameasaboveFL12.) FL14Shoulderandscapularpain,muscularpain,nerveparalysis,localanalgesia. FL15Shoulderandmusclepaininregion. FL16Mainpointforshoulderpainofalltypes. FL17Sameasabove. FL18Shoulderandscapularpain,reflexpointforscapula. FL19Sameasabove. Head H20Emergencypoint.Convulsions,colic,abdominalproblems,syncope. H21Nasalproblems,lunghemorrhage. H22Nasalproblems,facialparalysis. H23Alleyeafflictions. H24Eyeafflictions,excessivetearing,facialparalysis. H25Tranquilizer,facialparalysis,maxillaandmandibleafflictions,tetanus,facialswellingfrominsectbite,masticationproblems. H26TipofEar(ErJian).Facialparalysisspecialpoint,eyeproblems,epilepsy,convulsions,commoncold,fevers. H27Hemorrhageoflungs,eyeafflictions,tetanus. H28Cervicalproblems,wobblers,cerebralproblems,torticollis. H29Sameasabove. H30throughH37JiuWei.Cervicalafflictions,cerebralproblems,wobblers,torticollis,tetanus,arthritisinarea. Trunk T38Arthritisofanyjointofforelimb.Scapularpain.Reflexpointtopaininfrontlimb. T39Scapularpainreflextoshoulderpain,similarbutsecondarytoT38. T40SameasT39. T41Importantpoint.Convulsions,fever,lungs,stomachlaminitis,shoulderpain,appetite. T42Importantpoint.Organicafflictions,reflexpointtoshoulderandscapulararea.Wheneversensitive,treatwithneedle. T43Convulsions,fever,lungs. T44Lungs,edemaofchest,emphysema,notenoughwind,convulsions,localpoint. T45Lungs,pulmonaryhemorrhage,localpoint. T46Intestinalinfluence,lumbarpain,colicsecondarypoint,localinfluence. T47Throatarea,fevers,jaundice,liver,windandbreathing,lowerlungs,local. T48Stomachswelling,intestinalinfluence,local. T49SameasT48. T50SameasT48,colic.

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T51Colic,convulsions,inflammationofstomach. T52SameasT48. T53Lumbarpainandarthritis,tyingup,intestines,diarrhea,colic,stomach. T54Lumbarpain,kidneyafflictions,tyingupsyndrome. T55Lumbarpainandarthritis,kidneyinflamation,hindlimbparalysis. T56100MeetingPlaces(BaiHui)Importantpoint.Allbalanceproblems,cerebralcervicalproblems,lumbarpainandarthritis,colic,energy,hipproblems, paralysis,tyingup,etc. T57Lumbararthritisandpain,vertebrainflammation,reproductiveorganinfluence,urinarydifficulties,bladder. T58Lumbarpain,hindlimbparalysis,rectalproblems. T59EndofTail(NeiJien).Emergency,fever,convulsions,commoncold,lowbackpain,urinaryincontinence. T87Lumbarpain,arthritis,andtyingup.SimilarusesasRL86butsecondary.Dealsmorewithlumbarpain. T88Kidneyandliverinfluence.Reflexpoint.Ifpainful,puncturepoint.Hasminorinfluenceoverlungs. T89Controlsliver,reflexpointfororganicdysfunctions,circulationandenergy.Keypoint,alsousedforlaminitis. T90PointoftheLungsallproblemswithlungs.Iftender,treatreflexpoint. T91Lungproblems,fever,convulsions. T92Triheaterfunction/loweruppermiddle.Organicproblems,fevers,lungs,hemorrhagefromlungs,reflextomouth,tendonandhoofproblems. T93Lung,upperheaterandmiddleheater,heartproblems,wind,painoffrontlimbsduetoarthritis. T94Shoulderpainsreflexpointskinproblems,scapularpain,arthritisofanypartoffrontlimbs. RearLeg RL60Localpoint,arthritisandpaininarea,includingareadowntostifle. RL61SameasRL60. RL62SameasRL60. RL63Allproblemswithhipandstiflearea. RL64SameasRL60. RL65SameasRL60. RL66SameasRL60. RL67SameasRL60. RL68Stiflepainandarthritis,weaknessintheentireleg,stomach,largeintestine. RL69SameasRL68. RL70SameasRL68. RL71Tibiaandfibulapain,stiflepain,patellapain,tarsaljoint,stomachinfluence,energy,appetite,strength. RL72Hockproblems(capped,spavin)(canuseheatmoxastick). RL73Localpain(canuseheat). RL74SameasRL72(canuseheat). RL75Localjointpain. RL76Localpain,arthritis,flexortendons. RL77SameasFL2. RL78SameasFL1. RL79SameasFL3. RL80SameasFL4. RL81Localjointafflictions.(Heatcanbeused.) RL82Bilateral.SameasRL76. RL83Pointexistsmedialandlateraltotendons.Pointisusedfortendonproblems. RL84Tendon,muscular,andboneproblemsofarea. RL85UsesaresimilartoRL72. RL86Localjointproblems,arthritisofrearquarters,lamenessandparalysisofrealquarters.Excellentlocalpointwhentender. Shin16(Fig.3109) 1.InsideofCombNaeRa Location. Method. Indication. Midlinebelowthetendonoflavatorlabiisuperiorisproprius muscle. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Facialparalysis,syncope,payattentionatraces.

2.HouseoftheBloodHyulDang Location. Method. Indication. Underthetendonofthemuscularislabiisuperiorispropriusmuscle. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Facialsurgery,facialparalysis.

3.ThreeRedSamHong Location. Method. Indication. JunctionoftheVshapedtendonofthemusclesonthemidlineonthe dorsalpartofthenose. 2.5mmperpendicularinsertion. Stroke,facialparalysis.

4.ChewingSoundSoiJin Location. Method. Indication. Betweenthenoseandtheupperlip,ventraltothenares. 5mmperpendicularinsertionontheobicularisorismuscle. Chewingproblems.

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5.PearlHouseOkDang Location. Method. Indication. Caudaltothenose,lateralside,onthedilatatornarislateralis. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Coughingandthecommoncold.

6.GotoHeavenTongChun Location. Method. Indication. Midlineonsamelevelastheeyes. 3mmperpendicularinsertion. Colds,cough.

7.DooroftheWindAungMoon Location. Method. Indication. Midline,onehalfthedistancebetweenleveloftheeyesandthetop ofthehead. 3mmperpendicularinsertion. Cough,cold,syncope,dizziness,facialparalysis.

8.ClosingMouthShoeKu Location. Method. Indication. OntheVjunctionofthelevatornasolabialisandthezygomaticus. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Chewingproblems.

9.SmallEyeSoAhn Location. Method. Indication. Lateralborderofdorsalorbitaldepression. 3mmperpendicularinsertion. Syncope,facialparalysis.

10.PointofEarEiChim Location. Method. Indication. Medialconvexsideoftheear,lateralsideofthemedialspine, midwayinadorsoventralplane. Prick2mm. Cranialnervedisorders,syncope,facialparalysis.

11.TheSunTaiYang Location. Method. Indication. Subzygmoaticfossa,ventraltothezygomaticarch,rightabovethe facialnerve. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Wobblers(Fredrick'sataxiaofthespine),cervicalataxia.

12.LungPointTieYiu Location. Method. Indication. Abovetheintermediatetendonofthemassetermuscle,rostraltothe angleofthejaw. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Controlslungdisorders.

13.PointofCloudUnChim Location. Method. Indication. Cranialtothefirstthoracicvertebra,betweenthe7thcervicalandthe 1stthoracicvertebrae. 5cmperpendicularinsertion. Paralysisoftheshoulder,chestpains,arthritisoftheforelegs, pneumonia.

131.FirstStepIlWui Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlinebetweenthefirstandsecondcervicalvertebrae(C1 andC2). Perpendicularinsertion. Neckmusclespasm,cough,facialnerveparalysis.

132.SecondStepYiWui Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinebetweenC2C3. Perpendicularinsertion. Back(lumbar)pain,cervicalarthritis,conjunctivitis.

133.ThirdStepSamWui Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinebetweenC3C4. Perpendicularinsertion. Dermatitisonforeleg,carpalarthritis,cervicalspinesubluxation, syncopefromtrauma.

134.4thStepSaWui Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinebetweenC4C5. Perpendicularinsertion. Indigestion,(fromstomachlazycondition)diarrhea.

135.5thStepOWui Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinebetweenC5C6. Perpendicularinsertion. Shoulderjointarthritis,cervicalmyalgia,foreleglameness,laminitis, ringbone.

14.VeryThinPointBakChim Location. Method. Indication. Cranialandventraltothefirstthoracicvertebraonthe brachiocephalicusmuscle. 34cmperpendicularinsertion. Pneumoniaandshoulderarthritis.

15.HouseoftheChestHyungDang Location. Method. Indication. Ventralendofscapula,neartheinsertionofthedeltoidmuscles. 4cmperpendicularinsertion. Stomachdisorders,scapularpain,relaxationafterracing.

16.VeryThinLilyBakRahn Location. Method. Indication. Onthescapula,abovethe5thrib. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Arthritisoftheforelegs,chestpain,shoulderpain.

17.TreeWingChangPoong

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Location. Method. Indication.

Caudaltothespineofthescapulaanddorsaltothe3rdintercostal space. 34cmperpendicularinsertion. Wobblers,cervicaldisorders,shoulderpain.

171.ReachingHeavenChungCheun Location. Method. Indication. Cranialtothespineofscapula,atthelevelofC6C7. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Paininscapula,shoulderjointarthritis,cervicalataxia,cough.

18.MuscleofChestDongKeun Location. Method. Indication. Cranialandventraltothehumeruswhereattheattachmentofthe bicepsbrachii. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Colic,indigestion(gasformingconditions),painintheforeleg, laminitis.

19.WelcomeWindYoungPoong Location. Method. Indication. 9thintercostalspace,OneHorseInch(9cm,31/2inches)lateralto thetipofthespinousprocess. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Emphysema,cough,fever,cold(Viralinfectionsofrespiratorytract), pneumonia.

191.ThinHoleParkKong Location. Method. Indication. Midshaftlateralhumerus,atthelevelofthe2ndcostalattachmentto thesternum. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Stomachdisorders,diarrhoea.

20.HeartPointSimYu Location. Method. Indication. Middleofthe2ndintercostalspaceatthelevelofthescapulo humeraljoint. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Circulatorydisorders,bloodpressure,arterialproblems.

201.StomachPointWuiYu Location. Method. Indication. Inthe3rdintercostalspace,1/3ofdistancefromdorsalpartof space. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Stomachdisorder,diarrhea,constipation,colic,enteritis,gastritis, (ThisfunctionalpointissameashumanST36).

21.NightEyeYaAhn Location. Method. Indication. Inthechetnut,inthemedialsideofulna,originallythisisforbidden point. 3cmDiagonal(ventral)insertion. Insommnia,hypnoticpurpose[sedation?]

211.EnergyComingfromInsideNaiNaeKi Location. Method. Indication. Dorsalcranialtotheolecrenon,onthelateralside,attheheadofthe bicepsbrachii. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Generalweakness,lamenessofforeleg,Wobblersyndrome.

212.FrontUlnaJeonChuk Location. Method. Indication. Lateralsideofthemidshaftofradiuswherethemuscleoflateral extensorattaches. 1cmdiagonal(caudal)insertion. Laminitis,legpain,soremuscleofforeleg.

213.CenterofArmChungWan Location. Method. Indication. Dorsaltoaccessorycarpalbone,medialsideofforeleg,caudalto ulna,attheinsertionofflexorcarpiulnaris. 7mmperpendicularinsertion. Carpalarthritis,laminitis,ringbone,sidebone.

214.FrontKneeJeonKae Location. Method. Indication. Ventraltoaccessorycarpalbone,medialsideofforeleg. 7mmperpendicularinsertion. Carpalarthritis,lamenessoflateralsideofforeleg.

215.FrontofArmJeonWan Location. Method. Indication. Cranialandventraltocarpalbones,onthetendonofextensorcarpi obliquus. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Kneejointarthritis,edemaofforeleg.

216.GateofKneeSeulMoon Location. Method. Indication. CranialmedialdistalsideofUlna,ontheextensorcarpiradialis. 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Kneejointarthritis,lamenessofforeleg.

22.CapofKneeSeulKae Location. Method. Indication. Lateralepicodyleofradius,inthedepression. 1cmhorizontalinsertion(caudal). Carpalarthritis,dysuria,enuresis,cystitis.

221.OutsideofkneeOeWan Location. Method. Cranialtoandbetweenthethirdandfourthcarpalbone. 1cmhorizontalinsertion(caudal).

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Indication.

Kneejointarthritis,edemaonforeleg.

222.InsideofKneeNaeSeul Location. Method. Indication. Ventraltolateralsideofaccessorycarpalbone,caudallateralsideof carpalbones. 1cmhorizontal(caudal)insertion. Tendonitis,fetlockjointarthritis.

223.PointofKneeJeongSeul Location. Method. Indication. Dorsaltokneejoint,wherecommonextensortendonisattached. 1cmtransversehorizontalinsertion. Sprain,strainofkneejoint.

23.EnergizingtheBloodWhalHyul Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,caudaltothedistalendofmetacarpalbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Anemia,buckedshin,tendonitis,arthritisoffetlockjoint.

231.TieofBrightKyulMyung Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,caudaltotheproximalsideofmetacarpalbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,buckedshin.

232.CircleofJointWhanJeol Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,caudaltothemiddleofmetacarpalbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,arthritisoffetlockjoint,bursitis.

24.HouseofLaborNoDang Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,ventraltolateralsesamoidbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Periostitis,edemaonfetlockjoint,arthritis,laminitis.

25.SideDoorPyonMoon Location. Method. Indication. Cranial,lateraltodistalendof1stphalanx(P1)inthespacebetween P1andP2offrontleg. 1cmhorizontalcaudalinsertion. Edemaofanklejoint,tendonitis,sprain,strain,painintheleg.

26.NailoftheFootJechim Location. Method. Indication. Cranial,medialtothespacebetweenP2andP3. 1cmhorizontal,caudalinsertion. Laminitis,ringbone,sidebone.

27.DooroftheFootJeMoon Location. Method. Indication. Medial,ventraltomedialsesamoidbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Periostitis,edemaofanklejoint,arthritis,laminitis.

28.WhiteHeavenCheonBak Location. Method. Indication. Medial,ventraltodistalP1. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,periostitis,generalweaknessofforelegs.

281.BrightWellMyungJung Location. Method. Indication. Caudal,midlineofforefoot,distalP1. 7mmperpendicularinsertion,usuallybleedwithtriangleneedle. Laminitis,tendonitis,naviculardisease.

282.SidedoorCheukMun(sameaspoint25,thisismedial) Location. Method. Indication. Cranial,medialdistalendofP1inthespacebetweenP1andP2of foreleg. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Ringbone,sidebone.

29.ArmofKneeSeulWan Location. Method. Indication. Medialsideofthecarpus,ventraltotheaccessorycarpalbone. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,metacarpalarthritis,periositis,laminitis.

291.InsideofBrightTieNaeKyulMyung Location. Method. Indication. Medial,caudaltotheproximalsideofthirdmetacarpalbone (MCIII). 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,buckedshins.

292.InsideCircleNaeWhan Location. Method. Indication. Medial,caudaltodistalMCIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,arthritisoffetlockjoint.

293.InsideofEnergizerNaeWhal Location. Method. Indication. CranialtothedistalendofMCIII. 7mmperpendicularinsertion. Arthritisoffetlockjoint,strainofanklejoint.

294.InsideofCircleofJointNaeWhanJeol Location. Method. Indication. Medial,cranialtomidMCIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,arthritisoffetlockjoint,bursitis.

30.ArmoroftheHairBalKap

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Location. Method. Indication.

10thintercostalspace,oneShinhorseinchlateraltothemidline. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Shoulderpain,backache,cervicalataxia.

31through40.SpinalBridgeHolesChunkYangHyul Location. Method. Indication. 11thintercostalspace. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Liverdisorders,skindisease,backaches.

32.At12thintercostalspace. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Lungdisorders,emphysema,commoncold,fever.

33.At13thintercostalspace.(alsoknownasaliverpoint) Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Colic,intestinaldisorders.

34.At14thintercostalspace. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Thoracicvertebralarthritis.

35.Atthe15thintercostalspace. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Colic,intestinaldisorders,indigestion.

36.Atthe16thintercostalspace. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Backache,laminitis,frontleglameness.

37.Atthe17thintercostalspace. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Backache,foreleglameness.

38.BetweenT17andL1. Method. Indication. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Lumbago,lumbararthritis,colic,emphysema,laminitis.

39.BetweenL1andL2. Method. Indication. 1.5cmperpendicularinsertion. Paininlumbarvertebrae,foreleglameness,laminitis.

40.BetweenL2andL3. Method. Indication. 1.5cmperpendicularinsertion. Backpain,tendonitis,arthritisinforefoot.

41.OneHundredMeetingBaekHoe Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinebetweenL6andS1.SamefunctionalpointasGV20in human(PaiHui). 5mmperpendicularinsertion. Mentaldisorders,anylameness,lungdisorders,liverdisorders, intestinaldisorders,connectingpointforanycombinationof acupunctureformulae.

42.LungPointPeiYu Location. Method. Indication. 4thintercostalspaceatthelevelofscapulohumeraljoint. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Emphysema,dermatitis,lungdisorder.

421.LungPointPeiYu Location. Method. Indication. 7thintercostalspaceatthelevelofscapulohumeraljoint. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Emphysema,cough,colic,dermatitis.

43.LungPointPeiYu Location. Method. Indication. 5thintercostalspaceatthelevelofthemiddleofthescapula. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Cough,emphysema,dermatitis,colic,fever.

44.LiverPointKanYu Location. Method. Indication. 12thintercostalspaceatthelevelofthemiddleofthehumerus. 1.5cmperpendicularinsertion,for25mins. Backache,emphysema,laminitis,toxemia,fever.

45.SpleenPointBiYu Location. Method. Indication. 15thintercostalspaceatthelevelofthemiddleofthescapula. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Indigestion,gasformingsyndromes,liverdisorders.

46.KidneyPointShinYu Location. Method. Indication. Caudaltoilium,3rdsacralspace,1''lateraltothespine. Laminitis,reproductiveproblems,kidneyandbladderdisorders. 1.5cmperpendicularinsertion,for25mins.

47.GreatMountainPaSan Location. Method. Indication. Dorsaltocoxafemoraljointandgreatertrochanter. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Hiplameness,hipjointarthritis.

48.RootofTailMiKeun Location. Lateraltothe4thcoccegealvertebra.

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Method. Indication.

2cmperpendicularinsertion. Dysuria,cystitis,spinalataxia,hindleglameness.

49.ProperSwapKyoDang Location. Method. Indication. Middleofthelateralshaftoffemur. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Stiflejointarthritis,hindleglameness.

50.UmbrellaofKidneyUShin Location. Method. Indication. Ventraltothelateralsideofpatella. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Luxationofpatella,lockedstifle.

51.EightPointPalHyul Location. Method. Indication. Betweenmedialcondyleoftibiaandtubercalcus. 2cmdiagonalinsertion(upward). Arthritisofhockjoints,localswelling.

511.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Cranialtodistalendoftibia. 2cmhorizontalinsertion,(laterally). Paininthehock.

512.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Cranialtotibialtarsalbone. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Sameas511.

513.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Caudal,medialtotibialtarsalbone. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,anklesprain,arthritisoftarsalbones.

52.SmallJointSoJeol Location. Method. Indication. Betweenlateralcondyleoftibiaandtubercalcus. 2cmdiagonalinsertion(upward). Arthritisofhockjoint,hiplameness.

53.Bird'sJointJoJeol Location. Method. Indication. Caudal,lateraltotheproximalendofthethirdmetatarsalbone (MTIII)andventraltotubercalcis. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,musclepain(Hamstring,gastrocnemius,superficialdigital flexor,)arthritisoftarsalbones.

531.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Caudalposterior,middleofMTIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Inflammationofachillestendon,(30minutesinsertionandfiveminutes moxibustion,threetimesinaweek).

54.CurvedScaleGokChuck Location. Method. Indication. Cranial,ventraltothedistalendsofMTIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Anklejointarthritis,anklestrain.

541.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,ventraltolateralsesamoidboneofhindfoot. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Laminitis,jointarthritis,tendonitis.

542.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Cranial,medialtodistalendoffirstphalanxP1inthespacebetween P1andP2ofhindfoot. 1cmhorizontalinsertion(downward). Laminitis,ringbone,sidebone.

55.RearFootHuJe Location. Method. Indication. CranialmidlineofhindfootbetweenP2andP3. 1cmhorizontalinsertion,(downward). Laminitis,cervicalataxia,ringbone,sidebone.

56.SideDoorPyonMoon Location. Method. Indication. CranialmidlineofthehindfootbetweenP1andP2. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Laminitis,ringbone,sidebone.

561.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Medial,caudaltotheproximalsideofMTIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,buckedshins.

562.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Medial,caudaltothemiddleofMTIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,arthritisofanklejoint.

563.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Medial,caudaltothedistalendofMTIII. 1cmperpendicularinsertion. Tendonitis,arthritisofanklejoint,ringbone.

564.Samename Location. Method. Medial,ventraltomedialsesamoidbonehindleg. 1cmperpendicularinsertion.

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Indication.

Laminitis,edemaonanklejoint.

565.Samename Location. Method. Indication. Caudal,midlineofdistalportionofhindP1. 7mmperpendicularinsertion,usuallyneedsbleedingwithtriangle needle. Laminitis,tendonitis,naviculardisease.

57.ThousandGoldCheunGeum Location. Method. Indication. Medial,ventraltothepatella. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Patellaluxation,lockedstifle.

58.GreatWingDaeIk.HumanST36HuSamLi. Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,ventraltothelateralcondyleoftibia. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Stiflejointarthritis,luxationofstifle.

59.HouseofChickenGeOk Location. Method. Indication. Ventraltothegreatertrochanteroffemur. 3cmperpendicularinsertion. Hipjointarthritis,musclepain,(afterracing).

60.SweatWellHanJeong Location. Method. Indication. Lateral,caudaltothedistalportionoffemur. 2cmperpendicularinsertion. Stiflejointproblems.

ChineseVeterinaryHandbook3 (Figs.328to343) Theasterisksnexttosomeofthepointsindicatethosepointsthatproduceastrongneedlefeeling(tech'iseepp.249251).Someofthesepointshavebeenusedfor theproductionofacupunctureanalgesia. HeadandNeck HN1.UpperGateShangKuan(Figs.328,330). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressioncaudalanddorsaltothemandibularjointand ventraltothezygomaticarch. Hotneedle,5fento1tsun.** Facialparalysis,tetanus.

HN2.LowerGateHsiaKuan(Fig.328). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionrostralandventraltothemandibularjoint,onetsun rostraltoHN1. Hotneedle,5fento1tsun,atanangle. SameasHN1.

HN3.OpenHeavenK'aiT'ien(Figs.328,333C). Location. Immediatelybelowthemidpointoftheventralmarginofthepupil,at thelineofdemarcationbetweenthelowerborderofthecorneawith thesclera. Coldwaterissplashedontotheeyeandtheparasiteswimstothe anteriorchamberoftheeyeball.Apply23%procainetoconstrictthe pupil.Useacurvedneedletopiercethecornea,andtheparasitewill flowoutwiththeaqueoushumor. MicrofilariaeofSetariaequi.

Method.

Indication.

HN4.ThreeRiversSanChiang(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsunrostraltothemedialcanthusontheangularvein. Small,wideneedleorprismneedleinsertedatanangleintotheblood vesselabout3fen.Bleed50100cc. Spasmofthebowel,gaseousdistensionofthebowel,constipation, indigestion,conjunctivitis,keratitis,periodicophthalmia.

*HN5.TheGreatYangT'aiYang(Fig.332). Location. Method. Indication. Onthetransversefacialvein,onetsuncaudaltothelateralcanthus. Themedium,wideneedle,about3fenbleed. Conjunctivitis,keratitis,periodicophthalmia(bleed100200cc), sunstroke,encephalitis(bleed400800cc).

*HN6.VesselsofEyesYanMai(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Onthetransversefacialvein1.5tsuncaudaltothelateralcanthusor about5fenbehindT'aiYang(HN5). SameasHN5. SameasHN5.

*HN7.GodofNosePiShu(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Themiddlepointbetweenthedorsalmarginofthenasalorificeand therostraltipofthenasalbone. Onehandisusedtograspthetwosidesofthenasalbridge.Asmall, wideneedleorprismneedleisinsertedthroughthe

**Thetsunisameasureoflengthusedinacupuncturetoindicatethedepthofneedleinsertion andanatomicdistances.Onetsunisdividedintotenfen.Thewidthofthe16thribatthelevel oftubercoxaeequals1tsun.(Holdtheribwiththumbandtheindexfingerandmeasurethe widthbetweenthetwofingers.)

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Indication.

nasalorificesandseptumnasibleed100300cc. Unconsciousness,rhinitis,overexertion,cerebralhyperemia, congestionofthelung.

*HN8.HallofBloodHsuehT'ang(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Twotsuncaudaltothedorsalmarginofthenasalorifice.Oneon eachsideofthenasalbridge. SameasHN7. SameasHN7.

*HN9.GingerToothChiangYa(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecartilageofthealanasi,5fenlateraltothemidpointofthe outermarginofthenasalorifice. Small,wideneedleinserteduntilitreachesthecartilage,about3fen. Spasmofthebowel,constipation,dilatationofthestomach.

HN10.PullingTendonCh'ouChin(Figs.328,334B). Location. Method. Atthemidpointofthelinejoiningthecornerofthenasalorifices. Singlepoint. Theupperlipispulledupwithonehand.Thelarge,wideneedleis usedtocuttheskintoexposethetendonofthelevatorlabiisuperioris propriusmuscle.Thetendonisthencleanedfromtheunderlying connectivetissueandpulledseveraltimes,forcefullybutwithout inducingphysicaldamage. Stiffneckandback.

Indication.

*HN11.DividingWaterFenShui(Figs.328,334B). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofthespirallyarrangedhair(vortexpilorum)ofthe outersurfaceoftheupperlip.Singlepoint. Theprismneedleorsmall,wideneedleisinserted0.3fenuntilthereis slightbleeding. Spasmofthebowel,gaseousdistensionofthebowel,constipation, dilatationofthestomach,indigestion.

HN12.HoldingChinSoK'ou(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Sevenfencaudalanddorsaltothecornerofthemouth,attheouter marginoforbicularisorismuscle. Thehotneedleisinsertedfromthecornerofthemouthcaudal2.53 tsuninthesamedirection. Facialparalysisandtrismus.

HN13.GateSwitchK'aiKuan(Figs.328,329). Location. Method. Indication. Thecranialmarginofthemassetermuscleatthelevelofthetable surfaceofthemolarsandonalinefromthecornerofthemouth. Thehotneedlecaudaldorsaldirection,8fento1tsun,orinsertthe haochenfor2.53tsuninthesamedirection. SameasHN12.

HN14.InnerLipYingNeiCh'unYing(Fig.333B). Location. Atthebloodvessel5fento1tsunlateraltothemidpointonthe dentalsurfaceoftheupperlip,1tsunfromthegumofthetooth,58 fenbesidethefrenulumlabiisuperiorisortheneedlemaybeinserted atthepapillaeoftheswollenarea. Theprismneedleisinserted23fenuntilbleedingoccursoritpierces throughaswollenarea. Swollenlip,stomatitis,indigestion,pharyngolaryngitis.

Method. Indication.

*HN15.JadeMansionYuT'ang(Fig.333A). Location. Method. Insidethethirdridgeofthehardpalateinthemouth,approximately5 fenfromthemidline. Afterthemouthisopened,pulloutthetongueinsertasmall,wide needleorprismneedle,slantingup3fendeepfromthecornerofthe mouthandbleed(donotinsertstraightupward,topreventsevere bleeding). Gastricdiscomfort,ulcerofthetongueandstomach,indigestion, stomatitis,heatstroke,overexertion,commoncold.

Indication.

HN16.PassingGate(LipYing)T'ungKuan(SheYin)(Fig.334A). Location. Method. Thebloodvesselsatbothsidesoftheventralsurfaceofthetongue. Thetongueispulledoutsidethemouthandturnedupsidedown.A small,wideneedleorprismneedleisinserted23fenuntilbleeding occurs. Swellingofthetongue,ulcerofthetongue,gastricdiscomfort,lossof appetite.

Indication.

HN17.TipofEarErhChien(Figs.328,335A). Location. Method. Thebifurcationofposteriorauricularveinatthedorsaltipoftheear. Puncturewithasmall,wideneedleto

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Indication.

rupturethebloodvesselandcausebleeding. Spasmofbowel,commoncold.

*HN18.VeinofNeck(VeinofBird,GreatBlood)ChingMai,(KuMaiorTaHsueh)(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Thejugularveinatthecranialandmiddlethirdofthejugularvein. Theveinisheldoff(asinvenipuncture).Thelarge,wideneedleis inserted34fenintothebloodvesseltobleed5001500cc. Sunstroke,encephalitis,lungcongestion,acutepneumonia,urticaria, intoxication,laminitis,stomatitis.

HN19.ThroatDoorHouMen(Figs.328,332). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsuncaudalandventraltothelarynx,attheexternalmaxillary vein. SameasHN18.Bleed300500cc. Laryngitis,pharyngitis.

HN20.NineDivisionsChiuWei(Figs.328,329). Location. Thereareninepointsoneachsideoftheneck.Thefirstofthenine pointsis3tsuncaudalandventraltotheear.Theninthpointis1.5 tsuncranialtotheanteriorangleofthescapula.Thedistancebetween thesetwopointsisdividedintoeightequalparts.Allthepointsare distributedalongthelowermarginoftherhomboideusmuscleforming anarc. Hotneedle,8fento1tsunorhaochen,1.53tsun. Rheumatismofthecervicalregion,tetanus.

Method. Indication.

Forelimb(FL) FL1.SmallRowKungTsu(Figs.328,330). Location. Method. Caudaltothetuberspinaeofthescapulaand3tsunbelowthe midpointoftheupperborderofthescapularcartilage. Airisinjectedsubcutaneouslyandispusheddownwardwiththe fingerssothatthesubcutaneoustissueoftheshoulderisfilledwithair. Asanalternative,ahotneedleisinserted45tsundownwardatan angle. Paralysisofthenervesofthescapularregion,muscleatrophyofthe shoulder,chronicshoulderlameness.

Indication.

FL2.TipofShoulderPoChien(Figs.328,330). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbetweentheanteriorangleofthescapulaandthe scapularcartilage. Thehaochenisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection23tsunor thehotneedleisinserted8fento1tsun. Paralysisofthenervesofthescapularregion,arthritisoftheshoulder joint,rheumatismoftheforelimb.

FL3.MiddleofShoulderPoChung(Figs.328,329). Location. Method. Indication. Attheintersectionofthecranialmarginofthescapularmuscleandthe dorsalmarginofthebrachiocephalicusmuscle. Thehaochenisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection3tsun,ora hotneedleisinserted1to1.5tsun. Paralysisofthenervesofthescapularregion,arthritisofshoulderand elbow,rheumatismoftheupperportionoftheforelimb,myositisof thesternobrachiocephalicusmuscle.

FL4.ShoulderFencePoLan(Figs.328,330). Location. Method. Indication. Note: Attheanteriormarginofthescapula,midwaybetweenFL2andFL3. Thehaochenisinserted34tsuninacaudalandventraldirection,or ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. SameasFL2. Inothersources(seep.74),thispointissaidtobelocatedwhere FL5is.

FL5.DoorofLungFeiMen(Figs.328,330). Location. Method. Indication. Thedepressionatthecaudalborderofthescapularcartilageinthe middleoftheneck. Haochenisinserted11.5tsunorahotneedleisinserted8fento1 tsun. Bronchitis,paralysisofthesuprascapularnerve,arthritisofthe shoulder,rheumatismoftheforelimb. Inothersources(seep.73),thispointissaidtobelocatedwhere FL4is.

Note:

FL6.LungApproachFeiP'an(Figs.328,330,337,338). Location. Thecleftbetweenthecaudalmarginofthescapulaandtheunderlying rib.ThedistancebetweenFL5andFL6isthesameasbetweenFL2 andFL4. Haochenisinserted2tsunorahotneedle1tsun. SameasFL5.

Method. Indication.

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*

FL7.WindChaseCh'angFeng(Figs.328,329,337,338,339). Fivetsuncaudalandventraltotheshoulderjointinthedeepestarea, attheintersectionoftheplanebetweenthelongheadandthelateral headofthetricepsmuscleandthedeltoidmuscle.Thisisanimportant pointintheforelimb. Haochenisinserted23tsun,orahotneedle1.82.3tsun. Twistedshoulderjoint,rheumatismofforelimb,arthritisofforelimb, strainedelbowmuscle,paralysisoftheulnarnerve,paralysisofthe nervesinthescapularregion,strainedbicepsmuscle,twistedelbow joint.Acupunctureanalgesia(seepp.260263).

Location.

Method. Indication.

*FL8.CelestialRushCh'ungT'ien(Figs.328,329,337,338). Location. Method. Indication. ThedepressioncaudalanddorsaltoFL7.ThedistancebetweenFL7 andFL8isequaltothedistancebetweenFL8andFL10. Haochenisinserted22.5tsunorahotneedle1.21.5tsun. SameasFL7.

*FL9.ShoulderChastityChienCheng(Figs.328,329). Location. Method. Indication. CranialtoFL8inthemusclecleftatthecaudalmarginofthescapula. Haochenisinserted22.5tsun. SameasFL7.

FL10.CelestialAncestryT'ienTs'ung(Figs.328,329). Location. Thepointbetweenthemiddlethirdandtheventralthirdsegmentsofa linejoiningthemiddleoftheuppermarginofthescapularcartilage andFL7.Itislocatedinthemusclecleftatthecaudalmarginofthe scapula. Haochenisinserted2tsun. SameasFL7.

Method. Indication.

*FL11.ShoulderWellChienChing(Figs.328to330,337,338). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionofthelateraldorsalborderoftheshoulderjointat theventralextensionlineofthescapularspine. Ahotneedleisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection11.5tsun, orhaochen22.5tsun. Twistedshoulderjoint,strainedbicepsmuscle,rheumatismofthe forelimb,arthritisoftheshoulder,myositisofthe sternobrachiocephalicusmuscle,paralysisofthesuprascapularnerve.

FL12.ShoulderSolemnityChienYu(Figs.328,330,337,338). Location. Method. Indication. Thedepressioncranialandventraltotheshoulderjoint. Ahotneedleisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection58fen, alongthecranialborderofhumerus. SameasFL11.

FL13.OutsideShoulderGodChienWaiYu(Figs.328,330,337,338). Location. Method. Indication. CranialandventraltoFL9inthedepressionatthecaudalmarginof theshoulderjoint. Haochenisinserted22.5tsun,orahotneedle11.2tsun. SameasFL11.

FL14.ElbowGodChouShu(Figs.328to330,334,337,338). Location. Cranialanddorsaltothetipoftheelbow,inthedepressionatthe junctionofmiddlethirdandcaudalthirdofthestraightlinejoining FL7andthetipoftheelbow. Haochenisinserted22.5tsun,orahotneedle11.5tsun. Twistedelbowjoint,rheumatismoftheforelimb,arthritisofthe elbow.

Method. Indication.

FL15.GasReleasingChiaCh'i(Fig.334B). Location. Method. Themiddleoftheaxillaorthemusculargrooveoftheupperpartof theforearmatthecenterofthemedialsurfaceandthetrunk. Theaffectedlimbisliftedforwardandoutward.Theskinalongthe pointiscutandthechiach'ineedleisdirectedbackwardandupward 78tsun.Theneedleisthenwithdrawnandthelimbisswayedseveral times. Chronicshoulderlameness,paralysisofscapularnerves.

Indication.

FL16.PectoralHallHsiungT'ang(Fig.334B). Location. Thesubcutaneousmedianveinlocated

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Method. Indication.

ventraltothebicepsmuscletendononthemedialsideoftheforelimb. Usethemiddle,wideneedlequicklypiercethevein3fendeep. Bleed300500cc. Acuteshoulderjointtwist,acuteelbowmusclesprain,acutebiceps tendonsprain,intercostalandshoulderpain,indigestion,edematous inflammationoftheforelimb,acuterheumatismoftheshoulderand arm.

FL17.EyeofKneeHsiYen(Figs.328,334B). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionslightlylateraltothemiddleofthelowermarginof thecranialsurfaceofthecarpaljoint. Themedium,wideneedleisusedwithaquickinsertion23fento releaseedematousfluid. Carpalsynovitis,arthritisofthecarpaljoint.

FL18.KneeveinHsiMai(Figs.328,335B). Location. Method. Indication. Thebloodvesselcranialtothetendonofthe4thcarpalboneand behindthebone2tsunbelowtheventraltothecarpalpoint. Themedium,wideneedleisinserted3fenbleed100300cc. Flexortendonitis,acutearthritisofthecarpaljoint,carpalsynovitis.

*FL19.WristEntangledCh'anWan(Figs.328,335B). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemedialandlateraldigitalveins,dorsalandcaudaltofetlock joint.Thereareeightpointsonfourlimbs. Themedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed100300cc. Twistedfetlockjoint.

*FL20.HoofHeadT'iT'ou(Figs.328,334B,337). Location. Onthebloodvessel3fendorsaltothehairlineofthehoof,about48 fenlateraltothemidline.Thebloodvesselsinthisareaarerelatively largeandpulsateonpalpation.Thepointsonthefrontfeetaremore lateralthanthoseonthehindfeet. Themedium,wideneedleisinsertedquickly3fentobleed300500 cc. Inflammationofcoronarycorium,inflammationoflamarcorium, twistedfetlockjoint,compressioninjuryofhoof,colicpain.

Method. Indication.

FL21.HoofDoorT'iMen(Figs.328,335A). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemidpointofthecartilagesofthehoof,oneonthemedialand oneonlateralsideofthehoof. Asmall,wideneedleisusedinastraightinsertionfor3fen.Bleed 100300cc. Paininthehollowoftheheel,inflammationofcoronarycorium inflammationoflaminarcorium.

FL22.FrontDepression(CelestialBalance)Ch'ienChiu(T'ienP'ing)(Figs.335A,337). Location. Method. Indication. Thepitinthehollowdepressionatthemiddleofthecaudalsurfaceof thehoof. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentoslightlybleed. Painofthehollowofheel.

*FL23.ThreeYangVeinSanYanLo(Figs.337,339). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclegroove,2tsunbelowthetubercleoftheradiusforthe lateralligament,lateraltotheforearm. Seep.260. Seepp.260263.

*FL24.NightEyeYehYan(Fig.339). Location. Method. Indication. Medialsideoftheforelimb,equivalenttothesiteofthe "chestnut"(probablyalittlecranialtothechestnut). Seep.260. Seepp.260263.

Trunk(T) T1.WitherArmorCh'iChia(Figs.328,330,331). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidline1.5tsuncranialtothehighestpointofthewither, betweenthe3rdandthe4ththoracicvertebrae. Haochenisinserted3tsun. Cough,asthma.

T2.HundredMeetingsPaiHui(Figs.328to331,340,343). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionabovethelumbosacralspace.Thisisanimportant pointforthethoracicandhindlimbregion. Haochenisinsertedabout2.5tsun,orahotneedle1.51.7tsun. Lumbarrheumatism,twistedpelvicjoint,

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spasmofbowel,intestinaldilatation,diarrhea,paralysisofthe hindquartercommoncold,stroke,tetanus.

T3.KidneyGodShenShu(Fig.331). Location. AstraightlineisdrawnfromT2tothetubercoxae,themost prominentareaoftheexternalwingoftheilium.Locateapointonthis line2/5ofthedistancefromT2.Fromthispoint,drawalineparallel tothedorsalspinesofthevertebrae.PointsT3toT8arelocatedon thisline.OnthelateralsideofT2,ontheline,isT3.Usethedistance betweenT2andT3(about2tsun)tomeasureandlocateT4caudal toandT5cranialtoT3.Inthesamemanner,measurefromT5 craniallyandlocateT6,T7,andT8. Ahotneedleisinserted11.5tsunhaochen,2tsun. Lumbarrheumatism,paralysisofloinandhindquarter.

Method. Indication.

T4.KidneyHornShenChiao(Fig.331).SeeT3forlocation,method,andindication. T5.KidneyBubbleShenChi(Figs.328,331).SeeT3forlocation,methodandindication. T6.HindWaistYaoHou(Figs.328,331).SeeT3forlocation,method,andindication. T7.MiddleWaistYaoChung(Figs.328,331).SeeT3forlocation,method,andindication. T8.FrontWaistYaoCh'ien(Figs.328,331).SeeT3forlocation,method,andindication. T9(AD).EightCellarsPaChiao(Figs.328,331,340). T9A.UpperCellarShangChiao(Figs.328,331,340). Location. Fromthelateralsideofthetailroot,drawastraightlineparallelto and1.5tsunlateraltothedorsalspinesofthesacrum.T9(A)is locatedonthislineattheintersectionofaperpendicularlinedrawn fromtheareabetweenthe1stand2ndsacralvertebrae(S1andS2). Inthismanner,T9(BD)arelocatedattheintersectionofa perpendicularlinedrawnfromtheareabetweenS2andS3S3andS4 andS4andS5. Ahotneedleisinserted8fento1tsunhaochen,1.5tsun. Rheumatisminthelumbarregion.

Method. Indication.

T9B.MediumCellarTzuChiao(Figs.328,331,340).SeeT9Aforlocation,method,andindication. T9C.MiddleCellarChungChiao(Figs.328,331,340).SeeT9Aforlocation,method,andindication. T9D.LowerCellarHsiaChiao(Figs.328,331,340).SeeT9Aforlocation,method,andindication.


*

T10.SpleenGodP'iShu(Figs.328,331). Inthecleftbetweenthelongissimuscostarummuscleandthe longissimusdorsimuscleatthelevelofthethirdintercostalspace, countingcraniallyfromthelastrib. Ahotneedleisinsertedatanangle8fento1tsun,orhaochen,1 1.5tsun. Dilatationofintestine,acidstomach,stomachdisturbance,spasmof bowel.

Location.

Method. Indication.

*T11.GateOriginGodKuanYuanShu(Figs.328,330,331). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionattheintersectionbetweentheventralmarginofthe longissimusdorsimuscleandthecaudaledgeofthelastrib. Haochenisinsertedatanangle22.5tsun.Electricalstimulationis supposedtobebest. Constipation,intestinaldilatation,indigestion,stomachdilatation.

T12.LungGodFeiShu(Figs.328,330,331). Location. Method. Indication. Inthecleftoflongissimuscostarummuscleandlongissimusdorsi muscleatthelevelofthe9thintercostalspace. Haochenisinsertedabout1tsun,orahotneedleatanangle8fento 1tsun. Cough,bronchitis,pleuritis,pneumonia.

T13.CarriageVeinTaiMai(Fig.328). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,2tsuncaudaltotheelbow. Themedium,wideneedleisinsertedintothebloodvesseltobleed 100300cc. Enteritis,bowelspasm,sunstroke.

T14.PiercingJaundiceCh'uanHuang(Figs.328,334B). Location. Attheskinfoldonthelowermarginofthechestonthemidline.

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Method. Indication.

SeeChapterTwoontheuseofthepiercingjaundiceneedle. Edemaofthechest.

T15.YellowWaterHuangShui. Location. Method. Indication. Theventralabdominalareacaudaltothesternumandcranialtothe prepuceormammarygland. Usealarge,wideneedle,andavoidlargebloodvesselsrandom insertion3fendeep. Edemaofthechest.

T16.CloudDoorYunMen(Figs.328,336). Location. Method. Indication. Fivefenlateraltothemidlineoftheabdomenand3tsuncranialtothe umbilicus. Thelarge,wideneedleisinsertedtopiercethroughtheskin.Atubeis insertedfordrainageofasciticfluid. Ascites.

HindLimb(HL) HL1.ExpectationMountainPaShan(Figs.328,329,331,343). Location. Method. Indication. ThemidpointofalinejoiningT2andthemediumtrochanterofthe femur.Bilateral. Ahotneedleisinserted11.5tsunhaochen,2tsun. Rheumatismofthehindlimb,twistedpelvicjoint,myositisofbiceps femorismuscle,paralysisofsciaticnerve.

HL2.TrailThighLuKu(Figs.328,329,331,343). Location. Method. Indication. TwotsuncaudalandventraltoHL2. SameasHL1. SameasHL1.

*HL3.ResidentBoneChuLiao(Figs.328to330). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionoftheinferiormarginoftheglutealmusclesand anteriortothemediumtrochanterofthefemur. Haochenisinserted22.5tsun. SameasHL1.

*HL4.JumpingCircleHuanT'iao(Figs.328to330,343). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionoftheinferiormarginoftheglutealmusclesand anteriortothemediumtrochanterofthefemur. SameasHL3. SameasHL1.

*HL5.MiddleCircleHuanChung(Figs.328,329,331). Location. Cranialanddorsaltothemediumtrochanterofthefemur.Inthe furrowofmuscles,atthemidpointofalinejoiningthetubercoxaeof theiliumandtheposteriormarginofthethigh. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted1.61.8tsun. SameasHL1.

Method. Indication.

*HL6.HindCircleHuanHou(Figs.328to331). Location. Method. Indication. Cranialanddorsalmarginofthegreatertrochanterofthefemur,and caudalandventraltoHL5. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted1.51.7tsun. SameasHL1.

HL7.GreatMountTaK'ua(Figs.328to330,343). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressioncranialandventralofthemediumtrochanterofthe femur. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted11.5tsun. SameasHL1.

HL8.LesserMountHsiaoK'ua(Figs.328to330,343). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressioncaudalandventraltothe3rdtrochanterofthe femur. SameasHL7. Rheumatismofthehindlimbsinfectionofthebicepsfemorismuscle paralysisofthefemoral,tibialandfibularnervesmyositisofthe bicepsfemoris.

*HL9.EvilCh'iHsiehCh'i(Figs.328,329,331,341,343). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftbetweenthebicepsfemorismuscleandthe semitendinosus,2tsundorsaltothetuberischii. Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun,orhaochen2tsun. SameasHL1.

*HL10.MeetingYangHuiYang(Figs.328,329,331). Location. Attheupperterminalendofthemuscle

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Method. Indication.

furrowbetweenthebicepsfemorismuscleandthesemitendinosus. SameasHL3. SameasHL1.

*HL11.SweatFurrowHanKou(Figs.328,329,341,343). Location. Method. Indication. About3tsunventraltoHL9inthesamefurrow.Itformsan equilateraltrianglewithHL9andthemiddletrochanterofthefemur. SameasHL9. SameasHL1.

*HL12.ImbricatedTilesYiWa(Figs.328,329,343). Location. Method. Indication. About3tsunbelowHL11alongthesamemusclefurrow. SameasHL9. SameasHL1.

HL13.BoundedKidneyCh'ienShen(Figs.328,329,341to343). Location. Method. Indication. About2tsunbelowHL12inthemusclefurrow.Slightlyhigherthan HL14. SameasHL9. Rheumatismofthehindlegs,arthritisofthehindlegs.

*HL14.FlippingGrassLuehT'ao(Figs.328,330,342). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbetweenthemiddleandlateralpatellarligamentsat thecranialandventralmarginofthekneecap. Haochenisinsertedatacaudalanddorsalangle1.5tsun. Twistedknee,rheumatismoftheknee,arthritisoftheknee.

*HL15.KidneyMansionShenT'ang(Figs.335A,335C). Location. Method. Indication. Atthesaphenusveinsabout4tsunbelowthefoldonthethigh. Amedium,wideneedleisquicklyinserted3fen.Bleed300500cc. Twistedpelvicjoint,twistedknee.

*HL16.CrookedBondCh'uCh'ih(Figs.328,335C,342). Location. Method. Indication. Atthesaphenousvein,slightlymedialandcranialtothetarsaljoint. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed100300cc. Swellingandpaininthetarsaljoint.

*HL17.HindSeaHouHai(Fig.335A). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionventraltothetailheadanddorsaltotheanus. Ahotneedleisinsertedinadorsalandcranialdirectionfor22.5 tsun. Diarrheaandgaseousdilationoftheintestine.

HL18.RootofTailWeiKen(Figs.328,330,331,340,343). Location. Method. Inthedepressionbetweenthe1stand2ndcoccygealvertebrae. Thetailisswungtolocatetheareabetweenthemovableand nonmovablevertebraljoints.Astraightinsertionismadeusingahot needle45fen,orhaochen1tsun. Lumbarrheumatism,rheumatismofthehindlimbs,arthritisofthe hindlimbsandlumbarregion.

Indication.

HL19.TailFoundationWeiPen(Figs.328,335A,343). Location. Method. Indication. Atthetailvein,twotsunfromthetailhead. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedupwardintothebloodvessels3 fentobleed. Twistedlumbosacralregion,twistedglutealregion.

HL20.TailofTailWeiChien(Figs.328,329). Location. Method. Indication. Atthetipofthetail,unpaired. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted45fen,orthetipofthetailiscut withacrossline. Seizure,sunstroke.

HL21.SeeFL19. HL22.SeeFL20. HL23.SeeFL21. HL24.HindDepression(CelestialDepression)HouChiu(T'ienChiu)(Fig.335A). Location. Method. Indication. Thepitinthehollowdepressionatthemiddleofthecaudalsurfaceof thehoof. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentoslightlybleed. Painofthehollowofheel.

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Cattle ChineseVeterinaryHandbook3 (Figs.344to348) HeadandNeck(HN)


*

HN1.CelestialGateT'ienMen(Figs.344,347). Inthedepressionslightlycaudaltothemidpointofalinejoiningthe rootsofthetwohorns.Singlepoint. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedincaudalandventraldirection,58 fen. Congestionofcerebralvessels,epilepsy.

Location. Method. Indication.

*HN2.TipofEar(BloodPrint)ErhChien(HseuhYin)(Fig.347). Location. Method. Indication. Onthedorsaltipofthethreeparallelbloodvesselsonthemedial surfaceoftheear,threepointsoneachear. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedintobloodvesselstobleed. Sunstroke,abdominalpain,cold.

*HN3.TheGreatYangT'aiYang(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,1tsuncaudaltothelateralcanthus. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedintobloodvessel35fen,to bleed. Conjunctivitis,keratitis,sunstroke,cold.

HN4.BrightenedSight(SwiftSight)ChingMing(ChingLing)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Atthelowermarginoftheuppereyelid,insidethemedialcanthus. Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedcaudalandventral,1.52fen. Conjunctivitis,keratitis.

*HN5.RootoftheMountain(MiddleofMan)ShanKen(JenChung)(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Thereare3points,oneatthemiddleoftheuppermarginofthe hairlessareaofthenose.Theothertwoareonthedorsalsurfaceof eachnostril. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fen. Sunstroke,cough,intestinalpain.

Method. Indication.

HN6.MiddleNose(ThreeGates)PiChung(SanKuan)(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofalinejoiningthemedialedgesofthenostrils. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fenforbleeding. Lossofappetite,epidemicfever.

HN7.ThoroughfareGate(KnowingSweat,TongueBottom)T'ungKuan(ChihKan,SheTi)(Fig.334A). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselsatthelateralsidesoftheventralsurfaceofthe tongue. Thetongueispulledoutandturnedupsidedown.Asmall,wide needleorprismneedleisinsertedabout1.5fen.Bleed. Lossofappetite,laryngitis,sunstroke.

HN8.ReceivingFluid(FateTooth)Ch'engChiang(MingYa)(Figs.344,348). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemiddleofthelowerlipattheborderofthehairyandnonhairy areas. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinacaudalanddorsaldirection2 3fen.Bleed. Inflammationoforalmucosa,laryngitis,stomachandintestinal disturbances.

HN9.GateSwitch(ToothGate)K'aiKuan(YaKuan)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Attherostralmarginofthemassetermuscle,slightlycaudaland dorsaltothelastmolar. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted58fen. Trismus.

*HN10.NeckVein(LargeVein)ChingMai(TaiMai)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthelargebloodvessel2tsunventraltothelarynx. Thevesselisheldoffandthelarge,wideneedleisinserted35fen. Bleed. Pneumonia,cerebralvesselcongestion,sunstroke,acutepoisoning.

Forelimb(FL)
*

FL1.ShoulderWell(MiddleArm,CollideArm)ChienChing(ChungPo,Ch'uangP'ang)(Figs.344to346). Inthedepressiondorsalandlateraltotheshoulderjoint. Amedium(orsmall),wideneedleorhotneedleisinsertedventral andcaudaldirection11.5tsun. Twistedshoulderjoint,frontlimbrheumatism,frontlimbarthritis, myositisofthefrontlimbandshoulder.

Location. Method. Indication.

*FL2.WindChase(MediumWrist)Ch'angFeng(ChungWan)(Figs.344,345). Location. Inthedepressioncaudalandventraltotheshoulderjoint,inthe deepestpartofthedepressionformedbythelongheadandlateral headofthetricepsanddeltoid.

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Method. Indication.

Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinserted12tsun. SameasFL1.

FL3.ElbowGod(LowerWrist)ChouShu(HsiaWan)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. 2.5tsuncaudalandventraltoFL2. Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinserted1tsun. Swelling,rheumatism,orarthritisofcarpus.

FL4.PectoralHallHsiungT'ang(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,lateraltothesternumandcranialtotheaxillary fossa. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedintothebloodvessel35fen. Bleed. Shoulderpain,twistedshoulder.

*FL5.HindWrist(ChasingWind)(CrookedPond)WanHou(ChiuFeng)(ChuChih)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthecaudalsurfaceofthecarpusslightlymedialtothemidpoint. Medium,(orsmall)wideneedle,58fen. Rheumatismorarthritisoffrontlimb,twistedfrontlimb.

FL6.EyeofKneeHsiYen(Figs.344,348). Location. Method. Indication. Slightlylateraltothecranialandventralmarginofthecarpusjoint. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinacaudaldirection3fen. Carpitis.

FL7.KneeVeinHsiMai(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,2tsunventraltothecarpusonthemedialside. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fenintothebloodvessel. Rheumatismofthecarpus.

FL8.WristEntangled(SonofAnkle)Ch'anWan(Ch'unTzu)(Figs.344,345). Location. Inthedepression,about5fendorsalandmedialorlateraltothe accessorydigits.Onepointateachsurfaceofeachlimbforatotalof 8points. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedintothebloodvessel58fen.To bleedorreleasesynovialfluid. Twistedfetlockjoint.

Method. Indication.

FL9.SwellingWellYungCh'uan(FrontLimb)(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofthecranialsurfaceofthefootslightlydorsaltothe joiningofthedigits. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection3 fen.Bleed. Twistedfetlockjoint,inflammationofcoronarycorium.

*FL10.Hoofhead(EightPoint)T'iT'ou(PaTzu)(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Atthejunctionofthehairyandthenonhairyareaofeachdigitatthe middleofthecranialsurface. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinaventralandcaudaldirection3 fen.Bleed. Laminitis,cold,abdominalpain.

Trunk(T) T1.GreenFieldTanT'ien(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineofthebackinthedepressionbetweenthe1stand2nd thoracicvertebralspines. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted58fen. Sunstroke,exhaustion.

*T2.ThreePlatformsSanT'ai(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Inthedepressionbetweenthe3rdand4ththoracicvertebralspines onthemostelevatedareaofthewithers,orinthedepressioncaudal tothedepressionattheintersectionpointbetweentheupward extensionlineofthespineofscapulaandthemidlineoftheback. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted58fen. Rheumatismofthefrontlimb,cough.

Method. Indication.

T3.PeacefulBlessingAnFu(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbetweenthe10thandthe11ththoracicvertebral spines. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted58fen. Pneumonia,diarrhea,rheumatism.

T4.CelestialPeaceT'ienP'ing(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbetweenthe13ththoracicvertebraland1stlumbar vertebralspines. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted58fen. Anuria,enteritis,lossofappetite.

T5.HindGreenFieldHouTanT'ien(Figs.344,346,347).

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Location. Method. Indication.

Inthedepressionbetweenthe1standthe2ndlumbarvertebral spines. Ahotneedleisinserted58fen. Lossofappetite,lumbarrheumatism,hindlimbanuria.

*T6.AwakeningCh'iSuCh'i(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Thereare7points.Theunpairedpointislocatedatthedepression betweenthe8thand9ththoracicvertebralspines.The3bilateral pointsarelocatedinthe10th,11th,and12thintercostalspaces(or the4th,5th,and6thspacescountedfromcaudaltocranial),slightly dorsaltotheextensionlinefromthe3pointsofT13. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedstraight58feninbilateralpoints andinacranialandventraldirection58feninunpairedpoints. Acutebronchitis,lungcongestion.

Method. Indication.

*T7.HundredMeetings(ThousandGold)PaiHui(ChienChing)(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionatthelumbosacralspace. Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinserted11.5tsun. Rheumatismoflumbarandhindlimbregion,arthritishindlimbjoints.

*T8.KidneyGodShenShu(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclefurrowabout2.5tsunlateraltoT7. Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinserted5fento1tsun. Rheumatismoflumbarandhindlimbregion,arthritisofthelumbarand hindlimbjoints.

*T9.MiddleLumbar(LumbarBelt)YiuChung(YiuDai)(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftabout2.5tsunlateraltothe3rdlumbar intervertebralspace. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted11.5tsun,orahotneedle,58 fen. Lumbarrheumatism.

*T10.CarriageVeinTaiMai(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselabout3tsuncaudaltotheelbow. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Enteritis,abdominalpain,cold,sunstroke.

*T11.SpleenGodPiShu(Figs.344,346). Location. Inthemusclecleftbetweenthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimus costarummusclesatthe11thintercostalspace(or3rd,countedfrom caudaltocranial). Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinsertedinaventraldirection 11.5tsun. Gaseousdistensionofstomach,abdominalpain,lossofappetite.

Method. Indication.

T12.LungGodFeiShu(Fig.347). Location. Inthe9thrightintercostalarea(or5th,countedfromcaudalto cranial)atthemusclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimus costarummuscles.Singlepoint,onrightsideonly. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinaventraldirection,11.5tsun. Cough,lungcongestion.

Method. Indication.

*T13.SixVeinLiuMai(Figs.344,346,347). Location. Inthe10th,11th,and12thintercostalspaces(or1st,2nd,and3rd caudaltocranial)atthemusclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiand longissimuscostarummusclesthreepointsoneachside.Another nameforthemostanteriorpointoneachsideisT11,PiShu. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinaventraldirection58fen(see alsoT11). Lossofappetite,gaseousdistensionofstomach(seealsoT11).

Method. Indication.

*T14.KneeGod(Ch'iNeedle)Ch'ienShu(Ch'iChien)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleoftheleftparalumbarfossasinglepointonleftside only. Asyringewitharegularhypodermicneedleisinsertedinaventral direction13tsuntoreleasegas. Gaseousdistensionofrumen.

*T15.DrippingBrightT'iMing(Fig.344). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselatthedepression,5tsuncranialand4tsunlateral totheumbilicus. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Gaseousdistension.

T16.GateofSea(CloudDoor)YuenMen(HaiMen)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. 1tsunlateraltotheumbilicus. Amedium,wideneedleisusedtocutthroughtheskin.

Page99

Indication.

Ascites.

T17.PiercingYellow(HangingYellow)Ch'uanHuang(TeilHuang)(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheskinfoldatthemiddleofthecranialmarginofthesternum. SeeChapterTwofortheuseofthepiercingjaundiceneedle. Edemaofthechest.

HindLimb(HL)
*

HL1.MiddleCircleHuonChung(Figs.344to346). Inthemusclecleft,anteriorandsuperiortothemajortrochanter. Ahotneedleisinserted1.61.8tsun. Twistedpelvicjoint,hindlimbrheumatism,arthritisofhindlimbjoints.

Location. Method. Indication.

*HL2.HindCircleHuanHou(Figs.344to346). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecranialanddorsaledgeofthemajortrochanterofthefemur, andcaudalandventraltoHL1. Ahotneedleisinsertedstraight1.51.7tsun. SameasHL1.

HL3.EvilCh'i(YellowGold)HsiehCh'i(HuangChin)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftbetweenthebicepsfemorisandthesemitendenous musclesanddorsaltotheischium. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. SameasHL1.

*HL4.SweatFurrowHunKou(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftbetweenthebicepsfemorisandsemitendenous musclesandventraltotheischium. SameasHL3. SameasHL1.

HL5.ImbricatedTile(PullingLegs)YiWa(Ch'ihChiao)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleft2tsunbelowHL4. SameasHL3. SameasHL1.

HL6.FlippingGrassLuehTs'ao(Figs.344to346). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionventralandslightlylateraltothestiflejoint. Ahotneedleisinsertedinacaudalanddorsaldirection8fen. Twistedstiflejoint,hindlimbrheumatism,arthritisofhindlimbjoints.

*HL7.PectoralHallShenT'ang(Figs.335A,335C). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselattheupperportionofthemedialsurfaceofthe hindlimb. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Twistedpelvicorstiflejoint,painfulandswollenhindlimb.

HL8.CrookedPond(SupportingMountain)Ch'uCh'ih(ChengShan)(Fig.344). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,cranialandslightlymedialtothestiflejoint. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted35fentobleed. Rheumatismorarthritisofthestiflejoint.

HL9.RootofTailWeiKen(Figs.344,346). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthedepressioncranialtothetailhead,atthe sacrococcygealjunction. Amedium,wideneedleorhotneedleisinserted3fen. Constipation.

HL10.TailFoundationWeiPen(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Onthetailveinatthemidlineontheventralsurfaceofthetailhead. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Abdominalpain,constipation.

HL11.TipofTail(PearlsDangling)WeiChien(Ch'uiChu)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Atthetipofthetail. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Sunstroke,overexhaustion.

HL12.HindSea(InnerNest)HouHai(ChiaoCh'ao)(Figs.344,345). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressiononthemidlinemidwaybetweenthetailheadand anus. Ahotneedleisinsertedinacranialanddorsaldirection11.5tsun. Diarrhea,constipation.

HL13.DrippingWaterTiShui(Figs.344,345,348). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofthecranialsurfaceofthefoot,slightlydorsaltothe joiningofthedigits. Amedium,wideneedleisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection3 fentobleed. Twistedfetlockjoint,inflammationofcoronarycorium.

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Pig ChineseVeterinaryHandbook3 (Figs.349to364) HeadandNeck(HN)


*

HN1.CelestialGateT'ienMen(Figs.350,351). Atthemiddleoftheoccipitalfossathatis,thedepressionatthe middleofthelinejoiningthecaudalmarginoftherootsofthetwo ears. Haochenisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection35fen. Epilepsy,encephalitis,wheezing,sunstroke,tetanus,cerebral congestion.

Location.

Method. Indication.

*HN2.TipoftheEar(BloodyPrint)ErhChien(HsuehYin)(Figs.349to352). Location. Needle sensation. Method. Indication. Atthebloodvessel1tsunawayfromthepointededgeonthemedial surfaceoftheear.Threepointsoneachear. Feelingofexcitement,senseofcomfort. Scratchtheskinbleedabout50cc. Sunstroke,cold,abdominalpain,fever,foodpoisoning.

HN3.EarProperK'aErh(Figs.349to351,353). Location. Method. Themiddleoftheproximalpartoftheear. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted68fen,eitherfromthelateralor themedialsurfaceoftheear.Bloodvesselsshouldbeavoided,and drugsmaybeinjectedinthesubcutaneoussite. Cold,fever.

Indication.

HN4.TheGreatYangT'aiYang(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Eightfento1tsuncaudaltothelateralcanthus. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Commoncold,influenza,keratitis,epilepsy,fever.

HN5.BrainGod(BrainTransparency)NaoShu(T'auNao)(Figs.351,353). Location. Attherostralanddorsalmarginofthemandibularjointinthesuture betweenthesquamoustemporalboneandtheparietalbone,rostral anddorsaltoHN4. Haochenisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection12tsun. Encephalitis,epilepsy,cold.

Method. Indication.

HN6.BrightenedSight(SwiftSight)ChingMing(ChingLing)(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbelowthemedialcanthus. Haochenisinsertedinaventraldirection3fen. Conjunctivitis,keratitis,influenza,abdominalpain.

*HN7.EyeGodChingYu(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofthedorsalcurvedmarginofthesnoutand5fento therightandleft.Threepoints. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fen. Sunstroke,cold,stroke,indigestion,rheumatism,asthma.

HN9.MiddleNose(NoseMountain)PiChung(PiLiang)(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemidpointbetweenthenostrils. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fentobleed. Lossofappetite,fever.

HN10.JadeMansionYuT'ang(Fig.333AseealsoHN15Horse). Location. Method. Indication. Atrightandleftmidlinesofthehardpalate. Themouthisopenedandasmall,wideneedleisinserted3fenatan anglefromthecornerofthemouthtobleed. Gastritis,lingualulcer,fever.

HN11.HoldingChinSoK'ou(Figs.349to351,353). Location. Method. Indication. 5fencaudaltothecornerofthemouth. Haochenisinsertedincaudalanddorsaldirection5fento1tsun. Trismus,facialpalsy,swollenchin.

HN12.GateSwitch(GateofTeeth)K'aiKuan(YaKuan)(Figs.349to351,353). Location. Attheanteriormarginofthemassetermuscle,orthemidpoint betweenthelastpairofupperandlowermolarsthatis,atthe intersectionbetweenaperpendicularlinefromthelateralcanthusand theextensionlinefromthemouth.

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Method. Indication.

Haochenisinsertedinacaudaldirection5fento1tsun. SameasHN11.

*HN13.WindPondFengCh'in(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbehindtheearsatbothsidesoftheligamentum nuchae. Haochenisinsertedinaventraldirection35fen. Cold,fever,sunstroke.

HN14.YellowNeckChingHuang(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemidpointbetweenmandibleandshoulderjoint. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted68fendrugmaybeinjectedin thesubcutaneoussite. Cold,rheumatism,fever.

HN15.ReceivingFluidChengChiang(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Atthemiddleofthelowerlipatthejunctionbetweenthehairyand thenonhairyareasatthedepression,5fenbelowthelip,theneedle isinsertedontheoricularisorismuscle. Asmall,wideneedleorprismneedleisinsertedinacaudaland dorsaldirection(atthedirectionoftherootofthetongue)35fen untilbloodisseen. Indigestion,gastritis,oralmucosalulcer.

Method.

Indication.

HN16.DoorofEarFanMen(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionbetweentheparotidglandandthebaseoftheear. Haochenisinsertedinaslightlyventraldirection510fen. Commoncold,influenza,sunstroke,epidemicfever.

HN17.LockedLarynxSoHou(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Slightlycaudaltothefirsttrachealring,inthemuscle. Haochenisinsertedhorizontallyatthesamelevelastheshoulder joint510fen.Itshouldbeparticularlycautionedthattheneedlenot beinsertedintothetrachea. Laryngitis,laryngealparalysis.

Indication.

HN18.DoorofEarEhrMen(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionbelowtherootoftheearattheupperborderofthe parotidglandandposteriorborderofthemandible. Haochenisinsertedinaventraldirection58fen. Facialpalsy.

HN19.RootofEarErhKen(Figs.350,351,353). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionslightlycaudaltothecaudalmarginoftheear. Haochenisinsertedinaventraldirection58fen. Sunstroke,influenza,generalmalaise,fever.

Forelimb(FL)
*

FL1.WindChase(ShoulderGod)Ch'angFeng(KuangShu)(Figs.349to351,356). Threetsuncaudaltotheshoulderjointinthemusclefurrowofthe caudalmarginofthedeltoidmuscle,betweenthelongandlateral headsofthetriceps. Haochenisinserted1tsun. Twistedfrontlimb,rheumatismorarthritisoffrontlimb.

Location.

Method. Indication.

FL2.CelestialRushCh'ungT'ien(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleft1.5tsundorsaltoFL1. SameasFL1. SameasFL1.

FL3.ElbowGodChouYu(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepression5fencranialtotheelbow. SameasFL1. SameasFL1.

FL4.SevenStarsCh'iHsing(Fig.358). Location. Method. Indication. Thereare5or7blackspotscaudaltothefetlockjoint.Theneedleis insertedintothemiddleblackspot. Theforelimbisraisedandhaochenisinserted23fen. Rheumatism,bronchitis,indigestion,painfulandswollenankle,food poisoning(for1/2monthto2montholdpig,thispointismost frequentlyused).

*FL5.WristEntangled(SonofAnkle)Ch'anWan(Ch'unTsu)(Figs.349to351,355B,357,358). Location. Inthedepressionlateralandmedialtothedewclaw.Twopointson eachofthelimbs.

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Method. Indication.

Asmall,wideneedleisinserted35fenintobloodvesselstobleed. Arthritisandrheumatismofthefetlockjoint,twistedfetlockjoint.

*FL6.SwellingWellYungChuan(Figs.349to351,355A,357B). Location. Method. Indication. Onthecranialmidline3fendorsaltothehoofbifurcation. Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedintothebloodvesseltobleed. Rheumatismandarthritisoffetlockjoint,twistedfetlockjoint,cold, lossofappetite,sunstroke,laminitis,abdominalpain.

FL7.HoofHead(Letter8)T'iT'ou(PaTzu)(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Threefenfromthemidlineattwosidesofthehoofbifurcationatthe junctionbetweenthehairyandthenonhairykeratinofthehoof. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fentobleed. Twistedhoof,painfulswellingofhoof,abdominalpain.

FL8.BodyPillarShenChu(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionbetweenthe3rdand4ththoracicvertebrae. Haochenisinserted11.5tsun. Encephalitis,epilepsy,influenza,cough,bronchitis.

FL9.TipofShoulder(ShoulderWell)PoChien(ChienCh'ung)(Figs.350,351,354). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecranialangleofthescapulainthedepression1.5tsunfromthe vertebralcolumn. Theneedleisinserted810feninaventralandcaudaldirectionat15 degrees. Frontlimbparalysis,paininthethoraxandshoulder,paralysisofthe scapularregion.

FL10.ShoulderFence(MiddleShoulder)PoLan(ChienChung)(Figs.350,351,354). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecaudalangleofthescapulainthedepression2.5tsunfromthe vertebralcolumn. Haochenisinserted2.5tsuninacranialandventraldirectionat15 degrees. SameasFL9.

FL11.GateofWindFeiMen(Figs.350,351,354). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecranialborderofthescapularbone. Haochenisinserted810feninacaudaldirectionat15degrees. Rheumatismoftheshoulder,pneumonia,emphysema.

FL12.LungApproachFeiP'an(Figs.350,351,354). Location. CranialandventraltoFL10.Theneedleisinsertedattheupperthird ofthecaudalborderofthetrapeziusmuscleintothelongheadofthe tricepsmuscle. Haochenisinserted810feninacranialandventraldirectionata 15degreeangle. SameasFL11.

Method. Indication.

FL13.FrontLegHoofForkChienT'iCh'a(Figs.350,357). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleoftheupperendofthehoofbifurcation.Therearefour points. Haochenisinsertedinacaudalandventraldirection23fen. Paininthehoof,paralysis,rheumatismandarthritisinthefourlimbs.

FL14.LampStandDengChan(Fig.357). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionatthemiddleofthetwodewclaws. Haochenisinsertedinadorsaldirection23fen. Laminitis,paralysis.

FL15.GateofHoofT'iMen(Fig.357). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepression,slightlydorsaltothecoriumonthetwosidesofthe hoofcleft. Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedinacranialdirection23fentobleed. Inflammationofthehooves,indigestion,abdominalpain,constipation, sunstroke,bladderretention.

Trunk(T)
*

T1.GreatVertebraeTaChui(Figs.349to351). Onthemidlinebetweenthevertebralspinesofthe6thand7th cervicalvertebraeandatthelevelofthecranialmarginofthescapula. Haochenisinserted1.5tsuninaslightlycranialandventraldirection. Asthma,cold,hematuria,vomiting,epilepsy.

Location. Method. Indication.

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T2.ThreePlatformsSanT'ai(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. Onthedorsalmidlineatthedepressionbetweenthe2ndand3rd thoracicvertebralspinesatthelevelofthecaudalborderofscapula. SameasT1. Rheumatismandarthritisoffrontlimbs,atwistedfrontlimb.

*T3.AwakeningChiSuCh'i(Figs.349to351). Location. Thereare7points,3bilateraland1unpaired,onthedorsalmidlinein thedepressionbetweenthespinesofthe4thandthe5ththoracic vertebrae.Threeareatthe7th,8th,and9thintercostalspaces countedfromcaudaltocranialinthecleftofthelongissimuscostarum muscle. Haochenisinsertedinaslightlycranialandventraldirection1.5tsun fortheunpairedone.Haochenisinserted58fenfortheother bilateralpoints. Cold,pneumonia,asthma,cough.

Method.

Indication.

*T4.HundredMeetings(ThousandGold)PaiHui(ChienChing)(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionimmediatelybehindthelumbosacraljunction. Haochenisinserted8fento1tsun. Rheumatismoflumbarandhindlimbregions,motordysfunctionofthe hindlimbs,anureaandconstipation,paralysis,wheezing,rectal prolapse.

T5.UpperCellar(T6A)ShangTzu(Fig.349). T6.MiddleCellar(T6B)ChungT'zu(Fig.349). T7.LowerCellar(T6C)HsiaT'zu(Fig.349). Location. Inthepelvicregionattheintersectionofalineextendingfromthearea inbetweenthe1stand4thsacralvertebralspineslaterallyandthe horizontallineofthesacroiliacjoint.The1stpoint(T5)islateraltothe 1stand2ndsacralvertebralspaces,themiddlepoint(T6)lateralto the2ndand3rd,andthelastpoint(T7)lateraltothe3rdand4th. Haochenisinserted1tsun. Rheumatismandarthritisofhindlimb,rheumatismofthelumbarand hindlimbregion,paralysisofhindlimb,lackofsexualdrive,urine retention,urogenitaldiseases.

Method. Indication.

T8.WindReleaseKaiFeng(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. Adepressionbetweenthe3rdandthe4thsacralvertebralspinesor the3rddepressioncaudaltoT5. Haochenisinserted5fento1tsun. Rheumatismandarthritisofthehindlimbgastritis,constipation, urogenitalandgastrointestinaldiseases.

*T9.LungGodFeiShu(Figs.349to351). Location. Attheintersectionofalineextendedfromthesacroiliac(parallelto thespine)andthe6thintercostalspace(countedfromcaudalto cranial). Haochenisinsertedinaventraldirection58fen. Asthma,cough,cold,rhinitis,bronchitis,pulmonarycongestion.

Method. Indication.

*T10.SixVeinsLiuMai(Figs.349to351). Location. Atthe1st,2nd,and3rdintercostalspacescountedfromcaudalto cranialinthemusclecleftbetweenthelongissimusdorsiand longissimuscostarummuscles. Haochenisinserted58fen. Gastritis.

Method. Indication.

*T11.PlatformMiddleT'anChung(Figs.349,359,360). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidlinebetweenthetwofrontlimbs. Haochenisinsertedinacranialanddorsaldirection23fen. Asthma,cough,pneumonia,abdominalpain,spasm.

*T12.MiddleChannelChungWan(Figs.349to351,360). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidlineatthemidpointbetweenthecaudalborderof thesternumandtheumbilicus. Haochenisinserted23fenormoxibustionfor35min. Gastritis,acidstomach,cough.

T13.UpperChannelShangWan(Figs.349to351,360). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidlineatthemidpointbetweenthecaudalcornerof sternumandT11. SameasT11. SameasT11.

T14.LowerChannelHsiaWan(Figs.349to351). Method. Indication. SameasT11. SameasT11.

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T15.CelestialControl(GateofSea)T'ienShu(HaiMen)(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. 1tsunlateraltotheumbilicus. Haochenisinserted5fento1tsun. Diarrheainbabypig,anuria.

T16.SupernaturalTowerLingTai(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. Onthedorsalmidlineinthedepressionbetweenthe5thandthe6th thoracicvertebralprocesses. Haochenisinserted5fento1.5tsun. Rheumatismofscapularmuscles,paralysisoftheshoulder.

T17.LiverGodKanShu(Figs.350,351). Location. Inthe4thintercostalspacecountedfromcaudaltocranial,inthe musclecleftbetweenthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Haochenisinserted610fenata45degreeangleinacaudaland posteroventraldirection. Hepatitis,eyediseases,indigestion.

Method. Indication.

T18.SpleenGodPiShu(Fig.359). Location. Attheintercostalspace,countingfromcaudaltocranialandinthe musclecleftbetweenthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum musclestwotsunfromthemidline,unpairedontheleftside. Haochenisinsertedata45degreeangleinaventraldirection. Indigestion,diaphragmaticspasm,distentionofstomachandintestine.

Method. Indication.

T19.InterruptedBloodTuanHsueh(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthelastthoracicand1sttwolumbarintervertebral spaces. Haochenisinserted58fen. Hemorrhageaftercastration,hematuria,bloodinstool.

T20.DoorofKidneyShenMen(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. OnthemidlinecranialtoT4inthedepressionbetweenthe3rdand 4thlumbarvertebrae. Haochenisinserted510fen. Rheumatismofthelumbarregion,anuresis,inflammationofthe bladder,indigestion.

T21.HindKnotHouGerDai(Fig.361). Location. Method. Indication. Atthesubcutaneoustendoncranialtothestiflejoint. Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedatthesubcutaneouslocationofthe tendon. Constipation,gaseousdistension.

T22.YangLightYangMing(Figs.350,351,361). Location. Method. Indication. Fivefenlateraltothemostcaudaltwopairsofnipples.Therearefour points. Haochenisinserted56feninacranialdirection. Bladderretention,mastitis.

HindLimb(HL) HL1.MiddleCircleHuanChung(Figs.349,351). Location. Cranialanddorsaltothegreatertrochanterofthefemurinthemuscle cleftatthemidpointofalinejoiningthemostelevatedareaofthe tubercoxaeandthecaudalextremityofthethigh. Haochenisinserted1tsun. Rheumatismofthehindlimb,arthritisofthehindlimb.

Method. Indication.

HL2.HindCircleHuanHou(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecaudalanddorsalmarginofthegreatertrochanterofthe femur,caudalandslightlyventraltoHL1. SameasHL1. SameasHL1.

HL3.SweatFurrowHonKou(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftbetweenthebicepfemorisandsemitendinosus musclesslightlyventraltothesciaticnotch. SameasHL1. SameasHL1.

HL4.CrookedPondChuCh'ih(Fig.349). Location. Method. Indication. Atthebloodvessel,cranialandslightlymedialtothetarsaljoint. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fenintothebloodvesseltobleed. Swollenpainofthetarsaljoint.

HL5.FourGreatWindGateTzuTaFengMen(Fig.360). Location. Method. Onthefrontlimbatthetipoftheposteriormargininthescapular boneonthehindlimbatthetipoftheangleoftheilium. Thesmall,wideneedleisinserted3tsun.Ontheforelimbtheneedle isinsertedsubcutaneouslyverticallyalongtheposteriormarginofthe scapulabone.Onthehindlimb,theneedleisinsertedsub

Page105

Indication.

cutaneouslyverticallytowardthekneealongtheangleoftheilium. Paralysisoffrontlimbandhindlimb.

HL6.FinalThreeMilesHouSanLi(Figs.350,351,362,364). Location. Method. Indication. Lateraltothetibiainthedepressionformedbythemusclecleft,2 tsunbelowthepatella. Haochenisinserted58fencaudaltothedepressioninthearea betweenthetibiaandfibula. Indigestion,lossofappetite,diarrhea,abdominalpain,hindlimb paralys.

HL7.GreaterHindTaK'ua(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemusclecleftonthecranialmarginofthebicepsfemorismuscle, caudalandventraltothegreatertrochanter. Haochenisinserted510fen. Pain,paralysisandrheumatismofthehindlimbs.

HL8.LesserHindShiaoK'ua(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftonthecranialmarginofthebicepsfemorismuscle 1tsuncranialandventraltoHL7. Haochenisinserted510fen. Rheumatismandparalysisofhindlimbs.

HL9.FlippingGlassLiehTs'ao(Figs.350,351). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionunderneaththepatella. Haochenisinserted56feninacaudaldirectionmoxibustionisused ontheneedles. Rheumatismoftheknee,contusion,crippling.

HL10.GateofHoofT'iMen(Fig.357A). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionslightlydorsaltothecoriumonthetwosidesofthe hoofcleft(sameasFL15). Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedinacranialdirection23fentobleed. Inflammationofthehooves,indigestion,abdominalpain,constipation, sunstroke,bladderretention.

HL11.RootofTailWeiKen(Figs.349to351). Location. Method. Indication. Onthedorsalmidlineinthedepressionbetweenthe4thsacraland the1stcoccygealvertebrae. Haochenisinserted23fen. Rheumatismandarthritisofthelumbarregionandhindlimbs, indigestion,constipation,influenza.

HL12.TailFoundationWeiPen(Figs.349to351,363). Location. Method. Indication. Atthebloodvesselabout5fenfromthetailheadatthemiddleofthe ventralsurfaceofthetail. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fentobleed. Rheumatismandarthritisofthelumbarregionandhindlimbs, sunstroke,urineretention,abdominalpain.

*HL13.TipofTailWeiChien(Figs.349to351,363). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidline5fenfromthetipofthetail. Thetipofthetailisraisedandasmall,wideneedleisinsertedthrough thetiptobleed. Sunstroke,fever,abdominalpain,lossofappetite.

HL14.TailNotchWeiChieh(Figs.350,351). Location. Onthedorsalmidlineinthedepressionbetweenthe1standthe2nd coccygealvertebrae,avertebralsegmentcaudaltoWeiKen(HL11). Whenthetailisraised,theunpairedpointislocatedatthemiddleof thesecondskinfold. Haochenisinserted35fen. Constipation,anuresis,rheumatismandarthritisofthehindlimb, commoncold.

Method. Indication.

HL15.TailTrunkWeiKan(Figs.350,351). Location. Inthedepressionbetweenthe2ndand3rdcoccygealvertebrae,a vertebralsegmentcaudaltoWeiChien(HL13).Whenthetailis raised,theunpairedpointislocatedatthemiddleofthe3rdskinfold. SameasHL13.Inclinicalapplication,HL12,HL13,andHL14are prescribedasagroup. SameasHL13.

Method. Indication.

HL16.YinGodYinShu(Figs.362,363). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlinelocatedbetweenthevaginaandtheanus(female),or inthemiddleoftheanalopening(male). Haochenisinserted35fen. Cystitis,urineretention.

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HL17.InnerNest(HindSea)ChiaoCh'ao(HouHai)(Figs.349to351,363). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineatthedepression,cranialandmedialtothetarsaljoint. Haochenisinsertedto5feninacaudaldirection. Rheumatismandarthritisofthetarsaljoint,indigestion,gastroenteritis.

HL19.HindLegHoofForkHouT'iCh'a(Figs.350,357B). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleoftheupperendofthehoofbifurcation.Therearefour points(sameasFL13). Haochenisinserted23feninacaudalandventraldirection. Hoofpain,paralysis,rheumatismandarthritisinthefourlimbs.

HL20.LampStandDengChan(Fig.357A). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionatthemiddleofthetwodewclaws(sameasFL14). Haochenisinserted23feninadorsaldirection. Laminitis,paralysis.

HL21.LetterEightPaTzu(Figs.350,351,357B,364). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemidpointoftheborderofthehairyandnonhairyareasofthe hoof(sameasFL7). Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23feninaventraldirectiontobleed. Rheumatismandarthritisoffourlimbs,paresis,contusion,abdominal pain,influenza,sunstroke.

HL22.DrippingWaterT'iShui(Figs.349to351,355A,357B). Location. Method. Indication. Onthecranialmidline3fendorsaltothebifurcationofthehoof(same asFL6). Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedintothebloodvesseltobleed. Rheumatismandarthritisoffetlockjoint,twistedfetlockjoint,cold, lossofappetite,sunstroke,laminitis,abdominalpain.

HL23.WristEntangled(SonofAnkle)Ch'anWan(Ch'unTsu)(Figs.349to351,355A,357AandB,358). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionlateralandmedialtothedewclawtwopointson eachofthelimbs(sameasFL5). Asmall,wideneedleisinserted35fenintobloodvesselstobleed. Arthritisandrheumatismoffetlockjoint,twistedfetlockjoint.

Goat ChineseVeterinaryHandbook3 (Figs.365to370) HeadandNeckRegion(HN) HN1.CelestialGateT'ienMen(Fig.368). Location. Method. Indication. Attheoccipitalfossawherethehairisspirallyarrangedunpaired. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted23feninacaudalandventral direction,ormoxibustionisused1015min. Epilepsy.

HN2.ThoroughHeavenTungT'ien(Figs.367,368). Location. Method. Indication. Themidpointofalinejoiningtheproximalendsofears. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted5feninacaudalandventral direction,ormoxibustionisusedfor3min. Paralysisofthefacialmuscles,epilepsy.

*HN3.TipofEar(BloodyPrint)ErhChien(HsuehYin)(Figs.365,368). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselofthemedialsurfaceoftheear,1tsunfromthe distalendoftheear. Theprismneedleorsmall,wideneedleisinserteduntilbloodisseen. Sunstroke,cold,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension.

HN4.TheGreaterYangT'aiYang(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel5fencaudaltothelateralcanthus. Theveinisheldoff.Asmall,wideneedleorprismneedleisinserted 12fenuntilbloodisseen. Conjunctivitis,keratitis.

HN5.BrightenedSight(SwiftSight)ChingMing(ChingLing)(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Inthedepressionrostralandventraltothemedialcanthusbilateral. Haochenisinserted3feninaventraldirection.

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Indication.

Conjunctivitis.

HN6.ThreeRiversSanChiang(Figs.365,366,370). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselabout5fenbelowthemedialcanthus. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fenuntilbloodisseen. Abdominalpain.

*HN7.GodofNose(OvertheMountain)PiYu(KuoLiang)(Figs.365,366,370). Location. Method. Indication. Slightlydorsaltothenostril. Haochenoraprismneedleisinsertedhorizontally,piercingthrough thenostriluntilbloodisseen. Cold,cough.

*HN8.RootofMountain(WateryRiver)SanKen(ShuiK'ou)(Fig.370). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleofthehairyandthenonhairyjunctionofthemouthand nostrilarea. Asmall,wideneedleorhaochenisinserted23fen. Cold,sunstroke,abdominalpain,lossofappetite.

HN9.OuterLipYingWaiCh'unYing(Fig.370). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemiddleofthephiltrum,belowHN8. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2fen. Lossofappetite.

*HN10.InnerLipYingNeiCh'unYing(Fig.368). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselattheventralsurfaceoftheupperlip. Aprismneedleisinserted2fenuntilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,abdominalpain.

HN11.JadeMansionYuT'ang(Fig.333A). Location. Method. Indication. Threefen,lateraltothemidlineofthe3rdridgeofthehardpalate insidethemouth. Aprismneedleisinsertedatanangle1fentobleed. Lossofappetite,vomiting.

HN12.ThoroughfareGateT'ungKuan(ChihKan,SheTi)(Fig.334A). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessellateraltothemidlineontheventralsurfaceofthe tongue. Thetongueispulledoutandturnedupsidedown,andaprismneedle isinserted2fenuntilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,ulcerofthetongue.

ForelimbRegion(FL) FL1.ShoulderWell(MiddleArm,CollideArm)ChienChing(ChungPo,Ch'uangP'ang)(Figs.365to367,370). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressiondorsaltotheshoulderjoint. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted8feninaventraldirection. Twistedshoulderjointrheumatism,arthritis,ormyositisoffrontlimb.

*FL2.WindChase(MediumWrist)Ch'angFeng(ChungWan)(Figs.365,366). Location. Caudaltotheshoulderjointinthemusclecleftformedbythecaudal marginofthedeltoidmuscle,ofthelonghead,andofthelateralhead ofthetricepsmuscle. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted5fento1tsun. SameasFL1.

Method. Indication.

FL3.ElbowGod(LowerWrist)ChouYu(HsiaWan)(Figs.365to367). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressiondorsaltotheelbow. Ahotneedleisinserted3fen. Painintheelbow.

FL4.EyeofKneeHsiYen(Figs.365,366,370). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionslightlylateraltothecranialmarginofthecarpus. Asmall,wideneedleisinsertedinadorsaldirection23fen. Swollencarpus.

*FL5.WristEntangled(SonofAnkle)Ch'anWan(Ch'unAzu)(Figs.365to367,370). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionlateralanddorsaltothedewclaw,onepointonthe medialandlateralside. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fentobleed. Rheumatismofthefetlockjoint,twistedfetlockjoint.

FL6.SwellingWellYungChuan(Figs.365,366,370). Location. Method. Onthecranialsurfaceslightlydorsaltothejoiningoftheclaws. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2fenin

Page108

Indication.

acaudalandventraldirectionuntilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension.

*FL7.HoofHeadT'iT'ou(Figs.365,370). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselsatthelateralandmedialsideofthefootslightly abovethehairlineofthehooves. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2feninacaudalandventraldirection untilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension,infectionofthe hooves.

TrunkRegion(T)
*

T1.HundredMeetings(ThousandGold)PaiHui(ChienChing)(Figs.365to368). Atthelumbosacralspace. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted45fen. Rheumatismoflumbarregionorhindlimbarthritisofhindlimb, diarrhea.

Location. Method. Indication.

*T2.LungGodFeiShu(Figs.365to368). Location. Inthe6thintercostalarea(countedfromcaudaltocranial)inthe musclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted35feninaventraldirection. Asthma,cough.

Method. Indication.

T3.AwakeningChiSuCh'i(Figs.365,368). Location. Inthe4thand5thintercostalarea(countedfromcaudaltocranial)in themusclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted4feninaventraldirection,or moxibustionisused. SameasT2.

Method. Indication.

*T4.SpleenGodP'iShu(Figs.365,368). Location. Inthe3rdintercostalarea,countedfromcaudaltocranial,inthe musclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted5feninaventraldirection. Diarrhea,gaseousdistension,lossofappetite.

Method. Indication.

T5.AbdominalGod(AbdominalCorner)Ch'ienShu(TuChiao)(Fig.365). Location. Method. Indication. Atthemiddleoftheleftparalumbarfossa. Aregularhypodermicneedleisinserted12tsunforthedrainageof gas. Gaseousdistensionoftherumen.

T6.KidneyGodShenShu(Figs.366,368). T7.KidneyHornShenChiao(Figs.366,368). T8.KidneyBubbleShenCha(Figs.366,368). Location. OnalinefromT1andthetubercoxaeoftheilium2/5ofthedistance fromT1,drawalineparalleltothespine.T6,T7,andT8arelocated onthisline.LateraltoT1isT6.ThedistancebetweenT1andT6is takenasthedistancecaudadtolocateT7andcraniadtolocateT8. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted45fen. Rheumatism,arthritis,orpainofthelumbarregion,myositisofthe lumbarmuscles.

Method. Indication.

T9.FrontUmbilicusCh'iCh'ien(Fig.369). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidline1tsuncranialtotheumbilicus. Haochenisinserted3fen,ormoxibustionisused. Diarrhea,lossofappetite,constipation.

T10.MiddleUmbilicus(DoorofAbdomen)Ch'iChung(TuK'ou)(Fig.369). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemiddleoftheumbilicus. Noneedleinsertionmoxibustionisusedfor1015min. Diarrhea,stomachpain,lossofappetite.

*T11.CelestialControl(GateofSea)T'ienShu(HaiMen)(Fig.369). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsunlateraltotheumbilicus. Haochenisinserted23fen. Diarrhea,gaseousdistension.

T12.BehindUmbilicusCh'iHou(Fig.369). Location. Method. Indication. Ontheventralmidline1tsuncaudaltotheumbilicus. Haochenisinserted23fen,ormoxibustionisusedfor1015min. Diarrhea,intestinalpain.

HindLimbRegion(HL)
*

HL1.MiddleCircleHuanChung(Figs.365,366). Atthemidpointofalinejoiningthetubercoxaeandthetuberischii.

Location.

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Method. Indication.

Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted56fen. Rheumatism,arthritis,ormyositisofthehindlimbtwistedhindlimb.

*HL2.HindCircleHuanHou(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Indication. CaudalandventraltoHL1,orcranialanddorsaltothegreater trochanterofthefemur. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted34fen. SameasHL1.

HL3.EvilChiHsiehCh'i(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsunlateraltothesacralvertebraeinthemusclecleftofthe bicepsfemorisandsemitendinosusmuscles. Ahotneedleorhaochenisinserted5feninaventralandcranial inferiordirection. Rheumatism,arthritis,ormyositisofhindlimbtwistedhindlimb.

HL4.SweatFurrowHonKou(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Indication. 1.5tsunventraltoHL3,inthemusclecleftofthebicepsfemorisand semitendinousmuscle. SameasHL3. SameasHL3.

HL5.ImbricatedTilesYiWa(Figs.365,366). Location. Method. Indication. At1.5tsunventraltoHL4inthemusclecleftofthebicepsfemoris andsemitendinousmuscles. SameasHL3. SameasHL3.

HL6.KidneyMansionShenT'ang(Figs.335A,335C). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselatthemedialandproximalsurfaceofthe hindlimb. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted23fenuntilbloodisdrawn. Erythema,swellingduetotwistedsacropelvicregion.

*HL7.FlippingGrassLuehTs'ao(Figs.365,367). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedepressionslightlylateraltothecranialventralmarginofthe patella. Ahotneedleisinserted45feninacaudalanddorsaldirection. Painfromaswollenstiflerheumatism,arthritis,ormyositisofthe hindlimb.

HL8.CrookedPondCh'uCh'ih(Figs.365). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselcranialandslightlymedialtothetarsaljoint. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Painfromaswollentarsaljoint.

HL9.HindSea(InnerNest)HouHai(ChiaoCh'ao)(Fig.365). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthedepressionbelowthetailheadandabovethe anus. Haochenorahotneedleisinserted1tsuninacranialanddorsal direction. Constipation,gaseousdistension,diarrhea.

HL10.RootofTailWeiKen(Figs.365,367). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthedepressionbetweenthe1stand2ndcoccygeal vertebrae. Haochenisinserted23feninacranialdirection,ormoxibustionis usedfor15min. Diarrhea,gaseousdistension,abdominalpain.

HL11.TailFoundationWeiPen(Fig.365). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselatthemiddleoftheventralsurfaceofthetail,1 tsunfromthetailhead. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2fenuntilbloodisseen. Abdominalpain.

*HL12.TipofTailWeiChien(Figs.365,367). Location. Method. Indication. Atthetipofthetail. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentodrawblood. Abdominalpain,gaseousdistension,sunstroke.

HL13.DrippingWaterTiShui(Figs.365,366,370). Location. Method. Indication. Onthecranialsurfaceslightlydorsaltothejoiningoftheclaws. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2feninacaudalandventraldirection untilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension.

HL14.HoofHeadT'iT'ou(Figs.365,370). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselsatthelateralandmedialsideofthefootslightly abovethehairlineofthehooves. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2feninacaudalandventraldirection untilbloodisseen. Lossofappetite,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension,infectionofthe hooves.

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Camel ChineseVeterinaryHandbook3 (Figs.371to372) HeadandNeck(HN)


*

HN1.BrightSightChingMing(Figs.371,372). Onthebloodvessel5fenrostraltothemedialcanthus,bilateral. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3feninadorsaldirectiontobleed. Conjunctivitis.

Location. Method. Indication.

HN2.ThreeRiverSanChiang(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel1.5tsunrostraltothemedialcanthus. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Abdominalpain,conjunctivitis,keratitis.

*HN3.HallofMansionHsuehT'ang(Fig.371). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselinsidethedorsalsurfaceofthenostril. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2fentobleed. Abdominalpain,runningnose.

HN4.GodofNose(SeaofCh'i)PiShu(Ch'iHai)(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsundorsaltothenostril. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted5fentobleed. Fever,indigestion.

HN5.InnerBrightSightNeiChingYing(Fig.333B). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselattheinnersurfaceofthelip,slightlyoffthe midlinebilateral. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted2fentobleed. Respiratoryinfection.

*HN6.ThoroughfareGateT'ungKuan(Fig.334AseealsoHN16Horse). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselslateraltotheventralmidlineofthetongue. Thetongueispulledoutandasmall,wideneedleisinsertedintothe bloodvesselsontheventralsurfaceofthetonguetobleed. Oralmucosalinflammation,abdominalpain.

*HN7.EyeVeinYenMai(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Twotsuncaudalandventraltothelateralcanthus. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Conjunctivitis,keratitis.

*HN8.TipoftheEarErhChien(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselatthedistalendoftheear. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Cold.

*HN9.NineDivisionsChiuWei(AI)(Fig.372). Location. HN9Aislocated3tsunbehindtheeartheHN9Iislocated1.5tsun cranialtothecranialangleofthescapula.Thedistancebetweenthe twopointsisdividedinto8equalpartsforthelocationofthe7points alongthelowermarginoftherhomboideusmuscle. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. Rheumatismoftheneck.

Method. Indication.

*HN10.KuMaiChingMai(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvessel,3.5tsunbelowthemandible. Alarge,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Pneumonia,fever.

Forelimb(FL) FL1.TipofShoulderPoChien(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Atthecranialangleofthescapula. Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun. Rheumatismofthefrontlimb,arthritisofjointsoffrontlimbs.

FL2.ShoulderFencePoLan(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. ThreetsunbelowFL1. Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun. Rheumatismofneckmusclesandshoulder,arthritisofneck.

*FL3.WindChaseCh'angFeng(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepression4tsunbelowtheshoulderjoint. Ahotneedleisinserted2tsun. Twistedshoulderjoint,strainedmusclesofshoulderandcarpus, rheumatismorarthritisofthefrontlimb.

*FL4.CelestialRushChungT'ien(Figs.371,372). Location. Inthedepression3.5tsuncaudalanddorsaltoFL3.

Page111

Method. Indication.

Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun. Twistedshoulderjoint,rheumatismorarthritisoftheshoulder, thoracicandshoulderpain.

FL5.GasReleasingChiaCh'i(Fig.334B). Location. Method. Attwolateralsidesofthecranialendofthesternumintheaxillary fossa. Thesicklimbisliftedanddraggedforwardandoutwardtheskin alongthepointiscutandthechiach'ineedleisinsertedbackward andupward78tsun.Theneedleisthenwithdrawnandthelimbis swayedseveraltimes. Chronicshoulderlameness,paralysisofthescapularnerve.

Indication.

*FL6.PectoralHallHsiungT'ang(Fig.334BseealsoFL16Horse). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselcranialandlateraltothesternum. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Twistedshoulderjoint,paininthethoraxandshoulderregion.

*FL7.WristEntangledCh'anWan(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthebloodvesselbetweenthetendonandcone,slightlydorsalto thefetlockjointonthelateralside. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Twistedfetlockjoint.

FL8.SwellingWellYungCh'uan(Fig.371). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedorsalsurfaceofthefootbetweenthetoes. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3feninaventraldirectionto bleed. Painful,swollenfoot.

Trunk(T)
*

T1.FrontMountainCh'ienFen(Figs.371,372). Cranialandventraltothefronthump,and3tsuncaudalanddorsal fromFL1. Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun. Rheumatismorarthritisoffrontlimbandneckregions.

Location. Method. Indication.

T2.GreenFieldT'anT'ien(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlinebetweenthetwohumps,atthe2nddepressioncranial totheposteriorhump. Ahotneedleisinserted1.5tsun. Rheumatismofthelumbarregion,arthritisofvertebraljoints,seizures.

*T3.HundredMeetingsPaiHui(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthedepressionbetweenthelumbarandsacral vertebrae. Ahotneedleisinserted2tsun. Rheumatismoflumbarregionandhindlimb,arthritisofvertebraland hipjoints,diarrhea,abdominalpain,constipation.

*T4.LungGodFeiShu(Figs.371,372). Location. Atthe5thintercostalarea(countingfromcaudaltocranial)inthe musclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. Asthmaticbronchitis.

Method. Indication.

*T5.SpleenGodPiShu(Figs.371,372). Location. Atthe3rdintercostalarea(countingfromcaudaltocranial)inthe musclecleftofthelongissimusdorsiandlongissimuscostarum muscles. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. Indigestion,abdominalpain,gaseousdistension.

Method. Indication.

*T6.KidneyGodShenShu(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. TwotsunlateralandslightlycranialandventraltoT3. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. Rheumatismoflumbarregionandlimbs,arthritisoflumbarvertebral joints.

*T7.KidneyBubbleShenCha(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. TwotsuncranialtoT6. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. SameasT6.

T8.HindWaistYaoHou(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. TwotsuncranialtoT7. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsun. SameasT6.

*T9.CarriageVeinTaiMai(Fig.371). Location. Method. Indication. Twotsunbehindtheelbowonthebloodvesselatthelateralsideof theribcage. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Indigestion,enteritis.

T10.CloudDoorYunMen(Figs.371,372). Location. Onetsuncranialandslightlylateraltotheumbilicus.

Page112

Method. Indication.

Alarge,wideneedleisusedtocutthroughtheskin,andadrainage tubeinserted. Ascites.

HindLimb(HL) HL1.HindCircleHuanHou(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Inthedepressionbehindthegreatertrochanterofthefemur. Ahotneedleisinserted1.52tsun. Rheumatismofhindlimb.

HL2.LesserMountHsiaK'ua(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. About4tsunbelowHL1,caudalandventraltothegreatertrochanter ofthefemur. Ahotneedleisinserted11.5tsun. SameasHL1.

HL3.ImbricatedTilesYiWa(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleftabout3tsuncaudalandventraltoHL2. Ahotneedleisinserted11.5tsun. SameasHL1.

*HL4.SweatFurrowHonKou(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Inthemusclecleft2tsundorsaltoHL3. Ahotneedleisinserted11.5tsun. SameasHL1.

*HL5.KidneyMansionShenT'ang(Figs.335A,335CseealsoHorse,HL15,p.95). Location. Method. Indication. Themedialsideofthethighonthebloodvessel,2tsunventraltothe abdomen. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3fentobleed. Twistedlumbopelvicregion.

*HL6.FlippingGrassLuehTs'ao(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Cranialandlateraltothestifle. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsuninacaudaldirection. Twistedstifle,rheumatismofthehindlimb.

**HL7.HindSeaHouHai(Fig.335A). Location. Method. Indication. Onthemidlineinthedepressionbetweenthetailheadandtheanus. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsuninacranialandslightlydorsal direction. Twistedlumbopelvicregion.

HL8.TailSideWeiP'ang(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Onetsunfromtheanus,lateraltothetailhead. Ahotneedleisinserted1tsuninacranialandventraldirection. Twistedlumbopelvicregion.

*HL9.TailFoundationWeiPen(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Themiddleoftheventralsurfaceofthetail,onthevein. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted3fenbleed. Abdominalpain,twistedlumbopelvicregion.

HL10.TipofTailWeiChien(Figs.371,372). Location. Method. Indication. Attipoftail. Asmall,wideneedleisinserted1tsun. Abdominalpain.

HL11.DrippingWater(Hindlimb)T'iShui(Fig.371). Location. Method. Indication. Atthedorsalsurfaceofthefootbetweenthetoes. Amedium,wideneedleisinserted3feninaventraldirection,to bleed. Painful,swollenfoot.

AcupuncturePointsinSmallAnimals Dog FivesetsofchartsarepresentlyavailableintheUnitedStates.5 ,15,17,18,19Theyareamongthechartsfollowingthischapter. Theonlypublisheddescriptionofacupuncturepointsinthedogthatcontainsanatomicallocations,methodsofneedleinsertionandindicationsforthevariouspoints wasproducedbyChenin1976.5 Hisworkisreproducedonpages113118.

Page113 POINT NO. 1 MAININDICATIONS NAME Jenchung LOCATION Atupperthirdof philtrum ANATOMY M.Levatornasolabialis, orbicularisoris A.&V.Labialissuperior N.Labialissuperior M.Dorsumnasi A.&V.Dorsalisnasi N.Externalnasi M.Brachiocephalicus, rectuscapitisdorsalis A.&V.Occipital N.Spinal,cervical M.Temporal A.&V.Temporal N.Zygomaticbranchof facialn. M.Temporal A.&V.Temporal N.Zygomaticbranchof facialn. M.Orbicularisoculi A.&V.Angularisoculi N.Infratrochlear MANIPULATION Straight,about0.5cm depth Shocksunstroke

Piliang

Atmiddleofdorsal surfaceofnose,justat junctionofskinand dorsumnasi Atmiddleofposterior borderofoccipitalbone

Bleedabout0.20.5cm depth

Shocksunstroke sinusitiscoldinitial stageofdistemper Epilepticattack distemper encephalitistetany convulsion Facialparalysis deafness

Tafengmen

Straight,about13cm depth

Shangkuan

Abovemandibular articulation

Straight,about3cm depth

Hsiakuan

Undermandibular articulation

Straight,about3cm depth

Facialparalysis deafness

Chingming

Atmedialcanthus

Straight,pusheyeball externallyabout0.20.5 cmdepth

Conjunctivitis keratitisenlargement ofnictitating membranes

Chengchi

Atmiddleofinfraorbital M.Orbicularisoculi process A.&V.Angularisoculi N.Frontalis,infratrochlear

Straight.Pusheyeball Acuteandchronic upwards,insertabout25 conjunctivitis cmalongtheorbit atrophyofoptic nerveretinitis cataract Bloodshed Shocksunstroke colicandspasmcold Facialparalysis deafness Feverneuralgiaand rheumatism bronchitisepilepsy

8 9

Erhchien Yifeng

Atapexofconvex surfaceofauricula About3cmbelowthe earbase Betweenspinous processesofC7T1 Betweenspinous processesofT1T2 Betweenspinous processesofT3T4

V.Posteriorauricular

M.Inf.buccal Straight,about13cm A.&V.Superficialtemporal depth N.Facial N.Spinalesthoracical Straight,about0.51cm depth

10

Tachui

11

Taodao

N.Spinalesthoracical

Angular,slightlyanterior Neuralgiaandsprain anddownward,about0.5 ofshoulderand 1cmdepth forelimbepilepsy Angular,anteriorand Pneumonia downwardabout11.5cm bronchitisdistemper depth sprainandneuralgia ofshoulder

12

Shenchu

N.Spinalesthoracical

(tablecontinuedonnextpage)

Page114

(tablecontinuedfrompreviouspage)
POINT NO. 13 MAININDICATIONS NAME Lingtai LOCATION Betweenspinous processesofT6T7 Betweenspinous processesofT10T11 Betweenspinous processesofT11T12 Betweenspinous processesofT13L1 ANATOMY N.Spinalesthoracical MANIPULATION Angular,anteriorand downward,about11.5 cmdepth Straight,about0.51cm depth Straight,about0.51cm depth Straight,about0.51cm depth Hepatitis

14

Chungsu

N.Spinalesthoracical

Gastritislackof appetite Indigestiondiarrhea enteritislackof appetite Rheumatismand sprainofloin indigestionenteritis diarrhea Rheumatismand sprainofloinchronic enteritishormonal imbalanceimpotence nephritisandother urinarydisorderslack ofappetite Hypogonadism endometritismetritis ovaritiscysticovary atrophyofovaryand uterusprolonged estrusrheumatism andsprainofloin Endometritiscystic ovarycystitis paralysisoflarge intestineconstipation Allkindsofnervous disorders:sciatica posteriorparalysis prolapseofrectum Posteriorparalysis neuralgia

15

Chichung

N.Spinalesthoracical

16

Hsuanshu

N.Spinaleslumbar

17

Mingmen

Betweenspinous processesofL2L3

N.Spinaleslumbar

Straight,about0.51cm depth

18

Yangkuan

Betweenspinous processesofL4L5

N.Spinaleslumbar

Straight,about0.51cm

19

Kuanhou

Betweenspinous processesofL5L6

N.Spinaleslumbar

Straight,about0.51cm

20

Paihui

Betweenspinous processesofL7K1

N.Spinaln.

Straight,about0.51cm depth

21 22

Erhyen Weiken

Atdorsalsacralforamina N.Sacral,greatsciatic 1,2 Atspinousprocessof S1S2 N.Spinalescoccygeus

Straight,about11.5cm depth

Straight,about0.30.5cm Posteriorparalysis depth paralysisoftail prolapseofanus constipationor diarrhea Straight,about0.30.5cm Posteriorparalysis depth paralysisoftail prolapseofanus constipationor diarrhea Straight,about0.30.5cm Posteriorparalysis depth paralysisoftail prolapseofanus constipationor diarrhea

23

Weichieh

Betweenthespinous processesofS2S3

N.Spinalescoccygeus

24

Woeikan

Betweenthespinous processesofS3S4

N.Spinalescoccygeus

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POINT NO. 25 MAININDICATIONS NAME Woeichien LOCATION Attipoftail ANATOMY N.Spinalescoccygeus MANIPULATION Straight,needleinserts Shocksunstroke fromtheend,about0.51 gastroenteritis cmdepth Straight,about11.5cm depth Angular,about12cm depth,alongthe intercostalspace Angular,about12cm depthalongthe intercostalspace Diarrheaprolapseof rectumparalysisof sphinctermuscles Pneumonia bronchitiscough

26

Chiaocho

Midpointbetweenanus M.Rectococcygeus, andtail sphincterint.&ext. At2ndintercostalspace, M.Latissimusdorsi, about10cmdown intercostalesext.&int. A.&V.Intercostalis N.Thoracalisintercostalis At4thintercostalspace M.Intercostal andabout25cm A.&V.Intercostal downwardfromback N.Intercostal At8thintercostalspace M.Obliquusadmoninis andabout30cmdown externus,intercostalesext. theback &int. A.&V.Intercostal N.Intercostal At10thorlast3rd intercostalspaceand about15cmdownthe back M.Obliquusabdominis externus,intercostalext.& int. A.&V.Intercostal N.Intercostal

27

Feiyu

28

Shinyu

Mentalstressheart diseases

29

Kanyu

Angular,alongthe Hepatitisjaundice intercostalspaceabout1 eyediseases 2cmdepth

30

Weiyu

Angular,along Gastritisstomach intercostalspaceabout1 distension 2cmdepth indigestionlackof appetiteenteritis Angular,along Enteritisintestinal intercostalspaceabout1 spasmdiarrhea 2cmdepth

31

Shiaochangyu

Atlastintercostalspace M.Obliquusabdominis andabout20cmdown externus,intercostalext.& theback int. A.&V.Intercostal N.Intercostal

32

Piyu

Atposteriorborderof M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straightorangular,along Indigestionchronic lastrib(13th),andabout &int. posteriorborderofrib diarrhealackof 10cmdowntheback A.&V.Lumbar,intercostal about12cmdepth appetite N.Lumbar,intercostal About5cmlateralto point17(mingmen) M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about0.51cm andint. depth A.&V.Lumbar N.LuDmbar Nephritisandother urinarydisorders polyurea hypogonadismand othersexhormone imbalancesterility impotence rheumatismandsprain oflumbarregion Pancreatitis indigestionchronic diarrheadiabetes

33

Shenyu

34

Yiyu

About5cmventralto point33

M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about0.51cm andint. depth A.&V.Lumbar N.Lumbar

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POINT NO. 35 MAININDICATIONS NAME Nuancho LOCATION About5cmlateraltothe 4thlumbarspace(4th and5thtransverse processoflumbar vertebrae) ANATOMY MANIPULATION Hypogonadismand ovaryhormonal insufficiency hypotrophyofovary ovaritiscysticovary Cysticuterus endometritismetritis hypotrophyofuterus rheumatismoflumbar region Cystitishematuria spasmofbladder urineretention Enteritisdiarrhea abdominalpain intestinalspasm Acutegastritis gastrospasm gastrorrhagia gastralgiadilatation ofstomachvomiting dyspepsiaanorexia M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about1.53cm andint. depth A.&V.ovarian,utero ovarian N.Ovarian

36

Tzukuan

About5cmlateraltothe M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about1.53cm 5thlumbarspace andint. depth A.&V.Uteroovarian, uterus N.Uterus About10cmlateralto the6thlumbarspace M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about0.51cm andint. depth A.&V.Lumbar N.Lumbar

37

Pungkungyu

38

Tienshu

About1.52cmlateralto M.Obliquusabdominisext. Straight,about0.5cm thenavel andint. depth A.,V.&N.ventrallumbar Betweenthexyphoid processandnavel M.Lineaalba A.&V.Ventralisthoracis N.Ventralthoracic Angular,about0.51cm depth

39

Chungwan

40

Kungtzu

Atventralborderof tuberspineofscapula, about6cmbelowthe middleofcartilage

M.Deltoid,infraspinatus A.&V.Infrascapular N.Infrascapular

Angular,alongtuber Neuralgia,paralysis, spineabout35cmdepth andsprainof shoulderparalysisof scapularnerve rheumatismof shoulder Straight,about24cm depth Neuralgiaand paralysisofshoulder andforelimbsprainof shoulderparalysisof supraspinatusand brachialnerve Neuralgiaand paralysisofshoulder andforelimbsprainof shoulderparalysisof supraspinatusand brachialnerve Arthritisneuralgia paralysisandsprain ofelbowandforelimb

41

Chienching

Ventralandcaudaltothe M.Brachiocephalicus, tuberscapulae supraspinatus A.&V.Scapular,brachial N.Brachial

42

Chienjuan

Betweenarticularendof M.Deltoid,caputlaterales Straight,about24cm scapulaandheadof tricipitis,brachialis depth humerus A.&V.Posteriorcircumflex, profoundbrachii N.Brachii,radialis Betweenepicondyleof humerusandolecranon M.Tensorfasciaantibrachii, Straight,about24cm caputlateralistricipitis depth A.&V.Posteriorcircumflex, profoundbrachii N.Ulna

43

Chouyu

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POINT NO. 44 NAME Chihshang LOCATION About1cmlateral tothecondyloid crest ANATOMY M.Brachialis, extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Brachialis N.Brachialis M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Radialis N.Radialis M.Tensorfasciae antibrachii,caput lateralistricipitis A.&V.Brachialis N.Brachialis M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Radialis N.Radialis. Interosseous M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Radialis N.Radialis. interrosseous M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Radialis N.Radial M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Proximal collateral,dorsal radial N.Radial M.Extensorcarpi radialis A.&V.Ulnar N.Ulnar N.Dorsalcommon digitalis,branchof radial(foreleg) branchofsuperficial peroneal(hindleg) M.Flexors A.&V.Ulnar N.Median MANIPULATION Straight,about23 cmdepth MAIN INDICATIONS Sprain,neuralgia, andparalysisof forelimbparalysisof brachialandradial nerve Sprain,neuralgia, andparalysisof forelimbparalysisof brachialandradial nerve Generalanesthesia nervousdisordersof forelimb

45

Chihchu

Betweenepicondyle ofhumerusand foveacapituliof radius Atthepointbetween points42and 43,andabout1.52 cmcaudaltothe humerus Atinterosseous spaceofradiusand ulnaandabout46 cmventraltothe humeroradialjoint Atdistalendof interosseousspace ofradiusandulna about4.5cmdorsal totheulnacarpal bone About1/3thedistance tothejunction ofdistalradiusand radialcarpalbone Atmiddleofdistal forearm,about2cm dorsaltothelateral borderofradial carpalbone Lateraltothejunction ofulnaandulna carpalbone

Straight,about23 cmdepth

46

Ch'ingfeng

Straight,about23 cmdepth

47

Chiensanli

Straight,about23 cmdepth

Paralysisofradial andulnanerves neuralgiaand rheumatismof forelimb Paralysisofradial andulnanerves neuralgiaand rheumatismof forelimb Sprainofdigits neuralgiaand paralysisofforelimb Neurologicdisorders ofthoraciclimb sprainofcarpal tendonsparalysisof radialnerve Neurologicdisorders ofthoraciclimb sprainofcarpal tendonsparalysisof radialnerve Sprainandparalysis ofdigits

48

Waikuan

Straight,about23 cmdepth

49

Yangchi

Straight,about0.51 cmdepth

50

Yangchu

Straight,about0.51 cmdepth

51

Wanku

Straight,needle insertsfromlateral sideofforearm, about0.51cm depth Angular,about12 cmdepth

52

Pafeng

About2cmcaudal tothecranialborder ofinterdigitalskinfold 4pointson eachleg,total8 points About0.5cm ventraltothe carpalpad

53

Neikuan

Straight,about12 cmdepth

Neurologicdisorders ofthoraciclimb stomachand intestinalspasm colic

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POINT NO. 54 MAININDICATIONS NAME Huantiao LOCATION Attrochanterfossa, betweentrochanter majorandheadoffemur ANATOMY MANIPULATION Posteriorparalysis neuralgiaand paralysisofpelvic limbsciatica paralysisoffemoral nerve Neurologicdisorders ofpelviclimb M.Gluteussuperficialisand Straight,about35cm medius,bicepsfemoris depth A.&V.&N.Iliofemoris

55

Chishang

About0.5cmabovethe M.Fascialata,biceps patellaand0.5cmlateral femoralis A.&V.Femoral N.Peroneal,femoral Betweenmedialand lateralcondyles M.Fascialata,biceps femoralis A.&V.Femoral N.Peroneal,femoral

Straight,about0.51cm depth

56

Chihou

Straight,about0.51cm depth

Neurologicdisorders ofpelviclimb

57

Chishia

Betweenpatellaand N.Peroneal tuberosityoftibia,about 0.5cmlaterally Atinterosseousspaceof tibiaandfibula,about5 cmventraltotheheadof fibula M.Tibialisanterior,flexor hallucislongus A.&V.Mediancommon interosseous N.Median,Ulnar N.Superficialperoneal N.Deepperoneal N.Plantar

Straight,about0.51cm depth Straight,about11.5cm depth

Sprain,neuralgia,and arthritisofknee Posteriorparalysis neuralgiaand paralysisofpelvic limbgastroenteritis intestinalspasmand colic Sprain,neuralgia,and paralysisofhindfoot Sprain,neuralgia,and paralysisofhindfoot Sprain,neuralgia,and paralysisofhindfoot

58

Housanli

59 60 61

Chihshi Chungfong Houkon

Atthemiddleoftibia tibialtarsaljoint About0.5cmmedialto point59 Plantarsurfaceof hindlimb,about1cm medialtothefibular tarsalbone

Straight,about0.5cm depth Straight,about0.5cm depth Straight,about0.5cm depth

Cat TheonlypublisheddescriptionofacupuncturepointsinthecatisbyJohnOttaviano,16aveterinaryacupuncturistcurrentlypracticinginCalifornia.Thenumbersfor eachpointarekeyedtohischart(Fig.117). 1.Locatedbetweenfrontpawwebbing.Usedforfrontlegparalysis. 2.SameasNo.1.Usedforfrontlegparalysisanddeafness. 3.Localjointpain. 4.OneinchbelowNo.5inthecreaseformedbythemuscle.Usedforlocaljointpain,constipation. 5.Locatedinthecreaseformedbytheelbow.Localpain,paralysisoffrontlimb,constipation,dermatitis,itching,cough. 6.Forlocalpain. 7.Locatedintheshoulderjoint.Usedforshoulderpain. 8.Locatedinthemiddleofupperlip.Usedforemergencyandshock.Applyacupuncturebypinchingwiththumbandindexfinger[orwithneedle]. 9.Usedfordifficultyinmasticationandlocalpain. 10.Usedforeyeproblems. 11.Tipofear.Usedforeyeproblems. 12.Oneinchbehindtheear.Usedforcervicalproblems,anddeafness.

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13.LocatedoncenterlineoneinchupwardandbelowNo.12.UsesarethesameasforNo.12. 14.Locatedinfrontofscapulaoneinchfrommidline.Usedforcervicalpain,arthritisinanyjoint,boneproblemsingeneral. 15.Behindscapulaoneinchfrommidline.Thoracicpain,infections,cleansingoftheblood. 16.Locatedoppositethenavelonthespinalareaandoneinchoutfromthatmidline.Usedforthoracolumbarpain,urinaryproblems,kidneyandsexualdisorders. 17.Infrontoftheiliumoneinchfrommidline.Usedforlumbosacralpain,painatthehips,andconstipation. 18.Locatedatthecreaseformedbytheheadofthefemurandhipjoint.Usedforhippain. 19.Locatedoneinchupand45degreesoutfromcreaseoftail.Usedforhip,sacralpainandconstipation. 20.Locatedbelowtheheadofthefemur.Usedforlumbarpain,sacralpainandstiflepain. 21.Locatedbehindthecreaseformedbyflexingthestifle.Usedforhindlegparalysis,localpain,andanyotherweaknessoflowerlimbs. 22.Locatedoneinchbelowthepatella.Usedtoincreaseappetite,forparalysisofhindlimbs,tonictoentiresystems. 23.Usedforurinaryproblems,andasanaidinthedeliveryofkittens. 24.Usedforlocalpainandlumbarpain. 25.Locatedatthetipofthetail.Usedforallbackproblems,constipationandhindlegparalysis. 26.Locatedinhindpawwebbing.Usedforhindlegparalysis,urinaryproblems,andasatonictogivestrengthtolowerlimbs. References 1.Anon.1972.CantonautumnfairmarksbreakthroughinSinoU.S.trade.BusinessAsia3:36970. 2.Anon.1972.Themantoseeaboutsellingchemicalsatnextfall'sCantonTradeFair.Chem.Week,July,26:54. 3.Anon.1972.ChineseVeterinaryHandbook.(inChinese).pp.587670.CompiledbytheLanChouVeterinaryResearchInstitute.Ganshu,China:ThePeople's PublishingCo. 4.Anon.1972.Themeridians.InChungSanIChiangDunTsueh(DiagnosisinChineseVeterinary)(inChinese).TheChineseAcademyofAgriculture, ResearchInstituteofChineseVeterinaryMedicine.Peking:AgriculturePress. 5.Chen,S.H.1976.VeterinaryAcupuncture:AnatomicalPointsofHorse,Cow,PigandDog.Denver,Colorado:UniversityofOrientalCulture. 6.Chen,S.H.1976.VeterinaryAcupuncture.Denver,Colorado:UniversityofChineseCulture. 7.Kothbauer,O.1974.Thebladdermeridianofthecow.Amer.J.Acupuncture2:300305. 8.Kothbauer,O.1966.DieProvokationeinerhyperalgetischenZonederHautundeines''Schmerzpunktes"durchReizungeinesUterushornesbeimRind.Wien. Tieraerztl.Mschr.53:802. 9.Kothbauer,O.1969.DieProvokationeinerhyperalgetischenZonederHautundvon"Schmerzpunkten"durchReizungeinesOvarsbeimRind.Wien.Tieraerztl. Mschr.56:311. 10.Kothbauer,O.1975.Seventeenyearsofacupunctureexperiencediagnosisandtherapyonthecow.AcupunctureRes.2:1619. 11.Kvirchishvili,V.I.1974.Projectionsofdifferentpartsofthebodyonthesurfaceoftheconchaauriculaeinhumansandanimals.Amer.J.Acupuncture2:208. 12.Milin,J.:L'Acupunctureveterinaire.InTraitD'Acupuncture,TomeI,ed.R.DeLaFuye,pp.47389.Paris:LibrairieE.LeFrancois. 13.Miyazawa,T.1974.Personalcommunication. 14.Morgan,G.1975.TradingbehindtheGreatWall.TheNewEnglander.March. 15.Ottaviano,J.1975.Veterinaryanatomyandapplication.InCompendiumofVeterinaryandHumanAcupuncture,ed.byH.E.WarnerandR.S.Glassberg, pp.III,3III,9,E.Anaheim,California:NationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture. 16.Ottaviano,J.1976.Acupunctureforcats.InCatCatalog,ed.byJ.Fireman,pp.23840.NewYork:WorkmanPublishingCo. 17.Shin,S.H.1975.Veterinaryanatomyandapplication.InCompendiumofVeterinaryandHumanAcupuncture,ed.byH.E.WarnerandR.S.Glassberg,pp. III,1III,2.Anaheim,California:NationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture. 18.Shores,A.1975.CanineAcupunctureChart.Auburn,Alabama:Box925. 19.Young,H.G.1975.AtlasofVeterinaryAcupunctureCharts.Thomasville,Georgia:OrientalVeterinaryAcupunctureSpecialties.

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FigurestoChapter3 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 310. 311. 312. 313. 314. 315. 316. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321. 322. 323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328. 329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339. 340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. 352. 353. 354. 355. 356. 357. 358. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforswine. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforswine. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforhorse. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforhorse. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforcattle. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforcattle. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforchicken. Rightsideofcow. Leftsideofcow. Dorsalviewofcow. Dorsalviewofcow. AncientChinesechartoftwelvepoints(meridians)inthehorse. Chartofmeridianlinesandacupuncturepointsinthehorse,aspublished byDr.MeiyuOkada. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:headandneck. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:caudalsection. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:forelegs. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:hindlegs. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:feet. TheYounghorsechart:largeintestinemeridian. TheYounghorsechart:stomachmeridian. TheYounghorsechart:smallintestinemeridian. TheYounghorsechart:bladdermeridian. TheYounghorsechart:tripleburnermeridian. TheYounghorsechart:gallbladderandlivermeridians. TheYounghorsechart:conceptionvessel. TheYounghorsechart:governingvessel. Modelofahorseshowingacupuncturepoints. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse(dorsalview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralviewofthehead). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:a)hardpalateb)dentalsurface. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:a)ventralsurfaceofthetongueb)cranial view. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:a)caudalviewb)foreleg,medialviewc) hindleg,medialview. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(ventralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:sacralarea(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthecow(dorsalview). Acupuncturechartofthecow(cranialview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:ear(medialsurface). Acupuncturechartofthepig:head(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:a)hindlimb(cranialview)b)frontlimb (cranialview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:a)forefoot(caudalview)b)frontfoot (cranialview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(caudalview).

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359. 360. 361. 362. 363. 364. 365. 366. 367. 368. 369. 370. 371. 372. 373. 374. 375. 376. 377. 378. 379. 380. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. 386. 387. 388. 389. 390. 391. 392. 393. 394. 395. 396. 397. 398. 399. 3100. 3101. 3102. 3103. 3104. 3105. 3106. 3107. 3108. 3109. 3110. 3111. 3112. 3113. 3114. 3115. 3116. 3117.

Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(ventralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(ventralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:hindlimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthepig(caudalview). Acupuncturechartofthepig:hindlimb(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(dorsalview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(ventralview). Acupuncturechartofthegoat(cranialview). Acupuncturechartofthecamel(lateralview). Acupuncturechartofthecamel(lateralview). Shores'acupuncturechartofthedog:kidney,smallintestineandheart constrictormeridians. Acupuncturechartofthedog:stomach,tripleburner,andheartmeridians. Acupuncturechartofthedog:spleen,lung,andbladdermeridians. Acupuncturechartofthedog:liver,largeintestine,andgallbladder meridians. Acupuncturechartofthedog:conceptionvesselandgoverningvessel. Acupuncturechartofthedog:associationandalarmpoints. TheYoungdogchart:lungmeridian. TheYoungdogchart:largeintestinemeridian. TheYoungdogchart:largeintestinemeridian. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian,headandhindlimb. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian. TheYoungdogchart:spleenmeridian. TheYoungdogchart:heartmeridian. TheYoungdogchart:smallintestinemeridian. TheYoungdogchart:bladdermeridian,hindlimb. TheYoungdogchart:bladdermeridian. TheYoungdogchart:kidneymeridian,hindlimb. TheYoungdogchart:kidneymeridian. TheYoungdogchart:pericardiummeridian. TheYoungdogchart:tripleburner. TheYoungdogchart:tripleburner. TheYoungdogchart:gallbladdermeridian. TheYoungdogchart:livermeridian. TheYoungdogchart:conceptionvessel. TheYoungdogchart:governingvessel. TheChendogchart. Acupunctureinchmeasurementinthehuman. Chenhorsechart:lateralview,skeleton. Chenhorsechart:lateralview,skin. Chencattlechart:miscellaneousviews. Chencattlechart:lateralview,skin. Chencattlechart:lateralview,skeleton. Chenswinechart:lateralview,skeleton. Chenswinechart:lateralview,skin. TheOttavianoHorseChart. TheShinHorseChart. TheOttavianoDogChart:SmallIntestine,Lung,Liver,andSpleen. TheOttavianoDogChart:LargeIntestineandGallBladder. TheOttavianoDogChart:StomachandGoverningVessel. TheOttavianoDogChart:TriHeaterandConceptionVessel. TheOttavianoDogChart:Bladder,Kidney,andHeartConstrictor. TheOttavianoDogChart:VentralViewofPawsofhindandforefeet. TheShinDogChart. TheOttavianoCatChart.

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Figure31. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforpig.

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Figure32. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforpig.

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Figure33. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforhorse.

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Figure34. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforhorse.

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Figure35. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforcattle.

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Figure36. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforcattle.

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Figure37. ModernChineseveterinaryacupuncturechartforchicken.

Page129

Figure38. RightsideofcowchartofacupuncturepointsreportedbyDr.O.Kothbauer. (CourtesyofDr.O.KothbauerandthejournalAcupunctureResearch.)

Page130

Figure39. LeftsideofcowchartofacupuncturepointsreportedbyDr.O.Kothbauer. (CourtesyofDr.O.KothbauerandthejournalAcupunctureResearch.)

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Figure310. DorsalviewofcowchartofacupuncturepointsreportedbyDr.O.Kothbauer. (CourtesyofDr.O. KothbauerandthejournalAcupunctureResearch.)

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Figure311. DorsalviewofcowchartofacupuncturepointsreportedbyDr.O.Kothbauer.An attempttolabelandfitthepointsfoundincattleontothebladdermeridiandescribed inhumans. (CourtesyofDr.O.KothbauerandtheAmericanJ.ofAcupuncture 2:303,1974.)

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Figure312. AncientChinesechartoftwelvepoints(meridians)inthehorseeachmeridianisasinglepointinsteadofaline madeupofmanypoints.

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Figure313. Chartofmeridianlinesandacupuncturepointsinthehorse,aspublishedbyDr.MeiyuOkada. (CourtesyofDr.MeiyuOkada,T.Miyazawa,andtheBrethrenCorp.)

Page135

Figure314. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:headandneck.

Page136

Figure315. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:caudalsection.

Page137

Figure316. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:forelegs.

Page138

Figure317. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:hindlegs.

Page139

Figure318. EnlargedsectionofOkadachart:feet(leftside,frontfootrightside,hindfoot).

Page140

Figure319. TheYounghorsechart:largeintestinemeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Page141

Figure320. TheYounghorsechart:stomachmeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Page142

Figure321. TheYounghorsechart:smallintestinemeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Page143

Figure322. TheYounghorsechart:bladdermeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure323. TheYounghorsechart:tripleburnermeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure324. TheYounghorsechart:gallbladderandlivermeridians. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure325. TheYounghorsechart:conceptionvessel. (CourtesyofDr.H. GradyYoung.)

Figure326. TheYounghorsechart:governingvessel. (CourtesyofDr.H.Grady Young.)

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Figure327. Modelofahorseshowingacupuncturepoints. (CourtesyofSobinChemicals,Inc.)

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Figure328. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview).

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Figure329. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview).

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Figure330. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralview).

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Figure331. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(dorsalview).

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Figure332. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(lateralviewofthehead).

Figure333. Acupuncturechartofthehorse: a)hardpalate b)dentalsurface c)eye.

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Figure334. Acupuncturechartofthehorse: a)ventralsurfaceofthetongue b)cranialview.

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Figure335. Acupuncturechartofthehorse: a)caudalview b)foreleg,medialview c)hindleg,medialview.

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Figure336. Acupuncturechartofthehorse(ventralview).

Figure337. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview).

Figure338. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview).

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Figure339. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:forelimb(lateralview).

Figure340. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:sacralarea(lateralview).

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Figure341. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview).

Figure342. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview).

Figure343. Acupuncturechartofthehorse:hindlimb(lateralview).

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Figure344. Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview).

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Figure345. Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview).

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Figure346. Acupuncturechartofthecow(lateralview).

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Figure347. Acupuncturechartofthecow(dorsalview).

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Figure348. Acupuncturechartofthecow(cranialview).

Figure349. Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview).

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Figure350. Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview).

Figure351. Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview).

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Figure352. Acupuncturechartofthepig:ear,medialsurface.

Figure353. Acupuncturechartofthepig:head(lateralview).

Figure354. Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(lateralview).

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Figure355. Acupuncturechartofthepig: a)hindlimb(cranialview) b)forelimb(cranialview).

Figure356. Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(lateralview).

Figure357. Acupuncturechartofthepig: a)forefoot(caudalview) b)forefoot(cranialview).

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Figure358. Acupuncturechartofthepig:forelimb(caudal view).

Figure359. Acupuncturechartofthepig(lateralview).

Figure360. Acupuncturechartofthepig(ventralview).

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Figure361. (Top,left)Acupuncturechartofthepig(ventralview).

Figure362. (Top,right)Acupuncturechartof thepig:hindlimb(lateralview).

Figure363. (Middle,right)Acupuncturechartofthepig:caudalview).

Figure364. (Bottom,right)Acupuncturechartof thepig:hindlimb(lateralview).

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Figure365. Acupuncturechartofthegoat:(lateralview).

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Figure366. Acupuncturechartofthegoat(lateralview).

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Figure367. Acupuncturechartofthegoat(lateralview).

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Figure368. Acupuncturechartofthegoat(dorsalview).

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Figure369. Acupuncturechartofthegoat(ventralview).

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Figure370. Acupuncturechartofthegoat(cranialview).

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Figure371. Acupuncturechartofthecamel(lateralview).

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Figure372. Acupuncturechartofthecamel(lateralview).

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Figure373. Shores'acupuncturechartofthedog:kidney,smallintestine,andheartconstrictormeridians. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure374. Acupuncturechartofthedog:stomach,tripleburner,andheartmeridians. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure375. Acupuncturechartofthedog:spleen,lung,andbladdermeridians. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure376. Acupuncturechartofthedog:liver,largeintestine,andgallbladdermeridians. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure377. Acupuncturechartofthedog:conceptionvesselandgoverningvessel. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure378. Acupuncturechartofthedog:associationandalarmpoints. (CourtesyofA.Shores.)

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Figure379. TheYoungdogchart:lungmeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure380. TheYoungdogchart:largeintestinemeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure381. TheYoungdogchart:largeintestinemeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure382. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian,head,andhindlimb. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure383. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian. (Courtesy ofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure384. TheYoungdogchart:stomachmeridian (ventralview). (CourtesyofDr.H.Grady Young.)

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Figure385. TheYoungdogchart:spleenmeridian(ventralviewandmedialviewof hindlimb. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure386. TheYoungdogchart:heartmeridian(cranialviewofleftforeleg). (CourtesyofDr. H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure387. TheYoungdogchart:smallintestinemeridian. (CourtesyofDr. H.GradyYoung.)

Figure388. TheYoungdogchart:bladdermeridian,hindlimb(lateralandcranialview). (CourtesyofDr. H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure389. TheYoungdogchart:bladder meridian(dorsalview). (Courtesyof Dr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure390. TheYoungdogchart:kidneymeridian,hindlimb(caudalandmedial view). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure391. TheYoungdogchart:kidneymeridian (ventralview). (CourtesyofDr.H. GradyYoung.)

Figure392. TheYoungdogchart:pericardiummeridian. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure393. TheYoungdogchart:tripleburner. (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure394. TheYoungdogchart:tripleburner(lateralviewofforelimb). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure395. TheYoungdogchart:gallbladdermeridian(cranialviewoflefthindlimb). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure396. TheYoungdogchart:livermeridian(ventralviewandmedialviewof hindlimb). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure397. TheYoungdogchart:conceptionvessel(ventralview). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

Figure398. TheYoungdogchart:governingvessel(dorsal view). (CourtesyofDr.H.GradyYoung.)

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Figure399. TheChendogchart. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3100. Acupunctureinchmeasurementinthehuman. (CourtesyofE.C.Wong.)

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Figure3101. Chenhorsechart:lateralview,skeleton. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3102. Chenhorsechart:lateralview,skin. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3103. Chencattlechart:miscellaneousviews. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3104. Chencattlechart:lateralview,skin. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3105. Chencattlechart:lateralview,skeleton. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3106. Chenswinechart:lateralview,skeleton. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3107. Chenswinechart:lateralview,skin. (CourtesyofDr.S.H.Chen.)

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Figure3108. TheOttavianoHorseChart:lateralview. (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3109. TheShinHorseChart:lateralview,skeleton. (CourtesyofSangH.ShinandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3110. TheOttavianoDogChart:SmallIntestine(SI),Lung(LU),Liver(LIV),andSpleen(SP)(lateralview). (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3111. TheOttavianoDogChart:LargeIntestine(LI)andGallBladder(GB)(lateralview). (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3112. TheOttavianoDogChart:Stomach(ST)andGoverningVessel(GV)(lateralview). (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3113. TheOttavianoDogChart:TriHeater(THsameastripleburner)andConceptionVessel(CV)(lateralview). (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3114. TheOttavianoDogChart:Bladder(B),Kidney(K),HeartConstrictor(HCsameaspericardium)(lateralview). (CourtesyofJohnOttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3115. TheOttavianoDogChart:VentralViewofPawsofhindandforefeet. (CourtesyofJohn OttavianoandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3116. TheShinDogChart:lateralview,skeleton. (CourtesyofSangH.ShinandNAVA.Copyright1975byNAVA.)

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Figure3117. TheOttavianoCatChart.(FromCatCatalog,editedbyJudyFireman,copyright1976.Workman Publishing,NewYork,N.Y.Reprintedwithpermissionofthepublisher.IllustrationbyNancyLouGahan.)

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4 AcupunctureTherapy
ChoosingPoints Therearemanymethodsofchoosingacupuncturepointsfortreatingaspecificproblem.Eachofthemethodswillproduceoneormore''prescriptions"ofacupuncture pointstouse.Eachoftheprescriptionswillvaryfromtheother.Somemayhavemanypointsincommonsomemayhaveafewpointsincommonsomemayhaveno pointsincommon.Thissituationoftenisdistressingtosomeonejuststartingtolearnaboutacupuncture. Ifoneconsidersmorefamiliarsubjects,ananalogymightbedrawntoclarifythematter.Intreatingaspecificbacterialinfection,therearemanychoicesofmedication. Someofthesedrugshavewidelydifferentchemicalstructuresandphysicalcharacteristicsandcanbeadministeredbydifferentroutes.Yettheyservethesameend resultthetreatmentofabacterialinfection.AnotherexampleistheuseofdifferentroutestogetfrompointAtopointBonamap.Onecouldtakemanyroutes, someshorter,somelonger,somemoreorlessscenic,buttheendresultisgettingtopointB.Athirdexampleisstimulatinganevokedresponseinthecerebralcortex. Thiscouldbedoneinmanywayselectricalstimulationofanerveinaforeleg,electricalstimulationofanerveinahindleg,electricalstimulationofthefaceortail, pressureonaforeleg,pressureonahindleg,applyingicetoaforeleg,applyingicetoahindleg,andsoon. Andsoitiswithacupuncturetherapyandanalgesiatherearemanywaysofachievingaspecificresult.Ofthemanywaysofarrivingatanacupunctureprescription, somearefairlystraightforward,andsomeinvolveagreatdealoftraditionalChinesemedicine. LocalPoints Everyonehashadtheexperience,manytimes,ofinjuringhimselfandrespondingtothatinjurybyapplyinggentlepressureintheinjuredarea.Thisisdonebecauseit seemstomaketheinjurylesspainful.Inacupuncture,onecantreatapainfulconditionbyfindingoneorseveralofthemosttenderpointsandtreatingthem. Sometimesthesepointsaresotenderinitiallythattreatingthemistoopainful.Inthatcase,thecorrespondingpointorpointsontheoppositesideofthebodyare treatedfirst.Acupuncturepointsmayalsobeprescribedveryclosetoyetnotonthesiteofdisordersforexample,HN4(t'aiyang)forconjunctivitisandHN15 (chengchiang)forpharyngitisandlaryngitis. Localpoints,however,donotnecessarilyhavetobepainfultobeeffective.Pointstreatedwillincludebothpainfulandnonpainful.

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DistantPoints Sometimesinjuryordiseaseofaparticularareaproducesapainfulpointatasitequitefarawayfromtheaffectedpart.Thismay,inpart,bereferredpain,butthere arealsomanymoreofthesedistantpointsknowninacupuncture.Treatmentofthesepainfuldistantpointsisreportedtoimprovetheinitiatinginjuryordisorder.As withlocalpoints,however,distantpointsmayormaynotbepainful. AnexampleofawellknownpointandamoredistantoneinthehumanisappendicitisandthewellknownMcBurneypoint.Thispointinthelowerrightquadrantof theabdomenbecomestenderwhentheappendixisinflamed,anditislocatedexactlyatthesiteoftheacupuncturepointST25.Anotherpoint,calledST36,islocated attheproximallateralsurfaceofthetibiaitissupposedtobecomepainfulinappendicitis.IftheST36pointistreatedwithacupunctureitissupposedtocurethe attackofappendicitis. AnexampleinthecowisapointthatcanbecalledB30.Therearemanyconditionsincattleandcalvesthatresultinswollentarsaljoints.Whenthisoccurs,apoint located34fingerwidthslateraltothemedialsacralcrestatthelateralsacralcrestintheareaofthelastdorsalsacralforamenbecomeshotandtender,onthe ipsilateralsideasthetarsalproblem.Treatmentofthistenderpointforexample,alocalanestheticmayresolvethehockproblemcompletely,orthistherapymay havetobeusedwithanothertherapysuchasantibiotics,inwhichcasethecombinedtherapyusuallywillaidinamorerapidandcompleteresolutionoftheproblem thanwitheitheralone.11Thispointisalsooneofthoseusedtoproduceanalgesiaofftheteat. AnexampleonthehorseistheuseofHL6andFL6forabdominalpain. Accurateinsertionoftheneedleisofprimaryimportanceinacupuncturetherapytoachievetherapeuticefficacy.Bonesandmusclesarepalpatedforlocatingsome pointsforexample,T2(paihui)andT9(pachiao)inthehorse,andT1(tachui),T2(sant'ai),andT3(such'i)inthepigaredeterminedbythelocationofthe spinousprocessofthevertebraeT12(feishu)andT10(p'ishu)inthehorseandT9(feishu),T17(kanshu),andT18(p'ishu)inthepigaredeterminedbythe locationoftheribs. Theskinsurfaceprovidessuchlandmarksasskinfolds,depressions,andtheoutlineoftheprojectionofthejoints.SomepointslocatedinthismannerareHN5(t'ai yang),FL7(ch'iangfeng),FL20(t'it'ou),FL21(t'imen)inthehorseandHN6(chingming),HN16(chengchiang),FL6(yungchuan),FL6(t'ishui),andHL21(pa tzu)inthepig. AcupuncturePrescriptions Astandardprescriptionincludesalocalpointorpointsincombinationwithadistantpointorpoints. 1 AllSpecies A Chen9 (FIGS.399,3101TO3107) DisordersofNerves,Joints,andMuscles FacialParalysisandTrigiminalNeuralgia Rx1.Points:19,20,23,24,paosai(similartopoint9inthecow). Method:a.Highorlowfrequencyelectricstimulation. b.Use23pointsdaily. c.InjectvitaminB1(100200mg)intopaosaiorpoint20or19daily. d.Usemoxibustionononeortwopoints. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:8,9,shangkuan(similartohorse24),hsiakuan(similartohorse23). Method:SeeRx1. Species:Cattle. ParalysisofShoulder Rx1.Points:47,64,66,68,69,79,80. Method:a.Use23pointsdaily. b.Moderateorlowfrequencystimulation. c.InjectvitaminB1,100200mgdaily. d.Usemoxibustionontherestofthepoints. e.Treatfor314days. Species:Horse. Rx.2.Points:29,65,66,71,72,74,76. Method:a.Usepoint29daily,and23oftheremainingpoints. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx3.Points:32,55,57,61,63,19. Method:a.Usepoint32daily,and23oftheremainingpoints. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Swine. Rx4.Points:47,48,49,51,52,53. Method:a.Use23pointsdaily. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Dog.

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RadialParalysis Rx1.Points:71,73,76,77,79,83,84,88,47. Method:a.Usepoints47,73,and79firstuse1or2oftheremainingpointsdaily. b.Moderateorlowfrequencystimulationfor1520minoncedaily. c.Moxibustionandinjectiontreatmentarerecommended. d.Durationoftreatment:12weeks. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:29,65,66,71,72,74,76. Method:a.Use23pointsdaily.Useallpointsalternately. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx3.Points:19,32,55,57,61,63. Method:a.Usepoint32dailyotherpoints,use23daily. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Swine. Rx4.Points:47,48,49,51,52,53. Method:a.Use23pointsdaily. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Dog. PosteriorParalysis Rx1.Points:47,48,49,50,57,94,96. Method:a.Points47or57,useoneofthemoncedaily.Otherpoints,use23timesdaily. b.Moderateorlowfrequencyelectricstimulation. c.Moxibustionandinjectionaftereachstimulationrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:29,30,32,36,79,85,87. Method:a.Points29,30,or36,useoneofthemdaily. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx3.Points:20,21,23,25,54,56,57. Method:a.Points20,21,or25,useoneofthemdaily. b.Usepoint54dailyfor34days. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Dog. Sciatica Rx1.Points:47,57,94,96,98,108,111. Method:a.Usepoints47,57,and96for3daysthenuseoneofthesepointsoncedaily.Use23otherpointsoncedaily. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor1530min,oncedailyfor38days. c.InjectvitaminB1orsteroid. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:29,30,36,79,80,81,84,87,89. Method:a.Usepoints30,29,and36dailyfor23daysthenoneoftheseforthenext57days.Useotherpointsalternately,23atatime. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx3.Points:20,21,22,52,54. Method:a.Use23pointsdailyfor410days. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Dog. Arthritis Rx1.Points:47,48,57,69,73,79,80,96,105,112. Method:a.Forelimbs,use47,69,73,79,80.Hindlimbs,use47,48,57,96,105,112. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor1530min,oncedailyfor37days. c.VitaminB1orsteroidinjectionintopointorpointsrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:36,47,64,65,70,73,76,80,77. Method:SeeRx1. Indication:Arthritisofshoulderofhorse. Rx3.Points:70,72,79,80. Method:SeeRx1. Indication:Arthritisofelbowofhorse. Rx4.Points:80,83,84,85,ahshih(painspot). Method:a.Point85bybleedingotherpointsuseneedle. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Arthritisofwristjointofhorse. Rx5.Points:47,48,49,57,96,97,98,100,106,108,111. Method:a.Points47,48,49,57usetwoofthesepointsoncedailyotherpointsuse23timesdaily. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Arthritisofhindlimbsofhorse. Rx6.Points:27,28,29,56,63,64,65,66,79,85,87. Method:a.Forelimbs:29,63,64,65,66.Hindlimbs:29,28,27,79,85,87. b.Use23pointseachtreatment,oncedailyfor214days.

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c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx7.Points:19,32,35,50,51,56,63,69,73,74,77. Method:a.Forelimbs:19,32,50,51,56,63.Hindlimbs:32,35,69,73,74,77. b.Use34pointsforeachtreatment. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Arthritisandneuralgiaofswine. Rx8.Points:11,12,19,21,41,42,46,47,49,50,52,54,57,58,59. Method:a.Forelimbs:19,12,11,41,42,46,47,49,50,52.Hindlimbs:19,21,54,57,58,59. b.Use34pointsforeachtreatment,oncedailyfor38days. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Arthritis,neuralgia,andposteriorparalysisofdog. Sprain Rx1.Points:47,48,49,50,57,59,97,98. Method:a.Use23pointsforeachtreatment,oncedailyfor27days. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor1540min. c.Injectsteroidsinto12points. d.Moxibustionorsuckingcuptreatmentrecommended. Indication:Sprainoflumbarregionofhorse. Rx2.Points:64,65,66,67,70,73,74. Method:a.Usepoints64,65,and73firstthenuseotherpoints. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainofshoulderofhorse. Rx3.Points:73,86,87. Method:a.Point86bybleedingpoints73and87byneedle. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainoffetlockjointofhorse. Rx4.Points:80,86,87,88,89. Method:a.Points86and88bybleedingpoints80and89bynele. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainofdigitofhorse. Rx5.Points:113,114,111,89(hindleg). Method:a.Point113byneedle,othersbybleeding. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainofhindfetlockjointofhorse. Rx6.Points:66,71,72,73,74,76,79,85,87,88,89,92. Method:a.Forelimbs:66,71,72,73,74,76.Hindlimbs:79,85,87,88,89,92. b.Points71,74,75,89,and92bybleeding. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainofcarpus,stifle,ordigitsofcattle. Rx7.Points:55,57,62,63,64,66,67,69,72,73,74,76,79,80. Method:a.Forelimbs:55,57,62,63,64,66,67.Hindlimbs:69,72,73,74,76,79,80. b.Points63,64,66,76,and79bybleedingothersbyneedle. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainoflimbsofswine. Rx8.Points:41,42,43,47,49,50,52,54,55,57,58,59,69,72,73,74,79,76. Method:a.Forelimbs:41,42,43,47,49,50,52.Hindlimbs:54,55,57,58,59,52. b.Foreachtreatment,use34pointsoncedailyfor39days. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Sprainofforeorhindlimbofdog. Tendovaginitis Rx1.Points:84,85,86,87,88,89,98,111,112,113,114. Method:a.Forelimbs:84,85,86,87,88,89.Hindlimbs:98,111,112,113,114. b.Points85,86,88,89,113,and114bybleedingothersbyneedle. c.Steroidinjectionrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:74,75,76,71,72,73,85,87,88,89,90,91,92. Method:a.Forelimbs:74,75,76,71,72,73.Hindlimbs:85,87,88,89,90,91,92. b.Points74,75,89,90,and91bybleedingothersbyneedle. c.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx3.Points:43,45,49,50,52,57,58,59. Method:a.Forelimbs:43,45,49,50,52.Hindlimbs:57,58,59,52. b.Allbyneedle. c.Steroidinjectionsrecommended. Species:Dog. Rheumatism Rx1.Points:Cervicalregion32. LumbarRegion47,48,49,50,51,52,58,93.

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Forelimbs64,65,66,67,73,74. Hindlimbs47,94,95,97,99,100,101,102. Method:a.Use34pointsforeachtreatmentoncedailyfor410days. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3045min. c.MoxibustionandinjectionofvitaminB1orsteroidsrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:General27,28,47,59,86,87. Lumbarregion47,48,51,52,57. Forelimbs35,36,64,65,73,79,80,84. Hindlimbs93,96,97,98,105,108,111. Method:SeeRx1. Species:Horse. Rx3.Points:Mainpoints21,23,29,30. Accessorypoints2,11,6,72,76. Method:a.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor1530min,dailyfor710days. b.InjectionofsteroidorvitaminB1recommended. Species:Cattle. Rx4.Points:General11,20,29,36,51,75,79,87,6. Lumbarregion Group1.25,27,28,29. Group2.23,26,28,29,47,48,79. Forelimbs20,21,61,62,29,40. Hindlimbs29,79,80,82,87. Method:a.Use34pointsoncedailyfor410days. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Rx5.Points:Horse47,48,51,52. Cattle25,27,28,29. Dog17,18,19,20,33,36,35. Method:a.Allpointsusedalternately.Use34pointsoncedailyfor38days. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Rheumatismoflumbarregioninhorse,cattle,anddog. Myotonia Rx1.Points:Mainpoints3,32,19,20,21.Accessorypoints47,48,49,50,60. Method:a.Facial:3,19,20,21,47. Cervical:3,32,47,60. Lumbar:3,47,48,49,50,60,19,20,21. General:Usemainpointsfirstthenuse23pointsdaily. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3040min,onceortwicedaily. c.Chlorpromazineinjectioninto12pointsrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:3,91,60,26,10,shineshau(4fingerwidthstothecranialborderofscapulaand4fingerwidthsventrally). Method:a.Point60bybleedingothersbyneedle. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Horse. Rx3.Points:Group1:28,29,47,32. Group2:60,93. Group3:49,100,101,105,97,98. Method:a.Useonegroupofpointsoncedaily.Useeachofthethreegroupsalternately. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Horse. Rx4.Points:2,3,11,19,29,47,48,31,37,82,83,85,79. Method:a.Pointsuseddependsonregionofbodyafflicted. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. Laminitis Rx1.Points:Forefeet80,84,86,87,88,89.Hindfeet89,111,113,114. Method:a.Points84,86,88,111,113,and114bybleedingothersbyneedle. b.Strongorhighfrequencystimulationfor3060min. c.InjectionofsteroidorvitaminB1orantibioticsoranalgesicdrugsrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:Forefeet74,75,76,77,78. Hindfeet88,89,90,91,92. Method:a.Points74,75,89,and90bybleedingothersbyneedle. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Species:Cattle. DigestiveSystemDisorders Stomatitis Rx.Points:Horse25,26,11,12. Cattle14,15,16,18. Method:a.Bleedingoncedailyfor7days. b.VitaminCinjectionrecommended. Species:Horseandcattle. Remarks:Frommyownexperience,theresultisnotasgoodasmedication. Glossitis Rx.Points:Horse22,25,26.

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Cattle14,16,17,18. Method:a.Bleeding. b.Treatoncedailyfor7days. Species:Horseandcattle. Remarks:Acupuncturetreatmentshelpbutdonotcure. Salivation Rx.Points:liuein(atoutersurfaceofupperlabiaabout1.5cmmedialtolowercommissureofnostril). Method:a.Obliqueneedling,34.5cmdepth. b.Highfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,oncedaily. Species:Horse. PharyngealandEsophagealParalysis Rx.Points:Horse3,8,20,30,33,34,ahshih(painspot). Cattle9,12,13,ahshih. Method:a.Attheahshihpointuselowfrequencystimulationfor3060min,oncedaily. b.Bleedremainingpoints. Species:Horseandcattle. IntestinalBloat Rx.Points:Horse Group1:43. Group2:47,54,42,44,46. Cattle Group1:kuanyenyu(similartohorse43). Group2:18,44,45,46. Method:a.Useeitherofthetwogroups. b.Uselowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,onceortwicedaily. Species:Horseandcattle. GastroenteritisorEnteritis Rx1.Points:Horse39,42,61,63,108. Cattle38,57,chungwan(similartodog39),housanli(similartohorse108). Method:Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3040min,oncedailyfor610days. Species:Horseandcattle. Rx2.Points:11,39,42,108,111,haimen(similartocattle57),chungwan(similartodog39). Method:a.Bleedpoint11.Needling,highfrequency,orstrongstimulationforremainingpoints. b.Vitaminorantibioticinjectionrecommended. Species:Horse. Rx3.Points:11,43,44,46,108. Method:Bleedpoint11electricalstimulationinremainingpointsfor1530min,oncedailyfor710days. Species:Horse. Rx4.Points:14,32,43,chungwan(similartodog39),housanli(similartohorse108). Method:a.Bleedpoint17needlingforremainingpoints. b.1530min.electricstimulationfor710days. Species:Cattle. Rx5.Points:Group128,42,44,78. Group22,11,25,27,32. Group311,25,30,32,37,40,65,78. Group42,7,11,17,28,32,42,74. Method:a.Useoneofthefourgroupsofpointsdailyandalternately. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Swineenteritis. Rx6.Points:Group128,42,47,74. Group22,17,28,32,42,47,74. Group32,11,19,25,27,17,32,40,42,74. Method:a.Useoneofthesethreegroupsofpoints,alternately. b.Otherprocedures,seeRx1. Indication:Swinedysentery. ParalysisofRectum Rx.Points:Horse47,61,57,59. Cattle30,32,37,38,48. Swine32,35,36,37,41,42. Dog20,21,22,26. Method:Strongorelectricstimulation(lowfrequency)for3060min,oncedailyfor48days. Species:Horse,cattle,swine,anddog. Constipation Rx.Points:Horse Group1:43. Group2:11,26,88,114. Cattle Group1:kuanyenyu(similartohorse43). Group2:2,11,27,30,32,37,74.

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Method:UseGroup1first,thenuse23pointsofGroup2.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min. Diarrhea Rx.Points:Horse Group1:61,108. Group2:39,42,43,44,46. Cattle Group1:38,housanli(similartohorse108). Group2:42,43,57,chungwan(similartodog39). Swine Group1:42,47,74. Group2:11,27,28,40. Dog Group1:26,58. Group2:38,39,26. Method:a.UseGroup1firstthenuse23fromGroup2,daily. b.Mildhandmanipulationorlowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min. Species:Horse,cattle,swine,anddog. ProlapseofAnus Rx.Points:Horsetoukan(onepointoneachsideoftheanusatthe3and9o'clockpositions),61. Cattletoukan,29,38. Swinetoukan,32,42. Dogtoukan,20,26. Method:a.Usetoukanpointbycranialandventralinsertion9cmdeepforhorseandcattle,34.5cmdeepforswineanddog. b.Afterreplacementofanus,usetoukanfirstthenuseinthehorse61,cattle38,swine42,dog26onfirstday.Seconddayonward,useeithertoukanor61 (horse),38(cattle),42(swine),or26(dog)andotherpoints. c.Mildorlowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3060min,for710days. Species:Horse,cattle,swine,anddog. Indigestion Rx.Points:Horse Group1:43. Group2:39,42,43,40. Cattle Group1:kuanyenyu(similartohorse43). Group2:43,44,chungwan(similartodog39). Swine Group1:kuanyenyu(similartohorse43). Group2:32,29,26,28,47. Dog Group1:kuanyenyu(similartohorse43). Group2:32,30,29,31,38,39. Method:a.UseGroup1and23ofthepointsinGroup2,daily. b.Mildorlowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,dailyfor710days. Species:Horse,cattle,swine,anddog. RespiratorySystem Epistaxis Rx.Points:Horse3,4,5,6,7,9,10,25,42. Cattle1,6,7,14,42,kanyu(similartohorse40),shineyu(similartodog28). Dog2,3,28,29,32,tongtang(similartohorse4),tongtien(similartohorse7). Method:a.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min. b.VitaminKorothercoagulatingagentsrecommended. Species:Horse,cattle,anddog. Laryngitis Rx.Points:Horse Group1:33,34,27. Group2:3,59,88,89. Cattle Group1:2,12,13,15. Group2:6,74,75,89,90. Doghouyu(similartohorse34),fengmen(similartohorse28),erhken(similartocattle10),9. Method:Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor1530mindailyfor714days. Species:Horse,cattle,anddog. CommonColdandInfluenza Rx.Points:Horse2,6,28,44,46. Cattle Group1: Mainpoints:2,3,6,36. Accessorypoints:23,29,74,89,tachui(similartodog10).

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Group2:2,3,6,7,11,20,42,chichu(similartohorse111). Dog2,3,8,9,10,12,27,20. Method:a.Use34pointsdailyfor37days. b.Moderateorlowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor2030min. Species:Horse,cattle,anddog. Bronchitis Rx.Points:Horse2,35,37,38,91. Cattle Group1: Mainpoints:2,3,16,18,20,41. Accessorypoints:6,23,36,75,90. Group2:2,11,14,23,41,53. DogseeCommonCold. Method:a.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min. b.Oncedailyfor710days. Species:Horse,cattle,anddog. Pneumonia Rx.Points:Cattle14,16,23,29,36,41,feimen(similartohorse66). Swine Mainpoints:22,24,11,19. Accessorypoints:2,40,65,78,chisheng(seeFigure3106). Method:a.Highfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,oncedaily. b.VitaminB1andantibiotics(kanamycinordihydrostreotomycin,50mginjectedintooneortwopoints). Species:CattleandSwine. Remarks:Resultsuncertain. PulmonaryEdema Rx.Points:Mainpoints6,7,14,15,27,29. Accessorypoints23,41,42. Method:a.Usemainpointsfirstthenuse23accessorypointsdaily. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3060min. c.Injectdiuretics(LasixorDiamox)into12points. Species:Cattle. UrogenitalandMammaryDisorders CysticOvariesandSterility Rx.Points:Horse Mainpoints:55,56,93. Accessorypoints:47,48,50,61. Cattle Mainpoints:49,50. Accessorypoints:27,28,29,30. Swine Mainpoints:33,34. Accessorypoints:30,31,32. Dog Mainpoints:35,36. Accessorypoints:18,19. Method:a.Use2mainpointsandoneaccesssorypointoncedaily,oronceeveryotherday. b.Highfrequencyelectricstimulationfor3060min. c.Durationoftreatment710days.Twocoursesoftreatmentusuallynecessary. Species:Horse,cattle,swine,anddog. Cystitis Rx.Points:Horse27,47,48,50,60,110,haimen(similartocattle57). Cattle Group1: Mainpoints:25,26,27,28,29,86. Accessorypoints:2,57,77. Group2:27,28,29,86,shenyu(similartohorse48),pangkungyu(similartodog37). Group3:26,27,32,35,58,29. Method:Highfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,oncedailyfor710days. Species:Horse,cattle. Remarks:Resultsnobetterthanmedicaltreatment. PurpuralParalysis Rx.Points:Horse Mainpoints:48,49,50. Accessorypoints:55,56,93,110. Cattle Mainpoints:21,23,27,29,86. Accessorypoints:10,72,74,76,89. Dog Mainpoints:20,21,58. Accessorypoints:17,33,19. Method:a.Usemainpointsfirstthen23accessorypointsonceortwicedaily. b.Strongorlowfrequencyelectricalstimulationfor30min. c.VitaminB1orsteroidinjectioninto12mainpoints. Species:Horse,cattle,anddog. PenileParalysis Rx.Points:Horseyinchin(atpenis,abouttwofingerwidthsfromcranialtothescro

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tum),47,57,huiyin(betweenanusandvulva). Cattleyinchin,29,30,huiyin. Method:Lowfrequencyelectricstimulation,30mindailyfor37days. Species:Horseandcattle. Mastitis Rx.Points:Mainpoints58,59,57. Accessorypoints27,28,29,74,89,86. Method:a.Bleedpoints59,74,86,and89.Useneedleonremainingpoints. b.Strongorhighfrequencyelectricalstimulationfor3060min,oncedailyfor610days. Species:Cattle. PhysicalConditions Sunstroke Rx.Points:Horse Mainpoints:27,30,59,91,110. Accessorypoints:2,21,22,88,114. CattleMainpoints:2,3,13,16,20,29. Accessorypoints:36,75,86,90. Method:a.Bleeding. b.Usethemainpointfirst,then23accessorypoints. Species:Horseandcattle. Fatigue Rx.1.Points:2,9,10,26,30,47,59. Method:Useneedleonpoint47remainingpointsarebled. Species:Horse. Rx2.Points:45,47,48,59. Method:Moderateorlowfrequencyelectricstimulationfor30min,oncedaily. Species:Horse. 2 Horse A ChineseVeterinaryHandbook1 (Figs.328to343) Eachprescriptionisuseddailyunlessotherwiseindicated.Thenumberofdailytreatmentsandlengthofcourseoftreatmentaredeterminedbythecourseofthe disease. StrainoftheTricepsBrachiiMuscle Themuscleisstrainedwhenitisoverextendedbecausetheanimalisoverloaded,forcedtogalloptooquicklyorfittedwithimproperhorseshoes. Symptoms 1.Theaffectedlimbisextendedforwardwhenstandingtodecreasebodyweightontheaffectedlimb. 2.Movementislimitedwhentrotting,andsteppingispainfulwhenweightiscarried. 3.Onpalpation,thereistendernessoverthepointFL7(ch'angfeng).Thereispainwhentheaffectedlimbismovedcaudally. 4.Gradually,musclesoftheaffectedlimbatrophy. Treatment 1.ThehaochenneedleisinsertedintoFL7(ch'angfeng),FL10(t'ientsung),FL8(ch'ungt'ien),andFL9(chiencheng).Aneedleisalsoinsertedintoeachadditional tenderspotatthesametime.Inacutestages,withlocaltenderness,thebloodneedlefisinsertedintoFL16(hsiungt'ang).Forchronicordebilitatingconditions,the hotneedleisappliedtoFL7(ch'angfeng)andFL8(ch'ungt'ien). 2.Inaddition,theaffectedareamayberubbedwitha10%camphor,alcohol,orordinarywhitewinesolution. ShoulderJointInjury Symptoms 1.Theanimalusestothetipofitshooftotouchthegroundwhenstandingtoreducetheweightontheaffectedlimb.Inseriousconditions,thewholelimbissuspended abovetheground,andthejointbecomesswollenandwarm.Liftingthelimbisdifficultwhenrunning,andmovementislimitedinabduction.Shortstepsaretakenwith theanteriorlimbs. Onlocalpalpation,thereistendernessinandaroundthejoint.Passiveflexionorextensionofthejointcausespain. 3.Thejointbecomesdeformedinchroniccases,andtheshouldermuscleatrophies. Treatment 1.Theacupunctureprescription,usingthehaochenandbloodneedles,isthesameasthatfortreatingtricepsbrachiimusclestrain.Asanalternative,thehotneedle maybeinsertedintoFL7(ch'angfeng),supplementedbyFL11(chienching)andFL13(chienwaiyu),ifnecessary. 2.Cauterizationmayalsobeusedadditionallyinchronicorrefractorycases. 3.Coldpackingmaybeusedadditionallyintheearlystagesoftheinjurywhenthejointisswollen.After2or3days,whentheswellinghasdiminished,

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ahotpackisused.A10%camphor,alcohol,orwhitewinesolutionmaybeusedtorubtheaffectedarea. 4.Inseriouscases,herbalmedicineisusedandmaybecombinedwithanyofthepreviousprocedures. StrainoftheBicepsBrachiiMuscle Symptoms 1.Thejointsbelowthekneeareoftenflexedwhenstanding.Sometimesthetipofthehoofisplacedontheground,slightlycaudaltothenormalposition.Runningis difficult,andsteppingdowncausespain. 2.Therearetendernessandpainonpalpation,whichbecomemoreconspicuousifthelimbispulledforward. Treatment ThebleedingofFL16(hsiungt'ang)withthebloodneedleisused.Inchronicconditions,treatmentissimilartotheacupunctureprescriptionforstrainofthetriceps muscle.Additionalsupportivetherapysuchascoldpackingmayalsobeused. InjurytotheElbowJoint Symptoms 1.Theaffectedjointisusuallymaintainedinaflexedconditionwheninstandingposition,andthetipofthehooftouchesthegroundinordertoreduceweightonthe affectedlimb.Difficultyinelbowjointflexionanddraggingofthelimbinforwardmovementsmaybeobservedintrotting. 2.Onpalpation,swelling,warmth,andtendernessarefeltoverandaroundthejointandtendon.Pullingthelimbforwardcausesseverepain. Treatment 1.Inacutecases,FL16(hsiungt'ang)isbledwiththesmall,wideneedle,supplementedwithinsertionofhaochenintoFL7(ch'angfeng). 2.Inchroniccases,thehotneedleisusedinFL7(ch'angfeng),FL14(chouyu),andFL13(chienwaiyu). 3.Inaddition,cauterizationmaybeusedinchroniccases.Additionaltherapeuticmethodsaresimilartothoseforshoulderjointinjuries. ParalysisoftheBrachialPlexus Symptoms 1.Totalparalysis.Thereisextensionoftheshoulderjointandloweringofthekneejoint,whilestanding,andthetipofthehooftouchestheground.Passivecorrection ofthepostureresultsinanormalstandingposition,buttheslightestmovementbringsbackthepathologicposture.Thereisdifficultyinraisingthelimbinrunning,and swingingoftheaffectedlimbisfrequentlyobserved.Fallingisalsofrequent.Onpalpation,thereisalossofsensationintheaffectedarea.Verysoonaftertheonsetof thedisease,thetricepsmusclebeginstoatrophy. 2.Partialparalysis.Thetipofthehoofisusedtotouchthegroundtoreduceweightontheaffectedlimb.Theaffectedlimbisalwaysinasemiflexedposition,andthe tipofthehoofisalwaysinasemiflexedposition,andthetipofthehoofisdraggedalong.Inrunning,shortstepsaretakenbytheanteriorlimbs. Treatment 1.HaochenisinsertedintoFL7(ch'angfeng),FL10(tientsung),FL8(ch'ungt'ien),andFL9(chienching). 2.InsertionintoFL10(ch'angfeng),FL8(chungtien),andFL12(chienyu)withthehotneedleisanalternativeprescription. 3.An0.10.2%strychninenitratesolution(510cc)isinjectedintoFL7(ch'angfeng)asanalternativemethod. CarpalJointInjury Symptoms 1.Thecarpalandfetlockjointsareinflexedpositionwhenstanding.Stepsareshortduringrunningorexercise.Painisfeltwhenthelimbisraisedorweightisborne. 2.Inthebeginning,tendernessandwarmthareevidentwhentheinjuredareaispalpated.Later,thereisinduration.Thereisalsolimitedjointmovement.Hypertrophy andhyperplasiaoftheperiosteumarepresent,causingchronicdeformityandinflammationofthecarpus. Treatment 1.Inacutecases,thebloodneedleisinsertedintothepatellarveinatFL18(hsimai). 2.Inchroniccases,cauterizationisused. 3.Theinjuredareamayberubbedwithturpentinesolutionora10%camphororalcoholsolution,ora5%iodinesolutionasasupportivemethodoftreatment. SwellingoftheCarpus Swellingfrequentlyoccursbetweenthelargeandsmallmetacarpalbones.Improperlimbposturing,improperhoofshape,oroverweightonthemedial

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smallmetacarpalcausesstrainontheintercarpalligament.Thiswillinduceperiostitis.Ifinflammationlastsalongtime,atumor(swelling)mayform.Similarconditions maybecausedbytrauma. Symptoms 1.Onpalpationofthemedialsideofthecarpalbone,afingertipsizedtumorwillshowup. 2.Inacutecases,tendernessisfeltonpalpation.Whenthedisorderbecomeschronic,painisnotprominent.Inbothacuteandchroniccases,limpingisnotobvious. Painbecomesmoresignificantwhentheanimalwalksonhardgroundorgoesdownhill.Sometimesitcanbeaggravatedbyincreasedexercise. Treatment Itisessentialtocorrecttheshapeofthehoof. 1.Intheearlystagesofthedisease,thebloodneedleisinsertedintothepatellarveinatFL18(hsimai)untilbloodisdrawn. 2.Inaddition,cauterizationmaybeused. 3.Forlarger,chronictumors,resectionisnecessary,andcauterizationandpressurebandagingareusedtostopthebleeding. FlexorTendonitis Theflexorislocatedontheventralsideofthepedis.Tendonitisincludesinflammationofthesuperficialanddeepflexortendonsandtheirassociatedstructures.The disorderoccursmorefrequentlyontheanteriorlimbofthehorse.Poordevelopment,improperposturing,inadequateshoerepair,overexhaustion,andvarious traumaticinjuriescausethisdisorder. Symptoms 1.Superficialtendonitisshowsswelling,mostlyovertheupperthirdofthemetacarpus.Theswellingofthedeepflexortendonislocatedinthemiddlethirdandthe swellingofthesuspensoryligamentlocatedinthelowerthirdofthepedis. 2.Theaffectedanimalattemptsarestingposturewhenstanding.Steppingisheavyandpainful.Thefetlockjointcannotbelowered,andthereisnoextensionofthe flexortendon. 3.Onpalpation,warmth,swelling,andtendernessareevidentovertheaffectedarea.Initially,swellingismildlatertheflexortendonbecomeshypertrophicand indurated. Treatment 1.Foracutecases,thebloodneedleisinsertedintothepatellarveinatFL18(hsimai)untilbloodisdrawn. 2.Procainpenicillinmaybeinjectedintotheinflamedregionasasupportivemeasureorasamajorformoftherapy. 3.Inchroniccases,cauterizationisused. 4.Vinegarandalcoholbandagesforpacking,aswellasinjectionofprocainepenicillin,maybeusedassupportivemeasures(forlocalapplication,95%mercurypaste isused). TwistedFetlockJoint Overflexionorextensionoflimbsinhorsesanddonkeysduringheavylaboroftencausestwistingofthisjoint.Ithappensmorefrequentlytotheanteriorlimbsof horses. Symptoms 1.Thefetlockjointisflexedwhentheanimalisstandingandthetipofthehooftouchesthegroundinordertoreduceweightontheaffectedlimb.Theassociatedarea isloweringinrunning.Prominentpaindevelopswhentheanimalstepsforwardwhencarryingaburden. 2.Theacutelyaffectedsideshowswarmth,swelling,andpain.Onpassiveflexionandextensionofthejoint,thereisaprominentpainfulreaction. Treatment 1.Inacutecases,thebloodneedleisinsertedintoFL20(t'it'ou)orFL19(ch'anwan)untilbloodisdrawn. 2.Inchroniccases,withinduration,cauterizationaloneisused. DigitPain Digitpainoccursintheareaontheposteriorsideofthefetlockjoint.Whenthereisexcessivegalloping,unevenstepping,orknockingofthehindlimbs,thisdisorder maydevelop. Symptoms 1.Thetipofthehoofisusedtotouchthegroundandtheassociatedareamaintainsastandingstillposition,toreduceweight.Stepsareunsurewhenrunning.Thereis instabilitywhenplacing.Shortstepsaretakenbytheposteriorlimbs. 2.Onpalpation,thedigitsshowwarmthandpain,butswellingisnotsignificant. Treatment FL22(ch'ienchiu)shouldbebledfordisordersoftheforelimb,andHL25(houchiu)forthehindlimb.Thebloodneedleisinsertedinbothcases.

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PelvicJointTwist Thisjointisalsocalledthepelvicfemoraljoint.Slipping,collision,andtwistingarethecausesofpelvicjointtwist. Symptoms 1.Thestiflejointsoftheaffectedlimbareslightlyflexedlaterallywhenstanding,sothatweightbearingisreduced.Limbraisingandrunningaredifficult.In circumduction,thereispainwhensteppingwithweight.Thelimpingisaggravatedbymotion,turning,andbacking. 2.Duringpassiveflexionandextension,abductionandadductionofthepelvicjointarecoupledwithpainreactions. Treatment 1.HaochenisinsertedintoT2(paihui),HL3(yangchuliao),HL4(huant'iao),andintoassociatedtenderpoints. 2.Inacutecases,HL15(shent'eng)isbledwiththesmall,wideneedle,orthehotneedleisinsertedintoHL5(huanchung),HL6(huanhou),andHL11(hankou). 3.Herbmedicinemaybeusedasasupportivemeasure,oritcanbeusedalone. StifleJointTwist Symptoms 1.Inacutecases,thestiflejointisflexedwhenstanding.Thetipofthehooftouchesthegroundandispositionedslightlycranial.Warmthandtendernessareevident onpalpation.Jointswellingappearsinchroniccases. 2.Inchroniccases,thecranialwallofthehoofisplacedontheground.Aslightupperjerkoftheaffectedlimbwhensteppingisalsocharacteristic.Thereisapainful reactionwhenthehoofisplacedontheground.Thetipofthehooftouchesthegroundwhentheanimalfirstbeginstostep.Shortstepsaretakenbytheposterior limbs.Afterawhile,theposteriorhoofbeginstobeplacedflatontheground. Treatment 1.Inacuteandinflammatorycases,FL16(hsiungt'ang)isbled.Inchroniccases,thehotneedleisinsertedintoHL14(luehts'ao)asthemainpoint,supplementedby hotneedleinsertionintoHL11(hankou). 2.Inchronicandacutecases,cauterizationmaybeusedassupportivetherapy. 3.Herbmedicinemaybeusedtogetherwitheachoftheabovemethods,oralone. SciaticNerveParalysis Symptoms 1.Thehipandstiflejointsarerelaxedwhenstanding.Thefetlockjointcurves,andthehindpartofthehooftouchestheground.Theanimalcannotbearweight.When running,thereisdifficultyintheaffectedlimb.Thehipandstiflejointsarepassivelyextended.Theareabelowthefetlockjointiscurvedanddraggedalong.Backingis verydifficult,andtheanimalisunabletorisewithoutaidtoastandingpositionafterlyingdown. 2.Thereisalossofsensationintheaffectedareacoupledwithmuscleatrophy. Treatment 1.ThehaochenorhotneedleisinsertedintoT2(paihui),HL10(huiyang),HL11(hsiehch'i),HL12(yuwa),HL13(ch'ienshen),HL5(huanchung)andHL6(huan hou). 2.510ccofa0.10.2%strychninenitratesolutionisinjectedintothedeeptissuesofHL9(hsiehch'i)andHL11(huiyang)asanalternative. HypertrophyoftheTarsalJoint Thetarsaljointisformedbymanysmallbonesandiscomposedofthetarsaltibialjoint,theintertarsaljoint,andthecalcanealtarsaljointwiththeassociatedtendons. Poorstructure,improperposture,poordevelopment,andanytraumaticinjuryorexcessivestrainfromhardlaborcausehyperplasiaofbonytissue,whichgivesriseto hyperplasiaofthejoint. Symptoms 1.Whenstanding,theanimalplacesthehoofontheground,slightlyanteriortothenormalposition.Sometimes,theanteriorwallofthehoofisplacedontheground. Theaffectedlimbdropsimmediatelyafterraising,andlimpingismoreseverewhentheanimalbeginstorun.Thereisdifficultyinlimbraising,owingtoincomplete flexionofthetarsaljoint.Thereispainwhensteppingontheground,andshortstepsaretakenbytheposteriorlimbs.Thereissignificantmovementofthethigh. Limpingisaggravatedafterrest. 2.Palpationofthemedialposteriormarginofthejointshowshyperplasiaofthebonytissue,forminganindurationwithoutwarmthortenderness.Thereisalsojoint deformity.However,aftervigorousexercise,somewarmthwithhypersensitivityappearsintheaffectedarea.

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3.Totestforhyperplasiaofthetarsaljoint,theaffectedpartisraisedandflexedfor3to5min,andtheanimalisthenpermittedtorunfast.Iflimpingisprominent,or iftheanimalrunsusingthreelimbsonly,thediagnosisisconfirmed. Treatment Cauterizationorlocalpackingwith5%Mercurochromepasteisused. SwellingoftheTarsalJoint Thisisacommondisorderinhorses.WhenpressureisexertedfromthebursaeoftheAchillestendonovertothebursaeonbothsides,theswellingisprominent.Itis mainlycausedbytraumaticinjury,excessivelabor,orlongterm,irregularmotion.Aninadequatehoofsurfaceorirregularhorseshoesurfacecausesthedisease, especiallywhenthereislateraltwistingofthetarsaljointwhenweightisborne. Symptoms 1.Inacutecases,thejointswells.Onpalpation,thejointissoftandwavy,withpainandtenderness.Thereisdifficultyinmovingforwardorbearingweight. 2.Inchroniccases,theanimallimps,andtheinflammatorysymptomsarereduced. 3.Inbothcases,thereisreducedsensitivityonpalpation,limitationsinmovement,andlowandshortsteps. Treatment 1.Inacutecases,HL16(chuch'ih)isbled. 2.Inchroniccases,cauterizationisused. 3.Initially,theshapeofthehoofmustbecorrected.Aftershavingandsterilizingtheswollenarea,aNo.16hyperdermicneedleisusedtodrawfluid.Apressure bandageisthenapplied. Rheumatism Thiscommonsystemicdiseaseusuallyoccursinthelimbs,thelumbarmuscles,andthejoints.Theetiologyofthediseaseisstillnotknown.However,poornutrition, generalweakness,orexcessivesweatinginwindyorcoldweathereasilygivesrisetothedisease. Symptoms Thereissuddenillness,oftenassociatedwithhighfever,generalweakness,andlossofappetite. 2.Theaffectedareaisnotlimitedtoonelimb,butisoftenmigratory.Mostly,itaffectsthehindlimbs,creatingaprominentsignofstiffneck.Thereispainand tendernessintheaffectedmuscles,whicharehardandtenseonpalpation.Thereisswellingifthejointisinvolved. 3.Thegaitislimping,andstepsareshortandstiff.Thisismostevidentinthebeginningofmotion,andislessevidentaftermotionisinitiated. Treatment 1.Forrheumatismoftheneck,thehaochenorhotneedleisinsertedintoHN20(chiuwei),supplementedbyinsertionintoothertenderpoints. 2.Forrheumatismofthefrontlimb,thehaochenisinsertedintoFL7(ch'angfeng),FL8(ch'ungt'ien),andFL9(chiencheng),supplementedwithneedleinsertioninto thetenderspots.Onehaochenshouldbeinsertedthroughtwoofthefourpoints.OrthehotneedlemaybeinsertedintotheFL7Point(ch'angfeng),supplemented byinsertionintoFL8(ch'ungt'ien),FL11(chienching),andFL13(chienwaiyu). 3.Forrheumatismofthehindlimb,thehaochenisinsertedintoT2(paihui),HL10(huiyang),HL3(chuliao),andHL4(huanT'iao).Thisissupplementedwith insertionintothetenderpoints.ThehotneedleistheninsertedintoHL5(huanchung),HL6(huanhou),andHL11(hanhou).Thisissupplementedbyinsertioninto HL1(pashan),HL9(hsiehch'i),HL12(yiwa),andHL13(ch'ienshen). 4.Forrheumatismofthekneejoint,thehaochenisinsertedintoHL14(lueht'ao)astheprincipalacupuncturepoint.Inaddition,haochenmustbeinsertedintoHL11 (hankou)andHL13(ch'ienshen),orintoHL7(tak'ua)andHL8(hsiaok'ua). 5.Forrheumatismofthelumbarregion,thehaochenisinsertedintoT2(paihui),T7(sahngchiao),orT9(tzuchiao)throughT8(yaoch'ien).Sometimes,HL18(wei ken)isalsoused.ThehotneedleisalsoinsertedintoT2(paihui),T3(shenyu),T4(shenchiao),andT5(shencha).Sometimes,T8(yaoch'ien),T7(yaochung),and T6(yaohou)areused.Fortheshenandyaopoints,oneneedleisinsertedthroughbothpointsatthetimetime. 6.Oralintakeof60gmofsalicylateand60gmofsodiumbicarbonateisused.Intravenousinjectionsof250mgofhydrocortisoneor150mgofhydrocortisoneover thepointsoncedailymaybeasupportiveorindependentmethodoftreatment. FacialNervePalsy Symptoms 1.Unilateralfacialnervepalsyismostfrequently

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manifestedinthesagoftheears.Theuppereyelidandthelowerlipfalldownward.Theupperlipfallstowardtheaffectedside.Thereisdepressionofthenostrils.The tipofthenoseandtheupperliparetiltedtotherightortheleft,dependingonthesidewherethepalsyoccurs.Eatinganddrinkingaredifficult.Alsofoodisretainedin themouth. 2.Inbilateralfacialnervepalsy,thereisnotiltingofthelips,buttheydroopdownward.Respirationisdifficult,andeatinganddrinkingareseriouslyaffected. Treatment 1.HaochenisinsertedintoHN12(sok'ou),HN15(k'aikuan),HN1(shangkuan),andHN2(hsiakuan). 2.Electroacupunctureorinjectionofstrychninenitratemaybeusedassubstitutes. 3.Intothelooseconnectivetissuesurroundingtheganglionofthehorse(locatedovertheregionofthebuccinatornerve)ortrigeminalnerveorinfraorbitalnerve,810 ccof0.2%,strychninenitrateisinjected.Whentheupperlipistiltedtotheleft,theinjectionisintherightsideandviceversa.Ifbothlipsdropdownward,bothsides areinjected.Thismaybeusedasanindependentmethodoftherapy. Colic Thisdiseaseiscausedbyintestinalstimulationbycold.Thereisanacutespasmodiccontractionoftheintestine.Thisdiseasehasseveraletiologies.Someoccurin earlyspringandlatefallwhenthereisasuddenchangeinweatherothersoccurafterexcessivedrinkingofcoldwateroreatingoffrozenfood.Othersoccurafter exposuretorainorfrost. Symptoms 1.Anycoldstimulationshouldbenotedintakingthecasehistory. 2.Thespasmoccursinitiallywithin13hoursaftereatingordrinking.Abdominalpainisseveretheanimalthendoublesupandrollsoverfromdiscomfort.Later,the painbecomesintestinal.Exacerbationandremissionoccurevery1015min. 3.Theearandnosebecomecold.Othersymptomsincludepallorofmouth,smoothtonguesurface,drooling,weakpulse,andabnormalbodytemperature. 4.Thereisanincreaseinbowelsoundandwaterydiarrhea. 5.Rectalexaminationshowsnofecalretentionandacollapsedstomach. Treatment 1.ThehaochenisinsertedintoHN4(sanchiang),HN11(fenshui),HN7(chiangya),andHN17(erhchien). 2.Antispasmodicandanalgesicdrugsmaybeusedassupportiveorindependentmethodsoftreatment. B Shin20(Fig.3109) Allergy Hypersensitivity(AnaphylaxisfromForeignProteinMaterial) Rx.Points:26,44,131,30. Method:Bilateral,25min,2times/week. AllergyoftheRespiratoryTract(Pollen,Lacrimation,Sneezing) Rx.Points:14,42,421,45. Method:Bilateral,25min,2times/week. AllergyofSkin(Uticaria,EczematousDermatitis,ContactDermatitis) Rx.Points:26,44,131,29,22,andlocalpointswithmultipleneedles. Method:Bilateral,15min,3times/week. AllergyofDigestiveTract(GastrointestinalDistress) Rx.Points:201,44,45,23,14. Method:Onesideeachtime,15min,3times/week. Shock Rx.Points:44,45,201,8. Method:Bilateral,5min,5times/week. Anorexia Rx.Points:44,45,20,8. Method:Bilateral,30min,1time/week. Glossoplegia Rx.Points:6,12,5,46. Method:Bilateral,25min,2times/week. Colic Rx.Points:Formula1.44,45,201. Formula2.31,23,18. Formula3.48,19,201,41. Formula4.19,13,8,18,33,39. Method:Eachformulafor1time.Bilateral,5min,3times/day. Obesity Rx.Points:1,44,45,201. Method:Bilateral,30min,1time/week.

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Lameness ShoulderLameness Rx.Points:15,17,19,212. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. ElbowLameness Rx.Points:191,18,20,39. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. CarpalLameness Rx.Points:22,29,21,213,37. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. HipLameness Rx.Points:49,59,46,58. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. StifleLameness Rx.Points:49,50,60,33,57. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. HockLameness Rx.Points:51,511,513,52. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. BuckedShin Rx.Points:27,24,23,40,18. Method:Bilateral,25min,2times/week. Laminitis AcuteLaminitis Rx.Points:Formula1.46,44,33,39,18. Formula2.18,46,23,212. Method:Bilateral,25min,3times/week. ChronicLaminitis Rx.Points:Formula1.15,20,42,44. Formula2.191,8,212,22,23,24,25. Method:Onesideeachtime,35min,2times/week. NavicularDisease AcuteNavicularDisease Rx.Points:Formula1.18,44,33,212. Formula2.17,15,41,33. Method:Onesideeachtime,25min,2times/week. ChronicNavicularDisease Rx.Points:Formula1.27,28,24,23,292. Formula2.281,29,232,291. Method:Onesideeachtime,20min,3times/week. Osteoarthritis Rx.Points:Localtenderpoints,33,35,37,39,44. PatellaLuxation(UpwardFixation) Rx.Method:a.Pushpatellaintooriginalplace. b.Insertneedleintopatellaligaments,firstabovethepatellathenbelow. c.Turnbothneedlesinthedirectionthatthepatellaneedstogo. d.Onesideonly,15min,2times/week. Myositis Rx.Points:44,33,39,40,andlocaltenderpoints. Method:Bilateral,25min,2times/week. FacialParalysis Rx.Points:Formula1.33,1,3,7,9. Formula2.13,9,11,33. Formula3.20,1,2,3,12. Method:Onesideeachtime,15min,3times/week. MuscleSpasm Rx.Method:a.Findmainpainpoint(local)withcarefulpalpationoftenderarea. b.Insertmainpointneedleperpendicularly. c.Findsecondarypainpointwithpalpationandpressingwiththumb. d.Insertsecondarypainpointneedleperpendicularly. e.Rotatemainpainpointneedleclockwiseandsecondarypainpointneedlecounterclockwiseatthesametimeforabout57min. f.Usemoxibustiononbothpointsfor2min. g.Removebothneedles. h.Watchfor30mintodetermineifthereisstillaspasm. i.Ifthereisstillaspasm,repeattheabovetreatmentonce.Atthistime,themainandsecondarypainpointsarenotnecessarilythesamepointsthatwereused inthefirsttreatment.Generally,theyarenot. 3 Pig A ChineseVeterinaryHandbook1 (Figs.349to364) Eachprescriptionisuseddailyunlessotherwiseindicated.Thenumberofdailytreatmentsandlengthofcourseoftreatmentaredeterminedbythecourseofthe disease.

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PigEpidemic(Cholerainpigs,orplague) Eachoftheprescriptionsshouldbeusedindependently.Thehaochenneedleisused. 1.Themainpointsareasfollows:T4(paihui),HL13(weichien),HN8(shanken),HN2(erhchien),FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui).Twoofthefollowing supplementarypointsshouldalsobeusedtoensuremaximumeffect:HN10(yut'ang),HN1(t'ienmen),T10(liumai),HL11(weiken),T10(t'imen),HL21(houpa tzu),HL12(weipen),HL21(chienpatzu).Thefollowingpointsarealsoused,ifspecificsignsarealsopresent:asthma,T8(feishu)andT3(such'i)diarrhea,HL17 (chiaoch'ao). 2.Thisprescriptionisusedincombinationwithtreatmentusingstreptomycintoreinforcetheeffectofthedrug:HN8(shanken),HN9(pichung),HN10(yut'ang), HN2(erhchien),T4(paihui),HL13(weichien),HL17(chiaoch'ao),andHL21(patzu). LungEpidemicHemorrhagicDisease(PigBacillusDisease) Eachofthefollowingprescriptionsisusedindependently.Thehaochenneedleisused. 1.Themainpointsareasfollows:T3(such'i),T9(feishu),T18(tuanhsueh),HL13(weichien),HN2(erhchien),HN4(erhken).Thesupplementarypointsare: HN8(shanken),HN10(yut'ang),HL21(patzu). 2.Themainpointsare:T11(t'anchung),T9(feishu),FL6(yungchuan),FL6(t'ishui).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang),HN9(pichung),T18(p'i shu),HL13(weichien),andHL6(housanli). 3.Themainpointsare:HN8(shanken),HN2(erhchien),T9(feishu),HN17(sohou),HL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang),T10(liu mai),HL14(weichieh),HL12(weipen),andHL6(housanli). ViralPneumonia,orPigAsthma Eachofthefollowingprescriptionsisusedindependently.Atreatmentsessionis7days.Dailytreatmentisadministeredfor3daysandeveryotherdayfor4days. Thereisa3dayintervalbetweeneach7daytreatmentsession.Haochenisused. 1.Themainpointsare:T3(such'i),T9(feishu),T11(t'anchung),andFL4(ch'ihsing).ThesupplementarypointsareHL13(erhchien)andHN8(shanken). 2.Themainpointsare:HN8(shanken),T3(such'i),T9(feishu),andHL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HL21(paitzu),T10(liumai),HL13(housan li),andmoxibustionforT11(t'anchung). Forprescriptions3and4,atreatmentsessionis6dailytreatments,andthereisa3dayintervalbetweeneachtreatment. 3.Themainpointsare:T3(such'i),T9(feishu),FL11(feimen),HL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN9(pichung),HN8(shanken),HN2(erhchien), T10(liumai),HL21(patzu),T11(t'anchung),andHL13(weichien). 4.Themainpointsare:HN9(pichung),HN2(erhchien),T3(such'i),T9(feishu),andHL13(weichien).ThesupplementarypointsareHN10(yut'ang),HN8 (shanken),T10(liumai),andHL21(patzu). DiarrheaofBabyPigs Eachprescriptionmaybeusedindependently.Prescriptions1and2maybeusedalternatelyinsuccessivetreatmentsessions,whichisdailytreatmentsfor7days. Prescription3maybeusedasasupplementarywhentheindicatedconditionsexist. 1.Themainpointsare:HN2(erhchien),HN4(t'aiyang),HN9(pichung),andHL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HL6(housanli)andHN8(shan ken). 2.Themainpointsare:HL17(chiaoch'ao)andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointis:T4(paihui)orT18(p'ishu). 3.Ifthestooliscreamywhiteorpalewhite,T8(kaifeng)isused.Ifthestoolisyellowish,HL17(chiaoch'ao)andHL6(housanli)areused. PigInfluenza Thefollowingprescriptionsareusedindependently.Haochenisused. 1.Themainpointsare:HN8(erhchung),HL13(weichien),HN20(erhken),T3(such'i),andFL4(ch'ihsing).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang)and HL21(patzu).Thisprescriptionisusedatlatestagesofthedisease. 2.Themainpointsare:HN4(t'aiyang),HN9(pichung),HL13(weichien),HN20(erhken),T4(paihui),andHN2(erhchien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN8 (shanken),HN10(yut'ang),andT9(feishu). 3.Themainpointsare:HN8(shanken),HN10(yut'ang),T3(such'i),andHL13(weichien). 4.Themainpointsare:HN5(naoshu),HN4(t'aiyang),HN6(chingming),HN2(erhchien)andHL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN9(pichung), HN10(yut'ang),andHN21(pa

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tzu).Thisprescriptionisusedattheinitialstageofthedisease. PigMouthandHoofDisease Acupunctureisusedtosupplementtheuseofdrugs.Aquickdiagnosisandisolationofthesickanimalareessentialifthereisanoutbreakofmouthandhoofdisease. 1.Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:HN10(yut'ang),HN15(chengchiang),T1(tachui),andFL6(yungchuan).Thesupplementarypointsare:T17(kanshu), HL10(timen),HN8(shanken),andT4(paihui). Stomatitis 1.Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:HN15(chengchiang),HN10(yut'ang),andHN17(sohou).Thesupplementarypointsare:T18(p'ishu),T17(kenshu), T10(liumai),andH113(weichien). Pharyngitis Haochenisused:HN17(sohou),HN15(chengchiang),HN8(shanken),T3(such'i),HN2(erhchien),andHL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:T4 (paihui),HN10(yut'ang),HL6(housanli),andT10(liumai). Laryngitis Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:HN17(sohou),HN15(chengchiang),andT9(feishu).Thesupplementarypointsare:T3(such'i),HN10(yut'ang),HN8 (shanken),andT10(liumai). Gastroenteritis Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisusedforthefirstthreeprescriptions. 1.Themainpointsare:HN10(yut'ang),T18(p'ishu),HL6(housanli),HL13(weichien),andHN2(erhchien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN8(shanken)and T4(paihui). 2.Themainpointsare:HN8(shanken),HN10(yut'ang),HN9(pichung),T18(p'ishu),andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN2(erhchien), HL13(weichien),andHL17(chiaoch'ao). 3.Themainpointsare:HN8(shanken),HL6(housanli),T1(tachui),T10(liumai),andT8(kaifeng).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN20(weiken),HL17(chiao ch'ao),andT9(feishu). 4.HaochenisinsertedatHL12(weipen).AhotneedleisinsertedatT18(p'ishu),andmoxibustionisadministeredatthefollowingpoints:T12(chungwan),T13 (shangwan),andT14(hsiawan). Indigestion Prescriptions1and2areusedindependently.Prescription3isusedasasupplementfortheindicatedcondition.Haochenisused. 1.Themainpointsare:HN10(yut'ang),T9(feishu),andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN8(shanken),HN9(pichung),andHL21(patzu). 2.Themainpointsare:HN9(pichung),HN10(yut'ang),T10(liumai),andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:T17(kanshu),HL13(weichien),and HL15(weikan). 3.Supplementarypointsareusedforthefollowingconditions:constipation,HL17(chiaoch'ao)andT21(hougerdai)diarrhea,HL17(chiaoch'ao)slightelevation oftemperature,HL12(weipen)andcoldoftheextremitiesandears,FL5(ch'anwan). Pneumonia Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisused. 1.Themainpointsare:HN2(erhchien),HL13(weichien),T3(such'i),andT9(feishu).Thesupplementarypointsare:FL4(ch'ihsing),T4(paihui),andT18(p'i shu). 2.Themainpointis:T3(such'i).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang),FL6(yungchuan),FL11(feimen),andFL12(feip'an). Bronchitis Haochenisused.Eachprescriptionisusedindependently. 1.Themainpointsare:T9(feishu),FL11(feimen),FL12(feip'an),T3(such'i),HN2(erhchien),andHL13(weichien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN9(pi chung),HN8(shanken),T4(paihui),T12(tachui),T10(liumai),T18(p'ishu),FL8(shenchu),andHN10(yut'ang). 2.Themainpointsare:T3(such'i),T9(feishu),FL4(ch'ihsing),HL13(weichien),andHN2(erhchien).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang),HN8 (shanken),HL21(patzu),andT4(paihui). 3.Themainpointsare:HN2(erhchien),FL8(shenchu),T11(t'anchung),andT9(feishu).Thesupplementarypointsare:T3(such'i),T1(tachui),andHN10(yu t'ang). Nephritis Haochenisused.Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Twosupplementarypointsareusedforeachtreatment.

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1.Themainpointsare:HL16(yushu)andT14(t'ienshu).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang),HL13(weichien),andT4(paihui). 2.Themainpointsare:T4(paihui),HL13(weichien),andT22(yangming).Thesupplementarypointsare:T1(tachui),T6(kaifeng),HN10(yut'ang),HN8(shan ken),HL6(housanli),andHN13(weichien). UrinaryTractInfection Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisused. 1.Themainpointsare:T4(paihui),T20(shenmen),T14(t'ienshu),andT22(yangming).Thesupplementarypointsare:FL6(yungchuan)andT1(tachui). 2.Themainpointsare:T20(shenmen),T14(t'ienshu),andHL16(yinshu).ThesupplementarypointisT4(paihui). Constipation Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisused.Onlytwoofthesupplementarypointsareusedwhenindicated. 1.Themainpointsare:HN10(yut'ang),HL17(chiaoch'ao),FL4(ch'ihsing),andT21(hougerdai).Thesupplementarypointsare:T3(such'i),T4(paihui),HN8 (shenken),andHL21(patzu). 2.Themainpointsare:T10(liumai),HL14(weichieh),HL15(weikan),HL13(weichien),andHL17(chiaoch'ao).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN8(shanken), HN10(yut'ang),T20(shenmen),T4(paihui),andHL6(housanli). 3.HN10(yut'ang),HL13(weichien),T4(paihui),HL11(weiken),HL17(chiaoch'ao),andHL6(housanli). 4.HN10(yut'ang),T18(p'ishu),HL17(chiaoch'ao),T21(hougerdai),andHL21(ch'ihsing). VitaminADeficiency Haochenisusedforinsertion.Twoofthesupplementarypointsareusedforeachprescription.Themainpointsare:FL4(t'ienmen)andHL18(tsuifeng).The supplementarypointsare:HN2(erhchien),HL13(weichien),HN10(yut'ang),andHL21(patzu). Anemia Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:T17(p'ishu),T17(kanshu),HL6(housanli),T10(liumai),FL6(yungchuan),andT1(tachui).Thesupplementarypoints are:HL8(shanken),HN10(yut'ang),andFL5(ch'anwan). Sunstroke Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisused.Twoofthesupplementarypointsareusedforeachtreatment. 1.Themainpointsare:HN1(t'ienmen),HN2(erhchien),HN20(erhken),andHL12(weipen).Thesupplementarypointsare:FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui), HL21(patzu),andHN9(pichung). 2.Themainpointsare:HN1(t'ienmen),HN5(naoshu),HN2(erhchien),andHN4(taiyang).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN18(erhmen)andHN12(k'ai kuan). 3.Themainpointsare:HN9(pichung),HL8(shanken),HN6(chingming),HN2(erhchien),T8(paihui),HL13(weichien),HL6(housanli),T1(tachui),FL6 (yungchuan),andHL21(patzu). Rickets Haochenisused.Twoofthesupplementarypointsareusedfortreatments.Themainpointsare:FL6(yuonchuan),T1(tachui),HN10(yut'ang),HL6(housanli), andT18(p'ishu).Thesupplementarypointsare:HL8(shanken),T4(paihui),HL13(weichien),FL5(ch'anwan),T9(liumai),andT16(kanshu). RheumatismofMuscles Thisdiseaseisusuallyseenwhenpigsareexposedtoextremecoldandhumidity.Theonsetisusuallyacute. Symptoms 1.Thereisamusclespasmwithpainandedema,initiallyinthehindlegsoftheaffectedanimal. 2.Thelesionmaymigratetotheforelimbsorhindlimbs. 3.Therearelimping,smallstepsortotalimmobilization. Treatment Eachtreatmentisusedindependently. 1.Thehotneedleisusedforthemainpoints:T4(paihui),T20(shenmen),T2(sant'ai),andT15(lingt'ai).Thesupplementarypointsare:FL5(ch'anwan),FL1 (ch'angfeng),HL6(housanli),FL6(yungchuan),andT1(tachui). 2.HaochenisinsertedintoFL5(ch'anwan),FL6(yungchuan),andT1(tachui).Thesupplementarypointsare:HL8(shanken),HL18(tsuifeng),andT4(paihui). Arthritis Traumaticarthritisiscommonlyduetoinjuryofthecartilageandligamentsofthejoints.Bacterial

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infectionandotherinflammationsarecommoncausesofrheumatoidarthritis. Symptoms 1.Intraumaticarthritis,therearelimitedmovement,edema,andtendernessofthejoints. 2.Rheumatoidarthritisisusuallyassociatedwithhighfeverandmultiplemigratoryinvolvementofthejoints. 3.Alternateremissionandexacerbationoccur. Treatment Haochenisused.Eachprescriptionisusedindependentlyfordailytreatment. 1.Themainpointsare:FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui),FL1(ch'angfeng),andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:T2(sant'ai),T4(paihui),andFL4 (ch'ihsing). 2.Forforelimbarthritis,themainpointsare:HL18(tsuifeng),HL21(patzu),FL5(houch'anwan),T4(paihui),andHL7(tak'ua).Forhindlimbarthritis,themain pointsare:FL6(yungchuan),FL4(ch'ihsing),FL5(chiench'anwan),andHL21(chienpatzu).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN10(yut'ang)andT17(p'ishu). Contusion Contusionincludesallsofttissueinjurysecondarytotraumaonthefourlimbs.Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui),FL1(ch'ang feng),andHL6(housanli).Thesupplementarypointsare:T2(sant'ai),T4(paihui),andFL4(ch'ihsing). Conjunctivitis Haochenisused.Themainpointsare:HN6(chingming),HN4(t'aiyang),andT16(kenshu).Thesupplementarypointsare:HN2(erhchien)andT4(paihui). PrepartumandPostpartumParalysis Weaknessinthemusclesortotalparalysisoftheextremitiescanbefoundperinatallywhenthemotherpighasadeficiencyincalciumandphosphorus.Itcanalsobe causedbytraumatothebirthcanal,orinjurytothepelvicnervesecondarytothedelivery.Eachprescriptionisusedindependently.Haochenisusedforinsertion. 1.Moxibustionisusedfor15minoneachofthefollowingacupuncturepoints:T4(paihui),FL6(t'ishui),T19(shenmen),andHL18(tsuifeng). 2.Themainpointsare:FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui),T4(paihui),HL7(kaifeng),andHL8(shiaok'ua).Thesupplementarypointsare:HL11(weiken),HL13 (weichien),HL9(liumai),FL1(ch'angfeng),andHL8(tsuifeng). 3.Fortheparalysisofhindlimbsonly,themainpointsare:HL7(tak'uo),HL6(housanli),HL21(houpatzu),andHL18(houfengmen).Thesupplementarypoints are:T4(paihui)andFL5(houch'unwan). 4.Themainpointsare:HL5(tzutafengmen),HL19(t'ich'a),FL6(yungchuan),T1(tachui),HN10(tsuit'ang),andFL5(ch'anwan). 5.Themainpointsare:T20(shenmen)forhaocheninsertionandT4(paihui),T6(kaifeng),HL7(tak'ua),HL8(shiaok'ua),FL4(ch'ihsing),FL5(chiench'an wan),andT1(tachui)forhotneedleinsertion.Haochenisusedtoinsertthesupplementarypoints:HN10(yut'ang),T10(liumai),HL13(weichien),andHL6(hou sanli). 6.HaochenisinsertedintoT4(paihui)(orHL7tak'ua),orHL8(shiaok'ua).Heattreatmentisthenappliedtotheacupuncturepointsfor20min.Onetreatment sessioncomprisesfourtofivetreatments.Inseverecases,twotreatmentsessionsareindicated,with2days'intervalbetweensessions. 4 Dog A Milin18,19 Thepointscitedbelowindicatehumanpointsanatomicallytransposedtothedog. Amenorrhea (1)''Emptyamenorrhea,"whichisalwaysaccompaniedbydigestivedisorders:B20,B21,CV12,CV6,ST36,B43,B18,CV4,SP6. (2)"Fullamenorrhea"withoutdigestivetroubles,butwithcongestive,hypertensemanifestations:B25,CV4,LI11,SP6,SP10,LIV2.Add:B23(ifkidneytroubles existatthesametime),P5(whencirculatorytroublesrequireit),LIV8,LIV4(inthecaseoflumbarpainsanddifficultiesofurination). Dysmenorrhea (1)Earlymenstruation,withveryredblood,congestivestate,rapidpulse.H5,LIV2,SP6. Withpalebloodandinsmallquantity,sensitivityinthelumbarregion,itwillbenecessarytotone:LIV3,LIV8,K3,K7. (2)Latemenstruation,withpaleblood,insmallquantity,palemucous,small,rapidpulse,vertigo,tone:SP2,LIV3,LIV8. Withabdominalpains,whitishtongueindicatingdigestivetrouble:LIV3,LIV8,K3,K7,B23,B18. Withverybrightblood,asthenia,anorexia,digestivetroubles,tone:LIV1,SP6,CV6,CV4,CV3,GV4.

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Withdarkrosyblood,polydipsia,yellowishlayeronthetongue,rapidandslippingpulse,tone:LIV1,SP6,CV6,CV4,anddisperseLIV3,ST30. FalsePregnancy Disperseinallcases:CV17,CV4,CV6,ST36andtone:ST30,ST13. Finally,toneSP6ifthemenstruationthatprecededwasabundantorseparatedfromthepreviousonebyalessthannormalintervaldisperseintheoppositecase. GeneralPointsforTreatmentofRheumatism TB15:silverneedle,calmthepainoftheshoulderandthearm,thecontractureoftheneck.Whenthepainsorlocalcontracturesareimprovedbythesilverneedle, thenusethegoldneedleforitsgeneralactionuponrheumatism.B60:(oftencalledtheChineseaspirinbecauseofitssecondaryroleupontheadrenalgland).Inpainof thetarsus,ofcontractureslocatedinthisarea,lumbarandcoccygealneuralgias,sciatica,thispointwillbefirstpuncturedwiththesilverneedle,thengoldafterthe disappearanceofthepainfulsigns.LI4:actswiththesilverneedleuponallthecontracturesandpainsofthecranialpartoftheanimal. Silverneedle:GB30,indicatedinallamenessofthehindlimb,weaknessoflegandstifle,painsoftheloinsandhindlimb.Particularlyindicatedincaseofcoexistence ofcutaneousproblems.Silverneedle:TB5,B58,indicatedinrheumatisminthejointswithsharppain.Silverneedle:SI7,willcalmmusclespasmswhiletonifyingthe heartindicatedinspasmodicpainandrheumatismalneuralgias.Silverneedle:LU1,particularlyindicatedinthepainsofshoulderandarm. Puncturewithasilverneedleallthepointswhicharedefinitelypainfulunderpressure,eveniftheydon'tcorrespondtoChinesepoints. ArthritisoftheShoulder Goldneedle:TB15silverneedle:LI15.Whenthepainsoftheshoulderworsenedbythemovement,usesilverneedleLI4andSI10. HumeroradioCubitalArthritis Goldneedle:LI4silverneedle:LI10(activeuponneuralgiasandcontracturesofthearm)silverneedle:S18silverneedle:TB10alsoactsuponthemuscularpains locatedalongthespinalcolumn). ArthritisoftheCarpus Goldneedle:LI10silverneedle:P6,LI4,TB5,LI6. CoxofemoralArthritis Goldneedle:GB30silverneedle:B60,GB26(alsoactsforlumbarpain),GB28,ST30(alsoforlumbarpain),LIV12(activeuponallcontracturesandpainfulspasms ofthehindlimbandlumbarpain). ArthritisoftheStifle Goldneedle:LIV9,B60silverneedle:K2(alsoactiveuponlumbarpainandfootpain),ST36(limbedema),GB34(forarthriticpainofthestifleandforcramps). ArthritisoftheTarsus Goldneedle:B58,K6(activeuponallmobilitytroublesofthehindleganduponchronicnephritis)silverneedle:SP5(actsparticularlyuponosseouspain,alsoupon constipation),B60. Forarthrosisofthesejoints,switchtheneedles(goldinsteadofsilver,andviceversa)duringthelastsession. VertebralArthritis Theimportantthinginthetreatmentofvertebralarthritiswithacupunctureistocalmdownthemuscularcontractures.First,usethemainpointsofcontractures:GB40 (alsoforpaininthehindleg),B62,B56,B57.Onecanalsoaddthefollowingantispasmodicpoints:LIV2(indicatedforlumbarpain,articularpain,cramps),LIV3 (indicatedforlumbarpain).Tosuppresstheabdominalcontractureswhichoftengowiththemeningealpain:CV12(indicatedincaseofhardandtightabdomen). Finally,putthesilverneedleonbothsidesofthespinosusprocessusofthevertebrae,atthelevelofthepainfuljoint,onthemeridianofthebladder. TemporomaxillaryArthritis L14.Goldneedle:ST2,ST3,TB23.Allthesepointsarealsothepointstouseinatrophicmyositisofthemasseterswiththeneedlesindicatedhere.Aslongasthere arecontractures,switchgoldandsilverneedlestotonifymusclesorwhatremainsofthem. ParalysisinDogsCausedbyAge Goldneedle:GV19,GB34,GB37. ChronicCoughintheDog Goldneedle:B13,LU9silverneedle:K25,P6. B Shin20(Fig.3116) Allergy Hypersensitivity(byForeignProteinMaterial) Rx.Points:26,44,131,30. Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week.

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AllergyofRespiratoryTract(fromPollen) Rx.Points:14,42,45,33,33C(interspinousspaceT10T11). Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. AllergyoftheSkin Rx.Points:26,44,131,29,22,52. Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. AllergyofDigestiveTracts Rx.Points:20,44,45,14. Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. HipDysplasia UnilateralMalformation Rx.Points:37,37C,41,41C,59(othersideonly). Method:Bilateral,k5min,3times/week. BilateralMalformation Rx.Points:38,38C,40,40C,592,591,46. Method:Bilateralonce,thenleftsideonce,thenrightsideonce.20min,3times/week. HipDysplasiawithDiscSyndromes Rx.Points:37,37C,38C,40,40C,41C,59. Method:Bilateral,20min,3times/week. Epilepsy Rx.Points:13,191,18,12. Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. FacialParalysis Rx.Points:131,11,8,44,12(othersideonly). Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. Chorea Rx.Points:26,25,22,12. Method:Bilateral,15min,2times/week. IntervertebralDiscSyndromes Rx.Points:Contingentupondiscafflicted. Method:a.Locatethediscthatisabnormal(forexample,T13L1). b.Usethepointsoneaboveandonebelow(forexample,36,38,andpainpoints). c.Rotatepoint36needleclockwiseandpoint38needlecounterclockwise. d.Donottouch36painpointand38painpointafterinsertion. e.Mildmoxibustiononpoints36and38for5min. f.Bilateral,20min,2times/week. Quotations,Abstracts,andCaseReports Unlesskeyedtoaspecificfigureinthisbook,pointscitedarehumanequivalent. LargeAnimals QuotationsandAbstract "Whenothertreatmentshavebeenineffectivefortreatingoverworkedordebilitatedhorses,Ihaveusedacupunctureoccasionally,andinafewcases,itseemedtobe beneficial."10 "InTokyo,wherethereareabout1000racehorsesinresidence,equineacupunctureisanimportantmedicalspecialty.MasayashiKirisawaDVM,treatsabout50 patientsaday,doingfineneedleacupunctureprimarilyforinflammationandrigidnessofmusclesintheneckandshoulders.Anothertechnique,donewithbigger, knifelikeneedles,recallsancientbloodletting.Theseareinsertedtopurge"badblood",inaprocesswhichissaidtorestorehealthtoexhaustedhorses."3 "Talkingabouta10yearoldgeldingjumperthreequartersthorobredandonequarterArabianwhohaddevelopedosteoarthritisintheleftoutsidehock, Feinmansaid,`Weknewitwascalcificationorbonespursthehorsehadbeentreatedwithallthestandardmethods,soweaskedDr.Beckertouseacupuncture. "`Theresultswereincredible...heinsertedoneacupunctureneedleinthehip,byhand.Thehorsedidn'tflinch.'Immediatelyafterinsertion,thehorseputhisweight ontheleghehadbeenfavoring,stoodsquare,andbecametranquil.Theneedleremainedaffixedforaboutaminuteandthenwasremovedeasily. "Thehorsewasthenimmediatelytrottedinhand,showingonlytheslightestindicationofdiscomfort.`Dr.Beckeradvisedmetoexercisethehorse.' "Becker'srecordsindicatethatthegelding,treatedwithacupuncturetwiceaweekoverathreeweekperiod,wasjumpingfivefootcoursesinthreeweeks. "Anotherhorsetreatedwithacupuncturerespondedevenmoredramatically.Sufferingfrominflammationsoseverehecouldnotstand,theswellingwasextremefrom shouldertohoof.Beckerneedledthehorse,whowalkedimmediatelyaftertreatment.Theinflammation,reducedwithinfourhours,requiredonlyonetreatment."5 "Uponenteringthestall,theboarwaslyingdownandwouldnotgetupuntilproddedandgivensupportatthehindquarterandatthetail.Thiscausedtheanimala greatdealofpain,anditcriedoutdur

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ingthewholeexamination.Therewas,however,noevidenceoftemperatureriseorbonefracture,so,onthatbasis,Ithoughtthattheanimalcouldhavebeensuffering fromsomethinglikelumbago.Actually,theafflictionwasofatraumaticgenesis,so,atfirst,itwastreatedwithcortisone,antihistaminesandinjectionsfromapyrazol derivative. "Onthenextday,theanimal'sconditionhadnotnoticeablyimproved. "Idecidedtotryacupuncture...withsomeneedlesthatIhadmadebefore,forworkonlargeranimals,...frompianowire. "Withtheseneedles,Ithenpiercedthedorsalandlumbarregionsontheboarintheareaofthebladdermeridian. "Theseslight,probingneedlepricksdirectedintothehyperalgesiczonesoftheanimalproducedloudcriesofpain,andevenanoccasionalshortspasmas well....Becauseofthethicknessoftheboarhide,Iwasonlyabletoforcetheneedlesinjustafewmillimeters. "Afterpiercingfiveorsixverypainfulpointsinthelumbarregion,Ibroughttheanimaloutofitsstallandwalkeditaround.Atfirst,theboartookverysmall,halting stepsandwasquitestiffbutafterabout20meters,theanimal'sgaitbecamemuchfreerandeasier. "Afterabout100meters,wecameupontheboar'sherdofsows.Fromthesesows,hehadselectedonetwodaysago,andshewasstillinheat.Afterashortperiod oftime,theboarapproachedherandbeganforeplaywithheraboutfiveminutesafterthis,theboarmountedthesowandachievedsexualclimax.Afewminutes later,thesamethingoccurred."13 "Inamare,lumbarpainhadbeenpresentforsixweeksandgrewworsedespitetheusualtreatment.Theexaminationrevealedapainfulzonealongthespinewitha maximumintheleftlumbarregion.Thedayafterthefirsttreatment,therewasanimprovement.Thepacewaslessstiffandtheparavertebralzonelesspainful.After fourtreatmentswithin12days,thereremainedjustaslightstiffness,afterthefifthtreatmentthecurewascomplete.Exercisingwasstartedagainandafterashort while,itwasabletocoveralongdistance."14 "Reportsofpastworkstimulatedmetotrytouseacupunctureindailypractice....Ofcourse,Iusedmodernantibioticsandseraininfectiousdiseasesofbacterial origin,sincetheirvalueiswithoutdoubt.ButIstillwanttopointout...thataccordingtomyopinionacupunctureincreasestheeffectofothermedication. "IwouldliketomentionthecaseofasevenyearoldBerberhorse(usedbyitsownerforwalksinthewoods)thathadbilateralspavinandosteoarthritisofthetarsal joint.Thisdiseaseledtocompleteuselessnessofthehindextremities,sothatthehorsewasnotabletorunanymore.Localtherapywasused,butitdidnotbringany improvement.Theownerhadalreadymadeuphismindtogettheanimalkilled.Ihadbeenaskedtocomeforthatreason. "Inthiscondition,Iusedacupuncturetwiceandchosethefollowingpoints:B60(goldneedle),SP5(silverneedle),K9,andBL58. "Ifitwouldhavebeenacaseofacutearthritisofthetarsaljoint,Iwouldhavechosensilverneedlesinsteadofgoldenones,Iwanttopointout. "Afterthesetreatments,thehorsegainedbackitsusualmobilitywhilethechangesinthebonesremained. "Twoyearslater,Isawthehorseagaininverygoodcondition."17 "Eddie,thearthriticgiraffeatWindsorSafariParkoutsideLondon,ismovingaroundwitheaseaftertwoacupuncturetreatments.ParkdirectorGarySmartsaidthat heandparkveterinarianDavidTaylorvisitedChinaearlierthisyeartostudyanimalhusbandryandzoomanagement.Whilethere,theyalsosawhowtheChineseuse acupuncturetotreatarthriticcows.`Dr.Taylorwassoimpressed,'Smartsaid,`thatwethoughtwe'dtryitonEddiethegiraffe.'Apparently,it'sworkingEddienow walkswithoutalimp."4 Chan8 hasreportedonthetreatmentofcolicusingacupuncture: Horsesofmixedbreedingwereused.Theageofaffectedhorsesrangedfrom1to11years.Ofthe21cases,6werespasmodiccolic,2wereengorgementcolic,8 wereimpactioncolic,and5wereflatulentcolic.Threekindsofneedleswereusedforcolictreatment:(1)Haochenneedles,whichusuallyareusedforstimulationof points,butinthisstudychieflyforbloodletting(2)prismneedles,usedforlettingsmallamountsofbloodoninsertionintobloodvesselsand(3)wideneedles,used whenlargerquantitiesofbloodarelet(ascalpelmaybeusedinstead,butcaremustbetakennottocutupthebloodvesselorcuttoodeeply). Manyacupuncturepointsareprescribedintreatingcolic,butthroughtheresultofhispastresearchwork,bloodlettingatpointsHN4(sanchiang),FL20(chienti tou),andHL22(houtitou)hasprovedmosteffectiveandhasbeenusedthroughoutthispresentstudy.(Figs.328,332,334b,337).

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Thetreatmentofcolicbyacupuncturegivessatisfactoryresults.Generally,incoliccases,peristalsisoftheintestinesisslightorabsentandabdominalpainissevere. However,approximately15minafterbloodlettingatthespecificpoints,peristalsiscanbedetected,andpaingraduallysubsides.Theintervalsbetweenperiodicspells ofpainlengthen(spasmodiccolic),andwithin12hourssymptomsofcolicdisappearandconditionsreturntonormal.Theefficacyrateforbothspasmodicand engorgementcolicwas100%oftheothertwotypesofcolic,painwasrelievedinonecaseofflatulentcolic,butpulseandappetitedidnotbecomenormaluntil24 hourslater.Twocasesofimpactioncolicdidnotgivefavorableresultsbecausetreatmentwasgiventoolateaftercomplicationshadalreadysetin.Thus,theaverage efficacyrateforthethreetypesofcolicbesidesspasmodiccolicwas8090%. Basedonexperience,acupuncturetreatmentofcolicinhorsesismostlikelytobesuccessfulwhenundertakenearlyinthecourseofillness.Improvementofdietary managementandnewmedicaldrugsmaybehelpfulineradicatingcolicaltogether,butinoutofthewayplaceswheremedicineisnotavailable,prompttreatmentwith acupunctureinemergencycasescanbelifesaving.Acupuncturehasprovedeffective,convenient,andeconomical,andithasbeenusedandrecordedasapractical therapyforequinecolicformorethanathousandyearsinChina. Pointsusedforthetreatmentofcolicinhorsesare:HN17(erhchien),HN4(sanching),HN11(fenshui),HN9(chiangya),Sobin64(weishu),T10(pishu),Sobin 69(tachangshu),FL20(chientitou),HL22(houtitou),HL17(houhai),HL19(weipen),andHL20(weichien)(Figs.328,329,331,332,334b,335a,3 37,343). Prescriptionsfordifferenttypesofcolicare:(1)Spasmodiccolic:HN17,HN4,HN11,HN9,FL20,HL22,Sobin69,andHL20.(2)Engorgementcolic:HN4, HN11,HN9,FL20,HL22,T10,andSobin64.(3)Impactioncolic:HN11,HN9,FL20,HL22,Sobin69,T10,HL17,andHL19.(4)Flatulentcolic:HN4,HN11, FL20,HL22,Sobin69,T10,andHL17. CaseReports ThesearesomeofthecasereportssubmittedtotheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietybymembersofthatsocietyanddistributedinthenewsletterofthe society. 1.Equine6yearold,standardbred,gelding,trotter.Thishorsehadanoldfractureinhisleftcarpus.Thehorsewassolamethathecouldhardlywalk,muchless race.Itreatedthekneewithacupunctureandin1hourthehorsewasmuchimprovedandraced2dayslater100%sound.Butazoldinwasalsogiventothehorse beforetherace,buthehadnotbeensoundwithcortisonealonebeforeacupuncture.Thepointsusedwere:eyesofkenthe2pointsinfrontofthekneeandinthe intercarpaljoint,TH3andTH5,LU4,L11(Figs.313to318).Theneedlesweretwirledfastandleftin1015mintoachievesedation.Thebeneficialeffectsonthis lamenesslast37days,andthehorsewastreated12daysbeforeeveryrace. 2.Equine,Americansaddlebred,12yearoldgelding.Chronicpulmonaryemphysemaof2years'duration.Treatment:leftside,Shin'slungpoint,5minShin'sliver point,12minShin'sstomachpoint,12mindailyforsixtreatments(4/26/755/1/75).Oneweeklater,ownerreportedmoreheaving.Irepeatedacupuncture treatmentonrightside.PlacedanimalondailycholinechlorideandvitaminAsupplement.Symptomshavenotyetrecurredasof6/4/75.Thisanimalwasknownby metohavearespiratoryproblemformorethan2years.Itseemsatthistimethatacupuncturetreatmentaloneiseffectingacure. 3.Equine,appaloosa,4yearoldstallion.Equineinfluenzawithheaves.Clinicalsigns:temp.104.6,resp.rate1825,runningnose,runningeyes,catarrh,cough, rales,emphysema,pumpingofflanks,historyofcombioticfor3daysandgettingworse.Treatment:IVsulfadimethoxine,50cc20ccFlucorticinIM10cc antihistamine10cccamphoratedoil,5ccvitaminADE.Thirtysixhourslater,hewasbroughttoequinehospitalandcontinued1/2doseIVsulfa,Flucorticinand camphoroildailyfor4moredaysplus,Shin'slungpoint,5minShin'sliverpoint,15minShin'sstomachpoint,15min(alldailyfor4days).(Seepp.122214and Fig.3109)Onfourthdaywhenneedleswereremoved,siteswereallinjectedwith3cccamphoroil.Animalwasreleasedonfifthday.Temperatureisnormaland practicallynoheavesbutstillhascougheatswell.Combiningwesternmedicinewitheasternlookspromising. 4.Equine,Americansaddlebred,7yearoldgelding.Horsecoughsinstallandinexerciseandheavingbreathingatrest.Treatedwithdifferentmedicationwithno results.Bronchialsedativepowder(FD),etc.Diagnosis:chronicemphysema.Treatment:OkadapointsSI6,BL13,BL17,BL40,LI8,LI9,LI10treatedmanually onceweeklyfor3weeksbilateral(Figs.313to318).Stoppedcoughingatexerciseandinstall,andbreathingatrestwasalmostnormal.Horsesold,andIcould notfollowresults.

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5.Equine,Shetlandpony,13yearoldmare.Founderedseveralyearsago,andponyrecoveredundermedication.However,sufferedacuterelapseafterturnedout ongrassinspringafterhaydietallwinter.Ponycouldnotmove,laydownconstantly,hooveswerehot,strongdigitalpulse.TreatedwithAziumandButazolidin daily.Ponyrespondedtomedicationhowever,assoonasmedicationwasstopped,symptomsreappeared.Diagnosis:chroniclaminitis.Treatment:TreatedOkada pointsTH4,SI2,LU8,LI1,TH1manuallydailyfor12daysandthenperiodicallyonceevery3or4weeksforfivetreatments(Figs.313to318).Ponyrecovered completelywithnorelapseafter6months. 6.Equine,Thoroughbred,gelding.Chroniccarpitisof18months'duration,withextensivebonyproliferationofradialintermediateandthirdcarpalbones.Also muchproliferationoranteriorradiusoneachsideofcommonextensortendon.Treatment:Previoustreatmenthadbeendrainingthesynovialfluidfromcarpusand extensorsheathandinjecting80mgofDepoMedrol.Thiswasdonetwiceabout6weeksapart.Nosteroidsweregiven2monthspriortoacupuncturetreatments. 5/6/75:(Fig.3109)points22,29,46,38needleswereputinplace,thenmoxibustionappliedtoeachpointforapproximately2min.Needleswereleftinplace30 min.Atthistime,thehorsewasstiffandcouldhardlyflexhiscarpalarea.Hedidsowithaggravation.Thehorseseemedtoenjoythistreatment,especiallyafterthe moxawasused.Atthistime,however,therewasnoimprovementofgaitorswelling.5/10/75:Thesametreatmentwasgiven.5/11/75:Theswellingwasbeginningto subside,synovialfluidonly,notbone.5/14/75:Usedpoints22,29,38,44,andtwolocalpointsoneachsideofcommonextensortendonabout2cmapart.Lower needleswere3cmabovecarpus.Moxawasusedonallpoints.Needleswereleftinplaceabout30min.5/17/75:Allsynovialswellingwasgone.Horsecouldflex kneeabout75%withnoresisting,andtheownerstartedlightriding.Also,hisspiritordesiretogoseemedmuchbetterthanbeforestartingthetreatments. Ihavegivennofurthertreatmentsatthistime.Thehorsehasremainedthesameandhasnotbeenworseorbetter.Iamwaitingtoseehowlongtheseeffectslast.I don'tbelievethatwecanhelptheboneproliferation,buttheacupuncturesurelyhasimprovedhisgait,reducedtheswelling,andseeminglyprovidedanincreased desiretousetheleg. 7.Equine,paint,longyearling,colt.Swellingandpainfollowingadministrationofintramuscularbiological.ThecoltwasbeingpreparedforshowinginthePaint HorseAssociation.TheowneradministeredEquineEncephalomyelitisvaccine(EasternandWestern)withtetanustoxoid,intramuscularlyintherightcervicalregion. Within2hours,theneckwasheldrigidlywithswellingandpaininvolvinganareaapproximately20cmindiameter.Acupuncturewassuggestedanditsuseagreed upon.Themostsensitivelocuswasdeterminedtobe2cmfromtheinjectionsite.Aneedlewasinsertedintothispoint3cmdeep.Fouradditionalneedleswere inserted1cmdeepsurroundingthecentralneedleatthemarginsofthesensitiveareaandresemblingthepointsofacompass.Sedationmanipulationwasadministered tothecentralneedleandtonificationtothebalancefor30min.Twentyhourslater,thecoltcouldnibblehayoffthegroundwithdifficulty.Threemostsensitivepoints wereascertained,andneedleswereplacedinthem2cmdeep.Sedationmanipulationwasadministered,andneedleswereleftinplace30min.Theownerreported thatwithin7hoursofthesecondtreatment,thecoltwasusingitsheadandneckinanormalfashion.Fourdaysaftertreatment,allactionsappearednormal. 8.Equine,18montholdMorganfilly.Awobbler,xrayedattheUniversityofPennsylvania.AsubluxationbetweenC2andC3wasdiagnosedasthecauseofthe Wobbling.Thefillywashospitalizedfor2weeks,atwhichtimeshereceived10treatmentsofacupunctureusingthepointsandtechniquesasfollows.Firsttreatment: Shinpoints,bilateral,13,11,17,30,401,32,10,spleenpoint,liverpoint(Fig.3109).Allpointsexcept10,whichwasjustpricked,weretreatedfor30minwith moxaappliedtoeachneedletwicefor1530sec.Depth:111/4in.,171in.,301in.,401/2in.,321in.,134in.,spleenpoint1/2in.,liverpoint1/2in.Turning ofneedleswasnotdone.Secondtreatment:SameShinpointsusedasinfirsttreatmentexceptIeliminatedthespleenpointandliverpoint.Iaddedanotherpoint bilaterallyontheneckatthelevelofthe3rdcervicalvertebra,otherwisetreatmentwasthesame.Thirdtotenthtreatments:samepointsandtechniqueasusedin secondtreatment.Aftereachtreatment,aspringloadedteishinwasusedtostimulatethearealateraltothespinefor10min.Thefillyseemedtoenjoythe moxabustion,especiallyonthecervicalpoints.Whenmoxawasused,timewasdeterminedbythefilly'sreaction.Iappliedmoxatohair(notskin)andbaseofneedle. Blisteringdidnotoccur.However,someswellingwasevidentaroundthepointsatvarioustimesduringtherapy.

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Improvementwasnoticedthedayafterthesecondacupuncturetreatment.Thefillyappearedstronger,andmovementofthefrontlegswasimproved.This improvementwasevidentbyherpickingherlegsuphigherandstumblingwasreduced.Shekeptimprovingbutseemedtobeworseimmediatelyaftereachtreatment. However,onthedayaftertreatment,herconditionwouldbemuchimproved.Thefillywasreleasedtoherowner.Threedaysafterherreturnhome,theownercalled tosayshewasverypleasedandexcitedforshefeltthatthefillywasdramaticallyimproved. 9.Equine,eightyearoldthoroughbredgelding.Fracturedshaftofiliumonrightside2yearsagoduringarace.Fracturehealed,buthorsecouldnotbeputback intotrainingbecauseoflumbarandsacralpain.Variousdrugs(hormonesandantiinflammatory)andexerciseprograms(suchasswimming)didnotchangethe condition,andtheanimalstillcouldnotbeworked.Theglutealsontherightsidebegantodecreaseinsize.Acupuncturetreatmentwasstarted,utilizingthepointsand numbersoftheSobinchemicalhorsemodel.Theneedleswereputinplace,leftfor20minandgentlytwirledafewtimes.Thehorsehadbeentreated10times.The firstseventreatmentsusedpoints82,79,80,78,and86ontheright79,and78ontheleft,and81.Thenextthreetreatmentsutilizedjust78ontherightand81.The horseisbackintraining,gallops12milesadayandjumps31/2ftfences.Treatmentwasonlydonewhenthehorsebecameuncomfortable,aboutevery3weeks, andwascontinuedforsixmonths. 10.Equine,baygeldingquarterhorse,13yearsold.Intermittentlamenessbecomingprogressivelyworsefor4to6monthsintherightfrontleg.Radiographs indicatednavicularchanges,earlyringbone,andearlyosseletchanges.Diagnosticnerveblocksweretried,andthehorsedidnotbecomesounduntilgivenavolar nerveblockabovethefetlock.Correctiveshoeingwasinstitutedusingneoprenepadsandrollingthetoes.Thiswasunsuccessful.Theperiodfromtheonsetofthe lamenessuntilacupuncturewasabout6months.Treatment:(Figs.313to318)SI1,LI1,TH1,HC3,B34,BL54,SI2(allpointstreatedbilaterally).Mainpointfor naviculardiseaseinfossaabovethebulbsoftheheel,andanytriggerpointsalongthebladdermeridian(6treatments).Atthispointtheownerfeelsthehorseis80% better.Ihavenottreatedthehorsesincebecausetheownermovedtoanotherstate. 11.Equine,graygeldingquarterhorse,cuttinghorse,7yearsold.Intermittentlamenessbetweenthefrontandrearlegs.Thehorsewastakentotheuniversityfor diagnosis.Radiographsshowedpedalosteitis.Itwasthenalsobelievedthathehadearlybonespavinintherearlegs,withtherightlegbeingmoresevere.Thehorse wasshodwithneoprenepadsandputonpowderedaziumfor10days.Attheendofthisperiod,thehorsewassoundandputbackinuse.Within3weeks,hewas lameagain.Atthistime,theuniversityreradiographedhim,anditwasdeterminedthathealsohadnaviculardiseasewithnoadvancementinthepedalosteitis.There wasalsoalateralspurformationofthenavicularboneandasmallosteoporeticcyst.Atthistime,a3degreewedgedneoprenepadwasused,andthehorsewas placedonButazolidinfor7days.Fromthispointon,thehorsehasbeenlameoffandon.Tenmonthsaftertheonset,hewascompletelylameandtotallyunusable. Treatment:Correctiveshoeingfor2monthswasunsuccessful.Acupuncturewassuggestedinsteadofaneurectomy.Tohelpcorrectthespavininthebackfeet,the angleofthefootwasincreased3degreeswithflatplateshoes.Thistookcareofthespavin,buthewasstilllameinthefront.Acupuncturetreatment:(Figs.313to3 18)Treatment1,needlesonly.Mainpointindepressionabovethebulbsoftheheels,bilateralonbothfrontlegsalsoTH5bilateralBL17andBL34wereboth triggerpointsonpalpation.Durationoftimewas10min.Treatment2,sameas1.Treatments3,4,and5werethesame,addingelectricalstimulation:time,10min. Results:50%remissionoflamenessafterfiveadditionaltreatments.Thehorseisbackintrainingandatthispointshowsnosignsoflamenesswithhardwork. 12.Equine,palaminogelding,7yearoldquarterhorse.IllnessbeganinDecember,1973.Thehorsehadlaboredbreathingandadry,hackingcough.On ascultation,therewereincreasedlungsounds.TemperatureandCBCwerenormal.Atthispoint,therewasadoubleexhilatorylift.Treatment:IVLiquamiacinand antiphrene.Thehorserespondedfor1month,thenrelapsed. TheownersthentookthehorsetotheUniversityofMissouri.ACBCshowedaslightincreaseinthewhitebloodcellcount(1500overnormal).AnEKGshowedno heartdamage.Theirdiagnosiswaschronicbronchitis.AtthispointIVsulfatherapywasinstitutedalongwithoralisoniazid.Thehorserespondedforapproximately8 days. Thehorsewasthenbroughthome,andwithin4daysrelapsed.IthengavethehorseIVsulfaand

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oralisoniazid.Thistreatmentwasunsuccessful.Eightmonthslaterthehorsewastreatedwithacupuncture.Treatment:(Figs.313to318)bilateralLI4,LU6,BL17, andalltriggerpointsalongtheBLmeridian.Aftersixtreatments,allsignsregressed.Thelasttreatmentwas14monthsago,andthehorseisnowshowingagain. 13.Equine,standardbred,3yearoldgelding.Leftshoulderlamenessnodsoneachstepandnotsensitiveonanypalpationorexaminationatfeet,ankles,or knees.Treatment:acupunctureandultrasoundtobladdermeridianpoints,(Figs.313to318)LIV3,L14,B23,B25,B27,GB7(point44onFig.109).Thishorse wassorewhenittrotted,alsosoreonthebladdermeridian.Aftertreatment,hehandledhindquartersbetterandimprovedandsmoothedouthisgaitwhendriving.To date,horsemovessoundonleg. 14.Equine,quarterhorse,3yearoldstallion.Soreonfrontshoulderswalkedpegleggedonbothsides.AcupuncturepointsusedwereLI2andLI11sedate B65sedateGB65andGB43tonify(Figs.313to318).ThishorsewastreatedonSaturdayafternoon,thenagainonSundaymorning.Samepointsasaboveplus someultrasoundoveritsshoulders.Theanimalwasthentakentothetrackandracedintheafternoonofthesameday.Hewonhisrace. 15.Equine,standardbred,2yearoldstallion.Low,bowedtendon,verytenderonpalpationwithheatinlocalarea.Insertionofneedlesinbowedareaoneach sidejustabovetheankle.Sedatedfor20min.Oneneedleatposteriorpartofbowstimulatedfor5min.Threetreatmentsultrasoundusedforthelasttreatment.This horsewalkedsoundlyonaffectedlegaftertreatmentandwasnotsoreonpalpationorextremepressuretothesuperficialordeepdigitalflexortendons. 16.Equine,standardbred,5yearoldgelding.Nodsheadwhentrottingorpacing.Hadqualifiedatracetrackin2:08butfinishedlame.Treatment:acupunctureand ultrasound.Rightfrontshouldertreatedwith211,212,18,15,and17.Treatedfourtimes(Fig.3109).Thehorsewasboxstalled2daysbeforegoinghome.He showednolamenessinatrotorpace.Hewasfeelingverygoodandhardtoholdwhenhelefttheclinic. 17.Equine,standardbred,8yearoldmare.Soreinhindquarter,withshort,choppysteps.Racedbutnotfinishingstrongandsoreafterracing.Acupunctureand ultrasoundonbladdermeridian,BL23,BL25,BL27(Figs.313to318),point44(Fig.109).Treatedfivetimesin5days.Whenmarewasbroughttoclinic,she wasverydoggyandwalkedwithherheaddownandslowtolead.Whenthemarelefttheclinic,shewaseatingandfeelinggood,wantingtoplayandjump.Shewas fullofspiritwhenled. 18.Equine,thoroughbred,15yearoldgelding.Myositisoflongissimusdorsimuscles,tenderness,wasnotflexingoverfences,elevatedSGOT.ESesteroids,heat, etc.SGOTreducedbutnotjumpingwell.Injected12ccMcKay'sintopoints30,38,39,and44bilaterally(Fig.3109).Oneweeklaterthehorsewasjumping andusinghisbackmuchbetter.Ihaveusedthisdrugalongornearthebladdermeridianforyearsandhaveseenapparentimprovement. 19.Equine,5yearoldthoroughbredgelding.Subluxationandluxationofoffstifleshowedswingingleglamenessplusoccasionalcompleteluxationwith"locking" ofjoint.Suggestedsurgery,buttrainerrefusedbecausehorsehadtobeshowninabout10days.InjectedMcKay'sinSP6,B1,B54,ST36,andaroundjoint(Figs. 313to318).Repeatedin5days.Horsenotcompletelysound,butwasabletobeshownonphenylbutazone,andwassecondyeargreenworkinghunterchampion attheshow.Hasbeentreatedoncesincethenandseemstohaverecovered. 20.Equine,standardbred,6yearsold.Laminitisandnaviculardisease.Thishorsewastreatedsixtimeseveryotherday.Thesetreatmentsconsistedofneedlingthe coronaryband,heelpoints,bleeding,electricity,andmoxa.Aftersixtreatments,noimprovementwasnoted.Theownercalledinanotherveterinarianandroutine medicaltreatmentisnowbeingpursued. 21.Equine,Tennesseewalkinghorse,8yearoldgelding.Animalhadhistoryofemphysemaforpast2years,couldnotbeusedbecauseanyexertiontriggered heavyabdominalbreathingandcoughing.Thehorsecoughedpersistentlyandregularly.Treatmentofwettinghay,antihistamines,andsteroidswereineffective. Treatment:FL19,FL1,FL2,FL3,andT31wereused(Figs.313to318).Theanimalrespondedwellafterfirsttreatment,butwasstillunabletoberiddenalsodid someerraticcoughing.Treatedabout2weekslaterusingShin's4pointsfor

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emphysema.Thehorseisbeingusedandhasshownnoabnormalorunusualbreathingafterriding. 22.Equine,Morgan,8yearoldmare.Laminitis.Thisanimalhadbeenpurchasedbyablacksmithabout8monthsprevioustobeingseen.Theblacksmithfeltthat bycorrectiveshoeingtheanimalcouldbebroughtbacktofunctionaluse.Theanimalwasseverelylameonthefrontfeet,butshowednopathologicchangesofthe hoofandsole.Treatment:bleedingwithastylet,3pointatthecoronet1.Medial2.Lateral3.Anterior.Animalexamined3dayslaterandappearedmore comfortable.Retreatedatthesamepoints.Theanimalexercisedabout1weeklaterandwasmovingsoundly.After6months,theanimalisbeingshownwithnosigns offormerproblems. 23.Equine,5yearoldstandardbredmare,trotter.Thismarehadachronicthoracolumbarmyositislasting6months.Thebackmuscleshadbeeninjectedwith Sarapinandsteroidsanumberoftimesandlaterwithaninternalblister,alltonopermanentrelief.Treatment:10bladderpointsonthebackwherethepointswere sore,startingfromtheB21clearbacktoB31(Figs.313to318),fiveneedleswereinsertedinpointsandstimulatedstrongly(sedation)withaDCstimulatorfrom Japantocausearipplingeffectonthemuscles.Thiswasdonefor3min,andthefiveposteriorpointswerethendoneinthesameway.Irepeatedtheprocedureon theoppositeside.Thismarewassosorebeforetreatmentthatyoucouldrunyourhandwithslightpressuredownthebacklongissimusdorsimuscleandthemare wouldnearlydroptotheground.Tenminutesaftertreatment,Icouldnotmakethemareflinch.Sheraced2dayslaterandfinishedthirdinherbesttimeoftheyear.In fact,shehadbeenmakingbreaksforthelastfiveraces. 24.Equine,8yearoldstandardbred,gelding.Thishorsewasdiagnosedashavingnaviculardisease.Radiographically,nerveblocksandhooftesterssubstantiated thisdiagnosis.Thehorsehadbeenlamefor2months.Iusedthethreepointsaroundthecoronaryband.1.Infrontandanteriormedialandlateralpoints.2.HT6 (Figs.313to318)orpointatareawherenavicularbursaisblocked.3.Thetwopointsabovethebulbsoftheheels.Afterthefirsttreatment,thehorsewas definitelyimprovedandtrained3dayslaterverywell.Ihavetreatedthishorseseveraltimes,usually12daysbeforeeveryrace.Treatmentappearstorelievethepain dramaticallyfor47days.Lamenessthenrecurs. 25.Equine,7yearoldquarterhorsetypemare.Verymuscular,heavybody,1300lb,andsmallfeet.Thismarebecamecrippledwithlaminitisinbothfrontfeet3 yearsbeforepresenttreatment.Grossrotationofthe3rdphalanxoccurredatthattimewithresultantdroppedsole.Conscientiouscorrectivetrimmingandshoeinghad achievednearnormalalignmentofthe3rdphalanxwiththehoofwallafter3years.However,radiographically,apedalosteitisexistedonthecranialsurfaceofthe coffinbone.Theheelswerecontractedandthrushy,andthetoeswereseedy.Thedigitalpulsewascontinuouslyverystrong,andthemarewasgrosslylameatawalk andveryreluctanttotrot.HighlevelsofButazolidinhadpreviouslybeenusedwithoutsuccessfullyachievingafunctionallysoundanimal.Inadditiontothelaminitis,the marehadahistoryofnaviculararthritis.Theentiresurfaceofthefootwassensitivewhenexaminedwiththehooftesters. Acupuncturetherapywasbegunusingpointsfortreatinglaminitis.TheAcuflexdualmodelCZ110wasusedforelectricalstimulation.Modulationsettingwasat100, ratesettingat100Hz,voltagesettingbetween7.5and10(dependingonthemare'slevelofdiscomfort).Iuseatotalof16leadsatonetimethemeterindicates approximately510microamps. Treatmentwasgivendailyexceptonweekendsfor2weeks.Themarewasnotexercisedduringthistime.Noimprovementwasnoticeduntilafterthesixthtreatment. Shewasstilllameinbothfrontfeetbutnotasreluctanttomoveout.Bythe10thtreatment,shewascompletelysoundintheleftfront,butpainpersistedintheright frontandwasmanifestedbyanoddingheadlameness.Afterthefirst2weeks,themarewastreatedonceortwiceaweek.Lightridingexercisewasprovided thereaftertogetthemareoffthecementfloorsofthestall.Afterthethirdweek,themarewasstilllameintherightfrontandalamenessreevaluationwasmade.One cubiccentimeterof2%lidocainewasdepositedovertheposteriordigitalnerveattheleveloftheapexofthecollateralcartilageofthethirdphalanx.Thisenabledthe maretotravel100%sound.Treatmentsthereafterincludedadditionalpointsfornaviculararthritis.Withinanother2weeks,themarewascompletelysound.The digitalpulsehadevensubsidedinitsintensity.Twoweekslater,themarewasattheQuarterHorseCongressandtook2ndPlaceintheAmateurWesternPleasure and3rdintheSeniorWesternPleasureClasses.Intwoshows,shehasqualifiedtogototheWorldFinalsinKentucky.

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Pointsused:Thepointsuseddon'texactlycorrespondtothechartedpointsbutmaybethesame(Figs.313to318)HT6,bothfeetBL14,bothsidesLI7,both sidesmedicalHC4,LU6,HC3,LU8,LU5,andLU2lateralHT7,SI1,SI2,LI1,SI3,TH3,andL15. 26.Porcine,Duroc450lbboar,herdsire.Thisboarhoghadbeendowninhisloinsapproximately1week.Theownerhadappliedpoulticesandother decongestantstotheloinarea,buthestillcontinuedtolieonthehamanddraghimselfaroundwithhislegsextendedbehindhim.Iplacedasnareonhisnoseandused an18gauge,1/2in.needleona12ccsyringe.Iadministered2ccofvitaminB1solution,100mg/ccposteriortothetransverseprocessesbilaterally.Iinstructedthe ownertoreportthefollowingMonday.IfailedtohearfromheronMonday,butshereturnedtomyofficeonTuesday.Shestatedthatthehogwasuponhisfeetthe nextdayandonSundaywaschasingaroundthepaddocklookingforfood,andheservedasowonthe29th.Nofurthertreatmentwasadministeredotherthanthe injectionofthevitaminB1solutionintothebladdermeridianpointsB21,B22,B23,B24,andB25.IamconfidentthatifIhadnotusedthevitaminB1solution, camphoratedoilinjected1ccineachsitewouldhavedoneequallyaswell.ThisisverygratifyinginthatinyearsgonebyIhaveseenfarmerstakesuchanimalstothe packinghouseanddisposeofthemfortankage.Theyhavealwaysregardedsuchcasesasatotalloss.Inthiscase,acupunctureworksfastandveryeffectively. SmallAnimals Quotations 1."Myacupuncturetreatment[forsuddenparalysisinthedachshund]isquitesimpleandconsistsofinsertingsilverneedlesintothepainfulorsensitiveparavertebral pointsthatbelongtothebladdermeridian.IalsopuncturethetwopointsLIV2andLIV3withsilverneedlestoinfluencethemusclesandthevesselstricture.As compensation,IpunctureB60withagoldneedle.Incertaincases,thispointisreplacedbyB58orB67forinstance,ifthesickanimalstartstowalkagain,butstill dragsitshindpaw. "IfIdon'tseeanimprovementafterthreetreatments,Ichosethe"wondervessel",eitherConceptionVesselorGoverningVesselifpainandspasmsexist,withthe followingpoints:TB5(goldneedle),GB41(silverneedle),B60(goldneedle),SI3.Ofcourse,youcanonlyexpectsuccessinvagosympathetictonusdisturbances, butnotinspinalcordcompressionsorinfections.IalsowouldliketopointtoparalysesindogscausedbyagethatarepuncturedaccordingtoDr.delaFuyeinthe paralysispointswithagoldneedle.Thepointcombinationis:GV19,GB34,GB37. "Ioftenalsohadfailures,inpartbecausemyknowledgeofacupuncturewasnotgood,inpartbecauseofirreparabledamage,especiallywhenconcerningthecentral nervoussystem.Therearestillalotofunclearquestionsinthefieldofveterinaryacupuncture."17 2."Inmypractice,Ihaveoftencomeacrosscasesofapparentmyalgiaindogs,whichisawellknownmaladytoalldoctors.Iwillnowdiscusssuchacase: "Thedogwasstandingontheexaminationtable,andforpurposesofgeneralexaminationandanamnesis,thedogwastouchedveryslightlywithaverythin needle...ontheskinintheareasneartheneck,theshoulderandtheback,themuscleregioninquestionwasreadilyidentifiablebecauseofthemoreorlessstrong contractionsinthecutaneousmuscles.Thiszoneisthentouchedwithanotherneedleinthesameway,thusdeterminingtheLocusdolendi.Itisinthatplacethatthe steelneedleistheninserted,allthewayuptothegriporthefinger,where,accordingtothemusclemass,itcanremaininsertedanywherefromafewsecondsuptoa fewminutes. "Aftercompletingthisfirstphase(treatmentofhyperalgeticskinpoints),wethenhavetolookfortheproper"bladderpoints",whicharelocatedonthesidesofthe vertebralcolumn,andwhichmustbetransferredmentallyfromtheillustrationsfromatextbookonhumananatomyontotheanimal'sbody. "Forthemostpart,wecantreatcorrespondingbodypartswhereverLocidolendiarefoundonanimalsandhumansinmuchthesameway.... "Welloveronehundreddogshavebeentreatedinthisway,andtherehavebeenveryfewrelapses. "Byusingtheabovedescribedacupuncturetreatment,thelengthoftreatmentwasabletobedrasticallyreducedinmostcases,onlyonesessionwasnecessary.If, afterthistreatment,thereisnosignificantchangeinthesickanimal'scondition,thenareexaminationofthediagnosiswouldbeadvisable."12 3."OnApril14,1955,afiveyearoldboxerwassenttomebytheSurgeryDepartmentoftheVeterinarySchoolofAlfort,sufferingfromosteoarthritisoftheright kneejoint.Ithadbeentreatedforthreemonthstheusualwaywithoutsuccess.Thereportshoweda

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deformedpuffedupswellingintheaffectedknee,andwalkingwasalmostimpossible.IusedapointcombinationthatMr.delaFuyehadadvisedmeforcasesofthat kind:LIV9(goldneedle).Thedoghastobekeptstanding,anotherpositionimmediatelychangesthetopographybecauseoftheextremeflexibilityoftheskin.This goldenneedleiscombinedwithapunctureonGB34withasilverneedle.B60iscombinedwithapunctureonK2withasilverneedle. ''ThedogwaspresentedagainonApril21,andtherewasanobviousimprovementinstandingandinwalking.Thedeformityofthekneeremained,butthefunctional disturbancewasresolvedbyfourtreatments.... "An8yearoldspanielhadasuddenattackoflumbagobecauseofcoldweather.Examinationrevealedaverypainfulandpressuresensitivepointthatcorrespondsto TripleBurner15.Inthelumbarregion,twopainfulpressurepointscouldbepalpatedthatwerepuncturedwithtwosilverneedles. "TB15waspuncturedwithagoldneedle. "Thesilverneedles,2centimetersdeep,stayedfor5minutes,thegoldneedlesfor10.Afterremovaloftheneedles,thedogwasabletowalk,andthenextday,his signsweregone. "Acupunctureisamethodforcurethateveryveterinarianshouldknowabout,nomatterwhetherhetreatssmallorlargeanimals.Acupunctureisofgreatvaluetohim. Oftenitcuresalone,oritmakestreatmenteasierbycombinationwithothermethods,influencingtheconstitution.Itwouldbedesirableifneedletreatmentwould becomeacommontreatmentinveterinarymedicine."16 4."Onecaseconcernedafiveyearoldshorthaireddachshundwhichhadbeensufferingfrombronchialasthmaforthreeyears.Allmedicationsandtreatmentshad failedtoalleviatetheconditionuntilitreachedthepointwherethedogsuffereddailyattacksandwouldhavesurelyendedupbybeingputtosleep.Theowner,a formerclient,broughtthedogtomeforthiscondition. "Iselectedthefollowingpoints,piercingthemwithsmall,thinneedles:K27,K26,GV1,B12,andB13.Thedogwastreatedinthiswayatfirsttwiceaweek,andthen onceaweekwithprogressiverecovery.Eachtime,theneedleswereinsertedforabout10minutes.Intotal,thetreatmentwasgivensixtimes.Afterthis,sincethedog didnothaveanotherattack,andsincetheattackshadbeenoccurringonadailybasisbeforetreatment,theacupuncturewasconsideredsuccessful.And,insupportof this,accordingtothedog'sowner,theanimalhasbeenfreeofalltroublesincetheacupuncture."6 5."Icannowalsoreportaboutthesuccessofacupuncturewithdogswithcasesofcatarrhorsinusitis(SI3,LI4,LI20,B2,B10,LU19,23a(P.d.M),ST10,ST40, GV23),oflumbago(local"Ju"andLUpoints,eventuallycombiningwithaB54andB60),ofthesyndromewhichoccursinthecervicalsegmentofthevertebral column(localpointsonthebladdermeridian,TB15,LU13,etc.),ofgingivitis(SI3,LI4,LI20,ST68,LU25,LU1,LIV13,forexample),ofbladderincontinence (B64,B65,SP5,SP6,SP9,K2,K6,K7,localGV,STandKpoints,aswellasB31andB28forexample),ofstomachandintestinalafflictions(GV15,GV13, GV12,GV4,ST21,ST25,L13,LI4,SP4,forexample),ofthundernerves,whicharecausedindogsbyexplosionsandthunder,etc.(LU19,GB20,B10,GB3, B13,GV15,forexample).Naturally,notallpointsarepiercedatthesametime.Ingeneral,Ihavehadnotroubleinsertingneedlesindogs.Inmostcases,theneedles onlyfalloutwhenadogisunrulyorwillnotstandorliestillforafewminutes.Intheseinstances,theneedleshavetobereinserteduntiltheanimalremainscalm enoughsothattheydonotfallout."7 6."Alltogether,Itreated150animals,mostlydogs.Of150observations,Ifinallydecidedtoreporton86,sincetherestofthemafteracloserlookhadtobe eliminatedbecauseofanuncleardiagnosis,othertherapeutictreatments,orbecauseofselfcure.Amongthese86cases,35showedaverygoodresult,30were mediumsuccessful,and31withoutsuccess. "Treating17arthropathies,Iachievedverygoodresultsin7cases,goodresultsin3,andfailuresin7.Someofthemwereveryunclearintheiretiologyothers showedastrongblockageothers,becauseoftumors,werenotlikelytobesuccessful.... "Acupunctureisverygoodintreatingpain,neuralgies,myalgies,andparalyseswithsomespectacularresults.Theetiologyoftheparalysesoftenisunclearandmostly slightarthrosis,sprainormyalgias.... Lumbalgiasweretreatedquitesuccessfully.In5cases,improvementoccurredimmediatelyafteracupuncturetreatment. "TherearestillalotoftrialsandobservationsnecessarytodecideonthetopographyoftheChinesepoints.Uptodate,Itransferredhumantopographytotheanimal andoftenthetransferwasextremely

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difficultorevenimpossibleespeciallyforthedistalextremities.Alotofpointsthatareimportantinmanprovedworthlessintheanimal.ThatisalsothereasonwhyI don'tmentionanyofthepointsusedbyme.Ionlywouldbeabletomentionthepointsalongthespineandespeciallyinthelumbarandsacralregionsthatseemtome tobeofgreatimportanceinpainandlumbalgiasintheseareasalsoinneuralgiasofthehindextremitiesandinparalyses. "Idon'twanttomakeaprecisestatementofthepointsasitalsocouldbeaneffectivezoneandnotjustonesinglepoint."17 7."Wehaveappliedacupuncturetoresidualcoughingincaninefilariasis,modelingcurrentacupuncturists'treatmentofcardiacasthmabyacupuncturingST9(Jen Ying)andCV22(TienTu).Instancesofsuchacupuncturearefew,buttheireffectsareapparentthefollowingisareportontheseinstances,anditishopedthatthe readerswillfollowuponthemwithfurtherexperiments.CaseNo.1:Asixyearoldcrossbredmaleunderwenttrimelarsantreatmentforfilariasis,residualcoughing persisteddespitetheadministrationofvariousdrugs,coughingeasedafteracupunctureofStomach9andConceptionVessel22,coughingstoppeduponasecond acupuncturesessionadministeredsevendaysafterthefirstoneandahalfyearshavesincepassed,withoutanyrecurrenceofcoughing.CaseNo.3:Afiveyearold femaleunderwentthreeacupuncturesessionsatonedayintervalscoughingceasedwithnofurtherchangesforthenexttenmonths.CaseNo.4:Afiveyearold femaleunderwentfouracupuncturesessionsatonedayintervalsasinCaseNo.3,coughingstoppedwithoutrecurrenceinthetenmonthsthathassincepassed."20 CaseReports ThesearesomeofthecasereportssubmittedtotheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietybymembersofthatsocietyanddistributedinthenewsletterofthe society. ConvulsiveDiseases 1.Canine,5yearoldfemaleIrishSetter.HadherfirstepilepticseizureinDecember1975Rx:Dilantin,11/2grTID.12/2/75:Convulsionsincreasing acupuncturewithsteelbeadspointstreatedwereGV20,GB13,15,TH18,andSP16.2/17/75:Hadanotherconvulsion,patienthadnothadanyconvulsionssince treatment12/2/74repeatedtreatmentwithmoresteelbeads.PointsusedwereGV20,GB13,15,TH18,andSP16.3/28/75:Hadanotherconvulsion,verymild.Got veryupsetandnervousforabout45min.Shehashadnoconvulsionssince2/17/75.6/5/75:Theownerreportedthatthedog'sconvulsionssinceherfirstacupuncture treatmenthadbeenverymildandalsothatherdispositionwasmuchbetter. 2.Canine,3yearoldwhitefemalePoodle.11/14/74:Patientwashavingepilepticseizuresthreeorfourtimesdaily.HadbeenonDilantin,11/2gr.BID,for severalyears.11/14/74:AcupuncturewithsteelbeadspointsusedwereGV20,GC13,GC15,TH18,andSP16.6/5/75:Ownerreportsdog'sseizuresarevery mild,aboutoneevery3days.StillonDilantin11/2gr.BID. 3.Canine,6yearoldmaleWelshCorgi.GrandmalseizuresstartedonSeptember1973withincreasingfrequency.InspiteofincreaseddosesofPrimidonethen Phelantin,DilantinandphenobarbitalandValium,seizuresoccurredevery23weeks.Seizuresweresustained,andcontrolwaseffectedonlyafterIV pentobarbitalsodium.ImplantationofsteelbeadswasdoneonMay5,1975,atGV20,GB13,GB15,TH18,andSP16.Dogwastakenoffallmedication.Dogwas normaluntilmorningofMay18,whenitcameintohospitalaftermanysustainedseizures.AnesthetizedwithNembutal.Xrayedheadtocheckthepositionsof beadsfoundtwobeadsmissing.Reimplantedmissingbeads.Doghasremainednormalto6/4/75. 4.Feline,4yearoldmaleDomesticShorthair.Incoordinationandperiodicspasticseizuressinceownershaveownedcat.CatwasonMebroin,whichreduced thespasticseizures,butonlywhenthecatwasdopedupbythepills.Acupuncturetreatmentwasgrantedbytheowners,andinjectionwithcamphoratedoilwasdone onthefollowingpoints:LI4,B54,GV20,GV15,andGB20.ThetreatmentwasperformedunderSuritalanesthesia.Thecathadseveralseizuresduringthefollowing weekandthenhadnoneformorethan1month. 5.Canine,8weekoldfemalePoodle.Oneweekaftermypartner'ssisterinlawboughtanewpuppy,itcamedownwithdistemper.In2weeks,thepuppywas having47grandmalseizuresdaily,andarequestforeuthanasiawasmade.Permissionwasgrantedtotryacupunctureandinjectionwith1minimofcamphoratedoil wasperformedonthefollowingpoints:LI4,B54,GV20,GB7,and20bilaterally.ThedogwasunderSuritalanesthesiaandwhimperedandjerkedwheneachpoint wasinjected.

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Onedaylaterthedoghadthreeconvulsions,andtheseconddayhadoneconvulsion.Sincethen,thedoghashadnomoreseizurestoanyone'sknowledge. 6.Canine,8yearoldfemalePoodle.Epilepsyuncontrolledwithmedication.VersaClipsimplantedinGB20,GV8,GV9,GV10,andGV20.Allmedication removed.Convulsionsafter10daystherefore,placedon100mgDilantin,whichcontrolledseizureswithoutoversedation.Withoutacupuncturethemedicationwas notsuccessful. 7.Canine,8weekoldmaleMixedCocker.Thedogwaspresentedtothehospitalwithatemperatureof104.Eyesandnosewererunny,anddogwasnoteating. Dogwashavingatypicalchewinggumfitwhenpresented.Inadditiontodistemper,thedogalsohadhookworm.ThedogwasgivenDNPforthewormsand antibioticsandsupportivetherapyincludingPrimidoneforthedistemper.After4days'treatment,thepatientwasmuchbetterandeating,butstillwashavingrepeated chewinggumfits.Onthe5thday,westartedacupuncturetreatments.Thedogwasonlyobservedtohavetwoadditionallightfitsafterthefirsttreatmentwith acupuncture.WeusedpointsGB13,14,15B1,20,67LI4GV1,20,and27.Inallcases,wetreatedeachofthepointsfor7seceachday.Weusedaneedle injectorattachedtoourLC/Meterwiththevoltagesetat12andthemicroampsat200.Thedogwastreatedondays5,6,7,and10withacupunctureandreleased. Fortyfivedayslater,theownerreportedthedognormalwithnoseizuresathomesincereleased. 8.Canine,5yearoldmalePoodle.Treated3yearsforepilepticseizures.ConvulsionswereneverstoppedbutweresemicontrolledwithDilantinandPrimidone. Althoughdogwasbeinggivenmaximumdailydosage,itbegantohavecontinuousseizuresandwaspresentedforeuthanasia.ThedogwasanesthetizedandVersa ClipswereinsertedthroughastabincisionatpointsbilateralGB20,GV20,GV8,GV9,GV10CV14,CV15,CV17.Dogwastakenoffallmedication,and seizurefreefor2weeks,atwhichtimea"mild"seizurewasobserved.Thedogwasreadmitted,andaVersaClipwasinsertedunilaterallyontheleftsideatGB30 andST36.Thedoghasremainedseizurefreefor1month.AnotherveterinarianbrieflymentionedthatinoneofhiscasesheusedpointsGV20,GV21,GV22, GV23,GV24,andGB13,GB14,GB15,andGB2.Theeffectsofacupunctureleadtoreductioninthedosageofmedicationforepileptiformseizuresratherthan beingsuccessfulasthesoletreatmentmodality. 9.Canine,8yearoldfemaleSamoyed.Dogpresentedon2/6/75withpostdistemperchorea,whichhadrenderedthedogimmobilefor11/2years.Ownershad beencarryingthedoginandoutofthehouseandcaringforitasatotalinvalid.Prognosisofthiscasewasconsideredimpossiblebutattheowners'insistence acupuncturetherapywasinitiated.Dogwashospitalizeduntil2/13.TreatmentwasgivendailywithAcustat2at150V.,thefrequencyexceedingthechoreapattern. B54,ST36,GB20,andB25wereusedbilaterally,aswellasLI4,GV20,andGV4.Dogtreatedon3/6/75.Wasattemptingtostand.Nowcapableofmaintaininga sittingposition.Doghospitalizedon3/13andtreatedevery3rdday.On3/28/75dogwasdismissed,walking,aslighttremorstillpersistedintemporalarea,butlimbs werechoreafree. 10.Canine,6yearoldfemaleBeagle.Postdistemperconvulsionsandchorea.5/23/75:Ownerreportedconvulsionlikeactivities,andatwitchintherightfrontleg. ShewassenthomeonMyelepsintablets(oneaday).Forthenext4years,shehadnumerousconvulsionsinspiteofMyelepsinandlaterDilantin.Sometimesa combinationofbothwasgiven.Theconvulsiveactivitywasnevercompletelysuppressed.4/2/75:VersaClipimplantsweremadeatGB20,GB21andGV23, GV21,GV13,andtheanimalwastakenoffmedication.4/16/75:Noconvulsionsandownerreportedthetwitchthathadbeenintherightfrontlegfor4yearswas gone.4/21/75:Hadamildconvulsion(2min),accordingtoowner.5/7/75:Doingfine.5/20/75:Hadaseriesofsevereconvulsions,natureaccordingtoowner.Atthis timeitisimpossibletoevaluatethelongrangeeffectsofmetalimplantsonthisanimal.Itishopedthatiftheydonotcompletelyeliminatetheconvulsions,theywillat leasemodifyandsoftentheirseverity. 11.Canine,2yearoldmaleNorwegianelkhound.Grandmalconvulsionsofunknownorigin.12/18/75:Ownerreportedoneconvulsion.Thedogappeared normal.4/10/75:Ownerreportedaseriesofconvulsions.4/11/75:AcupuncturesurgerywasundertakenandimplantsofVersaClipsweremadesubcutaneouslyat GB20,GB21,andGB13.4/14/75:Thedogexhibitedslightfrothingatthemouth,andwashyperkineticandveryhungry.5/31/75:Theanimalhasbeenfreeof symptomstodate.Althoughitistooearlytodrawconclusions,itlooksasthoughmetalimplantsovertheproperacupuncturepointswillmodifyoreliminate convulsiveactivity.

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12.Canine,5yearoldmaleMixedBreed.3/24/75:Dogtreatedforepilepsybutitcouldnotbecontrolled.Acupuncturetherapydecideduponwithconsentof owner.Dogwason3Primidonedaily,butdidnotstopepileptiformseizures.VersaClipsimplantedatGV20,GV21,GV22,GV23,GV24GB13,GB14,GB15 andX2.Medicationwasslowlywithdrawnovera5dayperiodandnoconvulsionshaveoccurredsincethattime.4/20/75:Convulsingagainhadtoputdogon Primidone,3/day.PrimidonetherapynowcontrolsseizureswhereaspriortoVersaClipimplantationthisdosagewasineffective. 13.Canine,4yearoldmalePoodle.Doghadhistoryofepilepticseizuresstartedabout2yearsago.SpellswerecontrolledbyDilantinandphenobarbitalfor about11/2years.Seizuresrecurred,andotheranticonvulsantswereineffective.Gomenolwasinjectedatsuggestedpoints,B510,GB13,GB14,andGB15. Seizuresappearedtobestoppedforabout1week,butrecurred.Insistenceoneuthanasianoconclusiondeterminedinthiscase. 14.Canine,8yearoldfemaleMixedDachshund.BroughttoourclinicMarch28,1975,convulsingapproximatelyeveryhourwithcompleteunawarenessof surroundings.Historyofconvulsingfor2years,andhadbeenonMebroinmedication.3/28/75:VersaClipsinsertedintoGB13,GB15,andGB20bilaterallyunder generalanesthesia.3/29/75:Noconvulsions,butnotcompletelyawareofsurroundings.3/30/75:Dogactedperfectlynormalandwasdischarged.4/2/75:Dog readmittedtohospitalwithslightconvulsions.VersaClipsinsertedintoGB34bilaterallyandCV15.Diedthenextday.Autopsyrevealedbraintumorlateraltoright ventricle. 15.Canine,3montholdmaleBassetHound.Distemperleadingtochoreaandposteriorparesis.September25,1975:Thepuppresentedfortreatment.Hehad bloodydiarrhea,pusfromacrustednose,purulentconjunctivitis,increasedvesicularsoundsoverthelungfield,fever,andcough.Hehadbeenadoptedfroman animalshelteralmost2weekspreviouslyandhadhadnovaccinations.Distemperwasdiagnosed.HereceivedaninjectionofFlocillin,prednisolone,andBvitamins withiron.HewenthomeonEntrocalmandTetrachel(weight,9lb).October15,1975:Dogcameinwithchoreaoftheearsandshoulders,firstnoted3days earlier.Novintabletsweredispensedforthepatient.Aprognosisof"verypoor"wasgivenwhenthesignsbecameworse(weight,12lb).October22,1975:Dog presentedforeuthanasiabecausehisconditionhadworsenedhecouldnolongerwalkbecauseofcompleteposteriorparesis.Euthanasiawasdelayed,andI implantedHemoclipsundertheskinatGV20,andbilaterallyatTH18,SP16,andintheGB1315area.Theclipshadbeenautoclaved,thesitesclippedand disinfected.Incisionwasmadethroughtheskinwithahookedbladescapel,andtheclipsinserted.OnestainlesssteelsuturewasneededatSP16.October23, 1975:Thedogranandplayedaboutthehospital.Hewasnormaltoalloutwardappearances. 16.Canine,6montholdfemaleDoberman.Thedogcontracteddistemper11weeksbeforepresentationandhadbeentreatedfordistemper.However,theowner electednottocompletethecourseoftreatmentforthedog,andthedoginthemeantimechangedownership.Thediagnosiswasbasedonthehistoryandclinicalsigns andareportofthesymptomsoccurringjustsubsequenttothedistemperinfectionandpersistingsincethattime.Treatmentwasbyacupuncture,andtheonly medicationwastheinitialantibioticBcomplextherapy.Thedog'sdietwasimprovedandtheownerinstructedintheuseofageneralphysiotherapeuticregimen. Acupunctureneedlingtechniquesandelectroacupuncturewerethemainmethodsoftreatment.Thefollowingpointswereused:GV20,LI4bilateral,LIV3bilateral, ST40,andGB34(bothunilateralandalternatedatsubsequentvisits).Needleswereleftinplace1530minandturnedperiodically.Theneedleswereremovedwhen theybecamelooseinthetissuesandfrequentlysomeofthemfelloutafter20min. Thedogwastreatedtwiceaweek.Inthesecondweekoftreatment,GV20wastreatedbydirectcurrentusingthepositivepoleoftheNeurometerfor10sec(6 voltsand200milliamps).After2weeksfornoparticularreasonotherthanintuition,GV20alonewasusedfor3furtherweeksonaonceweekly/twiceweekly alternatingschedule.Ateishinwasusedonthebladdermeridianoneachtreatmentsession.Fourdaysaftertreatment,theownerreporteddefiniteimprovement.This wasconfirmedonthethirdvisit.Thedogwasstronger,thoughstilluncoordinated,morealert,andlessdepressed.Shecouldwalk1012stepsandgoup23steps onastaircasewithoutfalling.She'dinvariablyfallonturnsandwhentryingtotrot. Eightdaysaftertreatment,improvementwasmarked.Thedogcouldwalkandrunwithoutfalling

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exceptonsharpturns.Shecouldtakefourascendingstaircasesteps,butcouldnotdescend.Shewasjustaboutnormallyalerttosurroundings,butstillappearedto bedeaf.Therightearremaineddropped.Thedogwassomewhatrestlessinitiallyontreatment,butconsistentlybecamerelaxedandcontentedduringtreatment. Inthefourthweekoftherapy,anapproachwastakentotreattheparalyzedrightearanddeafness.Itappearedfromtheanimal'sbehaviorthatshehadsomehearing tohigherpitchedsoundsintheleftear.Acupuncturelociintheneighborhoodoftheearweretreatedconcurrentlywiththeaforementionedpoints.Thefollowing additionalpointswereused:TH21,SI19,andGB2.Tendayslater,theownerthoughtherhearingwasimproved,butthisbecameapparentonlyonexamination2 weekslater. Threeweekslater,thedog'shearingappearedtohavereturned.Alsoovernight,towardtheendofthethirdweek,thedog'srightearreturnedtotheerectposition. Thisappearstobeacaseinwhichacupuncturecanbeconjecturedtohavehadsomebeneficialeffectsgiventhelongstandinghistoryofsymptomsthathadshownno changeuntiltherapywasbegun. 17.Canine,31/2yearoldmalePomeranian.Epilepsy.VersaClipswereimplantedinthefollowing:GV20,GV21,GV8,GV9,GV10,andGB20.All medicationwasremoved.Doghadoneconvulsiononthetenthdayafterimplantation.Wasputbackonmedicationfor2weeks.Since,hashadnoconvulsionsand nomedication.Beforeacupuncture,300mg/daywouldnotcontroltheseizures. SpinalCordDiseases 1.Canine,6yearoldfemaleBeagle.March13,1975:referredinfrontlegrigidity,totalabsenceofrearsensoryormotortoepadreflex.Rearlegsextendedunder dogstiffandrigid.Nobladderorbowelcontrol.RadiographindicateddisclesionsatT12,T13,L1,andL2.Doghadbeenparaplegic4weeksandhadbeengiven steroidsandButazolidin.Hospitalized.NeedleswereusedinpadpointsandST36,BL54bilaterally.Ultrasoundwasusedalongcourseofbladdermeridianincluding allassociationpoints.Toepinchwasevidentaftersecondtreatment.Treatmenteveryotherday.Bladdercontrolreestablishedafter8thtreatment.CV1wasused alongwithaforementionedpointstoavoidnecessityofgivingenema.Bowelcontrolestablishedafter12thtreatment.Dogwalkedandwasdismissedon5/5/75.Gait wasstilted,butimprovementinlocomotionhascontinuedwithoutfurthertreatment. 2.Canine,5yearoldmaleGermanShepherd.Day1:Posteriorparalysis,hindlegsinextension.AnimalwasgivenButazolidinIVandtakeninthehospitalfor radiographsandcompartmentrest.Theradiographswerenegative.Day3:Acupuncturetreatmentswerestartedonthegoverningvessel,betweenthelumbar vertebrae12,23,34,and45.Thesetreatmentswerecarriedoutdaily,insertingtheneedlesat90degreeanglesandleavingtheminfor15minintervals.Day6: Therehadbeennochangeintheanimal,soanewtreatmentwasinstituted.Allreartoepadpointsandthetailpointwerepuncturedfor15minperiods,onceadayat 90degreeanglesuntilDay12withnoresults.Day13:TheanimalwassenttotheUniversity,wherehewasdestroyed.Postmortemdiagnosis:degenerative myelopathy.Todate,degenerativemyelopathyhasnotrespondedtoanyformoftreatment.Inthiscase,acupuncturealsofailed,asadministeredbymyhands. 3.Canine,9yearoldfemaleMixedBreed.Day1:Examination.Pronouncedarchingofback,crying,restlessness,slightposteriorataxiamorepronouncedinleft rearleg.AtentativediagnosisofIVdiscsyndromewasmadeandradiographsscheduledforthenextmorning.Day2:Thedog'sconditionhadprogressedto posteriorparalysiswithcompletelossofvoluntarymotorcontrolinrearlegsandbladderfunctionbutretentionofsensoryorcorticalreflexes.Radiographsrevealed calcificationofalllumbarandmorethan50%ofthoracicdiscs.Treatment:10ccmannitolIV,OD2ccFlucortIV,OD11/2ccButazolidinIV,BID0.5cc AcepromazineIV,OD.Day3:Nochangeinmotorcontrolandbladderfunction.Sensoryorcorticalreflexesextremelydepressed.Treatment:1ccButazolidinIV, OD1ccDepoMedrolIM.Acupuncturetherapybegun:Needlingonly(stainlesssteel),rapidturningoftheneedles,15min.Pointsused:B67,B54,B23,B25, B11,GV6tailpoint,andKL1bilateral.Day4:Noapparentchangeinconditiontreatmentrepeated.Day5:Patientabletostand.Bladderfunctionimproved.No furthertreatment.Day9:Patientwalkingwell.Thevalueofacupunctureinthiscaseisquestionablebecausemanysuchcasesrespondinsimilarmannerwithout acupuncturetherapy. 4.Canine,6yearoldspayedfemaleDachshund.5/28/75:Couldn'twalkonbacklegs,rightfrontpaw

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turningin.Symptomswerepresentonapreviousoccasionwithotherfrontlegaffected.Tentativediagnosis:discsyndrome.Radiographicexaminationdisclosed spondylosisdeformans,andtheanimalwasreferredforacupuncture.Electroacupuncturetreatmentat200cyclesAC.Triggerpointswereselectedalongthebladder meridianeveryotherdayforthreetreatments.Theanimalbeganwalkingafterthesecondtreatment,andresultswereconsideredexcellent. 5.Canine,4yearoldfemaleMixedBreed.Intervertebraldisclesioninthedog.Thedogstoodwithitsbackarchedandearsdisinclinedtomove.Sheoccasionally criedoutwhenhandled.Shewasparaplegicandshowedaflaccidtypeparalysisdraggingthehindleg.Themuscletone,reflexes,andsensationwereallgreatly diminished,althoughthedogretainedcontrolofdefecationandurination.Thepedalreflexwaspresent,butappearedtobeduetothelocalneuralareresponse,as thereappearedtobenoperceptionofsensation.Thesymptomsbeganwithsuddenonset2weeksbeforeexamination. Diagnosiswasbasedonthehistoryandclinicalfeaturesandwasconfirmedbyradiologicexamination.Thelateralradiographofthevertebralcolumnindicatedthe presenceofadisclesionbythenarrowingofintervertebralspacebetweenvertebraeL2andL3.Also,therewasashadowintheintervertebralforamen.Aguarded prognosiswasgiven. Thiscasewastreatedbyacupuncturealoneandnomedicationwasgiven.Thedogwastreatedtwiceaweekfor5weeksusingasedatingneedlingtechniqueatthe followingpoints.Theneedleswereinsertedandleftinplace3040minafterinitialinsertionandrapidturningfor1min.Acupunctureloci:GV4,B23bilateral,B25 bilateral,B54,B67,ST36,andtailpoint. Duringthefirsttreatment,therewasreflexresponsethatinvolvedtheanimal'sperceptiononneedling,butonlyfortherightleg.Thisinvolvedexaggeratedflexingofthe leg.Thetailwasalsoflacciduntilthethirdtreatment.Then,forashortperiodafterneedlingofthespeciallociattheextremityofthetail,thisresultedin15secorsoof tailwagging.ThelefthindlegshowedslightflexingonneedlingBL67andST36onthe6thdayoftreatment.After2weeks,thedogcouldstandforlongerandlonger periods.After21/2weeks,thelefthindlegmadebetterprogress,whiletherighthindlegseemedtoregress.However,at31/2weeks,thedogbegantousetheright hindleginawillful,butuncoordinatedmanner.Thiswasfollowedaweeklaterbysimilarimprovementinthelefthindleg.Thedogmadegradualimprovementforthe next2weeks,andreturnedtonormalattheendof5weekswithnorecurrence6weekslater. Additionaltherapyincludedattemptsatspinaladjustmentduringthesecondandfifthvisitstoremoveanypossiblevertebralsubluxation,andoneachoccasionate shinwasusedonthebladdermeridianfromthecervicalvertebraetothesacrumbilaterally.Inaddition,thecaretakeroftheanimalwasinstructedinmassage techniquesofthebackandhindlegstobedoneasoftenastimeallowed.Althoughlumbardisclesionsfollowedbyparaplegiarequireaguardedprognosis,someof thesecasescompletelyrecover.Onecannotsayifacupuncturehelpedthiscaserecoverycouldhavebeenspontaneous. 6.Canine,18montholdfemaleDalmation.AdmittedonDay1afterbeinghitbyatruck.Signsonadmittance:severepain,shock,andparalysis.Xraysofspine showednoapparentfindings.Xraysofhipshowedafractureoftheilium.Days221:bowelandbladderincontinence.Paralysiswasflaccidfromthelumbarregion posteriortotheendofthetail.Theanimalcouldmoveitsfrontlegsinvoluntarily,butwithnocoordinationofstrength.Itcouldliftitsheadtoeatanddrink.Initial therapyincludedantibiotics,steroids,physicaltherapybaths,andextensivemassage.Alltonoavail. AcupuncturetherapywasinitiatedonDay22.Firsttreatmentusedthefollowingpoints:GV4,bilateralB23,B24,ST36,andBL54.Allpadpointswerebled.Pain pointswerenotknown,butbilateralnearBL36andBL38pointswereused.Allpainpoints:stimulationofsedationbytwirlingfor1520min.Padpointsstimulated bytonification:quicklyprickeddeepand"woodpeckered"thenneedlesremovedandbled.Threehoursafteracupuncture,theanimalcouldsupportherselfonher frontlegs. Secondacupuncturetreatment:Samepointsandtechniquesusedfor2ndtreatmentonDay23,asin1sttreatment.Themorningafterthe2ndtreatment(Day24),the animalwasfoundstandinginherstallonallfourfeet.Thebackfeetknuckledover,butshewasup.Day24Day30:Noacupuncturegiven,butphysicaltherapy continuedwithmassage.Threetimesdaily,thedogwastakenonaforcedwalk,beingsupportedbyanassistantholdingthedog'stail.Dailyimprovementin coordinationwasnoted,andcontrolofbowelsslowlyreturnedtonormalcontrol. Thedogwasreleasedtoitsowners'careduringthe1stweekofthenextmonthfor2weeks.Shewasstillknuckling,andherownerwasadvisedtowraptheback feetforprotection.Thedogreturnedand

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receivedtwoadditionaltreatments.Padpointswereusedandbled.PointsST45andB67bilateralweretonified.Sevenmonthslater,thedogisperfectlynormaland showsnolackofcoordinationorparalysis. 7.Canine,8yearoldmaleMiniatureSchnauzer.AnkylosingspondylitisofspineatL1andL2withspinalfusioninthisarea.Ihavebeentreatingthisdogfor2 yearswithsteroidsandButazolidinwithonlyminimalrelief.Dogisinpainonarising,dragsbacklegs,andrefusestoclimbstairs.DogadmittedMondayFridayfor3 weeksandtreatedthreetimeseachweek.Pointsusedfortherapy:GV3,andGV4bilaterallyB23,B21,B54,andB47alsoanysorepointsalongspineinareaof L1andL2.Dogtreatedninetimesusingthesepoints.Treatments13:TheneedlesinGV3,GV4,B23,andB21weretwirledfastandleftin3040min.Theneedles inB54andB47weretwirledslowlyandleftin10min.Treatments49:Thesamepointswereusedandforapproximatelythesametimeasinthefirstthree treatments,butmoxibustionwasusedinsteadofneedlemanipulation.Moxawasapplieduntilaresponsewasobserved.MoxawasusedthreetimesatGV3,GV4, B23,andB21.MoxawasusedonceatB54andB47. Thedogimprovedafterthefirsttreatmentandcontinuedtoimprovewitheachsucceedingtreatmentuntilhemovedwithease.Therewasnoevidenceoftherearleg dragging,andpainwasexhibitedonlywhenfirmlypalpated.Ihavegiventhisdogoneboostertreatment3weeksafterinitialtherapy,andsofarhehasbeendoing verywellfor8weeks. 8.Canine,3yearoldDachshund.Thoracolumbardisc.2/27/75:Posteriorparesis,analreflex,andtoepinchreflex.3/3/75:SameRxAzium.3/12/75:Doglays inurineandstool.Weakeranalreflex.Extensorthrustreflexismedium.3/14/75:AcupuncturetreatmentusingGV4andGV1,B23,B54,andK1.3/15/75:GV4and GV1,B23,54,K1,andST36.GoodreactiontoB23andST36onleftside.3/17/75:GV4andGV1,B11,B23,S36,andK1.Edemainhocks.3/18/75:GV4and GV1,B23,B67,GV54(L),S36,andK1.Edemaworse.Paresisworse.3/22/75:GV1,B67,B30,B25,B23,B20,B17.Defecationassoonasremovedneedle fromGV1.Edemagone.3/26/75:A.M.,GV4,GV13,B23,B11,B30(R),andB62(R).P.M.,injectedBcomplexintoSI3bilaterally.Injectedcamphoratedoilinto B62bilaterally.4/7/75:Moretoneinrearlegs.Tryingtostand.InjectedwaterintoSI3(R),B62(R),andB11(R).4/15/75:Dogwasabletopulluponrearlegs. Tryingtowalkacoupleofsteps.Euthanasia.Thedogneverhadanypainfromthediscandneverhadanysoresonherhocksorposteriorhipsfrombeinginthe concreterunsallday.Controlofurinationanddefecationwasverygoodafteracupuncturetreatmentswerestarted. 9.Canine,41/2yearoldfemaleDachshund.Prolapseddisc,diagnosedbyphysicalexaminationandXray.SinceDay1,nopainperceptionnoranyreflexesin hindlegs.Onlyslightpainperceptioninforelegs.Noanalsphincterreflex.Day5:Doginintensepain.Rxinsertedandleftneedlesinapproximately3hoursused bilaterallyBL2325andLI4allhindtoepadsrightST36.Day7:Slightpainperceptioninhindlegs.Fiftypercentpainperceptioninfrontlegsdoginlesspain.Rx sameas5/12/75.Day9:Ownerreportsdogmuchbetter.Dogtryingtoerectitself,nolongerinanypain.Painperceptioninfrontlegswasnormal.Rxneedles insertedinright:ST41,GB43,andST36.BilaterallyB10,B23,B23,B25,andB28.RightBL67,GB43,andST41.Day16:Rxneedlesinsertedandleftin approximately5hoursoruntiltheyslippedout.BilaterallyB10,B13,B23,B25,B28,B54,andB67plusmetacarpalpads.LeftST36,ST36,ST41,andGB43.Day 20:Dogabletowalkonforelegswhenhindendissupported,otherwisenochange.RXneedlesinsertedandleftuntiltheyslippedout,or6hours.BilaterallyBL10, B13,B23,B25,B28,B54,andB67.LeftST36,ST41,andSP2.Day21:Dogstartingtodragherselfwithherforelegs.RxsameasDay20.Thedoghashada greatimprovementconcerningtheforelegs,butnoimprovementinthehindlegs. 10.Canine,51/2yearoldmaleCollie.5/7/75:Presenteddowninrear,unabletostand,firstdaynoticed.Doghadroughhaircoat,wasverythin,andhadslightly palemucousmembrane.Fecalexamrevealedhookwormovageneralexamrevealedfleas.Temp.,102.6.Treatment:DNPandVermiplex,Azium,Bcomplex, fleaspray,tetracycline,andSeletoccapsule.5/8/75:Dogstillunabletorise,fallsdownimmediatelywhenreleasedifproppedup.Radiographofpelvis:old(healed) fractureofischiumandmilddysplasia.Thelumbarspinewasnormal.Medication:Aziumtablets.Seletoccapsule,tetracycline. Treatment:Multivitamintablet,calciumandvitaminDtablet,GeriCaretablets,tetracycline.5/10/75:Animalunimproved.Treatmentason5/9/75.5/11/75:Animal unimproved.Treatmentason5/9/75.5/12/75:Animalunimproved.Treatment:Acupunctureandmoxibustion,usingGB33,GB34,B23,B54,andST36,all bilaterally.GV4,GV26.Animal

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abletostandonallfourlegs(whenproppedup)forapproximately35secimmediatelyaftertreatment.Medication:tetracycline,Seletoc ,GeriCare ,multivitamins. 5/13/75:Animalsittingupbutunabletorise.Canstandforupto10minwalkedaroundveryslowly,stiffly,andhesitatingly,ifproppedup.Severeataxianoteddog unabletonegotiateturnsthroughdoorwayswithoutfalling.Treatment:Acupuncture(nomoxa)sameason5/12/75.Immediateimprovementnotedafteracupuncture treatment.Animalwalkingfasterwithafreergaitnowabletonegotiateturns.Dogallowedoutinyear,proppedupandallowedtowalkperiodically.Medication: tetracycline,GeriCare,multivitamins. 5/14/75:Treatment,none.Medication:tetracycline,GeriCare,multivitamins.5/15/75:Animalabletorise(slowly)unassistedfromproneposition.Movingloosely witharelativelyfreegait.Treatment:Acupunctureandmoxibustionaspreviously.Dogseenmovingaroundyardatatrotapproximately1houraftertreatment.P.M.: Dogsenthome.Rx:multivitamins,Seletocevery3rdday.Fourcapsulestotal,fleaspray.5/19/75:Reexam.Animalappearscompletelynormalchasingflying insects.5/23/75:Presentedforreworming,DNPanimalremainsnormal. 11.Canine,4yearoldfemaleDachshund.Day1:Dogcriedoutinpain,reluctanttowalk.OwnergaveAziumtablets.Betterin24hours.Day2:Dogunableto walkinPMafterrunningandjumpinginAM.Xray:narrowedspaceatL12.Day3:Injected1ccSeletocIM.InjectedpointswithsterilewaterB11,B20,and B21(bilaterally),B54(R),B67(R),andS36(R).Day8:Thedogwasstartingtouserearlegs.Progressivelygotbetterovernext2weeks. 12.Canine,41/2yearoldmaleDachshund.April9,1975:Nouseofrearlegsparalyzedfor3weeksshowingnoresponsewithconventionaltreatment.Doghad aspinaloperationattheUniversityayearagoandrecovereduntilpresentparalysis.4/9/75:PointtreatedB23rightside,bilateralGB30,GB43,ST45,andLIV2. 4/12/75:Noapparentresponse.Usedsamepointsasfirsttreatment,addingpadpointandtailpoint.4/18/75:Dogcouldholdhimselfupifplacedlegsunderhimfora fewseconds.Repeatedsamepointsasusedon4/12/75plusmoxatoneedleatGV4.4/25/75:Dogattemptingtowalkbutstaggering.Nochangeinformulaallpoints usedin#3.5/4/75:Dogwalkingwellandattemptingtojumpup.TreatedB25,GB43,ST45,andLIV2.Toldownertobringbackonlyifdogseemedtobeslipping insteadofimproving.5/22/75:Leftrearlegstillslowinplacinglegforward.TreatedpointsB25andST36bilateralusingelectricalimpulseat5cpsfor10min. Progressevidentnofurthertreatmentneeded. 13.Canine,4yearoldmaleDachshund.November8,1974:Completeposteriorparalysisfor2months.Legsflaccidandurinaryincontinence.Xrayshoweddisc involvementat1112thoracicvertebrae.Noresponseinmusclestopinchbutshowedsomeevidenceofpain.Acupuncturetreatment:Thefollowingpointsusedin treatmentandchangedslightlywitheachtreatmentandnotallusedatsametime:allpointsbilateralB22,B23,B25,B27,B54,GB30,GB43,ST36,ST45,LIV2, padpoints,andtailstimulatingpoints,GV4. Treatmentdates:November8,11,14,22,27,1974.December4,11,18,1974.January3,16,23,1975.February5,19.March6,20.April2,16.May14,used electricalstimulatordensedispersedfor10min.BilateralB23,ST36.Ontheeighthtreatment,improvementinmuscletonewasmarked.Onthetenthtreatment,the dogcouldsupporthisweightforashorttimewhenlegsplacedunderhim,andabletocontrolurinemuchbetter.Thelasttimedogwastreatedwas5/14/75,anddog walkingandrunningbutwithstillsomeuncoordination,butmusclesinbackandlegshavefilledoutandarebacktonormalsize.Theownershappytheyhadthe patiencetokeepgoing.Atlasttreatment,ItoldthemthatIdidn'tthinkhewouldhavetocomeback. 14.Canine,6yearoldmaleMiniatureSchnauzer.November4,1974:Doginpaininregionof12ththoracicvertebra.Beendownsince10/21/74.Gettingworse undertreatmentatanotherhospital.Xrayhadshowndiscinvolvementin1112ththoracicintercostalspace.Doghadsomuchpainthatithadbittenownerwhen beingbroughtin.11/4/74:Nosedativeused.TreatedtriggerpointsonbackcorrespondingtoB14,B22,andB25bilateralfor30min.Afterneedleswerein5min, dogbecamecalmandrelaxed.Whendogwenthomethatevening,itcouldbepickedupwithoutsnapping.Thisdogrespondedslowly.Thefollowingpointswere usedinsubsequenttreatmentsbutnotallatonetime:B22,B23,B25,B27,B54,GB30,GB43,ST36,ST45,LIV2,GV4,padpoints,andtailstimulatingpoint. MoxawasusedoccasionallyonB22,B23,B25,B27,GB30,andGV4.Treatmentdates:November7,11,14,18,21,27,1974December4,11,18,1974 January2,1975February3,25March3,5,10,13,20,27and

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April10.Thefirstparttherewasaslightrelapse,butrespondedquicklyandafterApril10,wasreleasedaswasdoingsowell. 15.Canine,maleBasset.Thisdogwasapatientofacolleague,whoreferreddogtomewith"hopeless"posteriorparalysis.Anxrayrevealeddiscprotrusionwith calcificationinL567.Therewasasensitiveresponsetotheneedlepricksfromtheatlastothisarea.Therewassometoneinthebladderhowever,hedidsome dribbling.Defecationwasdifficult.Hemovedhimselfaroundbydragginghislegsbehindhimlikeafrog.Alsothetailwasparalyzed.Thekneejerkwasabsent. AcupuncturewasbegunthefirstdayatB23,B24,B48,B54,B60,andLI4.Thesepointsweretreated5minwiththeChineseelectroacupuncturemachine711at 15cpseachday.Themuscleswereseverelyatrophied,soweswamthedoginafigureeightinatubofwarmwatereachdayaftertherapy.Onthe6thday,wesaw himreachingwithhisbacklegasthoughhewastryingtowalk.Onthe10thday,thedogwasplantingtheleftlegdownashewalkedandwasdrawingtherightone forwardandwalkingontheknuckleofthepaw.Thedribblingstoppedafterthe2ndtreatment,anddefecationwasnotrouble.WeXrayedagainafterthe10th treatmentandtheopaquediscshadcleared.Todate,wehavetreated15times,andthedogisabletoambulateinasimulatedtrot. 16.Canine,4yearoldfemalePekingese.7/16/74:Admittedwithseverepainduetobackinjury.Xraysshowedaruptureddisc.Treatmentwasacupuncturewith Gomenol.Pointsused:GV4,bladdermeridian.Released7/19/74innopain.1/4/74:Admittedwithseverepainduetodisc.Acupuncturetreatmentwasrepeated, andGomenolwasused.PointsusedwereGV4andBladdermeridian.Released11/4/74,PM.4/18/75:Admittedwithreinjuredback.Treatmentwasrepeated. Pointsused:GV4andBladdermeridian(Gomenol).Released4/18/75PM.June5,1975:Theownerreportsthatsincethattimethedogisdoingwelland apparentlyhasnopain. MiscellaneousDiseases 1.Canine,7yearoldmaleKerryBlueTerrier.Generalpustulardermatitis,thickenedskin,alopeciaformorethan1year.Treatedelsewherewithusualbaths, medicine,etc.AcupunctureandinjectedGomenolbetweenalltoes.Repeatedin1weekafterthreetreatmentsremarkablechangesinskinstillundertreatment. 2.Canine,41/2yearoldmaleDoberman.Severediarrheafor1month,notresponsivetoLomotil,Kaopectate,Neochal,orDiathal.Enteredhospital,after sevennegativestoolanalyses.Startedacupuncture.BL25bilateral,ST36,CV2,andST25leftside.Repeateddailyfor4days.Nobowelmovement.for4dayson 5thday,normalformedmovement.Discharged. 3.Canine,10yearoldfemaleDachshund.Lipoma,rightsideofflank.Becauseanimalwasofplaciddisposition,usedST36andGB34foranalgesia.Didnotuse electricstimulationbutsimplyfingertwirlingsurgerywasuneventful. 4.Feline,11/2yearoldcastratedmaleDomesticShorthair.Urinarylithiasisblockingpenileurethra,onMarch20,1975,openedandflushed.ReturnedMarch 26,1975,blockedagain.Reopenedandonantibiotics.ReturnedApril17,1975blockedagain.May7:blockedagain,suggestedacupuncture.FoundB38very sensitive,needledandinjectedXylocaine.May14:foundB38andB40or41sensitive,injectedXylocaine.May21:foundB38sensitive,needledandinjected Xylocaine.May28:nosensitivity,needledandinjectedB38.Catactingnormalwithoutmedicinesincestartofacupuncture. 5.Canine,15yearoldspayedfemaleLabrador.Afteranapparentcerebralaccident,thedogwasabletowalkwithdifficultybutwasuponitstoeswiththefront feet,andthelargefrontfootpadwasnottouchingtheground.Dogwasalsodeaffor69monthsandwouldnotrespondtoanynoiseorsounds.Wetreatedthe followingpointsdailyfor6days:B8,B16,B67,B1GV1,GV20,GV27GB13,GB14,andGB15.Afterthefirsttreatment,thedogwasabletowalkdownonthe frontfootpadsinanormalmannerandthetoeupconditionneverreturned.Wetreatedthefollowingearpointsfordeafness:GB2,SI19,TH21,andTH19.Afterthe secondeartreatment,thedogshowedsomesmallresponsetonoise.Wecontinueddailyeartreatments.Afterthetenthtreatment,thedogwouldimmediatelyrespond whenhernamewascalled.Dr.NakataniadvisesagainsttheuseoftheTH19pointfordeafnessnow,andusesonlythepointsinfrontoftheear.Wewillfollowhis adviceonthisinthefuture.Hesaysthattheuseofthepointsbehindtheearslowtheprogressgreatly.Inallcases,wetreatedeachpointoncedailyfor7sec.We usedaneedleinjectorattachedtoourLC/Meterwithvoltageat12andmicroampsat200.

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References 1.Anon.1972.ChineseVeterinaryHandbook.(inChinese).Pp.587670.LanChouVeterinaryResearchInstitute.Ganshu,China:ThePeople'sPublishingCo. 2.Anon.1973.DepartmentofPhysiology,AnhweiMedicalCollege,Hofei,Anhwei.Effectofneedlingofthephiltrumonhemorrhagicshockincats.ChineseMed.J. 2:25. 3.Anon.1975.Acupunct.NewsDig.5:4. 4.Anon.Unidentifiednewsclipping. 5.Antos,C.1975.AcupunctureonHorses?RapidanRiverFarmDigest1:1219. 6.Bachmann,G.1966.AkupunkturbehandlungbeiHaustieren.[Acupuncturetreatmentfordomesticatedanimals].Dtsch.Z.f.Akupunktur15:10910. 7.Braemer,C.1968.UberAkupunkturbehandlungbeimHund.[Acupuncturetreatmentsfordogs].Dtsch.Z.f.Akupunktur17:11516. 8.Chan,T.K.1975.Int.Vet.Acupunct.Newsl.December. 9.Chen,S.H.1976.VeterinaryAcupuncture.Denver:UniversityofOrientalCulture. 10.Cheney,M.W.1975.PanelReport.ModernVet.Pract.56:798. 11.Kothbauer,O.1973.ZurBehandlungvonGelenkschwellungeninBereichdesSprunggelkesbeimRinddurchNeuraltherapie.[UsingNeuralTherapytotreat SwellingintheHockJointsofCattle].Wien.tierrztl.Mschr.60:379,381. 12.Lambardt,A.1970.ZumProblemderEinfuhrungderAkupunkturindieVeterinarmedizin.[Theproblemofusingacupunctureinveterinarymedicine].Praktische Tierarzt51:185. 13.Lambardt,A.1972.AkupunkturbeiEinemEber.[AcupunctureonaBoar].DerPraktischeTierarzt53:55354. 14.Malapart.1958.AkupunkturinderVeterinarmedizine.[ResultswithAcupunctureinVeterinaryMedicine].Dtsch.Z.f.Akup.7:9296. 15.Milin,J.1956.ChapterXVII,VeterinaryAcupuncture.InTraiteD'Acupuncture,TomeI,ed.R.delaFuye,pp.47389.Paris. 16.Milin,J.1958.VeterinarmedizinundAkupunktur.[VeterinaryMedicineandacupuncture].Dtsch.Z.f.Akup.7:1520. 17.Milin,J.1962.DieAkupunkturbeiTieren.[Acupunctureinanimals].Dtsch.Z.f.Akup.11:3845. 18.Milin,J.1973.Acupunctureingynecologyofthedog.AnimaldeCompagnie33:293305. 19.Milin.J.RheumatismintheDogandAcupuncture. 20.Shin,S.H.1975.Veterinaryanatomyandapplication.InCompendiumofVeterinaryandHumanAcupuncture,ed.byH.E.WarnerandR.S.Glassberg,pp. III,1III,2.Anaheim,California:NationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture. 21.Shiota,K.1974.[TherapeuticApplicationofAcupuncturetoCoughinginCanineFilariasis].[InJapanese].The1974JapanClinicalVeterinaryConference Tokyo,Japan.

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5 ThePhysiologyofAcupuncture
ThescientificreevaluationofacupuncturebeganinChinain1954however,thenumberofreportsandexperimentsinprogressstudyingacupunctureincrease logarithmicallyeveryyear.Thesestudiesarepickingawayatthequestionsofacupunctureandarealsoaddingagreatdealtothestoreofknowledgeonpainandpain control. Advancesinexperimentalprocedureshaveenabledtestingofthebasicprinciplesofacupunctureundercontrolledandclinicalconditions.Themechanismof acupuncture'seffectshasnotbeenclearlyshownhowever,evidencehasbeenaccumulatingshowingacupuncture'seffectiveness,andseveralofitsbasicprinciples havebeengivencredencethroughexperiments(seealsoChapterSix). ThefollowingexperimentsdealwithfourmajorprinciplesofacupuncturebasedonobservationsthatareexpressedinmetaphysicaltermsintraditionalChinese medicine.Asoundmodernscientificbasishasbeenestablishedforeachprinciple(seeChapterOneforacompletediscussion). Thefirstprinciplestatesthatinsuccessfulneedletherapy,astateoftech'iresults.TheYinYangTheoryandtheMeridianTheoryexplainthatch'iisthevitalelement ofanimallife,andthatitflowsinthemeridians.Fortheneedleinsertiontoachievethedesiredtherapeuticresult,astateoftech'imustbeachieved.Tech'iinChinese meansthattheneedlehascontactedthech'i,whichmustbemanipulatedinordertomakethetherapyeffective,andthatitwasproperlyinsertedintothemeridian throughtheacupuncturepoint. Totheacupuncturist,tech'imeansafeelingofresistanceorpalpablemotionoftheneedleinthetissueduringinsertion.Theneedleisfelttobecaughtorsuckedinby somethinginthetissue. Inahuman,thestateoftech'iisreportedasadeepsensationofsoreness,heaviness,tightness,orswelling.Theanimalresponsesreportedtorepresenttech'iare uneasiness,stampingtheground,swingingthetail,andalocalmuscletwitchingatoraroundtheinsertionsite. Thesecondprinciplestatesthatthereisarelationshipbetweenaspecificmeridianandaspecificorganinthebody. Thethirdprinciplestatesthatwhenaspecificpointisstimulated,certainphysiologicalchangesoccur.Thisimpliesknowledgeofthefunctionsoforganswhosespecific locationandidentitywerenotknownforexample,thefunctionoftheadrenalglandwasassignedtocertainpointsonthekidneymeridian.Weknowtodaythatthe adrenalislocatednearthekidneytheyareseparateorgansbutinthesamedermatome.

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Thefourthprinciplestatesthatacupuncturepointshaveaspecific,easilydistinguishablelocationontheskin,relatedtotheorgan,andthepointsshowchangeswhen theirrelatedorgansarefunctioningimproperlyorwhentheyarestimulated. ThePhenomenaofTeCh'i In249trialsofneedleinsertioninhumans,itwasshownthatthereisafairlygoodrelationshipbetweenthemuscleactivityofthesubject,asshownby electromyographicrecordings(EMG),andtheintensityofthemanualfeelingexperiencedbytheacupuncturist.Asimilarrelationshipwasshownbetweenthemuscle activityandtheintensityofthesubjectivefeelingofthesubject.Theseseemtoshowtheexistenceofatech'itypeofresponsethatismeasurable. Itwasthusassumedthatthelocalmuscularactivityduringacupuncturewasareflexactivity.Thiswassupportedbythefactthatboththesubjectivesensationandthe acupuncturist'smanualfeeling,aswellaselectricalactivity,disappearedentirelyinpatientsunderspinalanesthesia.3 Becausethelumbarspinalcordisthoughttobe involvedinthetransmissionoftheeffectofacupuncturetreatment,thespinalcordatthelevelofT12orL1ofarabbitwaspartiallyresectedtotesttheeffectofsuch alesiononacupunctureanalgesia.11Withtheunilateralorbilateralresectionofthedorsalfuniculus,includingthedorsolateralfasciculus,needleinsertioninST36,or LI11inrabbitssignificantlyincreasedthepainthreshold,comparedwiththatofthecontrolgroup.Unilateralresectionofthelateralfuniculusandneedleinsertionon pointsonthecontralateralsidefailedtoincreasethepainthreshold.Needleinsertionontheipsilateralsidesignificantlyincreasedthepainthreshold. Acomparisonofthedegenerativefibers,usingMarchi'smethod,suggestedthattheventralportionofthelateralfuniculusplaysasignificantroleintransmittingthe stimulusinacupunctureanalgesiaofthecontralateralside.Becausemostoftheascendingspinalfibersoftheventralfuniculusprojectontothereticularformationofthe brainstem,centralgraymatter,andthethalamus,itisthoughtthesestructuresmaybecloselyrelatedtoacupunctureneedlemanipulation. Theprecedingexperimentsuggeststhatthecontralateralsideofthespinalcordplaysaspecialpartinthetech'iresponse.Furthermore,itisknownthatthenerve fibersinvolvedwiththeflexorreflexcanbeexcitedonlybystimulifromthecontralateralsideandtheascendingfibersfortheflexorreflexarefoundinlargequantities inthemusclesandjoints.12Therefore,alinkwasestablishedbetweenmusclereflexandnervefibersinthespinalcord. Furtherexperimentswereconductedtofindoutwhatspecificnervecellsinthespinalcordwereinvolvedinthetransmissionofthetech'iresponse.Inanother experiment,needlingwasdoneinthesanlipointintherabbit.Itwasfoundthattheresultsofthisneedlingatacertaindepthandangleofinsertionwereequivalentto orprobablyduetothestimulationofthecommonperonealnerve.Thiswasprovenwhenresectionorblockingofthepernealnervebyanestheticscausedthe acupunctureeffecttobelost. Anattemptwasthenmadetotracethelocationoftheperonealnervefiberatthecellularlevelinthespinalcord.Thiswasdonebydamagingthenervefibersand tracingthedamagebyaspecialstainingmethod,whichshowedthedegenerativefibersinthespinalcord. Investigationbylightmicroscopyrevealedthatdegenerationoftheperonealnervefiberswentasfarassixsegmentsofthespinalcordviatheascendingandthe descendingcollateralbranchesofthesomaticcoarsefibers,enteringthespinalcordatlayerIV.9 Thisindicatesthatacupuncturestimulationaffectingtheperoneal nervewouldhavetoberelayedthroughthesegmentsofthespinalcordusingthesamerouteoftraveltothehighercentersofthenervoussystem.Electron microscopicexaminationofthesynapsesinlayersItoIVoftheposteriorhornofthelumbarspinalcordrevealedthatthesynapseischaracterizedbyanelliptical shape,anarrowsynapticcleft,andaminimaldifferenceinthicknessbetweenthepresynapticmembrane,andthesynapseistheinhibitorytype.4 Asaresultoftheseinvestigations,itwasconcludedthatacupuncturestimulationexcitedthenervecellsandsynapsesinthespinalcolumnthathadaninhibitoryeffect onpain. Itisknownthatthespinothalamictractisresponsibleforthetransmissionofthepainsensationfromtheperipherytothemidbrainreticularformation,thenucleus parafascicularis,andthenucleuscentrallateralisofthethalamus.1 ,10,14,15Experimentswereconductedtoprovethattheinhibitionofpaindoesnotoccurinthespinal columnalonebutalsointhehighercentersofthecentralnervoussystem. Painfulstimuliwereappliedtothebodyandreactionsinthemidbrainreticularformationandnucleuscentralislateralisofthethalamuswererecorded.

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TheresponseofthemidbrainreticularformationtopainstimuliappliedtovariouspartsofthebodywereentirelyorpartiallyinhibitedbyelectroacupunctureofST36 andGB34inguineapigs.Thesepainfulstimuliweremeasuredasunitdischargesandprolongedafterdischarges,andcouldbesuppressedbyintravenousmorphine. Thus,thepresenceofpainreactingcellswasdemonstratedinthemedialreticularformationofthemidbrainbytheirspecificelectricaldischargesandsubsequent suppressionbyacupunctureandmorphine.5 Evokedandspontaneoussingleunitresponsesofneuronsinthenucleuscentralislateralisofthethalamushavebeenanalyzedin30rabbits.6 Theresponsestonoxious stimuliwerecharacterizedbylonglatency(150300msec),prolongedhighfrequencyafterdischargesandsusceptibilitytoanalgesics.Neuronsofthisparticulartype, distributedinthecaudalregionofthenucleus,areinvolvedinthereceptionofpainimpulses.ByapplyingtrainsofelectricalpulsestoacupuncturepointsB60and ST36,itwasshownthatcharacteristicresponsesproducedbynoxiousstimulicouldbeinhibited.Thisinhibitoryeffectoftheelectricneedlingoftheacupuncturepoint, withshorteningofthedurationofafterdischargesand/orloweringthedischargefrequency,wasusuallynotimmediatebutappeared2.5minutesafterstimulation. Furthermore,theneuronsofthenucleusparafascicularisshowedthesameneuronaldischargesaswhenthenucleuscentralislateraliswasstimulatedbyanoxious substance.Painsensitiveneuronswerenotfoundinotherareasofthethalamus,suchasthenucleusventralisthalami. Severalconclusionscanbedrawnfromtheseexperiments:(1)WhatthetraditionalChinesemedicinecalledthetech'iresponseisanobservable,measurable phenomenon.(2)Thetech'iphenomenonisanexpressionofnervecellactivityinthehighercentersofthecentralnervoussystem.(3)Adefiniterelationshipexists betweenacupunctureandthecentralnervoussystem. TheRelationshipofSpecificMeridianstoSpecificOrgans Adrenalinwasinjectedintoarabbittoaltertheheartbeat.Anacupunctureneedlewastheninsertedandtheeffectsobserved.ItwasseenthatneedleinsertionintoP6 andST36inducedanantiadrenergiceffectthatbroughttheheartbeattonormal.However,nosignificanteffectwasnotediftheneedlewasappliedtoGB37or nonacupuncturepointsonthelateralsideofthetail.8 Othergroupsexperimentedontheeffectofneedlestimulationonexperimentalshock.Rabbitbloodwasinjectedintothefemoralveinofadogtoinduceshock. Needleinsertionatthephiltrum,GV26broughtthebloodpressure,respiration,andheartratebacktonormalsignificantlysoonerthanifthephiltrumwerenot stimulated.NeedleinsertionatGV26isprescribedfortraumainanypartofthebody. ElectroacupunctureofGV26wasshowntoimprovethephysiologicstatusofcatsinhemorrhagicshockbyraisingthebloodpressureandincreasingtherateand depthofrespiration.7 Acupuncturehadnoeffectonnormalbloodpressure.Duringbloodletting(femoralartery),thetimeintervalsforthebloodpressuretodropfrom normalto50mmHg(recordedinthecommoncarotidartery)inacupunctureandcontrolgroupswere15.26.1minand6.92.6min,respectively.Thetotal volumesofbloodlosstoprecipitateshockinthetwogroupswere21.83.9ml/kgand15.84.7ml/kg,respectively,andthesedifferenceswerestatistically significant. Asforthefateofthecatsintwogroupsthatwerenotgivenbloodtransfusionsafterbleeding,themortalityrateintheacupuncturegroupwas25%within3hours, whilethatinthecontrolgroupwas100%.Intwoothergroups,bloodtransfusionsweregivenassoonasbloodlettingstoppedandthebloodpressurewaskeptata levelof80mmHgfor1hour.Theamountofbloodneededintheacupuncturegroupwas12.73.3ml/kg,whilethatinthecontrolgroupwas32.710.3ml/kg.In catsanesthetizedwithpentobarbitalsodium,noantishockeffectwasproducedwhenacupuncturewasused. Thefollowingconclusionscanbedrawnfromtheseexperiments:(1)Evidenceisaccumulatingindicatingthatstimulationofspecificpointsmayaffectthefunctionofan organorsystemthatisinastateofhyperorhypofunction.(2)Thesuccessfulstimulationofapointmaybeinterferedwithbyanesthesia,showingaconnection betweenacupuncturepointsandthecentralnervoussystem. TheBiochemicalResponses Oneexperimentinvolvedtheuseofacupunctureonlactogeniceffectsinwomenwithinadequatelac

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tation.TheacupuncturepointusedwasCV17.Thismeridianpassesthroughthemiddlepartofthebrain,andinChinesetraditionalmedicine,itissupposedtoaffect allmajororgans.Itisknownthatthepituitaryglandsecretesthelactogenichormoneprolactin,andthepituitaryglandislocatedatthemiddleofthesagittalplaneofthe brain.Afterneedleinsertion,therewasanincreaseinthelevelofprolactininthebloodparallelwithclinicalobservationofmammaryglandsecretion.18 Experimentswereperformedtodeterminetheeffectsofacupunctureontheincreaseinthenumberandmodificationinfunctionofthewhitebloodcells.Thepoints stimulatedwereST36andP6.ThesetwomeridiansarerelatedtothebloodinChinesetraditionalmedicine:thestomachnourishesbloodandtheheartcontrolsblood flow.Blooditselfisconsideredtobeanorganresponsiblefortransportinggoodandharmfulsubstancesinthebody.Thus,ifthestomachandheartarenotworking properly,thebloodceasestofunctionefficiently.Furthermore,abnormalbloodfunctionmayresultinthedominationofdiseasebecausethebalanceofharmfuland goodbodysubstancesisnolongermaintainedintheblood. NeedleinsertionintotheST36pointofrabbitsinducedanimmediateincreaseofwhitebloodcellsbymorethan50%.Thechangesreachedaplateauand,24hours aftertreatmentthelevelwasonly3040%abovenormal.Adifferentialcountindicatedasignificantincreaseinneutrophils.Needleinsertionintononacupuncturesites didnotproducesignificantchanges.IfprocainewasinjectedatthesitesbeforeneedlingST36,changesinneutrophilsdidnotappear. ItwasfurtherobservedthatacupunctureofP6andST36substantiallyincreasedthephagocyticactivitiesofwhitebloodcellstoStaphylococcusaureus.Theindexof phagocytosisincreasedby1.5timesafterneedlestimulationandby50%aftermoxibustion.Inanexperimentusingelectroacupuncture,arelationshipofthetotal numberanddifferentialcountofwhitebloodcellsandphagocyticactivities,andtheroleofthenervoussystemontheefficacyofacupuncturewerealsoshownin rabbits.16,17 Thefollowingconclusionscanbedrawnfromtheseexperiments:(1)Acupunctureproducesabiochemicaleffectunrelatedtothereductionofpain.(2)Theassignment ofameridiantoanorgandoesnotlimitittothefunctionofthatorganalone.(3)Biochemicalresponsesarealsomediatedthroughthenervoussystem. TheLocationoftheAcupuncturePoints Thedistributionsofacupuncturepointsinman,horses,andcattlewereusedasreferencestolocateandmeasuretheskinelectricalpotentialofdogs,rabbits,guinea pigs,andmonkeys.Theresultsshowedthattherearemanyhighelectricalpotentialpointswidelydistributedontheskinoftheseanimals.Thedifferencesinelectrical potentialofsurroundingareasaremuchsmallerthanattheparticularpoint.Thepointsfoundinthevariousspecieswere:84pointsindogs(34unpairedand50 paired)53inrabbits(20unpairedand33paired)and23inguineapigs(8unpairedand15paired).Itisespeciallyinterestingtonotethatthenumber,distribution, andlocationofpointshavingahighelectricalpotentialdifferenceinthemonkeyarenearlyequivalenttothoseoftheacupuncturepointsinhumans. Differencesinskinelectricalpotentialattheacupuncturepoints,relativetotheactivityofthevisceralorgans,werealsostudied.Itwasshownthataftersubcutaneous injectionofhistamineindogs,thechangesintheelectricalpotentialcurveofGV20,B20,andLI11areconsistentwiththeelectricalpotentialcurvesofthemucous membraneandchangesintotalstomachliquidvolumeandacidity.Atthetipofthetailandunrelatedtothestomach,ahistamineinjectiondidnotaltertheelectrical potential.Afterfeeding,thepointsofthestomachmeridianofthemonkeyST36andST40andofthespleenmeridianSP6andSP8hadahigherskin electricalpotentialthantheyhadbeforefeeding.However,theelectricalpotentialsoftheacupuncturepointsofthepericardiummeridianP5,P6,andP7donot showaconsistentpatternofchange.2 Auricularacupunctureisadivisionofacupuncturedealingwiththerelationshipsandtherapeuticeffectsofvariouspointsoftheeartodifferentorgansofthebody.The skinresistanceoftheearshelloftherabbit,underconditionsofexperimentalperitonitis,wasstudied.Testsweremadeontheconcavesurfaceoftheexternalearof threecontrolandninerabbitswithinducedperitonitis.Theresultsrevealedlowresistancepointsaroundtheexternalauditorymeatus,alongthecrushelicis,the externalsurfaceofthetragus,theantitragus,andtheincisuraintertragica. Whenperitonitishaddeveloped,pointsoflowerresistanceappearedinthebloodvesselareaabovetheexternalauditorymeatus,buttheyvariedindistributionand number.Theydisappearedafter7days

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whentherabbitsrecoveredfromtheperitonitis.Inthecontrolrabbits,fewornolowresistancepointswerefoundinthebloodvesselarea.Statisticaltreatmentofthe dataindicatedthattheelectricalresistancesofthepointsinthebloodvesselareaonthepinnaweresignificantlylowerduringtheperiodofexperimentalperitonitisthan beforethatis,theelectricalresistancesofthesepointsduringillnessweresignificantlylowerthanthoseoutsidethebloodvesselarea.Nosuchchangeswere observedinthecontrolanimal.13 Thefollowingconclusionscanbedrawnfromtheseexperiments:(1)Acupuncturepointsdoexistandvaryinelectricalpotentialfromotherareasoftheskin.(2) Organsofthebodyhavecorrespondingacupuncturepoints.(3)Stimulationoftheorganwillproduceaneffectonitscorrespondingacupuncturepoint(seealso ChapterThree). References 1.Anderson,F.D.,andBerry,G.M.1959.Degenerativestudiesoflongascendingfibersysteminthecatbrainstem.J.Comp.Neurol.3:195230. 2.Anon.1959.Locationofacupuncturepoints,inlecturenotesofAcupunctureEditorialBoardofShanghaiCollegeofChineseMedicine.ShanghaiPeople'sPress. 3.Anon.1973.Electromyographicactivityproducedlocallybyacupuncturemanipulation.ShanghaiInstituteofPhysiology,AcupunctureAnesthesiaGroup.Chinese Med.J.9:53235. 4.Anon.1973.Preliminaryexperimental,morphologicalandelectronmicroscopicstudiesoftheconnectionbetweenacupuncturepointsonthelimbsandthe segmentsofthespinalcord.MorphologicalSectionoftheAcupunctureAnesthesiaResearchUnit,ShenyangMedicalCollege.ChineseMed.J.3:14450. 5.Anon.1973.Theroleofthemidbrainreticularformationinacupunctureanesthesia.AcupunctureAnesthesiaCoordinatingGroup,ShanghaiCollegeofChinese Medicine,ShanghaiNormalCollegeandShuChungHospitaloftheShanghaiCollegeofChineseMedicine.ChineseMed.J.3:13638. 6.Anon.1973.Electricalresponsestonoxiousstimulationanditsinhibitioninnucleuscentralislateralisofthethalamusinrabbits.ShanghaiInstituteofPhysiology. ChineseMed.J.3:13135. 7.Anon.1973.Theeffectofneedlingofthephiltrumonhemorrhagicshockincats.DepartmentofPhysiology,AnhweiMedicalCollege.ChineseMedJ.2:98100. 8.Anon.1974.Theeffectofneedlingvariousacupuncturepointsontheactivitiesoftheheart.DepartmentofPhysiology,ExperimentalMedicineResearchInstitute, ChineseAcademyofTraditionalMedicine.AbstractedinTextbookofAcupuncture.People'sPress. 9.Azentagothai,J.1964.Neuronalandsynapticarrangementinthesubstantiagelantinosarolandic.J.Comp.Neurol.122:21940. 10.Boivie,J.1971.Theterminationofthespinothalamictractinthecat,anexperimentalstudywithsilverimpregnation.Exp.BrainRes.12:33153. 11.Chiang,CY.,Liu,JI.,Chu,TH.,Pai,YH.,andChang,SC.1974.Spinalascendingpathwayfortheeffectofacupunctureanesthesiainrabbits.Gen.Sci. 19:3133. 12.Eccles,J.andSchade,J.,ed.1964.Physiologyofthespinalcord.BrainRes.12:13563. 13.Li,CT.,Chang,PL.,Hsu,LH.,andYang,PL.1973.Surveyofelectricalresistanceofrabbitpinnaduringexperimentalperitonitis.ChineseMed.J.7:428 33. 14.Lund,R.D.,andWebster,K.1967.Thalamicafferentsfromthespinalcordandtrigeminalnucleianexperimentalanatomicalstudyoftherat.J.Comp.Neurol. 130:31328. 15.Mehler,W.R.1957.Themammalian''paintract"inphylogeny.Anat.Rec.(Proc.)127:332. 16.Wong,FC.,Jen,JB.,Lin,TC.,andSzeto,LM.1955.Theeffectofelectroacupunctureonconstituentsofperipheralbloodinrabbits.Nat.Med.J.41:417 20. 17.Wong,FC.,Jen,JB.,Szeto,LM.andLin,TC.1957.Effectsofelectroacupunctureonphagocyticactivityofwhitecellsinrabbits.InElectroacupuncture Therapeutics.SansiPeople'sPress. 18.Wu,YC.,Wong,SW.,Kung.MS.,Chen,YH.,Yang,ES.andS.J.1958.Theeffectofacupunctureonlactogenichormonesecretion.ShanghaiJ.Chin. Med.12:3132.

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6 AcupunctureAnalgesia
Theuseofacupuncturetoproduceanalgesiaforpainfulproceduressuchasdentalwork,surgery,andparturitionhascaughtthepublic'sfancy.Theuseofacupuncture foranalgesiahasprovidedmanydramaticarticlesandmovies,popularizingtheprocedureandsustainingthepublic'sinterestinit. Initially,therewereveryfewdetailsandverylimitedexperimentalinformationavailableinEnglishhowever,inthepastfewyearsmuchChineseinformationhasbeen translatedandmanyneurophysiologicexperimentshavebeendoneoutsideofChina.Thesestudieshaveattemptedtoprovideabetterunderstandingofpainand analgesia,andthepossiblemechanismsofactionofacupunctureanalgesia. ExperimentalResults Aseriesofexperimentswereperformedtotestthevalidityofthehypothesisthatacupunctureanalgesiaisessentiallyafunctionofthecentralnervoussystemresulting fromtheinhibitiveinteraction(inthebrain,andespeciallyinthethalamus)betweentheafferentimpulsesarisingfromthepointofacupunctureandthosefromthesiteof pain.32Experimentsperformedusingalbinoratsandrabbitsshowedthatneuronsinthenucleusparafascicularisandthenucleuscentralislateralisofthethalamus producedcharacteristicunitdischargesinresponsetonoxiousstimuli,andthesedischargescouldbepreventedbymorphine.Thepainresponsesoftheseneurons werealsoinhibitedbyelectricalstimulationofneedlesincertainacupuncturepoints,squeezingtheAchillestendon,orweakelectricalstimulationofasensorynerve. Toostrongastimulation,however,tendedtoexaggeratetheresponsetopain.Onekindofspontaneousrhythmicdischargeofthenucleusparafascicularisneurons wasdemonstratedtobedrivenbytheincessantinflowofpainimpulsesfromsurgicalwoundsinexperimentalanimals.Spontaneousdischargesofthiskind,likethe evokedpaindischarges,couldbeenhancedbynoxiousstimuliandinhibitedbyinnocuousstimuliforexample,themechanicalsqueezeoftheAchillestendonorthe needlingofacupuncturepoints.Thedurationofinhibitionofthespontaneouspaindischargesoftheparafascicularisneuronscausedbyaninnocuousstimulusvaried withthefrequencyoftheprogressingdischargesatthemomentofstimulation. Astudyinrabbitsshowedthatnoxiousstimuliproducedsingleunitresponsesofneuronsinthenucleuscentralislateralisofthethalamus,characterizedbylonglatency (150300msec),prolongedhighfrequencyafterdischarges,andsusceptibilityto

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analgesics.19Neuronsofthisparticulartypedistributedinthecaudalregionofthenucleusareinvolvedinthereceptionofpainimpulses.Thecharacteristicresponses couldbeinhibitedbytrainsofweakelectricpulsesappliedtocertainacupuncturepointsonthehindlimb.Theinhibitoryeffectoftheelectricstimulationofthe acupuncturepointwasseenasashorteningofthedurationofafterdischargesand/ortheloweringofthedischargefrequency.Thiswasusuallynotimmediatebut appeared25minaftertheonsetofstimulation. Aseriesofstudieshasbeenreportedshowingthatahumoralmechanismmaybeinvolvedinacupunctureanalgesia.24Thecardiacandcephalicendsofthecarotid arteriesoftwoanimalswerecrossconnected.Acupuncturewasperformedinoneanimal,whilepainthresholdwasmeasuredintheother.Theresultswerecompared withacontrolgroupinwhichneitherofthepairhadacupuncture.Theseexperimentsweredoneonrabbits,usingpotassiumiontophoreticdolorimetrytodeterminethe painthresholdontheears.Painthresholdsofboththepuncturedandunpuncturedanimalsoftheacupuncturegroup,in16observations,wereelevatedmarkedlyafter 30minofelectricneedling,andtendedtodeclineafterremovaloftheneedle.Noapparenttrendofchangewasfoundineightobservationsofthecontrolgroup. Similarresultswereobtainedinexperimentswithalbinorats,usingelectricallyheatedwirescoiledoverthetailsaspainstimuliandtimingthedurationfromclosureof theelectriccircuittoflappingofthetailsasthepainthreshold.Theincrementofpainthresholdintheunpuncturedratsoftheacupuncturegroupwasfoundtobehighly significant.Ahumoralfactor(s)thereforeseemstobeinvolvedinacupunctureanalgesia. Viercketal.63havesuggestedthatincreasesinpainthresholdproducedbyacupuncturemayoccurinwavesthatis,theymayormaynotoccuracutelyduring acupuncturestimulationfollowedbyacontinuationof,orareturnto,thenormalthreshold,withtheappearanceorreappearanceofincreasedthresholdin4870 hours. InastudybyRabischongetal.,60serumwascollectedfromrabbitsinwhichacupunctureanalgesiahadbeenelectricallyproducedandinjectedintotheveinof anotherrabbit.Analgesiawasproducedintherecipients,withregionaldistributionsimilartothatinthedonors. Theproductionofanalgesiabyelectricalstimulationofspecificareaswithinthebrainandthemechanismsofthisanalgesiahavebeenintensivelyinvestigated.Others haveinvolvedthesiteofactionofnarcoticanalgesicssuchasmorphine. Analgesiacanbeproducedbyelectricalstimulationofspecificsitesinthebrain,especiallythemesencephaliccentralgraymatterandtheperiventriculargraymatter.52 Studieshavebeendoneinratsandcats.52,58Theanalgesiaproducedwasnotrelatedtotheproductionofseizures,theproductionofelectrolyticlesions,ortothe rewardingpropertiesofstimulation.Animportantfindingwasthatthefailuretorespondtonoxiousstimulationcouldnotbeattributedtoageneralsensory, motivational,emotional,attentional,ormotordeficit.Rather,electricalstimulationappearedcapableofselectivelyreducingnociception.Studieswithinhibitorsor depletorsofserotoninsuggestthatthereisatleastoneserotonergiclinkinthepathwayofanalgesiaproduction,bothbyelectricalstimulationandmorphine administration.2 Analgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationwasdiminishedinratsgiventheserotoninsynthesisinhibitorparachlorophenylalanine.Thisdiminutionofanalgesiaonly occurredwhentheelectricalstimulationwasintheventralcentralgraymatternearesttotheserotoninrichdorsalraphenucleus.Analgesiaproducedbymorphineis alsodiminishedintheratbyparachlorophenylalanine. Astudydoneinrabbitsshowedthatstimulationofacupuncturepointsfenglung(ST40)andyangfu(GB38)causedanincreaseintheserotoninlevelsofthemedulla andthalamus.Intraventricularinjectionsofserotoninproducedincreasesinpainthreshold.8 Recentstudieshaveshownthatanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationcanbereversedinrats,cats,andmanbytheparenteraladministrationofnarcotic antagonistssuchasnaloxone. Aseriesofstudiesdoneonrabbitsaddssomemoreinformationabouttheproductionofacupunctureanalgesia.50Analgesiawasproducedbythemanualorelectrical stimulationofacupunctureneedlesplacedatdifferentsites.Theareaofanalgesiawasdeterminedforthedifferentmethodsofstimulation,forthedifferentanatomic locationoftheneedles,andforthedifferentcombinationofconnectingthepositiveandnegativeelectrodesbypinchingtheskinwithaclamp.Theresultsareillustrated inFigures61to64.Anotherpartofthisstudyevaluatedthenecessityfornerveconductioninrelationtotheproductionofanalgesia.Electricallystimulatingthe sciaticnerveproducedagivenareaofanalgesia.Ifthenervewasseveredorblockedwithalocalanesthetic,theneithernoanalgesiaoraverysmallareaofanalgesia wasproduced,showingthatnervous

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Figure61. Left,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbymanualstimulationwithtwoneedlesontopofthehead.Center,areaof localanalgesiaproducedbymanualstimulationofthesecondorthirdweboftherightforepawandthetopofthe head.Right,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbymanualstimulationofthesecondeboftherighthindpawandthetop ofthehead.(FromMatsumoto,T.,AcupunctureforPhysicians,1974. CourtesyofCharlesCThomas,Publisher, Springfield,Illinois.)

Figure62. Left,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationoftheears.Center,areaoflocalanalgesiaproduced byelectricalstimulationofthesecondweboftherightforepaw(positive)andtherightthigh(negative).Right, areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationofthethirdweboftherightforepaw(positive)andthetop ofthehead(negative).Electricalstimulation:sinewave,10KHz,200a.(FromMatsumoto,T.Acupuncturefor Physicians,1974. CourtesyofCharlesCThomas,Publisher,Springfield,Illinois.)

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Figure63. Left,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationofthelastweboftherightforepaw(positive)andthe topofthehead(negative).Center,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationofthesecondwebof righthindpaw(positive)andthetopofthehead(negative).Right,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectrical stimulationofthesecondweboftherightforepaw(positive)andthesecondweboftheleftforepaw(negative). Electricalstimulation:sinewave,10KHz,200a.(FromMatsumoto,T.,AcupunctureforPhysicians,1974. CourtesyofCharlesCThomas,Publisher,Springfield,Illinois.)

Figure64. Left,areaoflocalanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationofthesecond weboftherightforepaw(positive)andthetopofthehead(negative).Right, areaoflocalanalgesiafollowingelectricalstimulationofthetopof thehead(positive)andthesecondweboftherightforepaworhindpaw (negative).Electricalstimulation:sinewave,10KHz,200a.(From Matsumoto,T.,AcupunctureforPhysicians,1974. CourtesyofCharlesCThomas,Publisher,Springfield,Illinois.)

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conductionbetweenthesiteoftheacupunctureneedleandthespinalcordisnecessaryfortheproductionofacupunctureanalgesia. Electricityhasbeenusedtodiminishpainforatleast2000years.InA.D.46,ScriboniusLargusadvocatedpiscineelectrotherapyspecificallyforthereliefofpain: "Foranytypeofgout,aliveblacktorpedo(thetorpedoray,Torpedomarmorata)should,whenpainbegins,beplacedunderthefeet.Thepatientmuststandona moistshorewashedbythesea,andheshouldstaylikethisuntilhiswholefootandleg,uptotheknee,isnumb."34 Usesofelectricityforpainreliefcontinuestobeinvestigated,andsomesuccesshasbeenachieved.34,41,43,45,56,61,64, Electricityhasalsobeenusedtoproducegeneralanesthesia,butthisstateiscompletelydifferentfromthatproducedbyacupuncture.62Inelectroanesthesia,the subjectisunconsciouswithacupuncture,sleeporunconsciousnessisnotproduced. TheUseofAcupunctureAnalgesiainChina5 ,6 In1958electroacupunctureandmanualacupunctureweredevelopedinChinaasalternativesfordruginducedanalgesia.Thesemethodswererefinedand standardized.Thusfar,(1972)255casehistoriesinvolvingthetestingofthesemethodsonhorses,donkeys,cattle,andpigshavebeenrecordedandstudied.The reportedrateofsuccesshasbeen95%(Table61). Duringthesurgeryperformedunderelectroacupunctureanalgesia,theanimalscalmlyallowedoperativeproceduressuchasincisions,intestinaltractionandsuturingto proceedwithoutappearingtobeinpain. TwomethodsofacupunctureanalgesiaarecurrentlyusedinChina.ThefirstmethodistheelectricalstimulationoftheSanYanLoPoints.Thismethodhasbeenused inhorses,mules,donkeys,cattle,andpigs.Thesecondmethodisaspecialformofacupunctureanalgesiaandhasbeenusedonlyindonkeysandhorses.Itinvolves thestimulationofpointsintheear.Electroacupunctureormanualstimulationmaybeused,dependingontheskillofthepractitioner,thenumberofpointstobe needled,andthetimefactorinvolved.InthestimulationoftheSanYanLoPoints,localsupplementarypointsareoptionalinstimulationoftheearpoints,theyare mandatory.Supplementarylocalpointsarepointsnearthesiteoftheoperationthatareinthesamedermatome(thesepointshaveanasteriskinChapterThree).
TABLE61.EffectivenessofElectroacupunctureAnalgesia UtilizingtheSanYanLoPoints ANIMAL Horse Mule Donkey Cattle Pig TOTAL EXCELLENT 172 24 4 1 7 208 AreaofSurgery Head Neck Withers Thorax Abdomen Glutealregion Perinealregion Inguinalregion 4Limbs TOTAL PERCENTAGE 5 4 2 2 186 1 3 2 3 208 81.6 16.5 0 1 0 1 38 0 0 2 0 42 1.9 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 5 5 5 2 3 228 2 3 4 3 255 100 GOOD 33 7 0 2 0 42 FAILURE 4 1 0 0 0 5 TOTAL 209 32 4 3 7 255

ElectroacupunctureAnalgesiaUsingtheSanYanLoPoints TheRelationshipBetweentheSanYanLoPointsandtheNervousSystem TheSanYanLoPointsconsistofthreeacupuncturepoints(Fig.339).Theyaresanyanlo(FL23),yehyan(FL24),andch'angfeng(FL7).Electroacupunctureis actuallythestimulationofanervethatultimatelyhasaneffectonthecerebralcortex.Anatomically,acupunctureneedleinsertionintoFL7isneedleinsertiononornear theradialnerve.Forsanyanloandyehyanstimulation,theneedleisinsertedintosanyanlothroughthearm,toyehyan.Inthiscase,theneedleisinsertedalongthe largestandthelongestnervetrunkoftheforelimb,themediannerve.Experimentsweredonewiththenervetrunkbisected.Theyshowednoanalgesiceffectifthe nerveisstimulatedonthedistalendofthebisection,whereasstimulationoftheproximalportionproducesanalgesia.Thenervoussystemisthekeytothesuccessof theacupunctureanalgesia. Analgesiceffectscanbeobtainedbystimulatingthenervetrunkanatomicallyrelatedtoasurgicalarea.Theclosertheneedleistothenervetrunk,thebettertheresult. Bestresultscanbeobtainedbystimulatingthenervetrunkdirectly.Duringsurgicalprocedures,continuousstimulationisessentialtomaintainalevelofstimulationto thecerebralcortex

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toinhibitordiminishthepainreactioncausedbysurgery.Analgesiceffectscanalsobeobtainedbystimulatingthenervetrunkanatomicallyunrelatedtothesurgical area. Thesitesofinsertionforanalgesiaareassignificantastheyareinacupuncturetherapyfordiseases.Thechoiceofneedlingpointsalongthenervetrunkdependsonthe easyaccessibilityandconvenienceofposition.Asfarasthelevelofstimulationisconcerned,theanalgesiceffectdependssolelyonthelevelofstimulationandis unrelatedtoinductiontime.Nomatterhowlongstimulationissustained,noeffectisproducedifithasnotreachedtheoptimumlevelofintensity.Incriticallyillanimals, adequatelystrongstimulationisusuallyapplied,andsurgerycommenceswithaminimumofinductiontime.Ifthenervetrunkisoverstimulated,theanimalwillbecome agitated,withtachycardiaandrapidrespiration. Differentlevelsofstimulationarerequiredatdifferentacupuncturepoints.Asageneralrule,lessstimulationisusedifthepointislocatedalonganervetrunkorplexus, andalargeareaofanalgesiaisproducedwhereasatapointlocatedintheareaofamusclebelly,ahigherlevelofstimulationisrequiredandtheareaofanalgesiais small. LocationofPoints(SeeChapterThree) FL23.ThreeYangVessels,SanYanLo(Figs.337,339).Inthemusclegroove,2tsunbelowthetubercle(oftheradius)forthelateralligament,lateralligament, lateraltotheforearm. FL24.NightEye,YehYan(Fig.339).Medialsideoftheforelimb,equivalenttothesiteofthe"chestnut"(probablyalittlecranialtothechestnut). FL7.WindChase,Ch'angFeng(Figs.328,329,337to339).Caudalandslightlyventraltotheshoulderjoint,inthedepressionbetweenthelongandlateral headsofthetricepsbrachialisatthecaudalmarginofthedeltoideus. ProceduresforAcupunctureAnalgesia Needle:Twoneedles,Chinesenumbers18and19lengths:4and6in.,respectively.(Ingeneral,horsesinthewestarelargerthanthoseindigenoustoChina.The needleusedforSanYanLoandYehYanwillprobablyhavetobe8in.ChoiceofneedlediameterisbasedonfactorsdiscussedinChapterTwo). Apparatus:Asemiconductorelectroacupuncturemachine. PositionofAnimal:Standing,dorsalorlateralrecumbency.Thelateralpositionoftheanimalfortheoperationisfavoredbecausetheneedleinsertioncanbeonthe samesideastheoperation.Inasupineposition,needleinsertioncanbedoneonthemoreconvenientside. Prescriptions Allthreepointsareusedsimultaneouslyforeachofthefollowingsurgicalprocedures. Headregion:Enucleation,resection,anastomosisofthetongue. Neckregion:Resectionofthejugularvein,tracheotomy. Witherregion:Muscleresectionandsuture,closureoffistula. Thoracicregion:Ribresection,closureofpneumothorax. Abdominalregion:Abdominalhernia,intestinalanastomosis,cesareansection. Urinarysystem:Nephrectomy,recanalizationoftheurethra,inguinalregionsurgery. Extremities:Tumorresectionofthefeet,tendonrelease. MethodofNeedleInsertion FROMFL23throughFL24:Theneedleisinsertedatanangleof1520degreesfromtheskinatFL23alongtheposteriormarginoftheradiusslantingmediallyand ventrallytowardyehyan.Afterinsertion,theneedlepointshouldbefeltsubcutaneouslyatFL24careshouldbetakennottopenetratetheskin. FL24(yehyan)isabsentincowsandpigs.Intheseanimals,acorrespondingareaisused.Thedepthofneedleinsertionisslightlylessinthepigthaninhorsesand cattle,owingtothepig'ssmallersize. FL7Ch'angFeng:Straightinsertionfor3tsun.Thedepthofneedleinsertionintoch'angfengshouldvaryaccordingtothesizeandweightoftheanimal.Therangeis 23tsuninaveragedomesticanimals. UseofApparatus Afterneedleinsertion,theoutputwireoftheelectroacupunctureanalgesicmachineisconnectedtothehandle.Startingfromalowsetting,thefrequencyandvoltage areincreased.Theoptimalfrequencyisabout3050Hz,andtheoptimalvoltageisthehighesttolerablefortheanimal(usuallyhighenoughtocauseobviouslocal musclecontractions).Thedegreeofanalgesiacanbetestedbyneedlepunctureovertheareaoftheskinpreparedforthesurgicaloperation.Ifthereisnopain response,theoperationcanstart.Thedurationofelectricalstimu

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lationbeforesurgerybeginsshouldbeprolongedinindividualanimalswithlowpainthresholds.Electriccurrentshouldbecontinuallyappliedthroughouttheoperation. Thefrequencyandtheoutputoftheacupunctureanalgesiamachineshouldbeconsistentandmeetminimumstandardsbecausetheyinfluencetheanalgesiceffect.It willprobablybenecessarytoincreasethevoltageandvarythefrequencyduringtheprocedureasaccommodationseemstotakeplacewithlossofanalgesiceffect. ObservableResults Beforetheproductionofacupunctureanalgesia,theanimalisfullyconscious,andthereissensationofpainatthesiteoftheoperation. Duringanalgesia,bodytemperature,pulserate,andrateofrespirationareincreasedinitiallyandthenreturntonormalafter20min.Thetranquilizingandanalgesic effectsofthismethodofacupunctureanalgesiaarereproducible. Painduetotractionofthevisceraiseliminated.However,incomplicatedcases,wherethereismuchintestinalmanipulationortwisting,slightpainisobservedinsome animals.Thisdegreeofpaindoesnotinterferewiththeprocedure.Frompracticalexperience,dorsalrecumbencyissomewhatmoreawkwardthanlateral recumbency.Thereismusclespasminthelimbwhereneedlesareinserted.Thereisalsomildmusclespasminthecontralaterallimb.Thisusuallydoesnotinterfere withthesurgicalprocedure. Inseverelyillanimals,thismaybethemethodofchoiceinemergencyoperations.Electroacupunctureanalgesiadoesnotaffectcardiovascularfunction.Inotropic drugsmaybegivenduringtheoperationwithoutinterferingwiththeanalgesiceffect.Individualvariationsofanalgesiceffectexistinanimalsofdifferentmentalstates, species,andsex.Mongolianhorsesreactbetterthanhorsesofmixedbreeding.Maresandgeldingshavereactedbetterthanstallions. AssessmentofResults(Table61) Theparametersofassessmentaregivenbelow.Movementsconsideredpainresponsemustbedifferentiatedfromspontaneousmovementsunrelatedtothesurgery. Excellent:Theanimalappearscalmonskinincision,dissection,suturing,oranyotherprocedure. Good:Mildmusclefasciculationandsomemovementsobservedthatdonotinterferewiththeoperativeprocedure. Failure:Electroacupunctureanalgesiafailsanddrugsareused. DiscussionofthePrinciplesofElectroacupunctureAnesthesiaforDomesticAnimals* Itisanobjectivetruththatacupunctureaspracticedinveterinaryacupunctureanesthesiaiseffectiveasananalgesic.ByfirstinsertingneedlesatFL7andFL23ofthe sickanimal,andthenbyapplyingpulsatingelectricstimulifromanelectroacupunctureanesthesiamachine,wehavesucceeded,withoutsupplementalanalgesicdrugs, inconductingallformsofsurgicaloperationsonthecompletelyconsciouspatient.Byapplyingthistechnique,wehaveconducted255majorandminoroperationson horses,mules,donkeys,cattle,andswine,includingcesareansectionandmorethan20typesofoperationsonthehead,neck,chest,abdomen,buttock,perineum, andthefourlimbs.Therateofsuccessismorethan95%. Theelectroacupunctureeffectivenessasasurgicalanestheticisduetothedefiniteandrealanalgesiceffectofneedlestimulus.Weknowthistobetruebecausewithout it,nomatterwhatsedativeisadministered,ifananestheticisnotadditionallyadministered,theanimalwillfailtowithstandthepaincausedbythesurgery.Theywould proceedtostruggletheirrespiratoryrateswouldincrease,aswouldtheirpulseratesandbodytemperaturesandtheanimalswouldalsosweatheavilyandtheir musclestremble.Insomecases,shockordeathwouldresult. Itiswellrecognizedthatwithoutanesthesia,surgicalobjectivesmightnotberealizedinanimalsurgery,especiallycomplicatedmajorsurgery.Thus,ifunder electroacupunctureanesthesia,thepatientquietlyacceptstheincision,thepullingofintestines,suturing,andothersurgicaloperationswithoutexhibitinganyreaction, wewouldhaveconclusivelydemonstratedthatitisthedefiniteandreliableanalgesiceffectsofneedleinsertionthatmakesoperationspossibleonsickanimalsunder acupunctureanesthesia. AnatomyoftheSanYanLoPointsindomesticanimalsrevealsthatthech'angfeng(FL7)insertionreachestheradialnerveandthattheFL23andFL24insertionsare madeinthevicinityofthemediannerve.Thus,bothneedlesinsertedintheSanYanLoPointsarelocatednearnervetrunks,whichmeansthatthepassingofacurrent throughthetwoneedlesactuallystimulatesthetwonervetrunks. Tofurtherestablishthefunctionofthenervetrunks,wehaveselectedthepelvicnervetrunkandtheseventhcranialnerveonwhichtoapplyelectroacupuncture stimulation.Theresultsareidenticalto
*

BythegroupfromthePekingMunicipalVeterinaryHospital.

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thoseobtainedbystimulatingtheforelimbnervetrunks.Wehaveusedsurgicalmethodstoexposethenervetrunkstowhichdirectstimulationwasthenapplied. Analgesiceffectsthusobtainedwereevenmoreextensiveandreliable. Note,however,thatthefunctionofthenervetrunksinacupunctureanesthesiaisonlytoprovidetransmission,whiletherealfunctioningprocessestakeplaceinthe centralnervoussystem.Aspartoftheexperiment,wehaveappliedlocalanesthesiatoblockthecentralnervetrunkoftheforelimbandthepelvicnervetrunk.After that,weappliedelectroacupuncturetothedistalportionofthenervesthathavebeenblocked.Noanalgesiceffectsresulted,evenwhenweincreasedthestimulusto tentimesthestrengthnecessaryfornormalelectroacupunctureanesthesia.Thesameistruewhenweappliedelectroacupuncturetothedistalportionsofsevered nerves,provingthatsuccessinelectroacupunctureanesthesiahingesonthenormalfunctioningofanintactnervoussystem.Oncethenervestructuresaredestroyed,or whennormaltransmissionisimpaired,nerveexcitationprovidedbyneedleinsertionwouldfailtoreachthecentralnervoussystem,andtheobjectiveofinducing anesthesiawouldbeunattainable. Wehaveobservedeffectiveanesthesiadespiteanapparentlackofstructuralcorrelationbetweenthesurgicalareaandtheareastimulated,nordothesetwoareas sharethesameorcloselylocatednerves.Thisprovesthatwithoutthecentralnervoussystem,electroacupunctureanesthesiaisimpossible. Inelectroacupunctureanesthesiafordomesticanimals,continuouselectricstimulationisnecessarytomaintainsufficientexcitationofthecentralnervoussystem.Inthis way,reactionstothepaincausedbysurgeryarecontinuouslysuppressedorweakened,resultingincontinuousanesthesia.Itiswellbornoutbyfactsthatthenervous systemplaysthecentralroleinelectroacupunctureanesthesia. Differentareasorpointsforneedleinsertionproducedifferentanestheticeffects,characterizedbythepeculiarityoftheareasorpointsconcerned.Suchpeculiarityis, inturn,closelycorrelatedwiththedistributionofthenerves. Wehaveconductedthreesetsofexperiments.Inthefirstset,needleswereinsertedatthetraditionalpointsandnonpointsalongthenervetrunks.Inthesecondset, needleswereinsertedattraditionalpointsandnonpointsonmuscularareas,wheretherearenovisiblenervetrunksbeneaththeneedles.Inthethirdset,needleswere insertedattraditionalpointsandnonpointsunderneaththeskin,wheretherearenovisiblenervetrunkspassingbeneaththeneedles.Theresultsareasfollows: comparativelybetteranalgesiceffectswereobtainedfromthefirstsetalso,theintensityofstimulationneededwasthelowest.Fromthesecondset,analgesiceffects wereobtainedaroundtheneedleandinotherindividualareas,andtheintensityofstimulationneededwashigherthanwiththefirstset.Thelocalanalgesiceffect obtainedfromthethirdsetwasstillweaker,andtheintensityofstimulationrequiredwashighestamongthethreesets. Withinthesetsoftheexperiment,therewerenodiscernibledifferencesbetweeninsertionsmadeonthepointsornonpoints.Thus,weareoftheopinionthatwhether ornotonecanobtaincomparativelybetterresultsinelectroacupunctureanesthesiafordomesticanimalsdependonwhethertheneedlesareinsertedalongthe pathwaysofthenervetrunks.Theclosertheyaretothenervetrunks,thebettertheeffectsbetterstillitistodirectlystimulatethenervetrunks. Unliketherapeuticacupuncture,electroacupunctureanesthesiadoesnotrequireaccurateinsertionatthepoints.Itissufficienttochoosejustanypointalongthe passageofthenervetrunks.Byconnectingthesepointsalongthenervetrunks,wemaycallthem,collectively,thenameanestheticline.Thus,whenwetalkaboutthe peculiarityofananestheticpointinelectroacupuncture,wearenotreferringtoaparticularpoint,buttotheanestheticlinethatrunsalonganervetrunk. Choosingapointforinsertionwillbearbitrarilydeterminedbypracticalconsiderationsthatis,thepointchosenshouldbeeasytolocateandremember,convenient forthesurgicaloperationconcerned,andthekindofrestraintneeded,andeasytopopularize. TheSanYanLoelectroanesthesiatechniquehasbeendevelopedonthebasisofourcountry'straditionalchingloveterinaryacupuncturetheory.Inclinicalapplication, wehavefoundthattheconvergencepointsofchinglo,asreferredtoinchinglotheories,aremostlylocatedattheareaswherenervesaredenselydistributedorareas thatareclosetonervetrunks.Thecentralroleplayedbythenervoussysteminelectroacupunctureanesthesiaisinagreementwithagreatpartofthatrecordedin ancientdocumentsaboutthefunctionsofchinglo.Forthisreason,weshouldnottreatchingloandnervesasseparateentitiesthatarecontradictory. Theanestheticeffectsofacupuncturemaybeinterpretedastheresultofanactionaffectedbytheexternalfactorofastimulusofacertainintensitybymeansofthe maininternalfactorofanervoussysteminsidetheanimal'sbody.Withoutthatcertainex

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ternalfactorthatprovidesthenervoussystemwithsuitablestimulation,therecanbenoanestheticeffect.Inacupunctureanesthesiaforanimals,wehavetriedavariety ofstimuli,includingtwistingtheneedlebyhand,druginjection,andelectricity.Wefeelthatwhichevermethodisused,itmustbeabletoprovideastimulationof sufficientandsuitableintensitytothenervoussystem.Otherwise,satisfactoryacupunctureanesthesiawillnotbeattainable. Scientificapplicationhasalsomadeclearthatthekeytosuccessfulacupunctureanesthesialiesintheintensityofthestimulation,whetheritissufficientandappropriate, notwhetherthedurationofinductionislongorshort.Whenthestimulationisweak,analgesiceffectsarenotattainable,nomatterhowlongthedurationofstimulation is.Itisonlywhenstimulationreachesacertainlevelofintensitythatsatisfactoryanalgesiceffectsareobtained. Foranimalsincriticalcondition,weusuallyapplyastimulusofsufficientandappropriateintensityandproceedtooperateimmediatelywithoutrecoursetoaninduction period.Bysavingcrucialminutes,wemayhavesavedmanydyinganimals. Thenervoussystemcanonlywithstandacertainlevelofstimulation.Overstimulationnotonlyhasnoanalgesiceffects,butalsomayproducetheoppositeeffect, causingpain.Theanimalrespondsbymovementandphysiologicchanges.Theheartandrespiratoryratesmaygoup.Thus,itisimportantthatsufficientand appropriatestimulationbeappliedinelectroacupunctureanesthesia. Differentareasanddifferentpointsrequirevaryingdegreesofstimulation.Inthevicinityofnervetrunks,analgesiceffectsareextensive,evenwhenthestimulationis comparativelyweak.Formuscularareas,analgesiceffectsarelocalized,evenwhenthestimulationiscomparativelystrong.Subcutaneously,thenecessaryanalgesic effectscannotbeobtained,evenwhentheintensityofstimulationexceedseitheroftheprecedingcases,becausemuchoftheintensityofthestimulationisdissipated intomuscularandsubcutaneousstructures.Whenstimulationofthenervetrunksdecreases,achangeinanalgesiceffectoccurs.Thus,ifwecanfindappropriateways toprovidesufficientandsuitablestimulationtothenerves,wewouldbeabletoraisetheeffectivenessofacupunctureanesthesia. VeterinaryElectroacupunctureMachineCircuitDiagramandTechnicalCharacteristics Clinicalexperiencehasshownastrongrelationshipbetweentheeffectofelectroacupunctureandthefunctionalcharacteristicsoftheelectroacupuncturemachine.After muchexperimentationandcontinualimprovements,wehaveproducedtheveterinarymodel715electroacupuncturemachine.Thismachinefeatureshighvoltages, highfrequencies,highadjustability,bettereffectiveness,simplecircuitry,andeaseofmanufacture. TechnicalCharacteristics Frequencies:270cycles/sec,continuouslyvariable. Voltages:Bidirectional(bothpositiveandnegative)pulse,maximumpeaktopeakvoltagedropsare27voltsatasimulatedloadof200ohm,260voltsat5000ohm, and612voltsatopencircuit.Thevoltageiscontinuouslyvariable. Electricconsumption:Thiscircuitdrawsamaximumof160milliamperes(ma) Pulsewidth:1and1/2msec(thenegativepulsewidth) CircuitDiagram SeeFigure65. ComponentsandSpecifications Componentspecificationsarealreadynotedinthecircuitdiagram.T1isaB408outputtransformer,T2isa5watt,tappedtransformermadebytheTientsinRedPeak RadioFactory.Thesecondaryofthiscircuitconnectstoa2000ohmimpedancethiscanbeconnectedaccordingtotheattachedinstructionbooklet(Translator's note:IsuspectthisreferstotheinstructionbookletforT2).The3AD12transistorcanbereplacedwitha3AD30.Thepowersourceof18voltsisfrom#1batteries. MaintenanceandNotes Iftheoutputadjustmentcontrolisfunctioningonlyintermittently,poorcontactbecauseofcorrosionatthepositiveterminalofthebatterymaybethecause.Tocorrect this,preventdampness,andsanddownthepositiveterminalorthecaseofthebattery. The3.3kiloohmpotentiometershouldbeahighvoltage,humidityresistant,sealedtype.Otherwise,thiscomponentcanbeeasilydamaged,resultinginlossof controloveroutputvoltage. After8to10uses(ofabout3hourseach)inabdominalcavitysurgery,ifitisfoundthatinsufficientexcitationisproduced,examinethebatterytoseeifthevoltagehas droppedbelow14voltsorhasbeenweakenedorbecomedamp.Ifso,replacewithanewbattery. Theoutputvoltageis260volts,sotheoutputpostmustnotbereplacedwiththepowerorearphone

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Figure65. CircuitdiagramofaChineseveterinaryacupunctureelectricstimulator.

plugscommonlyfoundintransistorradios.Thebestchoiceisprobablybananaplugs,leadingseparatelytothetwoterminals,andthisisalsoconvenienttouse. In1975,Dr.O.Kothbauer,aveterinarian,andotherhealthscientistsfromAustriavisitedChinaandsawmanydemonstrationsofacupunctureincludingsurgery (exploratorylaparotomy)onahorse,utilizingacupunctureanalgesiaproducedbyelectricalstimulationoftheSanYanLoPointswithaChinese715stimulator. PicturestakenbyKothbauerarereproducedinFigures66to613.

Figure66. DemonstrationinChina:horsetiedtooperatingtable. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

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Figure67. DemonstrationinChina:horsetiedtooperatingtable. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

Figure68. DemonstrationinChina:Dr.O.Kothbauer examininghorse. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

HorseandDonkeyEarAcupunctureAnesthesia6 StructureoftheEar(Figs.614to617) Theanatomicdescriptionwillbebasedonthepositionoftheearsbeinganintermediateonethatis,notdirectedforwardorback,buttothelateralsidewiththe innersurfaceoftheearfacingalateraldirection. Theexternalearofthehorseanddonkeyconsistsoftheauricle,whichhasamedicalconvexsideandalateralconcaveside.Threecutaneousridgesarelocatedon thelateralconvexsurface,whichrunsparalleltotheedgesoftheear,buttheridgesdonotreachtheapex.Theyarecalledtherostral,middle,andcaudalearfolds. Themiddleandthecaudalearfoldsextendslightlyventraltojointattheearbasetoformthecommonearfold.Thereisalsoalongitudinalfurrowbetweenthemiddle andthecaudalearfoldcalledtheinterfoldfurrow. Therostralandthecaudalsurfacesoftheearjointoformtheearmargins.Theyarecalled,accordingtotheirposition,therostralandcaudalearmargins.

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Figure69. DemonstrationinChina:electricstimulatorconnectedtotwoneedlesintheforelegofthe horse(FL7andFL23),andsurgeryisbeginning. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

Figure610. DemonstrationinChina:surgeryinprogress. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

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Figure611. DemonstrationinChina:horseandsurgicalteamaftersurgery. (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.)

Thedorsalendoftherostralandcaudalearmarginsjointoformtheapex.Ventrally,theycometogethertoformtheincisuraintertragica.Therostralearmargin extendsdownwardandbranchesoffintotwobranchesthemedialorbaseofthemiddleearmarginandthelateralearmargin.Thesetwobasesforma triangularfossa,theinterbasefossa. Atthelowerendoftherostralearmargin,closetotheincisuraintertragica,thereisasmallprotuberancecalledthetragus.Atthelowerendofthecaudalearmargin, andclosetotheincisuraintertragica,thereisanotherprotuberance,theantitragus.Straightdownbelowthemedialsideofthelowerfoldoftheantitragus,thereisa horizontalskinfoldcalledthelowerfoldoftheantitragus.Lyinginbetweenthenavicularfossaandtheexternalorificeoftheexternalauditorymeatus,itisafunnel shapedstructurealongthecrushelicis.Thelongitudinalaxisofthefunnelislongerthanthehorizontalaxis,andthebaseisdividedbythreeskinfoldsintofourshallow fossa.Theyarecalled,accordingtopositiontherostral,middle,caudal,andlateralfossae.Themiddlefossaisthelargestthecaudal,thesmallest.Thelowerend ofthelateralfossaistheexternalauditorymeatus. LocationoftheAuricularAcupuncturePoints(Figs.614to617) CollectiveWisdom(Ch'ingWei).Locatedontherostralmarginofthecaudalearfold,3tsunfromthetipoftheear. Sympathetic(ChiaoChien).Attheupperterminalendofthemiddleearfold. HeavenlyGate(ShenMen).Intheinterfoldfurrow,3fenabovethebifurcationofthecommonearfold. Kidney(Shen).Twofenrostraltothebifurcationofthecommonearfold. Abdomen(Fu).Attherostralmarginofthepointbetweentheupperthirdandthemiddlethirdofthecommonearfold. Thorax(Hsiung).Atthejunctionbetweenthelowermiddlethirdofthecommonearfold. Tripleburner(SanChiao).Atthejunctionoftheupperandmiddlethirdofthelongitudinalaxisof

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thelateralfossaattheorificeoftheexternalauditorymeatus. Lung1(Fei1).Atthemidpointofthehorizontallinedrawntowardtherostralearfoldfromthejunctionofthelowerandmiddlethirdofthebaseofthemiddleear margin. Lung2(Fei2).Attherostralmarginofthelowerendoftherostralearfold. Occiput(Chen).Fivefenrostraland1tsunbelowtheincisuraintertragus. ProceduresforAcupunctureAnalgesia Needles TheChinesenumber21acupunctureneedleisusedlengthvariesaccordingtosizeoftheanimalandthedepthofinsertion,usually1015mminsertedintobothears. Prescriptions AbdominalSurgery Theheavenlygate,lung1,abdomen,andtripleburnerpointsareused(thetripleburnerpointmaybeblockedby2%procaine).Allsupplementarypointsarelocal acupuncturepointsatornearthesiteofsurgicalincision,and

Figure612. Anatomyofhorseear.

Figure613. Acupunctureanalgesiapointsintheearofthehorse.

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Figure614. Anatomyofthemuleear.

theyarecommonlyusedpointswithhighneedlesensation.Theseacupuncturepointsaremarkedbyanasteriskinthedescriptionofacupuncturepoints(seeChapter Three). JointSpaceSurgery Theheavenlygateandlung1pointsareused.Allsupplementarypointsarelocalacupuncturepointsindicatedfortheparticularjoint. FistulaofParotidGland Theheavenlygateandlung1pointsareused,supplementedbyelectricalormanualstimulationofacupuncturepointsatandaroundthesiteofoperation. ThoracicSurgery Theheavenlygate,andlung1,

Figure615. Acupunctureanalgesiapointsintheearofthemule.

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andthoraxpointsareused,allsupplementedbyelectricalormanualstimulationoflocalacupuncturepointsatthesiteoftheoperation. ReductionofbonefracturesofthelimbsTheheavenlygate,occiput,andkidneypointsareused,supplementedbylocalacupuncturepoints. MethodsofNeedleInsertion Difficultinsertionsaredonefirst.Theneedleisinsertedinaslantingdirectionandiswhirledduringinsertion.Theneedleshouldgothroughthecartilageoftheearbut shouldnotpiercethroughtotheothersideoftheskin.Thebonystructuremaybereachedalongthebaseofthecrushelicis. Theneedleiswhirled150180times/min,orelectricalstimulationisusedasdescribedbelow. Generalinductiontimeis1520min.Theneedleiswhirledatregulartimeintervals.Forheavyinduction,15minisusedfortheheavenlygate,lung,andother correspondingpoints.Forexample,inabdominalsurgery,heavyinductionisperformedontheearandabdominalpoints.Aftertheinduction,theoperationproceeds. Duringtheoperation,theneedlesarecontinuallywhirledtomaintaintheanalgesiauntiltheoperationisover. ElectricalStimulation Therearetwotypesofstimulatorsthestandardtype,andthesquarewavestimulator.Thestandardapparatushasanelectricpotentialof912voltsandaneffective currentof67ma(maximumof89ma). Inthesquarewavestimulator,thesmoothsquarewaveamplitudeis4voltsandtheroughsquarewaveamplitudeis7.5volts,bothwithafrequencyof3.8times/sec. Duringthefirstfewminutesofneedlemanipulation,thereisaslightincreaseinrespirationandpulserate.Theyreturnedtonormal35minlater.Pupildilationthen follows.After20minofneedlewhirling,therearesignsofexcitementandanxiety.Thirtyminuteslater,respirationbecomesdeep,pupilsizebecomesnormal,andthe lipsandeyelidsdroop.Thereisadelayedresponseofthecornealreflex.Thesesignsindicatesuccessfulanalgesia.Atthispoint,thereisalossofpainsensation,and theoperationmayproceed. Restraint Dependingondifferentsurgicalsites,differentmethodsofrestraintareused.Forexample,inlowerabdominalsurgery,scrotalhernia,penisresection,limbandtrunk surgery,andresectionofthejugularvein,thelateralpositionmaybeused.Manyproceduresmayalsobedoneinthehorsestanding. AssessmentofResults Therearenogreatdetectablephysiologicchangesduringsurgeryusingearanalgesia.Sometimes,theheartratemayincreaseslightly.Earanalgesiaacupuncturemay beusedinbothdepressiveandexcitabletypesofhorsesanddonkeys. Thestandardsofassessmentofresultsarethesameasstatedbefore(seeElectroacupunctureUsingtheSanYanLoPointsinAnimals,p.261). ACaseHistory Thefollowingcasehistorypresentsabdominalsurgerydoneonahorseusingearacupunctureanalgesia.ItwasperformedbyaveterinarymedicalteaminTuP'ung CommuneinLanChou,February29,1971. History:Male,redhorse,fouryearsold,withconstipation. Diagnosis:Laceratedrectum. Prescription:Lung1,occiput,andearrootpointswereused.Thedeepestdepressionoftherostralfossawasusedastheneedlingpoint,oneoneachside.Itwas locatedbypullingtheearflattoexposetherostralandcaudalfossaeanditsbone.Acupuncturepointsonbothearswereused.Thisprescription,usingtheearroot point,isanalternativetothestandardprescriptionslistedonpage622. Method:Theanimalwasadequatelyrestrained.Theneedleusedwasnumber21withtheappropriatelengthof2.53inches.Fortheearrootpoint,theneedlewas insertedperpendiculartothegrounduntilthehornystructurewasreached.Electricalstimulationwasused. Reaction:Duringabdominalincision,muscleseparation,andperitonealincisions,theanimalremainedcalm.Onmanipulationoftheintestines,thehindlegflexedthree times.Thepulserangedaround52beatsperminuterespirationvariedbetween12and20breathsperminute.Theanimalremainedcalmwhentheintestine,muscles, andskinweresutured.Durationoftheoperationwas41/2hours. AcupunctureAnesthesiainVariousAnimals Horse AstudyinJapanthathasrepeatedtheworkoftheChinese,whereinanalgesiaofthetrunkofthehorsewasproducedbystimulationoftheSanYanLoPoints(FL23, FL24,FL7).33Thepointswerestimulatedbyanelectricdevicethatdeliveredanelectricalstimulusatafrequencyof0.5cycle/sec,2.5volts,

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and20ma.Theheaddrooped,theanimalsalivated,andthereweredefiniteanalgesiceffectsonthetrunk.Nomentionwasmadeofthemannerinwhichthe electrodeswereconnectedthatis,whichwerepositiveandwhichwerenegativeortheshapeofthewaveform.Alsotherewasnodescriptionofthemethodby whichanalgesiawasassessed. Cattle AmostimportantachievementinacupunctureanalgesiaistheworkdonebyDr.O.Kothbauer.38Someoftheworkdonestudyingacupunctureanalgesiawasdone inrabbits,andmanypeoplequestionthevalidityofsubjectiveobservationsinthisspeciesregardinganalgesiaandimmobilityduringpainproduction.Theuseofthe cowasanexperimentalanimalisefficaciousbecausecowsusuallydon'trelatewelltostrangersitisunlikelythatastrangercouldhaveacalmingoranyother positiveeffectonacowthatwouldcauseittowithstandpainwithoutreacting. Thenippleisverysensitive,quiteaccessible,andbecauseKothbauer'sveterinarypracticefor20yearsdealtmainlywithcattle,heunderstoodtheresponsesofthis speciestoinjectionsaroundthenipple(withlocalanesthetic),andsurgeryofthisareaiswellknown. Theworkwasdoneoverseveralyearsandinseveralphases.Theresponsesofthecowsweregradednoeffect,slightanalgesia,moderateanalgesia,and completeanalgesia.Theseweredeterminedsubjectivelybyobservationsoftheanimal'sresponsestothetestingprocedure.Thethreepartsofthetestwere(1) insertionofalargehypodermicneedlecompletelythroughthenipple(2)anincisionof4cmthatenteredtheteatcisternand(3)suturingtheincision.Theresponses observedwere:(1)noresponsethatis,nochangeinthenormalattitudeofthecow(2)rapidmovements(3)othersignsofannoyance(4)liftingofthehindlegs(5) kickingand(6)attemptsatescape. Thefirsttrialinvolvedmechanicalrotationofneedlesinsertedintoconceptionvessel17andliver14or15. Theliverpointusedwasonthesamesideofthebodyasthenipplethatwasused.Thisproducedanalgesiaforneedleinsertionintothenipplebutnotforincisionor suturing.Theadditionofthepointliver2addedanalgesiaforincisionbutnotsuturing. Inthehuman,pointliver2isbetweenmetatarsal1and2,andstomach44isbetweenmetatarsal2and3.Themetatarsalsinthecoware3and4therefore,itisnot clearwheretheliverandstomachmeridiansmightbeinthecow.Kothbauercallsthepointliver2,butitcouldbestomach44. Theuseofelectricalstimulationandbilateralliverpointsmadeanalgesiaproductionmoreconsistentandbetter,buttherewasstillresponsetosuturing.Trial4was conductedbyaddingstimulationtobladder30.Thisstilldidnotprovideanalgesiaforsuturing.Thenthewaveformwaschanged,andtwomoreneedleswereadded alongthebaseoftheudder.Thisprovidedanalgesiaforsuturingoftheincision(Fig.618,Table62). Thecowshadbeenrestrainedwithnoseleads.Todeterminewhetherthismethodofrestraintwasproducingthelackofresponsetotheprocedures,severalcows wererestrainedinthismannerandtestedforanalgesiatherewasnoanalgesiaseen.Thenacupuncturewasperformedinthesamecows,producinganalgesia. Thefinaltrialsweredoneusingplacebopoints,insertingtheneedlesaboutahandsbreathfromwheretheyshouldhavebeenplaced.Noanalgesiawasproduced. Thentheneedleswereputintheproperpositions,andanalgesiaresulted.Fromthissimplebutverysignificantstudy,itcouldbeconcludedthat(1)acupuncture analgesiacanbeproducedinthecow(2)thattheanalgesiaisnotduetorestraintorhypnotismand(3)thataccurateplacementoftheneedleisimportant. Acupunctureanalgesiahasbeenproducedinthecow,enablingtheperformanceofcesareansections.39Thepointsusedwereliver14andbladder30asdescribed previouslyandinTable62.StimulationwaswiththeChineseSB7172,frequencysetat1802400cycles/min(probablyamisprintinthejournalandshouldbe180 240cycles/minor34Hz).Voltagewasincreaseduntiltheskinbegantotwitch.Stimulationwasappliedfor20minbeforesurgerybegan.Thesiteofsurgerywasthe leftparalumbarfossa. Dog Therehavebeenmanyreportsoftheproductionofacupunctureanalgesiaindogs.1 ,22,29,36,37,47,48,57,59Oneofthesereportssaysthatbilateralplacementof needlesinST36andGB34,withelectricalstimulationofanintensitysuchthatlocalizedtetanyoccurs,willproduceanalgesiaforsurgicaloophorectomyindogsafter aninductionperiodof20minutes.22 Inanotherstudyinthedog,needleswereplacedbilaterallyatTB23,H5,B22,B23,andK6.Theseneedleswerenotconnectedtoanelectricaldevicebutwereleft aloneinposition.Analgesiaforatestincision(deep,3in.surgicalincisioninthecraniallateralquadrantoftheabdomen)wasproducedin

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Figure616. Acupuncturepointsfortheproductionofanalgesiaoftheudderteat(af). (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer.) TABLE62.AcupunctureAnalgesiaoftheUdderTeatoftheCow

TRIAL ACUPUNCTURE POINTS 1 2 3 4 5


a b

RESPONSE TYPEOF STIMULATION


A A B B C

TEARPERFORATION WITHNEEDLE
+ + + + +

TEARINCISION(4CM)
0 + + + +

SUTURINGOF INCISION
0 0 0 0 +

a b c

, , , ,

a b c a b c d

, , ,

a b c d e f

, , , , ,

x=onlyrestraintwith noseleads y= , , , , , x=Placebopoints y=a,b,c,d,e,f


a b c d e f

C C C

0 + 0 +

0 + 0 +

0 + 0 +

=C17=onthemidline3in.cranialtothexyphoidprocess. =LIV14or15=attheleveloftheshoulderjointbetweenthe8thand9thribs.

b c

=LIV2=caudalandmedialtothemedialcondyleofthemetatarsalbone,cranialtothedeepdigitalflexor(stomach44?) =B30=abovethelastsacralforamenabout21/2in.fromthemidline.

d e

andf=210cmneedlessubcutaneouslyalongthebaseoftheudder. =Rotationofneedlesfor1to10min. =Electroacupuncture:8V,56Hz,for20min,rectangularwaveform. =Electroacupuncture:8V,56Hz,for25min,sawtoothwaveform.

A B C + 0

=completeanalgesia

=noeffect (CourtesyofDr.O.Kothbauer)

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allof20dogstested.Thesedogsreceivednodrugsanddidnotmeettheacupuncturistuntilthetimeofthestudy.47,48 AFrenchgroupproducedacupunctureanalgesiabyusingthepointssanlangloandtsiangfongprobablysanyanlo(TB8)andch'angfeng(seeChapterThree, horseFL7,FL23,FL24).29Theyreportedperforming,inthedog,hysterectomies,femoralheadresections,perianaltumorresections,umbilicalherniarepair,and fracturerepairs,withnoadversepainorotherreactionsfromthedogs. ThereareseveralreportsfromJapanconcerningtheproductionofacupunctureanalgesiainthedog.1 ,36,37,59Inonestudy,eightpointswereelectricallystimulated: LI11andYanhoudian(?)ononeforelimbH3andP6ontheotherforelimbST36ononehindlimbSP6ontheotherhindlimbandbetweenthe3rdand4thmiddle footbones(bilaterallyonhindlimbs).Abipolarpulsewavewasappliedhavingafrequencyof1550cycles/secwith46volts.Someofthedogsweresedatedmost werenot.Analgesiawasproducedonthefourlimbs,andthetrunkexceptforthescrotum,labia,andanus.Muscletonewasincreased.36 AnotherJapanesegroupproducedanalgesiaofthebodyexceptforthescrotum,labia,anus,tail,andheadbyelectricalstimulation(4.55.5volts,2.54.5ma,1530 cycles/sec)ofLI11andYanhoudian(?)ontheforelimbsandST36andBanggu(?)onthehindlimbs.ThenegativeterminalswereconnectedtoLI11andST36,and thepositiveterminalstoYanhoudianandBanggu.59 Thenextreporttoappearwasontherelationshipbetweentheareaofanalgesiaproducedandthepointsthatareused.37 Whenforelimbpointsareusedthefollowingareasofanalgesiaareproduced:1)LI11Yanhoudiancombination:analgesiaextendingupwardfromtheoutsideofthe elbowofthetreatedlimboverandcrossingthebackoftheneckcenterlineanddownwardtotheoutsideoftheelbowoftheuntreatedlimb.Thetrunkandthe abdomenmayalsobeaffected2)H3Yanhoudiancombination:analgesiaextendingupwardfromtheoutsideoftheelbowofthetreatedlimboverandcrossingthe centerlineofboththebackoftheneckandthefrontoftheneck(throat?)anddownwardtotheareaaroundthecarpusoftheuntreatedlimb3)H3P6combination: analgesiafromtheleftsideandtherightsideoftheneck,extendingtotheribs,theabdomen,andthebuttock4)TB5Yanhoudiancombination:Similarto35)ch'ang fengTB8combination:analgesiaoftheentiretrunkandthefourlimbs(excepttheportionofthefrontlimbsbeneaththeelbows.) Whenhindlimbpointsareusedthefollowingareasofanalgesiaareproduced:1)ST36Banggucombination:analgesiaspreadingfromtheoutsideofboththeleftand therighthindlimbs(excepttheverytip)totherearofthebody.Occasionally,analgesiaisalsofoundontheshoulders2)SP6Banggucombinationanalgesia spreadingoverthethighsandtherearofthebody. Whenheadpointsareused(twopairs):SP10TB17combination:analgesiaspreadingoverallfourlimbs(exceptfortheverytip)andtheentiretrunk. Inalltheprecedingcases,analgesiaisnotestablishedatthescrotum,thelabia,aroundtheanus,andthetail. ThelastofthisseriesofreportsfromJapanalsotriedtodeterminetheelectricalparametersofstimulation,sitesofpoints,andareasofanalgesiaproducedindogs.1 Thepointstheyusedwere:thebaseoftheear,LI4,TB8,B49,SP6,GB20,GV4,LI11,H3,ST36,SP10,andSP9.Thevoltagevariedbetween1.5and6the currentvariedbetween3and8ma.Thewaveformwasatransformedsquarewave,thefrequencyusedwasroughlythepatient'spulserateplus100.After20minutes ofstimulation,insensitivitytopainwasestablishedforallareasotherthanthehead,fourlimbs,andthetail.Twentyninedogsweretested:10.4%(3)hadalmostno painatall65.5%(19)hadnumbnessand24.1%(7)hadnoeffect. OnegroupfromtheUnitedStatesreportedonthesuccessfuluseofacupunctureanalgesiain15dogs.57Theprocedureswereallabdominalandincludedsuchthings asoveraiohysterectomy,cesareansection,splenectomy,andbowelresection.ThepointsusedwereST36andSP6.Asquarewavewasusedtostimulatethepoints throughneedlesatafrequencyof125Hz.Theperiodsofstimulationwere2secondslongfollowedbyapauseof2seconds.Analgesiawasachievedin10minutes. AcupunctureAnalgesiainMan Therehavebeenmanyreports(written,television,movie)ontheuseofacupuncturefortheproductionofsurgicalanalgesiain humans.18,20,21,22,24,26,27,28,30,46,49Themostcommonanddramaticareaboutthoracicsurgeryinapatientwhoisawakeandsmiling.Thepatientisnotintubated ormechanicallyventilated.Duringsurgery,thepatientdrinksteaoreatsorangeslices.Thesereportshavestirredmuchinterestinacupuncture,buttheyhavealso producedmuchcontroversy.Thepeoplewhothoughtthatacupuncturecouldnotproduceanalgesiaforsurgeryfellintotwomaingroupsthosewhosaid acupunctureanalgesiawasreallyhypnotismandthosewhosaidthatthepreoperativemedication,whichwasoftengiven,pro

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videdtheanalgesia.AmysticalpowerhasalsobeenattributedtoChairmanMao,andthisissaidtogivethepatientsthemoralstrengthtowithstandthepainfrom surgery. Itisknownthatsurgerycanbeperformedunderhypnotism,butgenerallyagreatdealofrehearsingandpracticingmustbedonetobesuccessful.40Katzetal. concludedthathypnotizabilitywasrelatedtothesuccessfuluseofacupuncturethatis,patientswhoareeasilyhypnotizedaremorelikelytorespondpositivelyto acupuncture.35Thereisnoquestionthatapositivementalattitudeandagreattrustinone'sphysiciancaninfluencepatientsandperhapsevenraisetheirthresholdof pain.However,itisunlikelythatpatientscouldbeconvincedtonotrespondtoorfeelpainduringmajorsurgery.Thesectiononacupunctureanalgesiainanimals(p. 259)addsweighttotheargumentsagainstthepainreliefbeingduetohypnosisorsuggestion. Thepreanestheticmedicationusuallyreportedarelowdosesofabarbiturateornarcoticanalgesic.Thenarcoticcancertainlyprovidepainrelief,butitisnotlikelyto provideanalgesiaformajorsurgeryinthedosesreported. Theproductionofacupunctureanalgesiabywesternphysicianswithoutpresurgicalanalgesicsisevidenceagainstpoliticalsourcesforanalgesia. Acupunctureanalgesiahasbeenusedforsurgeryfromoneendofthebodytotheother,butthemostcommonlyreportedandmostsuccessfulcaseshavebeenthose oftheneckandchest.Successrateshavevariedfrom10to100%. References 1.Akamatsu,S.,etal.,1974.Acupunctureanesthesiaindogs.Proceedingsofthe1974JapanClinicalVeterinaryConference. 2.Akil,H.,andMayer,D.J.1972.AntagonismofstimulationproducedanalgesiabypCPA,aserotoninsynthesisinhibitor.BrainRes.44:69297. 3.Akil,H.,Mayer,D.J.,andLiebesking,J.C.1972.Psychophysiologie:comparaisonchezleratentrel'analgesieinduiteparstimulationdelasubstancegriseperi aqueducaleetl'analgesiemorphiniqueC.R.Acad.Sci.Paris274:36035. 4.Andersson,S.A.,Ericson,T.,Holmgren,E.,andLindqvist,G.1973.Electroacupuncture:Effectonpainthresholdmeasuredwithelectricalstimulationofteeth. BrainRes.63:39396. 5.Anon.1972.ElectroacupunctureanesthesiainanimalsusingtheSanYanLopoints.PekingMunicipalVeterinaryHospital. 6.Anon.1972.Chineseveterinaryhandbook.Pp.66469.LanChouVeterinaryResearchInstitute.Ganshu,China:ThePeople'sPublishingCo. 7.Anon.1973.Theroleofmidbrainreticularformationinacupunctureanesthesia.AcupunctureanesthesiacoordinatinggroupofShanghaiCollegeofTraditional ChineseMedicine,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.3:32. 8.Anon.1973.Therelationbetweenacupunctureanalgesiaandneurotransmittersinrabbitbrain.Acupunctureanesthesiaresearchgroup.HunanMedicalCollege, Changsha.ChineseMed.J.8:105. 9.Anon.1973.Electrophysiologicstudyofspinalreflexesunderacupunctureanesthesia.Acupunctureanesthesiaresearchunit,HsuYiCountyPeople'sHospital,Hsu YiCounty,Kiangsu.ChineseMed.J.3:33. 10.Anon.1973.Effectofacupunctureonpainthresholdofhumanskin.Researchgroupofacupunctureanesthesia,PekingMedicalCollege,Peking.ChineseMed. J.3:35. 11.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiainsplenectomy:reportof305cases.Ch'angshanCountyPeople'sHospital,Chiangshan,Chekiang.ChineseMed.J.2:22. 12.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiainneurosurgery.Departmentofanesthesiology,HsuanWuHospital,Peking.ChineseMed.J.2:15. 13.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiaforoperationsinshockandcriticalcases.Departmentofanesthesiology,TeachingHospitalofAnhweiMedicalCollege, Hofei,Anhwei.ChineseMed.J.2:24. 14.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiainpediatricsurgery.Departmentofsurgery,PekingChildren'sHospital,Peking.ChineseMed.J.2:23. 15.Anon.1973.Laryngectomyunderacupunctureanesthesia.Eye,Ear,NoseandThroatHospitalofShanghaiFirstMedicalCollege,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J. 2:18. 16.Anon.1973.ObservationsonanalgesiceffectofneedlingChuanliaopointinneurosurgery:reportof619cases.HuaShanHospitalofShanghaiFirstMedical College,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.2:16. 17.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiainthyroidectomy.ShanghaiFirstPeople'sHospital,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.2:17. 18.Anon.1973.Pulmonaryresectionsunderacupunctureanesthesia.ShanghaiFirstTuberculosisHospital,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.2:19. 19.Anon.1973.Electricalresponsestonocuousstimulationanditsinhibitioninnucleuscentralislateralisofthalamusinrabbits.ShanghaiInstituteofPhysiology, Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.3:31. 20.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiaincardiacsurgery.Thoracicsection,acupunctureanesthesiagroupofSecondTeachingHospitalofHunanMedicalCollege, Changsha,Hunan.ChineseMed.J.2:21. 21.Anon.1973.Acupunctureanesthesiainthoracicsurgery:clinicalanalysisof818cases.SectionofthoracicsurgeryofPekingAcupunctureAnesthesia CoordinatingGroup.ChineseMed.J.2:20. 22.Anon.1974.Veterinaryapplicationofacupunctureanesthesiainsmallanimals.InAcupunctureAnesthesiaTextbook,InternationalAcupunctureAnesthesia CoordinatingGroupwithW.P.Loh.LaPorte,Ind.:CenturyMedicalPublications. 23.Anon.1974.ThePrinciplesandPracticalUseofAcupunctureAnesthesia.HongKong:Medicine&HealthPublishingCo. 24.Anon.1975.Acupunctureanesthesia:ananestheticmethodcombiningtraditionalChineseandwestern

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medicine.Shanghaiacupunctureanesthesiacoordinatinggroup,Shanghai.ChineseMed.J.1:1327. 25.Anon.1975.Acupunctureanesthesia.AtranslationofaChinesepublicationofthesamename.U.S.Dept.ofHealth,EducationandWelfarePublicationNo. (NIH)75784. 26.Bonica,J.J.1974.AcupunctureanesthesiainthePeople'sRepublicofChina:implicationsforAmericanmedicine.JAMA229:131725. 27.Brown,P.E.1972.Useofacupunctureinmajorsurgery.Lancet1:228. 28.Bull,G.M.1973.Acupunctureanaesthesia.Lancet2:41718,973. 29.Cazieux,A.,etal.1974.Analgesieacupuncturale[Acupuncturalanalgesia].(inFrench,Englishsummary).Rev.Med.Vet.125:148789. 30.ChangChingtsai,ChuHsiuling,andYangLianfang.1973.Peripheralafferentpathwayforacupunctureanalgesia.Scient.Sinica16:21017. 31.Handwerker,H.O.,Iggo,A.,andZimmermann,M.1975.Segmentalandsupraspinalactionsondorsalhornneuronsrespondingtonoxiousandnonnoxiousskin stimuli.Pain1:14765. 32.Hsiangtung,Chang.1973.Integrativeactionofthalamusintheprocessofacupunctureforanalgesia.Scient.Sinica16:2560. 33.Kameya,T.,Ikeda,S.,andWatanabe,H.1974.AsurveyofacupunctureliteratureandtheanalgesiceffectinracehorsesproducedbyacupunctureoftheSan YanLogroupofpoints.Proc.ofthe1974JapanClinicalVeterinaryConference,Tokyo,Japan. 34.Kane,K.,andTaub,A.1975.Ahistoryoflocalelectricalanalgesia.Pain1:12538. 35.Katz,R.L.,Kao,C.Y.,Spiegel,H.,andKatz,G.J.1974.Pain,acupuncture,hypnosis.Adv.Neurol.4:81925. 36.Kitazawa,K.,etal.1974.Aninvestigationofelectricacupunctureanesthesia,I.Proc.ofthe77thJapanVeterinaryConference. 37.Kitazawa,K.,etal.1974.Aninvestigationofelectricacupunctureanesthesia,III:relationshipbetweenanalgesicareaandpointsused,ondogs.Proc.ofthe78th JapanVeterinaryConference. 38.Kothbauer,O.1973.UberdieAnalgesierungeinerEuterzitzedesRindesmittelsAkupunktur.[Onproducingananalgesiceffectinthenippleofthecow'sudder withacupuncture].Osterreich.Arztezeitung18:103739. 39.Kothbauer,O.1975.EinKaiserschnittbeieinerKuhunterAkupunkturanalgesie.[Acesareansectiondoneonacowunderacupunctureanalgesia].Wien. Tieraerztl.Mschr.62:39496. 40.Kroger,W.S.1973.Thescientificrationaleforacupuncturalanalgesia.Psychosomatics14:19194. 41.Kross,M.E.,etal.1972.Inductionoflocalelectroanesthesiaindogs.Lab.AnimalSci.22:51517. 42.Liebeskind,J.C.,Mayer,D.J.,andAkil,H.1974.Centralmechanismsofpaininhibition:studiesofanalgesiafromfocalbrainstimulation.Adv.Neurol.4:26168. 43.Lindblom,U.,andMeyerson,B.A.1975.Influenceontouch,vibration,andcutaneouspainofdorsalcolumnstimulationinman.Pain1:25770. 44.Linzer,M.,andVanAtta,L.1974.Effectsofacupuncturestimulationonactivityofsinglethalamicneuronsinthecat.Adv.Neurol.4:799811. 45.Long,D.M.,andHagfors,N.1975.Electricalstimulationinthenervoussystem:thecurrentstatusofelectricalstimulationofthenervoussystemforreliefofpain. Pain1:10923. 46.Lowe,W.C.1973.IntroductiontoAcupunctureAnesthesia.Flushing,N.Y.:MedicalExaminationPublishingCo. 47.Lynd,F.T.1975.Animalacupuncture.Southwest.Vet.28:11921. 48.Lynd,F.T.1975.Reportonacupunctureinvestigationsinanimals.Personalcommunication,May26. 49.Mann,F.1974.Acupunctureanalgesia:reportof100experiments.Brit.J.Anaesth.46:36164. 50.Matsumoto,T.1974.AcupunctureforPhysicians.Pp.10122,17179.Springfield,Ill.:CharlesC.Thomas. 51.Mayer,D.J.,andHayes,R.L.1975.Stimulationproducedanalgesia:developmentoftoleranceandcrosstolerancetomorphine.Science188:94143. 52.Mayer,D.J.,andLiebeskind,J.C.1974:Painreductionbyfocalelectricalstimulation:ananatomicalandbehavioralanalysis.BrainRes.68:7393. 53.Mayer,D.J.,andMurfin,R.1975.Sitesandmechanismsofactionofmorphinelikeanalgesicsandanalgesiaproducedbyfocalelectricalstimulationofthebrain. 6thInternationalCongressofPharmacologyHelsinki,Finland. 54.Mayer,D.J.,Price,D.D.,andRafii,A.:Acupuncturehypalgesia:evidenceforactivationofacentralcontrolsystemasamechanismofaction.Proceedingsofthe 1stWorldCongressoftheAssociationfortheStudyofPain.NewYork:RavenPress(inpress). 55.Mayer,D.J.,Wolfle,T.L.,Akil,H.,Carder,B.,andLiebeskind,J.C.1971.Analgesiafromelectricalstimulationinthebrainstemoftherat(abstract).Science 174:135154. 56.Melzack,R.andWall,P.D.1965.Painmechanisms:anewtheory.Science150:97179. 57.O'Boyle,M.,andVajda,G.K.1975.Acupunctureanesthesiaforabdominalsurgery.Mod.Vet.Pract.56:7057. 58.Oliveras,J.L.,Redjemi,F.,Guilbaud,G.,andBesson,J.M.1975.Analgesiainducedbyelectricalstimulationoftheinferiorcentralisnucleusoftherapheinthe cat.Pain1:13945. 59.Oono,K.,etal.1974.[Aninvestigationofelectricacupunctureanesthesia,II:theelectricaleffect].Proc.ofthe78thJapanVeterinaryConference. 60.Rabischong,P.,Niboyet,J.E.H.,etal.1975.Basesexperimentalesdel'anaglesieacupuncturale.[Experimentalbasisofacupunctureanalgesia].(InFrench, Englishsummary).Nouv.PresseMed.4:202126. 61.Shealy,C.N.,Taslitz,N.,etal.1967.Electricalinhibitionofpain:experimentalevaluation.Anesth.Anal.46:299305. 62.Smith,R.H.1963.ElectricalAnesthesia.Springfield,Ill.:CharlesC.Thomas. 63.Vierck,C.J.,Lineberry,C.G.,Lee,P.K.,andCalderwood,H.W.1974.Prolongedhypalgesiafollowingacupunctureinmonkeys.LifeSciences15:127789. 64.Wang,J.K.1976.Stimulationproducedanalgesia.MayoClin.Proc.51:2830.

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7 ThePresentStatusofVeterinaryAcupunctureintheUnitedStatesandCanada
In1971and1972,thereweremanyreportspublishedintheUnitedStatesbypeoplewhovisitedChina,abouttheusesofacupunctureformedicaltherapyand surgicalanalgesia.14,69Sincethattime,muchresearchhasbeenstarted,andclinicalexperienceinacupunctureinhumansandanimalshasaccumulated. InJanuary1973,theCaliforniaVeterinaryMedicalAssociationCommitteeonAcupuncturemetforthefirsttimeinPaloAlto,California,tomakerecommendationsto theCaliforniaVeterinaryMedicalAssociationandtheBoardofExaminersinveterinarymedicineregardingwhat,ifany,placeacupunctureshouldhaveinveterinary medicine. Theconclusionreachedatthatmeetingwasthatalthougheachmemberhadcertaininformationregardingacupuncture,thecommitteedidnotknowenoughtomake recommendationstoanyone,andthatthecommitteeshouldrecessforthreemonthstogatherinformation.Duringthatmeeting,thecommitteewasinformedaboutthe workbeingdoneattheUniversityofCaliforniaatLosAngelesunderthedirectionofDr.DavidBressler.Membersofthecommitteeexchangedinformation,including manyarticlesonveterinaryacupuncturewritteninChinese.Dr.NormanSaxandDr.RichardGlassbergcontactedBressleratUCLAandproposedaveterinary acupunctureproject.Bressler,whowasalsodirectorofresearchfortheNationalAcupunctureAssociation,wasexcitedabouttheideaandobtainedtheservicesof twoacupuncturiststoworkwiththeveterinariansinvolved.Dr.SangHyuckShin,agraduateofDongYangOrientalMedicalCollege,Korea,andJohnOttaviano, whostudiedforfouryearswithmasteracupuncturist,Dr.GimShekJu. Anacupuncturechart,obtainedfromDr.WolfgangJochle,wastranslatedfromChinesetoEnglishbyMargaretTan,anacupuncturistworkingattheUniversityof CaliforniaatSanFranciscoMedicalSchool.Dr.AliceDeGroot,aveterinarianinSouthernCalifornia,offeredtolettheinvestigatorstreatsomeofherequinecases. AlltheveterinariansinvolvedwerequiteamazedatthesuccessShinandOttavianohadintreatingthecasespresentedtothem.Manyofthecaseshadbeentreated usingwesterntherapywithnosuccess,andtheywerethoughttobehopeless.AveterinarianfromCovina,California,Dr.MichaelGerry,broughtadogfromhis practicewithlongstandinghipdysplasia.Thedogrespondeddramaticallytotreatment,andGerryofferedtolettheprojectusehisofficetotreatsmallanimals.The groupthencontinuedtotreatlargeand

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smallanimalsreferredtothem.TheprojectatthattimewasbeingcarriedoutundertheauspicesoftheNationalAcupunctureAssociation. Astimeprogressed,aseminarforveterinarianswasheldatUCLAinMarch1974tobringtheprofessionuptodateinveterinaryacupuncture. In1973,theCaliforniaBoardofExaminersinVeterinaryMedicineruledthatacupuncturecouldbeperformedbyanonlicensedpersononlyunderthedirectvisual supervisionofalicensedveterinarianataschoolofveterinarymedicine.Theyfurtherstatedthatifanygrievanceswerereceivedagainstaveterinarianpracticing acupuncture,theywouldmostlikelyfindtheveterinarianguiltyofincompetence. TheBoardofExaminersinformedtheveterinariansinvolvedthattheycouldnolongerdonatetheuseoftheirclinics,andthatiftheprojectwastocontinueitwould havetodosounderthedirectionofafacultycommitteefromtheUniversityofCaliforniaVeterinarySchoolatDavis,andinaseparatefacilityforacupunctureonly. Theyalsoadvisedthatanonprofitorganizationwithveterinariansontheboardofdirectorswouldhavetobeformedtohandleanyfundsinvolvedthus,theNational AssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture(NAVA)wasformedwithR.S.Glassberg,DVM,asitsfirstpresident.Whiletheserequirementswerebeingfulfilled,the acupunctureprojectwashaltedforseveralmonths.Ultimately,theDeanattheUniversityofCaliforniaSchoolofVeterinaryMedicineappointedafacultycommittee onacupuncturethatwaswillingtosupervisethepractitionersinvolvedintheresearchinSouthernCalifornia. Anequine/smallanimalhospitalneededtocarryontheresearchbecameavailableinAnaheim,California.Thefacilitywasleased,andtheprojectresumedinJanuary 1975. Bythesummerof1976,approximately600animalshadbeentreated.Areviewofthefirst300casesshowedthatapproximately100animalswerecuredor markedlyimproved,100showedsomeimprovement,and100showednoimprovement.5 OnApril2628,1974,asymposiumwaspresentedinKansasCity,Missouri,entitled''AcupuncturefortheVeterinarian."Theresponsesoftheveterinarianswho attendedwerevaried.Somewereinterestedsomecompletelyrejectedthematerial.However,manycontinuedtheirinterestandtriedtofindmoreinformationand attemptedtotreatsomeanimals. OnDecember16,1974,theInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSociety(IVAS)wasincorporatedinGeorgia.Formationofthissocietywastheculminationofthe workofmanypeople,butthetwodrivingforcesbehinditwereH.GradyYoung,DVM,andMarvinJ.Cain,DVM.Younghadforsometimestimulatedinterestin veterinaryacupunctureandactedasasourceofinformationforveterinariansintheUnitedStates.WiththeformationofIVAS,aseriesofseminarswassetupasa jointventureofIVASandDr.EdwardC.Wong(APPTechniqueSeminars,Inc.,andChineseAcademyofMedicine).Wongisasixthgenerationacupuncturist, educatedinChina.HeleftalucrativepracticeinSingaporetoemigratetotheUSA.Herehewaswithoneofseveralgroupsthatheldacupunctureseminarsthroughout thecountry,teachingacupuncturetophysicians. TheseriesofveterinaryseminarspresentedbyIVASandtheChineseAcademyofMedicine,beginningonJanuary30,1975,weresetupasfollows.Thefirstseminar lastedfourdays,andtheotherfourseminarswerethreedayseach.Theyweregivenatmonthlyintervals.ThefirstfourwereheldattheCollegeofMedicine, UniversityofCincinnati,inOhio.ThelastseminarwasheldatthecontinuingEducationCenteroftheUniversityofGeorgia,atAthens.Approximately50veterinarians attendedtheseriesofseminars.Anexaminationwasgivenattheendoftheseriesandacertificategiventoveterinarianswhosuccessfullycompletedtheexamination, attended100hoursoftheseminarsandsubmittedfiveacupuncturecasereports.Asecondserieswasgivenbythesamesponsoringgroupsandarrangedthesame way.Thisseries,beginningOctober16,1975,andendingApril1976,washeldattheContinuingEducationCenter,PurdueUniversity,WestLafayette,Indiana. Anotherserieswasgivenin1977. IVASperiodicallypublishesanewslettercontainingmuchinformationonveterinaryacupuncture,includingseminarnotices,reprintsofimportantrecentpublications, andcopiesofsomeofthepaperspresentedattheseminars.AseriesoflectureswasgivenbyNAVAattheNAVAClinicinAnaheim,California.Itwasheldone weekendamonthforfivemonthsbeginningOctober25,1975.Sincethatseries,theofficersofNAVAchangedtheformatfortheirseminarstoasinglethreeday course.TheNAVAstaffprintedacompendiumthatincludesthebasicconceptsofacupuncture,charts,formulasfortreatment,andreprintsofpastNAVAlectures. Thecompendiumprovidesinformationonlargeanimals,smallanimals,andhumans,andissenttoparticipantsfarinadvanceoftheseminarsoitcanbereadbefore theseminar. Theprofessionalandgovernmentcontrolofacu

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punctureasatreatmentinhumansvariesfromstatetostate.Moststatesconsideracupuncturethepracticeofmedicinebecauseitalwaysrequiresadiagnosisand usuallyinvolvesaneedlepiercingtheskin.Acupuncturemaythereforebepracticedonlybyphysicians,osteopaths,andinsomecasesbydentists.Somestatesrequire attendanceforacertainnumberofhoursand/orthepassingofanexaminationbeforeallowinganindividualtopracticeacupuncture.Afewstateswillallowanyone withcredentialsoftrainingwhocansatisfactorilypassanexaminationtoperformacupunctureonindividualswhoarereferredtothembyalicensedphysicianor osteopathwithadiagnosis. Inveterinarymedicine,thesituationhasnotyetbeenwelldefined.Moststatesconsideracupuncturethepracticeofveterinarymedicineandthereforecanonlybe performedbyaveterinarianlicensedtopracticeinthatstate.Somestateshavenotconsideredthequestionofacupuncture.In1975,aquestionnairewassenttothe StateVeterinaryMedicalAssociationsandtheStateVeterinaryLicensingBoardofeachstateconcerningthecontrolandpracticeofveterinaryacupunctureinthat state.Twentyeightof50stateassociationsdidnotrespond,nordid14of50licensingboards. TheAmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociationhastwopolicystatementsconcerningacupuncture.Thefirst,concerningadvertising,wasformulatedbytheCouncilon BiologicandTherapeuticAgentsandapprovedbytheHouseofDelegatesin1974:
TheCouncildeterminedthatacupunctureisanexperimentalmethodoftherapyinAmericanveterinarymedicine.Actinginitsassignedroleasadvisortotheadvertisingmanager oftheJournals,theCounciladvisedthatadvertisementsforacupunctureequipmentandinstructionarenotacceptable.

TheprincipalpolicystatementwasfirstformulatedbytheCouncilonVeterinaryServicesandapprovedbytheHouseofDelegatesin1974.Thisstatementwas modifiedandapprovedbytheHouseofDelegatesin1976:
TheAVMAhasseriousconcernaboutacupuncture,regardingitasentirelyexperimentaluntilstrongevidenceisavailablethattheprocedurehastherapeuticvalueinanimalsand additionalcaseshavebeenevaluated.Experimentalcontrolledstudiesunderthesupervisionofveterinariansmustbeconductedinconjunctionwithcaseshandled therapeutically. Thepublicmustbeprotectedfromthosewhomakeclaimsforacupuncturewithoutadequatecontrolledexperimentsorresearchandtheveterinarianmustbeawareofthelegal responsibilitieswhenacupunctureisused. Theadministrationofanacupunctureneedleshouldberegardedasasurgicalprocedureunderthestateveterinarypracticeacts.

TheopinionoftheAmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociationProfessionalLiabilityInsuranceTrust,asofApril1975,oncoveragefortheuseofacupunctureisas follows:
Asaprofessionalactivity,theuseofveterinaryacupuncturewouldbecoveredundertheAVMATrust'sProfessionalLiabilityinsuranceandtheveterinarianwouldbeprotected ifaclaimshouldariseoutoftheuseofthisprocedure.

TheAmericanAssociationofEquinePractitioners(AAEP),throughacommitteechairedbyDr.LeonardGideon,draftedastatementin1975:
1.TheAAEPconsiderstheuseofacupunctureasexperimentaluntilclinicalefficacyhasbeenprovenbysoundresearchandclinicalinvestigation. 2.TheAAEPrecommendsthateachstatesupportthepositionoftheAVMAonacupuncture: a.Thatitisapartofthepracticeofveterinarymedicine, b.Thatitisexperimentalandnotforwidespreaduseatpresent,and c.ThatitberegulatedbytheState'sVeterinaryPracticeAct. 3.TheAAEPfurtherrecommendsthatveterinaryschoolpersonnel,otheracademicpersonnel,andpracticingveterinariansthatareinterestedinequineacupunctureinvestigation shouldidentifythemselvestoacoordinatingcommitteewithintheAAEP.Thiswouldservetoexpeditethegatheringandevaluationofequineacupunctureinformation.An annualreportwouldbemadetotheExecutiveBoardandAssociation.

TheCanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociation'sopinionconcerningacupunctureinveterinarymedicineisasfollows:"Thesubjectofacupunctureisapracticematter andwouldbeinthejurisdictionofprovincialassociationsinCanada.TheCVMAhasnotformulatedanypoliciesorguidelinesrelativetothisprocedure." Letterssenttothetenprovincialassociationsresultedinsevenanswers.Alberta,NewfoundlandandLabrador,NewBrunswick,andSaskatchewanreportedthat theyhavenopolicyorguidelinesatthistime.PrinceEdwardIslandisrevisingtheirVeterinaryActandtheymayincludeguidelinesonacupuncture. TheOntarioVeterinaryAssociationhasconsideredthequestionforsometime.Itspresentopinionisthat

Page280 TABLE71.Totals,byState,ofIVASCertifiedIndividuals

Connecticut Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Louisiana Massachusetts Michigan Mississippi Missouri Nebraska NewYork NorthCarolina Ohio Oklahoma Pennsylvania SouthCarolina Texas Virginia Wisconsin

1 3 3 11 16 2 1 8 1 2 1 3 1 13 1 3 1 2 2 1 76

Ontario,Canada Mexico TOTAL

6 1 83

thepublicandmembersmustbeinformedabouttheuncertaintyofthevalueofacupunctureinveterinaryscience.TheAssociationcautionsitsmembersthatnormal disciplineandprocedureswillbeappliedincludingthoseconcerningspecialtyadvertising. TheBritishColumbiaVeterinaryMedicalAssociationrecentlyissued(August19,1976)thefollowingdirective: DirectivetoPractitionersonAcupuncture:


ItistheopinionofB.C.V.M.A.thatAcupunctureisasurgicalprocedurethatisstillunderinvestigation.IfVeterinariansareusingthisprocedureintheirpracticetheAssociation feelsitisnecessarythattheClientagreetotheuseofitafterbeingdulyinformedandsigningareleaseformsuggestedbyCouncil.TheopinionofCouncilwasreachedafterboth largeandsmallAnimalCommitteesresearchedthetopicandfoundotherMedicalandVeterinarygroupshadreachedasimilaropinion,theClientformbeuseduntilfurtherstudy hasbeencompleted. CouncilwillstrivetoinformitsMembershipoffurtherdevelopmentsinVeterinaryAcupunctureprocedures.

Thequestionofwhomaypracticeacupunctureisadifficultone.Theapproachesofthetwoveterinaryacupuncturesocietieshavebeendifferent.IVASrequiresthe successfulpassingofanexamination,thesubmissionoffivecasereports,andattendanceofatleast100hoursattheirseminarsbeforereceivingacertificate.Eighty threeindividualsfromtheUnitedStates,Canada,andMexicohavereceivedacertificate(Table71).NAVAdoesnotofferacertificateatthepresenttime(summer, 1976).TheAVMAhasnopolicystatementconcerningthetrainingorregulationofindividualsadministeringacupuncture.AAEPconsidersitpartofthepracticeof veterinarymedicineandsoisregulatedbytheStates'practiceact.Ofthestatesrespondingtothequestionnaire,thirtyconsideracupuncturethepracticeofveterinary medicine,andsoacupunctureiscoveredbytheStatepracticeact. References 1.Dimond,E.G.1971.Morethanherbsandacupuncture.AmericansinChina,II.SaturdayReview.Dec.18. 2.Dimond,E.G.1971.Acupunctureanesthesia:WesternmedicineandChinesetraditionalmedicine.JAMA218:155863. 3.Dimond,E.G.1971.MedicaleducationandcareinPeople'sRepublicofChina.JAMA218:155257. 4.Dimond,E.G.1972.MedicineinthePeople'sRepublicofChina.JAMA222:1158. 5.Glassberg,R.1976.Personalcommunication. 6.Reston,J.1971.AviewfromShanghai.NewYorkTimes.August22. 7.Signer,E.,andGalston,A.W.1972.EducationandscienceinChina.Science175:1523. 8.Snow,E.1971.ReportfromChina,III:Populationcareandcontrol.NewRepublic164:2023. 9.Tkach,W.1972.AfirsthandreportfromChina:"Ihaveseenacupuncturework,"saysNixon'sdoctor.Today'sHealthJuly,pp.5056.

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8 TheHistoryofVeterinaryAcupuncture
PrehistoricChineseVeterinaryMedicine AtthedawnofthePaleolithicsociety(earlypartofthe40thto21stcenturiesB.C.),thetechnicalknowledgeandmeansforbasicacupunctureandmoxibustion existed.15Weaponsandtoolsmadeofstones,includingflintsandsmall,hard,sharpstones,wereinfrequentuseandmayhavebeenusedforpainrelief,possiblyby bloodlettingordirectpressureontheskin.TheNeiChing(TheYellowEmperor'sClassicofInternalMedicine),theclassicancientChinesetextofmedicineand acupuncturepublishednotlaterthanA.D.220,mentionedearlyattemptsinacupunctureduringthisperiod(Anon.,220).Althoughfirewasalsousedatthistime,there arenowrittenrecordstoindicatetheuseofmoxibustion(seeChapterThree). TheNeolithicperiod(latterpartofthe40thto21stcenturiesB.C.)sawanimprovementintoolmaking.ArcheologicdiscoveriesinNorthChinasuggestedtheuseof polishedstone,bamboo,bone,andfire.Thereisnoproofthatthesewereusedforacupunctureormoxibustion.15 Ifmedicinewaspracticedatallduringthisperiod,itwaslimitedtoman,andthepracticewasarbitraryandindividualized. AncientChineseVeterinaryMedicine ShangDynasty(C.1766B.C.to1122B.C.) TheearliestverifiedrecordofChineseveterinarymedicinecanbetracedtothisperiod.Priests,atthistime,wereconsideredtopossesshealingpowersbecauseit wasthoughtthatonlytheycouldplacatewhatwasbelievedtobethecauseofdiseaseevilspirits.Thesepriestswerecalled"priestdoctors"andthosethattreated animalswerecalled"horsepriests."3 Thereisnowrittenevidencethatacupunctureormoxibustionwasusedinanimalsorhumansatthistime.ExcavationsatAnYang inHonanProvincebetween1922and1923broughttolightrecordsintheformofprimitivecharactersonturtleshellsandanimalbonesofaformalbodyofmedical knowledgeandaspecificclassofmedicalpractitioners.Amongthe160,000piecesofturtleshellsandanimalbonescollected,archeologistsfoundthenamesofthirty sixdifferentdiseases.Theserecordsalsomentionedthehealingpowerofpriestsandtheircontrolofmoxibustionliketechniquesintheirdivinationpractices,which includedfortunetellingbasedonthewaybonesandshellscrackedafterbeingexposedtofire. Aseconomicproductivityandsocialorganizationbecamemorestableandmorecomplex,thegovern

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mentwasabletoestablishaseparateDepartmentofVeterinaryMedicine.4 ChouDynasty(1122B.C.to222B.C.) TheShihChing(BookofOdes),acollectionoffolksongsandprayerscompiledatthistime,recordedtheinterestandobservationsbythepeopleoftheiranimals.5 TheearliestrecordeddoctorofveterinarymedicinewasChaoFu.Hewasidentifiedasanexpertinanimaldiseasesandachariotwarriorinlegends,classicsof history,andinclassicsofChineseveterinarymedicineatthetimeofEmperorMuHuang(947B.C.to928B.C.)oftheChoudynasty.82 SpringandAutumnandWarringStatesPeriods(403B.C.To221B.C.) Thetechnologicadvancesofthisperiodwerebasedontheuseofiron,andacupunctureneedlesofthisperiodweremadeofiron.TheNeiChingrecorded,"Withthe useofthetinymetalneedles,poisonousdrugsandflintsbecameobsolete."6 Duringthisperiod,compilationoftwoofthemostimportantChinesemedicaltextbeganandwiththemthedevelopmentofthephilosophicbasisofChinesemedical practice. TheHuangtiNeiChingSuWenorNeiChing(TheYellowEmperor'sClassicofInternalMedicine)isthesinglemostimportantmedicaltextintraditional Chinesemedicine.Theexactdateofcompletionisnotknownhowever,itisbelievedthatitscompilationbeganduringtheWarringStatesPeriod.Some supplementaryinformationwasaddedduringtheWesternHanPeriod.TheBookconsistsoftwoparts,theSuWen(PlainTalk)andtheLingShu(NeedleClassic).8 TheLingShuisknownastheBookofAcupunctureandMoxibustion,or"TheNeedleClassic,"althoughacupuncturewasextensivelycoveredintheSuWen.The purposeofthebookwas"tosetstandardsofacupunctureforthebenefitoflatergenerations."9 Theprinciplesandpracticesofacupunctureasoutlined10003000 yearsagohavenotbeenseriouslychallengedsince(bypractitionersofacupuncture).Thisbookholdstheprestigeofantiquityaswellascurrentscientificinterestand hasbeentranslatedintoEnglish.78Ithassurvivedpoliticalchangesandrevolution,andisatimelessworktowhicheachsuccessivegenerationhasleftitsmark. ThemajorcontributionsoftheNeiChingtothepracticeofacupunctureandmoxibustionwere:(1)TheestablishmentoftheMeridianTheory:thelocation,originand terminationpointsofthetwelve"ching,"andfifteen"lo"andthe"ch'ichingpamo".(2)Thesizeandshapeofeachneedle,itsuse,andthemethodsofmanipulation.(3) Thedeterminationofthenamesandlocationsoftheacupuncturepoints.Atotalof365acupuncturepointsweredescribed,andthedistancebetweeneachwas measured.(4)Theprescriptionofeachoftheacupuncturepointsforavarietyofdiseases:malaria,paralysis,epilepsy,infectiousdiseases,fever,andothers.(5)The distributionof"forbidden"acupuncturepoints.Thesearethepointslocatedinanatomicareasinthevicinityofvitalorgansforwhichincorrectneedlemanipulation wouldresultininjuryordeath. TheNanChing(TheTreatiseofDifficultiesConcepts),anothertextonacupunctureandmoxibustion,secondonlyinimportancetotheNeiChing,waspublished alittlelaterthantheNeiChing.AlargeportionofitscontentswerebasedontheNeiChing.However,aquestionandanswerformwasusedtoexplainthetheory andpracticeofacupuncture,includingtheMeridianTheory,acupuncturepoints,andmethodsofneedleinsertion.ThisbookisbelievedtohavebeenwrittenbyPien Ch'ueh,aphysicianoftheWarringStatesPeriod,anditisinexistencetodayincompleteform. Bytheendofthisperiod,ChinesemedicinefullyadoptedtheYinYangTheory,whichexplainedanddevelopedacupuncturetechniques.Thisunderminedthe authorityofpriestsandenabledthecreationofaprofessionspecializedinacupuncture.ThetheoreticbasisoftheYinYangTheory(seeChapterOne)gave acupunctureamorelegitimateandwidespreadappealandgreatlyinfluencedChineseveterinarymedicine,asevidencedbythewidespreadacceptanceofthetheoryin Chineseveterinaryclassics. ShunYang,whoseothernamewasPaoLo,(birthapproximately480B.C.)wasthefirstfulltimepractitionerofChineseveterinarymedicine.Heisconsideredthe fatherofChineseveterinarymedicine.73 Ch'inandHanDynasties(221B.C.toA.D.220) DuringtheCh'inandHanDynasties,medicalscienceflourishedbecausebetterandmoreefficientmethodsofcommunicationfacilitatedthepoolingofknowledge.The firstbookofpharmacy,ShenNungPenTs'aoChing(TheShenNungBookofMedicinalHerbs)wascompleted.SeveraleditionsofNeiChingandNanChing wereusedasstandardtextbooksofmedicinehowever,titlesofbooksonveterinarymedicinefromthisperiodareknown.

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Thepracticeofveterinarymedicinewasverifiedbyarcheologicfindingsin1930,providingaprescriptionwrittenonawoodstripintheearlyHanDynasty.Itshowed indetailthekindsofherbsusedandthequantitiesgiven.Beforetheinventionofpaper(A.D.97),writtenrecordswerefoundonwoodorbamboostripsthatwere boundtogetherwithstringstoserveasabook.ThesescriptswereexcavatedinthedesertareaofKansuProvinceinwesternChina.36 ChangChungching(circaA.D.140220),theHippocratesofChina,wasthefatherofdifferentialdiagnosisandtherapy.Inhisimmortalcontributiontomedicine, ShangHanLun(TheTreatiseonTyphoid),heanalyzedcasesoffever,distinguishedbetweenchronicandacutediseases,tracingouttheircauses,andlaiddown methodsoftreatmentandproperprescriptions. Chang'sbookcontainstwelvechaptersonacupunctureandsevenchaptersonmoxibustion,anditestablishedaveryimportantprincipleinfluencingthepracticeof Chinesemedicine,bothhumanandanimal.Acupunctureistobeusedforyangtypediseases,andmoxibustionistobeusedforYindiseases.Inmodernmedical terminology,ifthedefensemechanismofthebodyisatitspeak,acupunctureismoresuitableifitisfunctioningatadecline,moxibustionisthechoice.Thiswasa generalprincipleandindividualconditionswerealwaysconsideredinreachingadiagnosis.Changindicatedwhatshouldbeexpectedifthewrongdiagnosisand treatmentareused.ItwasalsothefirstbookofChinesemedicinetocombinetheuseofherbalmedicineandacupunctureinordertoachieveabettertherapeutic result. ThreeKingdoms,ChinDynasty,NorthernandSouthernDynasties(A.D.220to618)andT'angDynasty(A.D.618to907) ThepostHan,preT'angperiod(A.D.220618)wasmarkedbywarfareandpowerrealignments.However,therewereseveralsignificantdevelopmentsin acupuncture.HuangFuMi(A.D.215282),theauthorofChiaIChing(TheTreatiseofA,B,C),usinghisownpracticalexperienceasaframework,editedthe materialsfromseveralbooksavailabletohim,resultingin12volumesand128sections.Hismajorcontributionstotheadvancementofacupuncturewere:the systematicorganizationoftheinformationintosectionsonphysiology,pathology,diagnosis,andmethodsoftreatmentandtheorganizationandstandardizationofthe varioustechniquesandprecautionsduringneedleinsertion. ChiaIChingwasthefoundationforthedevelopmentofacupunctureandmoxibustionintheT'angdynastyandhadanimportantinfluenceonthepracticeof acupunctureinJapan,France,andKorea.FurtheradvancesweredescribedinthebookCh'ienChingFang(GoldenPrescriptions)bySunSsuMiao(A.D.590 682).Initwasdiscussedtheconceptof"tenderpoints".Accordingtothisconcept,althoughtenderpointsdonothaveapermanentlocation,theyareeffectivepoints inthetreatmentofdiseases.Thediseasedorganisassociatedwithphysicalchangesatthetenderpoint(seeChaptersTwoandThreeforchangesdetectableas electricalresistance.Inthisbook,averyconvenientwayofmeasuringthedistancebetweenacupuncturepointswasintroduced.Theunitofmeasurement,calledthe tsun(inch),isbrokenupintotenths,eachofwhichiscalledafen.Thesamemethod,firstusedinpeople,wasalsousedinanimals(seeChapterThree). FragmentaryinformationonveterinarymedicineinthepreT'angperiodmaybefoundinbooksonagricultureandhumanmedicine(Chia,Kao,A.D.618).According toShuiShuChingChiChih(TheBibliographyofTreatiseandBooksintheShuiDynasty),therewereninebooksspecializinginveterinarymedicine.These booksarenotavailabletoday.Theywere:(1)LiaoMaFang(PrescriptionsforHorses),onevolume(2)PaiLeChihMaJanPinnChing(Treatiseon TreatmentforSickHorsesbyPaiLe),onevolume(3)YuChiChihMaChing(TreatmentofHorsesbyYuChi),threevolumes(4)ChihMaChing (TreatmentofHorses),fourvolumes(5)ChihMaChingMu(ListsofBooksontheTreatmentofHorses),onevolume(6)MaChingK'ungHsuehT'u (AcupuncturePointsandMeridiansforTreatmentofHorseDiseases),onevolume(7)JanChenMaChing(TreatiseonHorseDisease),onevolume(8) ChihMaNiuT'oLuChing(VariousTreatisesontheTreatmentofHorses,Cattle,CamelsandDonkeys),threevolumesandonevolumeindex(9)ChihMa Ching(TreatmentofHorses),threevolumes(therewasonevolumesolelydevotedtothetreatmentofdiseasesofhorsesusingacupuncture). Thisperiodisalsooneinwhichmanyhorseswereraisedformilitaryrequirementsonthenorthernfront.TheT'anggovernmentestablishedaDepartmentofVeterinary MedicineandaSchoolofVeterinaryMedicine.10ThiswasthefirsttimeinChinathatthepracticeofandeducationforveterinarymedicinewereformalized.

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DuringtheclosingyearsoftheT'angdynasty,LiSsureviewedtheliteratureonveterinarymedicine.HeeditedSsuMuAnChiChi(ACollectionofWaystoRelieve SufferingHorses).Thisimportantworkprovidedconsiderabledetail.Inthechapter"ChaoFu81nanChing"(81questionsandanswersbyChaoFu),72serious diseasesand36etiologiesofdiseaseswereclassified.Thiswastheearliestworkindifferentialdiagnosisinveterinarymedicine. SungandYuanDynasties(A.D.960to1368) DuringtheSungdynasty(A.D.9601279),thegovernmentestablishedthePienChiYuan(OfficeofCollectionandEditing).Thisdepartmenteditedandcorrectedthe bookspublishedbeforetheperiod.Thisgovernmentwasthefirsttoestablishthestorageofhoneyandmedicine.Thefederallyappointedofficialswereresponsiblefor thesuppliestoveterinarians.11ThiswasthefirstdrugstoreforveterinarymedicineinChina. AtthebeginningoftheSungdynasty,ShihMuAnCh'iChi(ACollectionofWaystoRelieveSufferingHorses)hadatotaloffourvolumesofbasictheoryand prescriptions.AttheendoftheSungdynasty,thisbookhadeightvolumesasaresultofincorporationofmaterialsfrommajorpublicationsoftheperiod,asfor example,FanMuChuanYenFang(TestedPrescriptionsofNomadOrigin),editedbyWangYuehofthenorthernSungperiodHuangti81Wen(81Questions ofHuangti)andstilllater,72WeHanPinYuanKe(72EtiologiesofEvilDiseases).Informationwastakenfromvariousveterinarytextsoftheperiod.Allthese contributedtoadvancesinthediagnosisandtreatmentofanimaldiseases. IntheYuandynasty(A.D.12711368),K'aKuanLoueditedChuanChiT'ungHsienLun(ADescriptionoftheTreatmentofSickHorses).Thispublicationis animportantworkonthediagnosisandtreatmentofhorses. MingDynasty(A.D.1368to1644) DuringthetimeoftheEmperorChiaCh'ing,thefamousveterinariansYuPenYuanandYuPenHeng,after60yearsofpractice,publishedLiaoMaChi(The TreatiseonHorses).AfterTingPingwroteaprefacetothisbookin1608,thebookwascalledYuanHengLiaoMaChi.Thisbookwasnotonlyacollectionofthe practicalexperienceoftheYubrothers,butamasterpiecesynthesizingveterinarymedicalinformationthroughtheMingdynasty.Thebookisthemostwidely distributedandthemostinfluentialtextinthelast300yearsofChineseveterinarymedicine.Treatmentusingacupunctureandherbalmedicineoutlinedinthisbook formsthebasisofmodernChineseveterinarymedicine.Morethan30citationsofearlierbooksonveterinarymedicinewereincluded.IntheMingdynasty,therewere threemajorpublicationsofveterinarymedicine:YangShihCh'aoeditedtheMaShu(TheBookofHorses)in14volumes,andtheNiuShu(TheBookofCattle)in 12volumes.ThegovernmentalsoeditedLeiFangMaChing(PrescriptionsforHorses).TheNiuShuwaslost.Only12volumesoftheMaShuandChapters6 and7ofLeiFangMaChingexisttoday.ThesewerefoundinShihMuAnCh'iChi,YuCh'iT'ungHsienLun,andYuanHengLiaoMaChi.Othercitationsof earlierdynastiesarealsofoundinYuanHengLiaoMaChi. Ch'ingDynasty(A.D.1644toA.D.1912) DuringthereignofEmperorCh'ienLung,LiTzuYureeditedYuanHengLiaoMaChi,andHsuChiangwroteanotherpreface.Thetitleofthebookthenbecame YuanHengLiaoNiuMaT'oChi(TheTreatmentofCattle,Horses,CamelsbyYuanandHeng).ThecontentandchaptersarenotthesameasthoseintheMing edition.IntheMingedition,YuanHengLiaoMaChihasfoursectionsentitled,respectively,"Spring,""Summer,""Autumn,"and"Winter."Itincludedthefollowing chapters:"Onadiscussionoftheviscera,''"Thirtysixpostures,""Chaofu81nanching,"and"PaiLesongsofcauterization."IntheCh'ingedition,thecontentsof thesesectionswereenlargedandenriched.However,thetwentyfourthdiscussionof"TungHsiShuWen'sfortysevendiscussions"wasdeleted.Therewereother changesintitlesandcontent. Advancesinthediagnosisandtreatmentofcattlediseasesweremade.In1800,FuShuFengwroteYangKenChi(ARecordofFeedingandPloughing),a representativepublicationoftheperiod.DuringtheyearsoftheCh'ingdynasty,pigdiseasesbecameepidemic.ChuChingTaCh'uan(ACompleteCollectionof PigDiseases),in1900,containedthediagnosisandtreatmentofpigdiseasesandhad63examplesofcompleteprescriptions. TheModernDevelopmentofChineseVeterinaryMedicine DuringthefinalyearsoftheCh'ingdynastyandtheearlyyearsoftheRepublic,therewasnooppor

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tunityforformaltraininginmedicine,norgovernmentpolicyregardingthestandardofthepractice. In1917,thefirstSchoolforChineseMedicinepatternedafterwesternmodelswasestablishedinShanghai.Itwasprivatelyfinancedandwasthefirstschoolofits kindtoofferaformalprogramleadingtoadiplomaandalicenseinChinesemedicine.Atthesametime,Chineseveterinarymedicinewasnotintegratedintoany formalstructure.Instead,therewerewesternstyleschoolsleadingtoadegreeinveterinarymedicine.However,in1956,therewere159,000practitionersofChinese veterinarymedicineprovidingessentialservicesinruralChina,where90%ofthepopulationwasconcentrated.81 ThemodernChineseGovernmentpolicyonChineseveterinarymedicinewasformulatedin1944,whenMaoTseTungwrote,"...ifthemodernpractitionersof humanandveterinarymedicinedonotunitewiththemorethanonethousandtraditionalpractitionersinthisregionandhelpthemprogressinknowledgeandability, theyareinfacthelpingevilandlettingmanyhumansandanimalsdieofdiseases."81Atthistime,wartimeconditionspreventedtheformalimplementationofthis directive,sothatitwasthegraduatesofschoolsofveterinarymedicinefromUniversitiesinthenorththatimplementedit.Theytrainedpersonnelinveterinarymedicine andlearnedacupunctureandmoxibustionthemselves. InMarch1947,theSchoolofAgricultureoftheNorthernUniversitywasestablishedthesectionofveterinarymedicineoftheSchoolwasdevotedtothe developmentofChineseveterinarymedicine.16ThiswasthebeginningofmodernChineseveterinarymedicineinChina. In1955,KimChungTzepublishedHsingYueMaChing(NewTreatiseonHorsesandCattle).ItwasbasedonYuenHengLiaoMaChi,andwasthefirstbook ofChineseveterinarymedicinetousemodernveterinaryterminology.47 InJanuary1956,thegovernmentissuedtheofficialpolicyonveterinarymedicine,emphasizingthedevelopmentofChineseveterinarymedicine.InSeptemberofthe sameyear,theDepartmentofAgriculturesponsoredtheFirstNationalConferenceofChineseVeterinaryMedicineinPeking.Atthisconference,theexperienceand knowledgeofmostofthewellknownpractitionersofChineseveterinarymedicineinthecountrywerebroughttogether.Manyresearchprojectswereinitiated.Two journalsstartedpublicationinthesameyear.Theywere:ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJournalofVeterinaryMedicine)andHsumuandShoui (HerdsmenandVeterinaryMedicine). Twoyearslater,fromJune25toJuly4,1958,theChineseAcademyofAgriculturesponsoredthefirstNationalResearchConferenceofChineseVeterinary MedicineinLanchow.ThiswasalsotheoccasionmarkingthefoundingoftheResearchInstituteofChineseVeterinaryMedicineinLanchow.The74participants represented37independentinstitutesthroughoutChina.Thoseidentifiedwere:7researchinstitutes,5schoolsofveterinarymedicine,2provincialveterinarymedicine continuededucationcenters,12provincialveterinarymedicineclinics,and2countyhospitalsofveterinarymedicine. ProceedingsofthemeetingreportedtheuseofChineseveterinarymedicineintreating110animaldisordersacupuncturewasusedin39ofthese.Furthermore,a threeyearplanwasdraftedandwontheendorsementoftheparticipants.Thegoalsofthethreeyearplanwere: 1.PublicationofabookonChineseveterinarymedicine. 2.PublicationofabookontheherbalmedicationsusedinChineseveterinarymedicine. 3.Areviewofthemethodsforcastrationoffowlandotherdomesticanimals. 4.AstudyofthetherapeuticefficacyoftreatingvariousdiseasesusingChineseveterinarymedicine. 5.PublicationandeditingofthevariousancientclassicsofChineseveterinarymedicine. 6.StudyofthehistoryofChineseveterinarymedicine. Accordingtotherecord,therearemorethan70classicsofChineseveterinarymedicine.However,only16werefoundtobeinexistencein1958.Toreeditthese medicalclassicsforpublication,sevenresearchunitswereassigned.Theseveninstitutionsare:PekingUniversityofAgriculture,NankingCollegeofAgriculture, NankingResearchInstituteofHistoryofAgriculture,NankingUniversityofAgriculture,SzeChuenInstituteofAgriculture,ChiangsiInstituteofChineseVeterinary Medicine,andKimsuHerdsmanInstitute.AclassicofChineseveterinarymedicinepublishedinJapan,theLiaoMaHsinLun(NewTreatiseofTreatingHorses) andanotheronefromKorea,HsinPienCharShingMaNiuYiFang(NewCollectionsofPrescriptionsforHorsesandCattles)werealsostudied.17 Thetwojournals,theChungkuoShouihsuehTsachihandHsumuandShoui,havemanyarticlesonthehistoryofChineseveterinarymedicineandthetheory anddiagnosisinChineseveterinarymedi

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cinefortheperiod19561958.TheresultsofmanyscientificstudieswerefirstreportedintheFirstNationalConferenceofChineseVeterinaryMedicinein1958.At leasteightofthesereportswerepublishedinthetwojournalsin1959. TheHeilungch'iangDomesticAnimalSanitaryInstitutereportedastudyondisorderstreatedusingacupuncturewithgoodresults.Thesedisordersincludedparalysis oftheintestine,paralysisoftheneckmusclesecondarytorheumatism,rheumatismaffectingthemusculoskeletalsystem,encephalitis,abrasionandsofttissueinjury, arthritis,keratitis,postpartumparalysis,andbronchitis.17Anothergroupreportedontheefficacyoftreatmentin616casesofdiseasesofdomesticanimalsbyusing electroacupuncture.Thestudywasperformedoveraperiodof3years.Thedisorderstreatedincludedcrippling,facialnervepalsy,diaphragmaticspasm,overwork, epilepsy,paralysisofthepenis,paralysisofthebladder,nerveparalysisofotheretiologies,inducedlabor,andtetanus.33Severalothersreportedontreatmentofviral pneumoniaandrheumatismbyusingacupunctureoracombinationofacupunctureandothermethods.18,34,35,44,54,68,71, Thiswasaperiodwhentheancientmethodsweresystematicallycollectedandedited.Themethodswerethenusedandtheirefficacyexamined.Methodshavinggood therapeuticefficacywerethenusedinpractice.ThiswasthereforeaperiodofmodificationandstandardizationofthepracticeofChineseveterinarymedicine. Furthermore,theSchoolsofVeterinaryMedicineintheInstituteofAgricultureintheUniversitieshavetheirstudentstrainedinbothChineseandWesternmethodsof veterinarymedicine.17Thisperiodwasthenfollowedbythedevelopmentofnewapplicationsofacupunctureforexample,acupunctureanesthesia. Acupunctureanesthesiawasfirstdevelopedinhumansin1958,andwasfirstappliedinhorsesanddonkeysin1969.Bothbodypointsandauricularpointswere developedforlargeanimals.27Furthermore,scientificexperimentsusingdogs,cats,andothersmallanimalsshowedtheeffectivenessofsomeacupuncturepointsin acupunctureanesthesia.50ChineseveterinarymedicineinChinahasneverdevelopedasmallanimalpractice.Thedemandofthepublicforthetreatmentofpetsis insignificantbecauseofculturaldifferencesbetweenEastandWest.However,acupuncturetreatmentofwildbirdsandwildanimalshasbeenrecordedinveterinary classics,andacupuncturetreatmentofdomesticfowliswidelypracticedtoday.19,81 From1959to1972,manybooksonChineseveterinarymedicinewerepublished.20,21,22,23,24,25,82In1972,theLanchowInstituteofVeterinaryMedicineedited thebookShouiShouchai(HandbookofVeterinaryMedicine),thefirstbookpublishedinChinainwhichWesternandChinesemethodsofveterinarymedicine werecombined.ThisisexpectedtobethebookusedbystudentsofveterinarymedicineinChinaforthedecadetocome.Textbooksforschoolsofmedicineand othertechnicalcollegesarereeditedinChinaonceevery1015years. VeterinaryAcupunctureOutsideChina JapanandKorea TherehavebeenmanyperiodsofexchangebetweenJapan,Korea,andChina,includingsomespecificonesinvolvingveterinarymedicine,whichprobablyincluded acupuncture.DuringthereignofEmpressJinguKogo(202B.C.),Chinesereligion,literature,art,anddomesticanimalswerebroughttoJapan.Thefiftiethemperorof Japan(482507)sentKuwajimaNakakamitoChinatolearnveterinarymedicineonhisreturn,Nakakamitaughtthesubject.42Duringthereignofthe33rdemperor ofJapan(598628),apriestwhotrainedveterinaryofficersemigratedfromKoreatoJapan. ChinesemedicinehadbeenintroducedintoKoreaasearlyastheChoudynasty(1111249B.C.).TheartofacupuncturefounditswayintoJapanbywayofKorea duringtheperiod531571,whichcoincidedwiththeintroductionofBuddhism.Subsequently,morethan17scholarlydelegationsweresenttoKoreaandChina thesehavehadagreateffectonincorporatingacupunctureaspartofmedicalpracticeinJapan.ThesubsequentprosperityofBuddhismhadmuchtodowiththe popularizationofChinesemedicineamongtheJapanese.IntheHeianperiod(7941198)particularly,manyfamousJapanesephysiciansutilizedtraditionalChinese medicineandacupuncture.Duringthattime,TambaYasuyori,adoctorandacupuncturist,wrotetheoldestJapanesemedicaltreatiseIshimpo(TheSpiritof Medicine). ThesubsequentriseofZenBuddhisminJapanpavedthewayforfurtherinterchangebetweennotedChinesescholarsandJapanesepriestscholars.Asaresult,some oftheJapanesepriestsrenderedgreatservicesasmenofmedicine.ThenativemedicineintheKamakuraperiod(11991339)drewchieflyupontheChinese medicineoftheSungdynasty.AcupuncturewasgivenofficialsupportintheTokugawaperiod(16111867).Aschoolwasestablishedby

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TokugawaTsunayoshi,thefifthshogun,whoatthesametimeencouragedthepopularizationofacupuncturebyappointingDr.SugiyamaWaichiincharge.Atonetime therewereasmanyas45acupunctureschoolsinYedo(nowTokyo)alone.Duringthisperiod,SugiyamaWaichidevisedthesteeltubeacupunctureinstrumentstillin commonuseinJapan.28 SeveralveryoldJapanesebooksdescribetheancientartofChineseveterinarymedicine: KunaAnkishu(NotesonHippology),insixvolumes,waswrittenbyDohasoin1604(Yedo).VolumeIcontained(a)81questionsbyKotei(Chineseemperor,ca. 3000B.C.)onhorsediseasesand(b)Chineseprophylaxis.VolumeIIcontained(c)studiesoftheexteriorofthehorseand(d)81problemsdealingwithtreating equinediseases,bySofu(Chinesehippologist,ca.300B.C.).VolumeIIIcontained(e)72poemsontheartofrecognizingdiseasesinhorsesthroughexaminingtheir sweatand(f)thepulsetheory.VolumeIVcontained(g)Hakuraku'smethodsofacupunctureand(h)36questionsfromKoteiontheoriginofdiseases.VolumeV: (i)prophylaxisaccordingtoseasons.VolumeVI:(k)specialpathologyandtherapyofthehorseand(1)pharmacology. Ryoyakubaryubenkai(SelectedMedicalMethodsforTreatingDiseasedHorses)byZisanshi:1stEdition,Kyoto,17592ndEdition,Yedo,1859.Thework containsfivefragments:(1)generalhippology,(b)exteriorofthehorse,(c)theoriesofmedicaltreatment,(d)physiologyofthehorse,and(e)specificsconcerning variousdiseasesofthehorse,withselectedprescriptions. Boththesesetscontainedinformationonanimalacupunctureandchartslocatingacupuncturepoints.KunaAnkishucontainsanillustrationofthehorsewithsingle pointsformaximalinfluenceondiseasedorganfunctions. ThereisanolderJapanesebookBakyoTaizen(ACompleteCollectionofEquineClassics),aftertheLatterDaigoEmperor,1339purportedtocontain informationonmeridiansinthehorse.45,64ThissametitlewasknowninChinaMaChingTaCh'uan(ACompleteCollectionofEqyineClassics)duringthe Yuandynasty12711368,butwaslost.ItwasreimportedfromJapanafterWorldWarII.Duringthe19thandfirsthalfofthe20thcenturies,Japanesemedicine, humanandveterinary,waslargelyinfluencedbyEuropeandAmerica. Sincethelate1950's,interestinacupuncturehasrisenagaininJapan.SomepresentdayinvestigatorsincludeDr.YoshioNogahama,ChibaUniversitySchoolof MedicineDr.MasaoMaruyama,ShowaUniversitySchoolofMedicineDr.YoshioManaka,KyotoUniversitySchoolofMedicine,whofoundedaveryformal branchofacupuncturebasedonryodorakuin1953(seep.22).Dr.MeiyuOkadarunstheMeishinSchool,whichfurnishesclinicaltraininginacupunctureand moxibustion.WhenOkadaservedinthemilitary(19431945),hewasintheAsahikawaTransportCorps.Duringthistime,hehadtheopportunitytostudyhorses andsubsequentlywrotehisDistributionofKeiraku(meridians)BranchesintheHorse.Okadahaspublishedanacupuncturechartofthehorse(seep.134). Furtherimpetuswasaddedtothestudyofacupuncturebytheshortageofdrugsduringthewar.28 In1974,Dr.MasayashiKirisawa,aveterinarianwhorunsanequineclinicinTokyo,cametotheUSAandreportedthefollowing:Heusesacupunctureonabout50 racehorsesaday.Inflammationandrigidityofthemusclesoftheneckandshouldercanincapacitateahorse,anditisfortheseconditionsthatheusesneedle acupuncture.Anotherformofhorseacupunctureisdonewithbigger,knifelikeneedles,usedtoproducebleeding(exhaustedhorsesaccumulate"badblood",and purgingrestorestheirhealth).51 AtpresentinJapan,thereareseveralpeoplepursuingthestudyofacupunctureinanimals.Dr.R.Nakamurahaswrittenabookontherapeuticsinveterinarymedicine, andinitisachapteronacupunctureandmoxibustion.62ThisistheonlyJapaneseveterinarybookcontaininginformationonthissubject.Nakamuraisalsodoing researchonadaptingthemethodsofryodorakutodogs.63 TherehavebeenseveralreportsfromJapanduringthelastfewyearsonveterinaryacupunctureprimarilyrelatedtosurgicalanalgesia.1 ,2 ,45,48,49,63,66,72,The SocietyofJapaneseVeterinaryAnesthesiologyisanorganizationwithmorethan600membersthatpublishestheJapaneseJournalofVeterinaryAnesthesiology andholdsseveralseminarsayearthePresidentisDr.H.Kimata.ThissocietyhasrecentlyestablishedaVeterinaryAcupunctureCommittee,andDr.T.Kitaisthe chairman.75 Therehavebeenaboutfivereportsontheefficacyofmoxibustionindogs,cattle,andagoatsince1949.63 France JesuitsledbyMatteoRicciwenttoMacaoin1582ChaoCh'ing,KuantungProvinceinDecember1582andPekingin1600.Thisestablishedthefirst communicationbetweenChinaandtheWest.ThefirstworkinaEuropeanlanguageonacupuncturewasby

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theJesuitP.P.Harvieu,publishedin1671.Francebecameastrongholdofacupuncture.ItwasrecognizedandsponsoredbydistinguishedFrenchphysicianssuchas ReneT.H.Laennec(17811826),theinventorofthestethoscope:PierreBretonneau(17711862),thefirstdescriptionsoftyphoidfeverandBretonneau'spupil, ArmandTrousseau(18011867).TheleadingFrenchanatomistofhistime,JulesGermainCloquet(17901883)wasapracticingacupuncturist.Acupuncturebecame evenmoreprevalentinFrancein1927,whenGeorgesSouliedeMorant,whowasFrenchconsulatShanghaifor20years,returnedtoParis.Hehadbecomea masteracuponcteurandwiththebackingofDr.PaulFerreyrolles,thechiefofstaffoftheHospitalBichat,wroteabookonacupuncture.31,72 France'sinvolvementinIndochinaagainpresentedacupunctureandspawnedinterestinitsapplicationinveterinarymedicine. ThefirstmentionmadeofacupunctureintheFrenchveterinaryliteraturewasin1836.14,58Itdescribesacaseofaparaplegic,feverishoxtreatedbytheimplantation of30needles,3in.long,intworows,totherightandleftofthelumbarspine.Theseneedlesweredriveninwiththeaidofamalletandleftinplace48hours. Anarmyveterinarianpublishedinformationshowinghowacupuncturetheorycouldbeusedasadiagnosticaidintreatingdiseasesofthehorseforexample,"...the injectioninthepasterncauses,innormalhorses,anormalreflex,andthatthelatterisexaggeratedattheleftingastricsandattherightincardiacs.Thesephenomena arecausedbyanirradiationinthebrachialplexus,ofthevisceralirritation,andadvises,atthetimeoflimpingswhicharenotimprovedbylocalcocainization,taking actionbytreatingtheviscera."58,69,70In1943,M.andC.Lavergne,intheirAbstractofAcupuncture,citedcuresforlamenessinanimalsthroughtheapplicationof needles.58FivethesesonveterinaryacupuncturehavebeenwrittenattheNationalVeterinarySchoolinAlfort,France,duringthe1950'sand1960's.30,53,57,61,77 SeveralpapershavebeenpublishedbyFrenchauthorsonthissubjectinFrenchandGermanpublications.58,59,60MilincametotheUnitedStatesandlecturedon veterinaryacupunctureataseminarpresentedbytheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietyin1976. Austria SomeofthesteppingstonesoftheadvancementofacupunctureinthewesternworldhavecomefromAustria.OneofthemajorforcesinthatcountryistheLudwig BoltzmannAcupunctureInstituteanditshead,Dr.JohannesBischko.TheInstituteisanonprofitorganizationsupportedbyaprivatefoundation,theLudwig BoltzmannSociety,whichalsosupportsapproximately35otherLudwigBoltzmanninstituteswithawiderangeofmedicalinterest,includingleukemia,neurochemistry, experimentalsurgery,andveterinaryendocrinology.TheAcupunctureInstitutehasateamofmembers,allworkingonavoluntarybasis,whoeitherworkattheout patientclinicsofthePoliclinicHospitaloftheCityofViennaorattheirownhospitalsorinstitutes,carryingoutresearchintheframeoftheirspecificfields,suchas obstetrics,gynecology,dentistry,andanesthesiology.Theinstitutealsotrainsdoctors. AsacupunctureisarecognizedmedicalmethodoftreatmentinAustria,thecityrunPoliclinicHospitalprovidesanoutpatientclinicinwhichthepatientsaretreated bytheinstitute'smembersfreeofchargeunderasocializedmedicalsystem.Theytreatapproximately65patientspermorningintheoutpatientclinic,andarealways completelyscheduledmanymonthsinadvance. Theirpatientsaretreatedforthemostdiverseillnesses.Intheoutpatientclinic,theyperformtherapeuticacupunctureonly,includingspecialformssuchasearorscalp acupuncture.SurgerywithacupunctureanalgesiaisperformedattheInstituteofAnesthesiologyoftheUniversityofVienna.Toothextractionswithacupuncture analgesiaareperformedintheDentalDepartmentofthePoliclinic. ThroughcoursesandpracticaltrainingintheadjoiningoutpatientclinicofthePoliclinic,1000physiciansweretaughtacupuncture,somewithintensive,specific training.ThesephysicianswerethefoundersofspecialistclinicsinvariousuniversityclinicsandhospitalsinAustriaandothercountries.Throughthis,anetworkof scientificallyrecognizedassociatescomprisingpracticallyallmedicalandveterinaryfieldswasformed,makingtheLudwigBoltzmannAcupunctureInstituteacenter forinformationonacupunctureintheWesternworldtoday. Twoveterinarians,Dr.OswaldKothbauer(largeanimals)andDr.FerdinandBrunner(smallanimals),aremembersoftheinstitute.Bothcarryouttheirresearchin theirprivateoffices.Kothbauer,aprivatepractitioner(primarilyacattlepractice)inthelittletownofGrieskirchen,Austria,isoneofthefewveterinariansinthe westernworldwhohasbeeninvolvedwithanimalacupunctureforthepast20years.Hehaswrittenatleast11scientificpublica

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tionsonthesubjectandhassignificantlyadvancedanimalacupunctureinseveralways.Firstwashisworkutilizingacupuncturetoaccuratelylocalizediseasedorgans inthecow.Hewasthefirstpersoninthewesternworldtoproduceacupunctureanalgesiainthecowandpublishedinformationonthisin1973(seep.271),andhe producedamovieofthosestudies.KothbauersignificantlyincreasedinterestinanimalacupunctureintheUnitedStatesduringtripstherein1974and1975.He lecturedattheInternationalAcupunctureCongressin1974andatseminarsoftheInternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSocietyandtheNationalAcupuncture VeterinaryAssociationin1975and1976. Dr.Bischko,theheadoftheInstitute,isoneofthemostinfluentialproponentsofacupunctureintheworldtoday.HestudiedinVienna,receivinghisMDdegreein 1947,andhehasbeeninterestedinacupuncturesincetheearly1950s.AfterhistraininginParis,hewasinclosecontactwithrelateddepartmentsinGermany (Munich,Dr.Bachmann). In1958,BischkobeganasmalloutpatientclinicinthePoliclinicHospitaloftheCityofViennaintheear,nose,andthroatdepartment(Head.ProfessorE.H.Majer, MD),whichwasespeciallyhelpfulintherapyresistantcases,andrapidlyexpanded. OnMarch6,1972,thefirstcompleteacupunctureanalgesiaforatonsillectomyinthewesternworldwasperformedbyBischkointhatdepartment.Thisoperation wasthebreakthroughforacupuncture,notonlyinAustria,butalsoprobablyintheentirewesternworld. OnJuly1,1972,BischkowasappointedbytheLudwigBoltzmannSocietytofoundanacupunctureinstitute,whichhassinceinvolvedaneverincreasingnumberof scientistsandphysicianswhowishtolearnandstudythismethod. CloselyconnectedwiththeLudwigBoltzmannAcupunctureInstituteistheAustrianAcupunctureandAuricularTherapySociety,alsoanonprofitorganizationwith morethan400members.ThesocietysponsorscoursesgivenbymembersoftheLudwigBoltzmannAcupunctureInstitute,andsuppliesitsmemberswiththenewest reprintsofpublishedarticleswrittenbyinstitutemembersandcoursecalendars.Thissocietywasformedin1953,andBischkohasbeenpresidentsincethen. GreatBritain AcupuncturewasintroducedintoEnglandonFebruary18,1821,whenEdwardJukes,asurgeonaccoucheurtotheWestminsterMedicalInstitution,appliedthe needlestoaMr.Scott,whosufferedfromseverepainsintheloins.31 ThefollowingquotationwastakenfromaBritishVeterinaryJournalpublishedin1828:13
Onthewhole,theseexperimentshavebeenveryunsatisfactory.Onecaseofchoreainthedogwascuredbyacupuncturation,andanotherrelieved.Theattempttoreducea schirroustesticleutterlyfailed.Twocasesofsupposedrheumatismwerecured,butnotinshortatimeasthatinwhichwegenerallysucceedinremovingarheumaticaffectionby othermeans.Instrainoftheextensormusclesoftheforearm,M.C.labouredhardfornearlythreemonths,and,although,atlast,thelamenesswasremoved,thecureistobetraced tothestateofrestinwhichtheanimalwassufferedtoremainsolong,morethantotheinfluenceoftheneedles.Inparalysisofthehinderextremities,acupuncturationwastotally useless. Fromsofewfacts,however,wecannotdrawanysatisfactoryconclusion.Twothings,however,aresufficientlyevident,thatthesuddenandmagicalreliefwhichthehumanbeing hassometimesexperiencedhasnotbeenseeninthehorseandthat,probablyformthethicknessoftheintegument,theanimalssufferedextremetortureduringtheinsertionofthe needles.

In1822and1828,twobookswerewrittenbyJ.M.Churchilldescribingsomehistoryandcasehistoriesofpatientstreatedbyacupuncture.38,39Fromthesebooks thefollowingquotesweretaken.
NearlyfiveyearshaveelapsedsinceIpublishedmylittleTreatiseonAcupuncturation:inwhichwillbefoundthefollowingpassage,"Itremainsforthemedicalprofessionto ascertainitsclaimstoattentionbythetestofexperience,andhavingundergonetheordealofexperimentalenquiry,it,Ihavenodoubt,sofullydevelopeitsmerits,astoobtaina conspicuousrankinmedicalestimation,asavaluablecurativemeasure." Withoutthefosteringcareofagreatname,myprophecyhasbeenverified,andacupunctureisnowemployed,notonlyintheEasternHemisphere,inFrance,andinAmerica,but throughouttheBritishdominions,andinourLondonhospitals,undertheauspicesofmen,whostanddeservedlyhighintheranksofliteratureandscience. Noveltiesinthecurativeart,aregenerallyreceivedinoppositeextremessomeespousingtheminthewarmestmanner,with,orwithout,therequisiteknowledge,whileothersare satisfiedwiththeirpresentattainments,andpursetheeventenouroftheirway,withouttormentingthemselvesbytheacquirementoffurtherinformation.Thus,ithasbeenwith thesubjectunderconsideration,forwhilemanyhaveneverpracticedit,othershaveexpectedtoomuchfromit,andafterafewindiscriminatetrials,haveabandoneditasuseless. ButIamhappytoproduceconfirmationofitsmagicalpowers,fromthepensofmen,whoseveracityanddisinterestednesscan

Page290 notbedoubted.ForthepartItookinadvancingthepractice,Ihavebeenassailedbysomewithunmeritedabuse,whileothershavepitiedmeasavisionary,andconsideredthe reliefascribedtoit,tobetheresultofmentalinfluenceoverthecorporealsufferingsofthose,whoseunderstandingsareweak. WilliamMorgan,ayoungmanintheemploymentofatimbermerchant,feltaviolentpainsuddenlyattacktheloinswhilstintheactofliftingaveryheavypieceofmahogany.The weightfellfromhishands,andhefoundhewasincapableofraisinghimself.Hewasimmediatelycuppedandblisteredonthepartbuttwodayshadpassedandhewasstill labouringunderconsiderablepain,augmentedviolentlybyeverymotionofthebody.OnthethirddaytheoperationofAcupuncturation(byaneedleofaninchandahalfin length)wasperformeduponthepartoftheloinspointedoutastheseatoftheinjury,which,asintheformercase,dissipatedthepainsinfiveorsixminutes,andrestoredthe motionsoftheback.Hereturned,however,thenextday,withthesamesymptomsatfirst,butinamitigateddegree.Aneedlewasnowpassedtothedepthofaninchoneachside ofthespine,which,asIexpected,terminatedthediseaseinafewminutes,anditwaswithpleasurethatIunderstoodthenextmorning,thatthemanhadgonetohisusual employment.

Anotherreportfrom1858containsaninterestingquote:80
Acupunctureisaremedythatseemstohaveitsfloodsandebbsinpublicestimationforweseeitmuchbelaudedinmedicalwritingseverytenyearsorso,eventoits recommendationinneuralgiaoftheheart,andthenitagainsinksintoneglectoroblivionanditisnotunlikelythatitsdisusemaybeoccasionedpartlybyfearofthepain,and partlybythedifficultythepatientfindssotriflinganoperationcanproducesuchpowerfuleffects.Anotherreasonforitsneglectmaybe,that,likeeveryotherremedy,itfails occasionally,andthepractitioner,disgustedathavingpersuadedhispatienttosubmittoapain,which,thoughslight,hasbeenattendedwithnobenefit,willnotagainundergo suchadisappointment.Howeverthismaybe,itsuseisnotasfrequentasitdeservesandnowthatweknowtherationaleofitsoperation,Iventuretobringforwardafewcases inillustrationofitsremedialpowers,inorderthatothersmaybeinducedtogiveitamoreextensivetrial,andthusascertainitstruevalueinthetreatmentofneuralgiaorrheumatic pains. CASEI.Amiddleagedlabourercametomewithachronicrheumatismofthepartsabouttherightshoulder,particularlyinthedeltoid,whichwassopainfulthathecouldnotraise hisarmhorizontally.Iinsertedtwoneedlesintothemuscle,onejustbelowtheheadofthehuemrus,andtheotherneartheinsertionofthemuscle,andinaboutaquarterofan hourhecouldlayhishandonhishead,andinafewdayswassuitewell,withoutasecondoperation. CASEII.Anelderlylabourer,sufferingfromrheumaticpainandstiffnessoftherectusandothermusclesinfrontoftherightthigh,sothathedraggedthelimbinwalking,was enabledtowalkwithoutmuchlimping,aftertheinsertionofthreeneedlesdownthefrontofthethighforaperiodoftwentyminutesandherequirednofurthertreatment. CASEIII.Anoldclergyman,veryliabletosciatica,havingbeenadvisedtotryacupuncture,wasinthehabitofusingdaily,previoustodressinghimself,twoorthreeneedles insertedalongthecourseofthenerve,toenablehimtowalkdownstairswithcomfort. CASEIV.Aladyofmiddleage,sufferingsomuchfromlumbagoandsciatica,thatshecouldnotrisefromherchairwithoutassistance,aftertryinghipbathsandmustardpoultices invain,wasinducedtoapplytheneedlestothemostpainfulparts,when,toherastonishment,thepainwasmuchrelieved,andafterthreeapplications,wasentirelyremoved.

Britaincontinuedtomaintainaninterestinacupunctureandoneofthemostprolificauthorsonthesubject,inEnglish,isFelixMann.TherearealsoseveralBritish veterinariansinterestedinthesubjectatthepresenttime. UnitedStatesandCanada AcupuncturehadapparentlyslippedacrosstheAtlanticandbegantoappearinmedicalpublicationsintheearly19thcentury. ThefirstwrittenreportmayhavebeenareviewoftheBritishbookletwrittenbyJ.M.Churchill,TreatiseonAcupuncturation.12In1825,FrancklinBache, translatedandpublishedMorand's"MemoironAcupuncture."61In1829,therewasathreepagesectioninasurgerytextbookonacupunctureand electropuncturation.76Otherarticlescontinuedtoappearandthenduringthesecondhalfofthe19thcenturytherewereveryfewarticlesonacupuncture.32 Referencestotheuseofacupunctureastherapyappearedintwostandardtextbooksofhumanmedicineintheearly20thcentury.41,67 FromSirWilliamOsler,"...forlumbagoacupunctureis,inacutecases,themostefficienttreatment.Needlesoffrom34inchesinlength(ordinarybonnetneedles, sterilized,willdo)arethrustintothelumbarmusclesattheseatofthepain,andwithdrawnafter510minutes.Inmanyinstances,thereliefisimmediate,andIcan corroboratefullythestatementsofRinger,whotaughtmethispractice,as

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toitsextraordinaryandpromptefficacyinmanyinstances..." FromA.R.Edwards,"Myalgia...Deepinjectionofwaterintothemusclesofthebackmayrelievepain.Ringer'smethodofacupuncturewithlongneedleswhichare pushed3inchesintothebackandleftthereforfrom510minutesisbeneficial,butisusuallyvigorouslyopposedbythepatient.Veryenergeticmassage,withthe applicationofheat,probablygivesthebestresults.Theactualcautery,theapplicationoftheconstantcurrent,andtheuseofTesla'scoilgivegoodresults." HarveyCushing'sbiographyofOslerdescribesadisappointingexperiencewithacupuncture:


ThepatientwasnoneotherthanoldPeterRedpath,thewealthyMontrealsugarrefiner,who,beingontheM.G.H.(MontrealGeneralHospital)Board,hadhopesthatthenewly appointedphysicianmightbeabletocurehimofintractablelumbago...induecourse,theyproceededtotreathimbyacupuncture,apopularprocedureoftheday,which consistsinthrustingalongneedleintothemusclesofthesmalloftheback.Ateachjab,theoldgentlemanissaidtohaverepliedoutastringofoaths,andintheendgetupand hobbleout,nobetterofhispainthis,tohis(Osler's)greatdistress,forhehadexpected(thepatient)toexperienceimmediatereliefwhich,ashesaid,"meantamillionforMcGill."
31

References 1.Akamatsu,S.,etal.1967.TheUseofSkinElectricityMeasurementinDogs.(InJapanese).Proceedingsofthe140thJapanClinicalVeterinaryConference. 2.Akamatsu,S.,etal.1974.AcupunctureAnesthesiainDogs.(InJapanese).ProceedingsoftheAnnualMeetingoftheJapaneseSocietyforClinicalVeterinary Science. 3.Anon.1112B.C.(a).ChouLi.(RitesofChou).WrittenintheChoudynasty.Inthechapter"Hsiakuan"(OfficialtitleofHsia):"Horsepriestsareresponsiblefor thetreatmentofanimaldiseases."ThetitlemayhaveoriginatedintheShangDynasty. 4.Anon.1112B.C.ChouLi.(RitesofChou).Inthechapterof"T'ienkuan"(Officialtitles)itstates:"Veterinariansareresponsibleforthetreatmentofanimal diseases,pyoderma,andinjuries."Thisisthefirsttimethetermveterinarianisused,andisanofficialtitleintheChoudynasty.Veterinarianswereresponsibleforthe careofhorsesformilitarypurposes. 5.Anon.249B.C.ShihChing(BookofOdes).Inthechapter"MuyangP'ien"(Ongoats):"Iftheearsandhornsareshiny,moistandwarm,andtheanimalis apparentlynotskinnyandhavenoskindisease,thesearesignsofgoodhealth.Iftheearsandhornsarecool,driedanddull,andtheanimalisskinnyandfrequently hasskindiseases,thesearesignsofpoorhealth." 6.Anon.220A.D.NeiChing(YellowEmperor'sClassicofInternalMedicine).Itstates:"Huangti,ortheYellowEmperor,saidtoCh'iPai,`Wegovernthe people.Wewishtheywouldnothavetotakedrugsthatmaybepoisonous,nordowewantthemtouseroughandunrefinedstoneflints.Weshouldprovidethem withfine,delicatemetalneedlestoclearupthemeridians,andregulatetheirCh'iandblood.'"Ch'iPaiwasthechiefmedicalofficer. 7.Anon.220A.D.NeiChing(YellowEmperor'sClassicofInternalMedicine).NeiChingspecifiedninetypesofneedlesusedinancienttimes.Theneedle includedtoolsformassageand"surgery."Theyweredescribedasfollows:(1)Ch'anchen(chiselneedle):Itsbladewasshapedlikeanarrowhead.Itwasusedin treatingskindiseases.(2)Yuanchen(roundneedle):Ithadaneggshapedtipandwasusedformassage.(3)Shihchen(spoonneedle):Thebladewasround.Itwas usedforpressingontheskin.(4)Fengchen(lanceneedle):Thebladewasprismlike,sharponthreesides.Itwasusedforbloodletting.(5)Pichen(stilettoneedle). Thebladewasshapedlikethoseofacurvedsword,andwasusedtodrainpusinpurulentinfections.(6)Yuanlichen(round,sharpneedle):Itwasusedtorelieve painwithquickinsertionandstrongstimulation.(7)Haochen(softhairneedle):Ithadthewidestuse.Itwasusedtorelievepainortotreatotherdiseases.(8)Ch'ang chen(longneedle):Itwasusedinareaswiththickfasciaandmuscle.(9)Tachen(bigneedle):Itwascalledthe"fireneedle"later,andwasheatedforuse.Itspresent daynameis''hotneedle".Itwasobvious,therefore,thatatthetimeofNeiChing,acupuncturehadawiderdefinitionthantoday.However,thehaochen,ortheso calledacupunctureneedleoftoday,wasthemostimportanttoolofacupuncturethen.Throughtheages,theothertypesofneedleswerereplacedbymorerefined instruments.Thesenineneedleswereallmadeofiron. 8.Anon.220A.D.TheNeiChing,consistedoftwoparts:"Shuwen"(9volumesortwentyfourvolumes,dependingonhowthedivisionsaremade)and"Ling shu"(9volumesor12volumes).TheHanShu(BookofHan),themostreliablehistoryofHandynasty,writtenbySsuMaCh'ienstates:"HuangtiNeiChinghasa totalof18volumes."HuangFuMi,adoctorofthestateofCh'in,whostudiedNeiChingascribed9volumestothe"Needleclassic",or"Lingshu",and9volumesto the"Shuwen",foratotalof18volumes.Manyofthereferencesquotedinthe"Shuwen"canbefoundas"Lingshu",butnotviceversa.Therefore,the"Lingshu" mayhavebeenpublishedbeforethe"Shuwen".Whereasthe"Lingshu"isthesocalled"Needleclassic",70%ofchaptersinthe"Shuwen"discussacupuncture. 9.Anon.220A.D.NeiChingstates:"Inordertorecordknowledgeasitprogressesfromgenerationtogeneration,itisnecessarythattherulesandprinciplesare clearlyspelledout.Thus,studentsandscholarswillfinditeasytolearnanddifficulttoforget.Thisiswhythe"Needleclassic"waswritten." 10.Anon.618A.D.ChiuT'angShu(HistoryoftheEarly

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T'angDynasty).Inthechapter"Chihkuanchih"(Royalofficialsandstaffs):"IntheTaFuChih(Thebranchofthegovernmentinchargeofveterinary medicine)...600veterinarians,4scholarsofveterinarymedicine,and100students." 11.Anon.618A.D.WenHsienT'ungK'ao.(IdentificationandInterpretationofDocumentsoftheGenerations).Itstates:"Honeyanddrugswerekeptin storageinthecapitaloftheSungdynastytwosupervisorswereappointedfromamongthefederalofficialstoprovidesuppliesforhorsedoctors." 12.Anon.1822.ReviewofJ.M.Churchill'sTreatiseonAcupuncturation.Med.Deposit.7:44149. 13.Anon.1828.OnAcupuncturationinVeterinaryPractice.TheVeterinarian1:2035. 14.Anon.1836.AbstractofanarticlebyM.Flammens,AcupuncturePratiquedanslecasparaplgie,etc.(inJournaldeMdicineVtrinairePratique. August1836).RecueildeMdicineVtrinaire13:599. 15.Anon.1926.Archeologistsunearthed"PekingMan",anancienthumaninhabitantofChinaofmorethan500,000yearsago.Heusedsimplestonetools,bone tools,andfire. 16.Anon.1958.ReviewofthefirstnationalresearchconferenceofChineseveterinarymedicine.ChineseAcademyofAgriculture.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsa chih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)6:48892. 17.Anon.1958.EditorialCommunication.ThegreatcooperationandgreatleapforwardinresearchinChineseveterinarymedicine.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsa chih.(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)6:49395. 18.Anon.1959.DepartmentofMedicine,ChineseAcademyofAgriculturereportonacupuncturetreatmentofviralpneumoniainpig.HsumuShoui.(Herdsman Vet.Med.)5:2058. 19.Anon.1959.ChianghsiAgriculturalResearchInstitute,KannanAgricultureCollege.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)12:36874. 20.Anon.1959.ShuiYuanHerdsmanandVeterinaryMedicineResearchInstituteandShuiYuanCollegeofHerdsmanandVeterinaryMedicine.Acupunctureand MoxibustionofPigDiseases.Peking:HigherEducationPress. 21.Anon.1960.ChineseAcademyofAgriculture.LectureNotesofDiagnosisandTreatmentinChineseVeterinaryMedicine.Peking:AgriculturePress. 22.Anon.1970.SelectedTopicsofRecentAdvancesinChineseVeterinaryMedicine.Peking:AgriculturePress. 23.Anon.1972.ChianghsiProvincialAnimalandPlantDiseaseControlStation.AcupunctureinVeterinaryMedicine.Shanghai:ShanghaiPeople'sPress. 24.Anon.1972.ResearchInstituteofChineseVeterinaryMedicineoftheChineseAcademyofAgriculture.PhysicalDiagnosisinChineseVeterinaryMedicine. Peking:AgriculturePress. 25.Anon.1972.AnnfaiCollegeofAgriculture.DiagnosisandTreatmentinChineseVeterinaryMedicine.AnnfaiProvince:AnnfaiPeople'sPress,Hofai. 26.Anon.1973.VeterinaryAcupuncture.ModernVeterinaryPractice.54:3742. 27.Anon.1974a.UniversityofVeterinaryMedicine,People'sLiberationArmy,Clinicalapplicationandbasicprinciplesofacupunctureanesthesiainveterinary medicine.SelectedTopicsofNationalAcupunctureAnesthesiaStudyConference,3:22933. 28.Anon.1974b.BookletentitledInternationalInstituteforAcupunctureTreatment.Atami,Japan. 29.Bachmann,G.1966.AkupunkturbehandlungbeiHaustieren[AcupunctureTreatmentforDomesticatedAnimals].Dtsch.Z.Akupunktur15:10910. 30.Bernard,J.1954.Contributional'etudedel'acupuncturechezlescarnivores.Doc.Thesis,NationalVet.Sch.,Alfort,France. 31.Bowers,J.Z.1973.Acupuncture.Proc.Amer.Philosoph.Soc.117:14357. 32.Cassedy,J.H.1974.EarlyusesofacupunctureintheUnitedStates.Bull.N.Y.Acad.Med.50:892906. 33.Chai,C.T.,etal.1959.Therapeuticefficacyofclinicalapplicationofacupunctureinveterinarymedicine.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih.(ChineseJ.Vet. Med.)3:7175. 34.Chang,F.T.1959.Efficacyofinjectionofstrynineintothepaihuipointofthedonkeyintreatmentoflumbarparalysissecondarytorheumaticarthritis.Chungkuo ShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)3:8586. 35.Chang,W.H.1959.Theapplicationofacupunctureintreatmentofrheumatismofpig.HsumuShoui(HerdsmanVet.Med.)5:2058. 36.Chen,C.V.1968.HistoryofChineseMedicalScience.Pp.2829.HongKong:ChineseMedicalInstitute. 37.Chia,S.H.A.D.618.InCh'iMingYaoShu(ImportantTechniquesforFarmers).Thechapter"Yangyangp'ien"(Onraisinggoat):"Todeterminewhethera goatissick,aditchof1foot,4inchesdeepand2feet,8inches,wideisdug.Ifthegoatcanjumpfromonesideoftheditchtoanother,itishealthy.Otherwise,the sickgoatisseparated." 38.Churchill,J.M.1822.ATreatiseonAcupuncturationBeingaDescriptionofaSurgicalOperationOriginallyPeculiartotheJapaneseandChinese,andbyThem DonominatedZinKing,NowIntroducedintoEuropeanPractice,withDirectionsforitsPerformance,andCasesIllustratingitsSuccess.London:Simpkinand Marshall. 39.Churchill,J.M.1828.CasesIllustrativeoftheImmediateEffectsofAcupuncturation,inRheumatism,Lumbago,Sciatica,AnomalousMuscularDiseases,andin DropsyoftheCellularTissueSelectedfromvariousSources,andIntendedasanAppendixtotheAuthor'sTreatiseontheSubject. 40.Cushing,H.1925.TheLifeofSirWilliamOsler.Oxford,England. 41.Edwards,A.R.1907.PrinciplesandPracticeofMedicine.Philadelphia:LeaBros. 42.Froehner,R.1953.ZurAltchinesischjapanischenPferdeheilkunde.[ADiscussionofAncientChineseandJapaneseEquineMedicine].(InGerman).Deutsche TierarztlicheWochenschrift/TierarztlicheRundshau,51:27276. 43.Harview,P.P.1671.LesSecretsdelaMedicineDesChinous.AtGrenoble,ChezPhillipesCharvysMarchandLibraire,enlaPlacedeMalConfeil.

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44.Jim,S.,andChou,P.1959.Treatmentofviralpneumoniaofthepigbyusingacupuncture.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)12:357 59. 45.Kameya,T.,Ikeda,S.,andWatanabe,H.1974.ASurveyofAcupunctureLiteratureandtheAnalgesicEffectonRaceHorsesbyAcupunctureontheSanyo Raku(SanYangLo)GroupofPoints(inJapanese).Proceedingsofthe1974JapanClinicalVeterinaryConference.Tokyo,Japan. 46.Kao,H.A.D.618.InChouHouFang(PrescriptionforEmergencies)."Incasesofconstipationofvariouscauses,forexample,chronicenteritis,inhorses,the therapeutistshouldtrimthefingernailandcleanthesolidsecretionintherectum." 47.Kim,C.T.1955.HsingYueMaChing(NewTreatiseofHorsesandCattles).Shanghai:FinancialEconomicPress. 48.Kitazawa,K.1974.AnInvestigationofElectricAcupunctureAnesthesiaIII:RelationshipBetweenAnalgesiaAreaandPointsUsedintheDog(inJapanese). Proceedingsofthe78thAnnualMeetingoftheJapaneseSocietyofVeterinaryScience. 49.Kitazawa,K.,etal.1974.AnInvestigationofElectricAcupunctureAnesthesia,I(inJapanese.Proceedingsofthe77thAnnualMeetingoftheJapaneseSociety ofVeterinaryScience. 50.Kung,S.H.1976.Basicsciencesandclinicalapplicationsofacupuncture.Inpress. 51.Lal,G.B.1974.Pinningyourhopesonhorseacupuncture.SanFranciscoExaminer.Dec.19. 52.Lee,W.M.1836.Acupunctureasaremedyforrheumatism.South.Med.Surg.J.1:12933. 53.Lepetit,J.1950.Essaisd'AcupuncturePractiquesurlesAnimaux.Doc.Thesis,NationalVet.Sch.,Alfort,France. 54.Lo,T.L.,andYen,S.T.1959.PreliminaryreportoncombinedChinesemedicineandwesternmedicineintreatmentofviralpneumoniaofthepig.Chungkuo ShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)10:297. 55.Lu,H.C.TheYellowEmperor'sBookofAcupuncture.AcademyofOrientalHeritage,Vancouver,B.C.,Canada,1974. 56.Mao,T.T.1953.QuotationsofMaoTseTung,vol.3,pp.1032.Peking:People'sPress. 57.Metivet,J.M.1963.Contributional'tudecomparedelaResistanceElectriqueCutanee.ApplicationalaTherapeutiqueCherurgicaleVeterinaire.Doc.Thesis, NationalVet.Sch.Alfort,France. 58.Milin,J.1956.L'acupunctureveterinaire(inFrench).InTraited'acupuncture,TomeI,ed,.R.deLaFuyepp.47389.Paris:LibrairieE.LeFrancois. 59.Milin,J.1958.VeterinarmedizinundAcupunktur[VeterinaryMedicineandAcupuncture].Dtsch.Z.Akupunktur7:1520. 60.Milin,J.1962.DieAkupunkturbeiTieren[AcupunctureinAnimals].Dtsch.Z.Akupunktur11:3845. 61.Molinier,F.1972.Contributional'tudesdespotentielsdutissuconjunctif,souscutaneetrelationsavecl'acupuncture.Doc.Thesis,NationalVet.Sch.,Alfort, France. 62.Morand.1825.MemoironAcupuncture.Trans.F.Bache.Philadelphia:Desilver. 63.Nakamura,R.1975.TherapeuticsinClinicalVeterinaryMedicine(inJapanese).Tokyo:Yokendo. 64.Nakamura,R.1975.Personalcommunication. 65.Okada,T.1975.Personalcommunication. 66.Oono,K.1974.AnInvestigationofElectricAcupunctureAnesthesiaII:TheElectricalAspect(inJapanese).Proceedingsofthe78thAnnualMeetingofthe JapaneseSocietyofVeterinaryScience. 67.Osler,W.1917.PrinciplesandPracticeofMedicine.St.Louis:Mosby. 68.Poon,S.Y.1959.Treatmentofdiseasesofpigbyneedleretentionmethod.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)10:29192. 69.Roger,J.1921.Lescoliquesdecheval,diagnosticettraitment[ColicsoftheHorse,DiagnosisandTreatment].Paris:LeFrancoisEditeur. 70.Roger,J.1926.Lereflexephalangienetlereflexedeflexionduboulet[ThePhalangealReflexandtheReflexoftheFlexionoftheFetlockJoint].Revue Veterinaire(VeterinaryReciew),p.260. 71.Shek,M.S.,andChang,C.K.1959.Reportontreatmentof616casesofdiseasesofdomesticanimalsbyusingelectroacupuncture.ChungkuoShouihsueh Tsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)12:35152. 72.Shiota,K.1974.TherapeuticApplicationofAcupuncturetoCoushingtoCanineFilariasis(inJapanese).Proceedingsofthe1974JapanClinicalVeterinary Conference.Tokyo. 73.SouliedeMorant,G.1934.PrecisdelaVraieAcuponcture.Paris. 74.SungT.1958.ThegreatveterinarianShunYang(PaLo),apaintingshowingtreatmentofhorses.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.) 1:2627. 75.Takeuchi,A.1975.Personalcommunication. 76.Tavernier,A.1829.ElementsofOperativeSurgery,ed.andtrans.S.D.Gross.NewYork:CollinsandHaunay,Collins,Roorbach.Pp.5557. 77.Viet,F.1963.Contributional'tudedel'acupunctureenpathologieosteoarticulaire.Doc.Thesis,NationalVet.Sch.,Alfort,France. 78.Veith,I.1966.TheYellowEmperor'sClassicofInternalMedicine.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress. 79.Wang,F.1953.HsienCh'inYiHsuehShihLiaoYiPan(SomeAspectsoftheHistoryofChineseMedicineoftheEarlyCh'inDynasties).Shanghai: ShanghaiPeople'sPress. 80.Ward,T.O.1858.Onacupuncture.Brit.Med.J.28:72829. 81.Wu,S.C.,andYu,S.1958.ImportantcontributionsofancientChineseveterinarymedicine.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)2:73 76. 82.Yang,C.T.1959.MethodsofVeterinaryAcupuncture.Peking:AgriculturePress. 83.YuShen:TheearliestdoctorsoftheChineseveterinarymedicine.ChungkuoShouihsuehTsachih(ChineseJ.Vet.Med.)6:24041.

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Index
A acupuncturepoints,16 choosingpointsfortreatment,211212 location,250,252253 anatomictransposition,68 charts,68,122209 electricpointfinding,69 provocation,69 prescriptions,212231 stimulation,2122,3542,249 allergy dog,230231 horse,224 amenorrhea dog,229 AmericanAssociationofEquinePractitioners(AEEP),279 AmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociation(AVMA),279 analgesia acupuncture equipment,260,263,270 inhibition,256 mechanisms neural,255,256,261,262 humoral,256 points,259,260,267269 species cat,256 cattle,259,261,271 dog,247,271 donkey,259,261,265,270 horse,259,261,264,265,270 man,273,274 mules,261 pigs,259,261 rabbit,255258 rat,255 electricalproductionof,256 morphine,255 anemia, pig,228 anorexia horse,224 arthritis carpus dog,230 horse,234 elbow dog,230 general cattle,213214 dog,214 giraffe,232 horse,213,225 pig,214,228229 hip dog,230 hock dog,230 horse,232 shoulder, dog,230 stifle dog,230,238239 temporomanotibular dog,230 vertebral dog,230 asthma dog,239 auriculotherapy,4555 B bladder,8 bleeding.Seeacupuncturepoints,stimulation bleedingneedle.Seeneedle bronchitis cattle,218 dog,218 horse,218,235236 pig,227 buckedshins horse,225 C CanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociation(CVMA),279 carpaljointinjury horse,220 cerebrovascularaccident dog,247 ch'i,2,249 ChingLo.SeeMeridianTheory cholera pig,226 chorea, dog,231 chun.Seetsun

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circulationsex.Seepericardium cold,common cattle,217218 dog,217218 horse,217218 colic horse,224,232233 conjunctivitis pig,229 constipation cattle,216 horse,216 pig,228 contusion pig,229 cough dog,230,240 cysticovaries cattle,218 dog,218 horse,218 swine,218 cystitis cattle,218 horse,218 D deafness dog,247 dermatitis dog,247 diarrhea cattle,217 dog,217,247 horse,217 swine,217,226 digitpain horse,221 dongs,55 dysmenorrhea dog,229230 E elbowjoint,injury horse,220 electroanesthesia,259 epilepsy dog,231,240243 epistaxis cattle,217 dog,217 horse,217 equipment electricpointfinders,3738 electricstimulators,3840,5766 importation,5556 needles,seeneedles F fatigue horse,219 fen,68 fetlockjointtwist horse,221 flexortendonitis horse,221 FoodandDrugAdministration(FDA),5556 fuorgans,1 G gallbladder,6 gasreleasingneedleseeneedle,gasreleasing gastroenteritis cattle,216 horse,216 pig,216,227 glossitis cattle,215 horse,215 glossoplegia horse,224 H haochen.Seeneedle,haochen heart,3 heartconstrictor.Seepericardium heaves horse,233,236237 hipdysplasia dog,231 hoofandmouthdisease pig,227 hotneedle.Seeneedle,hot I inch.Seetsun indigestion cattle,217 dog,217 horse,217 pig,217,227 influenza pig,226227 InternationalVeterinaryAcupunctureSociety(IVAS),278 intervertebraldiscsyndromes dog,231 K kidney,6 L lameness carpus horse,225 elbow horse,225 hip horse,225 hock horse,225 shoulder horse,225,236 stifle horse,225,236 laminitis cattle,215 horse,215,225,234,236238 largeintestine,8 laryngitis pig,227 liver,3 lumbago dog,239 lung,5 lungepidemichemorragicdisease pig,226 M mastitis cattle,219 measurement.Seetsun MeridianTheory,2,1619 moxibustion.Seeacupuncturepoints,stimulation musclespasm horse,225 myalgia, dog,238 myositis horse,225,236237 myotonia cattle,215 horse,215 N NationalAssociationforVeterinaryAcupuncture(NAVA),278 naviculardisease horse,225,235237 needle composition,3032 gasreleasing,29 haochen,2223 hot,2627 insertion,2326,34 manipulation,35 piercingjaundice,2829 prism,28 source,3233 sterilization,3334 wide,2728 needlefeeling.Seetech'i NeiChing,1,281282 nephritis pig,227228 O obesity horse,224 organ,23,249,251252 P pain carpus horse,233 lumbar horse,232235 paralysis brachialplexus horse,220 esophageal cattle,216 horse,216 facial cattle,212 dog,231 horse,212,223225

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paralysis(continued) general dog,230,238 penile cattle,218219 horse,218219 pharyngeal cattle,216 horse,216 posterior cattle,213 dog,213 horse,213 pig,231232,238 purpural cattle,218 dog,218 horse,218 pig,229 radial cattle,213 dog,213 horse,213 swine,213 rectum cattle,216 dog,216 horse,216 swine,216 shoulder cattle,212 dog,212 horse,212 swine,212 patellaluxation(upwardfixation) horse,225 pelvicjointtwist horse,222 pericardium,3 pharyngitis pig,227 piercingjaundiceneedle.Seeneedle,piercingjaundice pneumonia cattle,218 pig,218,227 prismneedle.Seeneedle,prism prolapseofrectum cattle,217 dog,217 horse,217 swine,217 pseudocyesis(falsepregnancy) dog,230 pulmonaryedema cattle,218 pulsediagnosis,1216 R restraint.Seestabilization rheumatism cattle,215 dog,215,230 horse,214215,223 pig,228 rickets pig,228 romanizing,67 PinYin,67 WadeGiles,67 ryodoraku,35,4245 S salivation horse,216 sciaticnerveparalysis horse,222 sciatica cattle,213 dog,213 horse,213 sedation,21,22 shiatsu.Seeacupuncturepoints,stimulation shock horse,224 shoulderjointinjury horse,219220 sinusitis dog,239 smallintestine,7 spinalcorddiseases dog,243247 spleen,4 sprain cattle,214 dog,214 horse,214 swine,214 stabilization,30 stiflejointtwist horse,222 stimulation.Seeacupuncturepoints,stimulation stomach,7 stomatitis cattle,215 horse,215 pig,227 strain,bicepsbrachiimuscle horse,220 strain,tricepsbrachii horse,219 sunstroke cattle,219 horse,219 pig,228 swellingofthecarpus horse,220221 T tarsaljointhypertrophy horse,222 tarsaljointswelling, horse,223 tech'i,25,249251 tendovaginitis cattle,214 dog,214 horse,214 TheoryofFiveElements,2,911 tonification,2122 transposition,anatomic.Seeacupuncturepoints,location,anatomictransposition TripleBurner,8 TripleHeater.SeeTripleBurner ts'angorgans,1 tsun,68 tuinar.Seeacupuncturepoints,stimulation U urethrallithiasis cat,247 urinarytractinfection pig,228 V viralpneumonia pig,226 vitamindeficiency pig,228 W wobbler horse,234235 Y Yang,1 Yin,1 YinYangTheory,12