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IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA: AN EVALUATION OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

PRESENTED BY FAITH

SUPERVISOR:

A MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF A DEGREE IN MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA), SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

SEPTEMBER, 2011

DECLARATION This research project is my original work and has not been submitted for any award in any other university.

Faith

This project has been submitted with my approval as University Supervisors.

Lecturer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION.............................................................................................................ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.............................................................................................v CHAPTER ONE.............................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................1 1.1 Background to the Study...................................................................................1 1.2 Measuring Customer Satisfaction .....................................................................3 1.3 Understanding Customer Delight and Outrage..................................................3 1.4 Information technology and IT innovations in banking sector...........................4 1.5 Common Forms of Technological Innovations and their effects on service delivery................................................................................................................... 5 1.5.1 Automated Teller Machines (ATMs).............................................................5 1.5.2 Telephone Banking......................................................................................6 1.5.3 Personal Computer Banking........................................................................7 1.5.4 Internet Banking..........................................................................................7 1.5.5 Branch Networking ....................................................................................8 1.5.6 Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPoS) ...................................8 1.6 Technological innovations in Kenya banking sector .........................................9 1.7 Statement of the problem.................................................................................9 1.8 Purpose of study..............................................................................................11 1.9 Importance of the study..................................................................................12 CHAPTER TWO.......................................................................................................... 15 LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................15 2.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................15 2.2 Information Technology...................................................................................15 2.3 Customer Satisfaction.....................................................................................16

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2.4 Significance of Technological Innovations.......................................................17 2.5 Empirical Studies.............................................................................................18 CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................20 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................................................20 3.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................20 3.2 Research Design..............................................................................................20 3.3 Population....................................................................................................... 21 3.4 Sampling Design .............................................................................................21 3.5 Data Collection................................................................................................21 3.6 Data Analysis...................................................................................................22 Others.................................................................................................................... 24 REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 26 APPENDICES............................................................................................................. 30 APPENDIX I: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION...................................................................30 APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE...................................................................................32

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background to the Study The world banking and financial system is in the throes of a transformation caused by increasing globalization and deregulation. Technological innovations such as those available in ATMs, phone banking, Internet banking, and smartcard applications are taking place at an overwhelmingly fast pace in the global banking industry. Banking can be traced back to the year 1694 with the establishment of the bank of England. The bank was started by a few individuals who were actually money lenders with an aim of lending money at interest. Most of us have experienced some form of bank transactions in our lives. In Kenya, almost every one over the age of 18 has at least one account with the bank. The services most of us are familiar with include savings, loans, investments and credit card. The banking industry in Kenya is steadily expanding. It started in 1896 with the National Bank of India opening its first branch. Standard Chartered Bank opened its first branches in Mombasa and Nairobi in January 1911.The Kenya Commercial Bank was established in 1958 with Grindlays Bank of Britain merging with the National Bank of India. The Cooperative Bank of Kenya was established in 1965 for the express purpose of providing financial services to Co-operative societies. Three years later, National Bank of Kenya (NBK) was incorporated (Ojunga 2005). There is about one Automated Teller Machine (ATM) for every 100, 000 people in Kenya according to a paper presented at a South African university by Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) official. Currently, there are 43 commercial banks for 33million Kenyans (www.sun.ac.za). Massive, rapid, technological innovations (Norton, 1995) are replacing the traditional branch teller. With greater competition brought by deregulation, globalization and widespread mergers and acquisitions taking place in the banking sector, more branches are being closed down and replaced by self-serviced banking (SSB) facilities like the ATMs as part of a larger rationalization exercise. Even with the massive branch network, the use of phone banking and Internet banking is strongly promoted by the banks in addition to ATMs. In todays commercial banking environment information technology, effective service delivery and customer satisfaction are an indispensable competitive strategy. Furthermore, the stiff competition and the compression of the interest rates, has forced banks to set up and put into effect all necessary
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decision support technological systems. This enables them to dynamically plan new locations, evaluate their performance, forecast customers attitude to new offered products and services, estimate clients switching behavior, and finally provide marketing support to their geographically separate branches. The banking sector has been the backbone of every country. It implements and brings about economic reforms. Any change in this sector through technology has a sweeping impact on any country. The developments in information collection, storage, processing and transmission technologies have influenced all aspects of the banking activity. The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques. The 19th century saw astonishing developments in communication technology originating in Europe. In 20th century information technology developed rapidly due to the scientific gains directly tied to military research and development, as they did in part due to World War II. Despite the fact we have just entered into the 21st century technology is being developed even more rapidly, marked progress in almost all fields of science and technology has led to massive improvement to the technology we currently possess. Information technology (IT), also known as information and communication(s) technology (ICT), is a term that describes the combination of computer technology which is hardware and software with telecommunications technology such as data, image and voice networks. According to Henry C. Lucas, JR. (1997) Information technology refers to all forms of technology applied to processing, storing and transmitting information in electronic form. The physical equipment used for this purpose includes computers, communications equipment and networks. Effective service delivery is important and has a great influence on customer satisfaction, improving sales and market share (Joseph & stone, 2003). Commercial banking is at a stage where customer perceptions and preferences have a very important impact on a banks success. Customer satisfaction is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. The integration of world economies has opened an array of business opportunities as well as challenges for firms. Increased standardization activity reflects, among other factors, demand by consumers for safer and higher quality products, technological innovations, the expansion of global commerce and the increased concern by many governments to societal and welfare issues. Firms in service sectors such as banking are under constant pressure to perform better, cheaper and faster. The developments in information and communication technology (ICT) are radically
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changing the way business is done. Electronic commerce is now thought to hold the promise of a new commercial revolution by offering an inexpensive and direct way to exchange information and to sell or buy products and services. This revolution in the market place has set in motion a revolution in the banking sector for the provision of a payment system that is compatible with the demands of the electronic marketplace (Abor, 2005). 1.2 Measuring Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is generally defined as a feeling or judgment by customers towards products or services after they have used them (Jamal and Naser, 2003). Customer satisfaction in service industries has been approached in two ways; satisfaction as a function of disconfirmation, and as a function of perception (Davis and Heineke, 1998). The confirmation or disconfirmation paradigm views customer satisfaction judgments as the result of consumer perceptions of the gap between their expectation and perception of actual performance (Parasuraman et al., 1994). Does technology innovation improve customer satisfaction in the retail banking industry? Wayland & Cole (1999), consider customer knowledge and customer-connecting technology as the foundations of customer connected strategy. The customer-connecting technology refers to technologies for the creation of an on-line system (e.g. Internet), a self-service system (e.g. ATMs) and a customer care system (e.g. call centre). According to them, these technologies are increasingly capable of supporting strategic change by expanding the potential customer base, defining new roles in the value chain, and promoting collaboration and inter-dependency among suppliers and customers. This study aims to find out if such customer-connecting technology helps to create more satisfaction among bank customers, thus expanding the potential customer base and promoting collaboration and interdependency as pointed by Wayland & Cole. 1.3 Understanding Customer Delight and Outrage In the banking industry, several questions arise in the efforts to understand customers. Why customers are satisfied and why are they not? Is it the consumer psychological state, consumer characteristic or bank attributes/technological services? There are numerous studies on understanding customer satisfaction from the marketing perspective but comparatively psychological explanations of such behaviour are little explored. This study seeks to explain our findings from the perspective of the internal state of the customers. It also intends to fill the gap in providing plentiful attributes of banking services and how it can lead to satisfying bank customers effectively. There are two schools of thought that explain the satisfaction level of
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customers (Schneider & Bowen, 1999). The Met-Expectations Model assumes that by meeting expectations, customers can be satisfied. Exceeding customer expectation causes customer delight. Expectation levels are dynamic and are always gearing upward. Personal expectations are related to personal standards and can be difficult to measure. On the other hand, the NeedsBased Model suggests that the customer would be satisfied if the three basic customer needs security, justice and self-esteem are met. This model believes that needs centre on the customer's internal state but meeting expectation focuses only on the attribute of a delivery and not the customer. 1.4 Information technology and IT innovations in banking sector Innovations in information processing, telecommunications, and related technologies known collectively as information technology (IT) are often credited with helping fuel strong growth in the many economies (Coombs et al, 1987). IT is defined as the modern handling of information by electronic means, which involves its access, storage, processing, transportation or transfer and delivery (Ige, 1995). According to Alu (2002), IT affects financial institutions by easing enquiry, saving time, and improving service delivery. In recent decades, investment in IT by commercial banks has served to streamline operations, improve competitiveness, and increase the variety and quality of services provided. According to Fisher (1998), technology when applied in today's banking environment falls into three specific categories: customer independent (a technology that involves a customer conducting and completing a transaction with a bank entirely independent of any human contact with the institution e.g. ATMs, phone banking and Internet banking); customer assisted (a bank employee will use customer-assisted technology as a resource to complete a transaction e.g. call centre's customer service officers will use a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System to understand a customer's profile and provide instant responses to customers' queries on the banking transactions and up-to-date billings (Gutek & Welsh, 1999)); and customer transparent Customer technology which represents the real core of bank operations and customers never see it but expect it. If the innovated technology meets the customer expectation, then the customer remains silent. If expectations are not met, however, the customer will be very quick to contact the bank to provide feedback or lodge a complaint. A prime example is the non-receipt of checking account
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statements. Both the process and technology are transparent to bank customers yet they have such an expectation. For example, if the issue of such statements was delayed by a technical hitch, customers may feel outraged that their normal standard service expectation has not been met. This study focuses on technology innovations like ATMs, phone banking and Internet banking. These belong to the first and second categories studied by Donnelly (1992). 1.5 Common Forms of Technological Innovations and their effects on service delivery 1.5.1 Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) According to John McGill (2004), an automated teller machine (ATM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. ATMs are known by various casual terms including automated banking machine, money machine, bank machine, cash machine, hole-in-the-wall and cash point (Lockett and Littler 1999). ATMs typically connect directly to their ATM Controller via either a dial-up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. Jane Blake (2000) observes that, on most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip, which contains a unique card number and some security information, such as an expiration date. Security is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). ATMs are placed not only near or inside the premises of banks, but also in locations such as shopping centers/malls, airports, grocery stores, petrol/gas stations, restaurants, or any place large numbers of people may gather as observed by Maxwell (1990). Davies, Moutinho and Curry (1996) notes that, automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are the most frequently used electronic distribution channel that allows bank clients to perform their main banking transactions, such as access their bank accounts in order to make cash deposits and withdrawals, as well as purchasing mobile cell phone prepaid credit 24hours a day. Most ATMs are connected to interbank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank where they have their account or in the country where their accounts are held thus enabling cash withdrawals in local currency (Maxwell, 1990). Many banks charge ATM usage fees. In some cases, these fees are charged solely to users who are not customers of the bank where the ATM is installed; in other cases, they apply to all users (Lustsik, 2003).
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ATMs were introduced first to function as cash dispensing machines. However, due to advancements in technology, ATMs are able to provide a wide range of services, such as making deposits, funds transfer between two or accounts and bill payments. Banks tend to utilize this electronic banking device, as all others for competitive advantage. ATMs also save customers time in service delivery as alternative to queuing in bank halls, customers can invest such time saved into other productive activities. ATMs are a cost-efficient way of yielding higher productivity as they achieve higher productivity per period of time than human tellers (an average of about 6,400 transactions per month for ATMs compared to 4,300 for human tellers (Rose, 1999). Furthermore, as the ATMs continue when human tellers stop, there is continual productivity for the banks even after banking hours. 1.5.2 Telephone Banking Telephone banking is a service provided by a financial institution which allows its customers to perform by telephone are known as phone banks (Cronin, 1997). Mostly telephone banking uses an automated phone answering system with phone keypad response or voice recognition capability (Jane Blake, 2000). To guarantee security, the customer must first authenticate through a numeric or verbal password or through security questions asked by a live representative located in a call centre or a branch, although this feature is not guaranteed to be offered 24/7. John Wiley (1997) points out that, telephone banking representatives are usually trained to do what was traditionally available only at the branch such as loan applications, investment purchases and redemptions, chequebook orders, debit card replacements and change of address. With the obvious exception of cash withdrawals and deposits, it offers virtually all the features of an automated teller machine. Telephone banking provides services such as account balance and list of latest transactions, transfer of funds between a customer's accounts, electronic and instructions to issue bank cheques (Davies, Moutinho and Curry, 1996). Telebanking (telephone banking) can be considered as a form of remote or virtual banking, which is essentially the delivery of branch financial services via telecommunication devices where the bank customers can perform retail banking transactions by dialing a touch-tone telephone or mobile communication unit, which is connected to an automated system of the bank by utilizing Automated Voice Response (AVR) technology (Balachandher et al, 2001).

According to Leow (1999), telebanking has numerous benefits for both customers and banks. As far as the customers are concerned, it provides increased convenience, expanded access and significant time saving. On the other hand, from the banks perspective, the costs of delivering telephone-based services are substantially lower than those of branch based services. It has almost all the impact on productivity of ATMs, except that it lacks the productivity generated from cash dispensing by the ATMs. For, as a delivery conduit that provides retail banking services even after banking hours (24 hours a day) it accrues continual productivity for the bank. It offers retail banking services to customers at their offices/homes as an alternative to going to the bank branch/ATM. This saves customers time, and gives more convenience for higher productivity. 1.5.3 Personal Computer Banking PC-Banking is a service which allows the banks customers to access information about their accounts via a proprietary network, usually with the help of proprietary software installed on their personal computer. Once access is gained, the customer can perform a lot of retail banking functions. The increasing awareness of the importance of computer literacy has resulted in increasing the use of personal computers. This certainly supports the growth of PC banking which virtually establishes a branch in the customers home or office, and offers 24-hour service, seven days a week. It also has the benefits of Telephone Banking and ATMs (Abor, 2005). 1.5.4 Internet Banking The idea of Internet banking according to Essinger (1999) is: to give customers access to their bank accounts via a web site and to enable them to enact certain transactions on their account, given compliance with stringent security checks. To the Federal Reserve Board of Chicagos Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) Internet Banking Handbook (2001), Internet Banking is described as the provision of traditional (banking) services over the internet. Internet banking by its nature offers more convenience and flexibility to customers coupled with a virtually absolute control over their banking. Service delivery is informational (informing customers on banks products, etc) and transactional (conducting retail banking services). As an alternative delivery conduit for retail banking, it has all the impact on productivity imputed to Telebanking and PC-Banking. Aside that it is the most cost-efficient technological means of
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yielding higher productivity. Furthermore, it eliminates the barriers of distance / time and provides continual productivity for the bank to unimaginable distant customers. 1.5.5 Branch Networking Networking of branches is the computerization and inter-connecting of geographically scattered stand-alone bank branches, into one unified system in the form of a Wide Area Network (WAN) or Enterprise Network (EN); for the creating and sharing of consolidated customer information/records (Abor, 2005).

It offers quicker rate of inter-branch transactions as the consequence of distance and time are eliminated. Hence, there is more productivity per time period. Also, with the several networked branches serving the customer populace as one system, there is simulated division of labour among bank branches with its associated positive impact on productivity among the branches. Furthermore, as it curtails customer travel distance to bank branches it offers more time for customers productive activities. 1.5.6 Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPoS) An Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point of Sale is an on-line system that allows customers to transfer funds instantaneously from their bank accounts to merchant accounts when making purchases (at purchase points). A POS uses a debit card to activate an Electronic Fund Transfer Process (Chorafas, 1988). Increased banking productivity results from the use of EFTPoS to service customers shopping payment requirements instead of clerical duties in handling cheques and cash withdrawals for shopping. Furthermore, the system continues after banking hours, hence continual productivity for the bank even after banking hours. It also saves customers time and energy in getting to bank branches or ATMs for cash withdrawals which can be harnessed into other productive activities. As the importance of innovation in developing countries increases, so does the need for research on the subject. Evidence from the literature reviewed above shows that existing discourse on diffusion of IT innovation in banking sector has failed to focus much attention on rapid changes in IT development and its corresponding effect on service provision in developing countries like
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Uganda. The available evidence from African countries has been in Nigeria. This study therefore closes this gap by presenting the effects of it innovations on service delivery drawing from a least developing country, Uganda. 1.6 Technological innovations in Kenya banking sector In the Kenyans banking industry due to competition, IT investments and adoption has become a very important component in achieving organizational. In recent past therefore, electronic and communications technologies have been used extensively in banking for many years to advance agenda of banks. The earliest forms of electronic and communications technologies used by the banks were mainly office automation devices. Telephones, telex and facsimile were employed to speed up and make more efficient, the process of servicing clients. However, with coming of new partners in banking industry, competition intensified and the personal computer (PC) got proletarian, Kenya banks begun to use them in back-office operations and later tellers used them to service clients. The advancements in computer technology have led to application and adoption new IT investments that have changed the banking landscape in the country. Arguably, the most revolutionary electronic innovation in this country has been the ATM. In Uganda, banks with ATM offerings have them networked and this has increased their utility to customers. The ATM has been the most successful delivery medium for consumer banking in this county. Others technological innovations in banking sector include internet banking, telephone banking, Electronic funds transfer, among others. 1.7 Statement of the problem The fast-changing competitive environment, globalization, economic changes, regulation, privatization and the like demands that banks are run efficiently and effectively by continuously engaging in technological innovations. Emergence of new technologies, products, markets and competitors places demand on any organization to apply any skills necessary to remain competitive and achieve competitive advantage. Every well managed bank to undertake technological innovations which will enable it to have a competitive edge over the others. These innovations are intended to facilitate a firms sustainability in the face of growing competition and external threats. The information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the

banking sector over the years. The rapid development and commercialization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) banking industry has prompted banks to increasingly adopt these technologies. This is based on the expectation that the new ICT based technologies and processes would lead to an improvement in their operating efficiencies and customer service levels. When customers evaluate the quality of the service they receive from a banking institution they use different criteria which are likely to differ in their importance, usually some being more important than others. While several criteria are important only a few are most important. These determinant attributes are the ones that will define service quality and hence customer satisfaction from the consumers perspective (Parasuraman, A.et al., 1988). The banking industry has already been depicted (Parasuman et al., 2001) as exhibiting little market orientation and fulfilling services with little regard to customer needs as well as including branches dissimilar in efficiency. Long lines, limited time for customer servicing, transaction errors, excessive bureaucracy, and security and network failures have been said to be the most frequent problems using banking services (Smith, 1999). This highly lower customers perception on the quality of service offered and hence reduces customer satisfaction and the banks profitability and credibility. One question relates to whether automated, telephone and Internet banking represent positive change and are satisfactorily serving the customers. Whilst technology can save time and money and eliminate errors, thereby addressing certain issues associated with changing cultural and social trends, it can also minimize direct customer interaction and any associated service value to be gained (Bitner,2001). According to Joseph et al. (2003), reliable and accurate banking services; customer services; personalized services; and accurate records are some of the factors which are considered by the customers in their choice of a given type of service delivery channel. Since the year 2000, technology has increasingly been innovated in the delivery of services in the Kenya banking industry. The adoption of technology into service industries, more so in banking is becoming a strong trend as service providers are now being urged by industry bodies to invest in technology. The small business segment (retail and corporate services) has not been an easy one for the main banks to target and a number of studies have highlighted imperfection in service provision and problems regarding service quality and customer satisfaction (Ennew et al., 1993; Smith, 1989; 1990). Particular problematic areas include
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knowledge and understanding, providing explanations for decisions, queuing, charges, collateral requirements, network failure and insecurity. Due to this, customer satisfaction levels are at all time low, dragging the banks image, credibility and staff morale down (Joseph et al., 2003). As the importance of innovation in developing countries increases, so does the need for research on the subject. Evidence from the literature reviewed above shows that existing discourse on diffusion of IT innovation in banking sector has failed to focus much attention on the impact of these technological innovations on customer satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya. Among other studies include relative importance of technology in service delivery in banking (Adrienne et al., 2003) which concluded that technology provides a different type of value and the benefits to be gained are largely efficiency based. Mugambi (2006) also attest that researches have been done on areas of service excellence and customer satisfaction in the banking industry. However, there is no study in Kenya that has looked at the impact of technological innovation in commercial banks in Kenya with reference to customer satisfaction. This study therefore, seeks to investigate the relationship between technological innovations and customer satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya.

1.8 Purpose of study The broad objective for this study is to evaluate the relationship between financial innovation and growth in the insurance companies in Kenya. The study will be guide by the following specific objectives; i) To establish the forms of financial innovations employed by insurance companies in Kenya.
ii) To establish the relationship between financial innovations and growth in the insurance

companies in Kenya.
iii) To establish the factors influencing the rate of financial innovations by insurance

companies in Kenya. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the IT innovations BOA has implemented since it merged with Bank of Africa group and how these has impacted service delivery. Objectives of the study (i) To examine the extent of banks innovativeness in information technology in B.O.A
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(ii) (iii)

To examine the level of service delivery in B.O.A in relation to IT innovations To examine the employees perception of the effects of IT innovations on service delivery in B.O.A

What is the relationship between technology and service quality? Which are the factors that lead to customer preference of different service delivery channels? The specific objectives were: To establish the relationship between technology and service quality in banking industry; and To determine the factors that lead to customer preference of different electronic banking channels. To investigate from Kenya customers the various technologies adopted by their banks. To study internet banking usage in Kenya To explore the perceived utility of SMS banking To analyze the banking services adopted by Kenyan customers through mobile phones 1.9 Importance of the study

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According to Yasuharu (2003), implementation of information technology and communication networking has brought revolution in the functioning of the banks and the financial institutions. It is argued that dramatic structural changes are in store for financial services industry as a result of the Internet revolution; others see a continuation of trends already under way. In a study conducted by Irechukwu (2000) in Nigeria, he lists some banking services that have been revolutionized through the use of ICT as including account opening, customer account mandate, and transaction processing and recording. Information and Communication Technology has provided self-service facilities (automated customer service machines) from where prospective customers can complete their account opening documents direct online. It assists customers to validate their account numbers and receive instruction on when and how to receive their cheque books, credit and debit cards (Agboola, 2004). The ICT products in use in the banking industry in many developing and developed include Automated Teller Machine, Smart Cards, Telephone Banking, MICR, Electronic Funds Transfer, Electronic Data Interchange, Electronic Home and Office Banking (Agboola, 2002). Why doesnt everybody innovate is a common question in business literature? It is widely recognized that innovation is key to the economic performance of firms. Innovative firms grow faster in terms of employment and profitability. An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived to be new by a person or adopting entity. The innovation is not seen as something periodical that happened by accident nor something that results from the action of an individual agent. Innovation is seen as the result of an interactive and non linear process between the firm
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and the environment. When an innovation emerges, diffusion unfolds which entails communicating or spreading of the news of the innovation to the group for which it is intended (Okunoye et al, 2007). Adoption however is the commitment to and continued use of the innovation. The diffusion of innovations theory provide explanations for when and how a new idea, practice or newly introduced information and communication medium is adopted or rejected over time in a given society (Okunoye et al, 2007). Innovation is the generation, acceptance and implementation of new ideas, processes, products or services. This study is concerned with product innovation, i.e., new products and the organizational processes that precede their launch. What is then to be considered new? When is it new enough to be considered an innovation? The literature provides several frameworks to classify product newness, e.g., from incremental to radical innovations. This study, however, is concerned with product innovation as a phenomenon, rather than with product innovations with a certain degree of newness. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components, and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness, or other functional characteristics. Product development is used as a term for the span of innovation activities leading to, or that are intended to lead to, product innovation. According to Agboola (2004), the application of information and communication technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to banking services has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a prerequisite for local and global competitiveness. ICT directly affects how managers decide, how they plan and what products and services are offered in the banking industry. It has continued to change the way banks and their corporate relationships are organized worldwide and the variety of innovative devices available to enhance the speed and quality of service delivery (Agboola, 2004, 2001). However, most research about innovation focused on manufacturing industries though increasing attention has been paid to innovation in service industries recently (Gallouj, 2002; Howells and Tether, 2004; Miles, 2004). The survival of an enterprise in the age of knowledge-based economy depends on how to improve their organizational innovation capability. Technological innovation is the key variable and means of differentiation between logistics service providers. Commercial banks can increase their performance by employing new technologies. They should
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employ new information technologies to raise their service capability in the e-commerce age (Agboola, 2001).

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction


This chapter provides theoretical and empirical information from publications on topics related to the research problem. It examines what various scholars and authors have studied written about technological innovations in reference to customer service and customer satisfaction.

2.2 Information Technology


Technology can be referred to as the application of knowledge for the execution of a given task. It entails skills and processes necessary for carrying out activities (works) in a given context. ICT encompasses computer systems, telecommunication, networks, and multimedia applications (Frenzel, 1996). It came into use in the late 1980s replacing earlier terms like Electronic Data Processing (EDP), Management Information System (MIS), although the latter terms are still in use (Frenzel, 1996). Joseph and Stone, (2003) point out that, effective service delivery is important and has a great influence on customer satisfaction, improving sales and market share. Commercial banking is at a stage where customer perceptions and preferences have a very important impact on a banks

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success. Customer satisfaction is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. In the effort to deliver effective services, the banking sector undertakes numerous approaches and among them is the innovation and use of information technology. Information technology is a medium that has revolutionized banking and everyday operations at the click of a button thus enabling sophisticated product development, better market infrastructure, implementation of reliable techniques for control of risks and reaching geographically distant and diversified markets (Marion, 2008).

2.3 Customer Satisfaction


Lariviere & Poel (2004) observe that, if the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied (Oliver, 1981). If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted (De Moubray, 1991). The high level of competition in the banking industry has placed an even greater emphasis on customer satisfaction. Nowadays understanding and reacting to changes of customer behavior is an inevitable aspect of surviving in a competitive and mature market (Smith, 1990). Customers complain when they are dissatisfied with product they have bought or a service they have received (Yeung et al., 2002). This means that the absolute number or percentage of complaints can be the indicators of customer dissatisfaction (Smith, 1990). If an organization succeeds in reducing customer complaints to zero, it indicates that customer dissatisfaction had been eliminated (Oliver, 1981). However, it is important to recognize that reducing dissatisfaction is not always the same as achieving satisfaction (Dabholkar, 1994). In businesses where the underlying products have become commodity-like, quality of service depends heavily on the quality of its personnel. This is well documented in a study by Leeds (1992), who documented that approximately 40 percent of customers switched banks because of what they considered to be poor service. Leeds further argued that nearly three-quarters of the banking customers mentioned teller courtesy as a prime consideration in choosing a bank. The study also showed that increased use of service quality/sales and professional behaviours (such as formal greetings) improved customer satisfaction and reduced customer attrition. Indeed, customer satisfaction has for many years been perceived as key in determining why customers leave or stay with an organisation. Organisations need to know how to keep their
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customers, even if they appear to be satisfied. Reichheld (1996) suggests that unsatisfied customers may choose not to defect, because they do not expect to receive better service elsewhere. Additionally, satisfied customers may look for other providers because they believe they might receive better service elsewhere. However, keeping customers is also dependent on a number of other factors. These include a wider range of product choices, greater convenience, better prices, and enhanced income (Storbacka et al., 1994). Fornell (1992), in his study of Swedish consumers, notes that although customer satisfaction and quality appear to be important for all firms, satisfaction is more important for loyalty in industries such as banks, insurance, mail order, and automobiles. Ioanna (2002) further proposed that product differentiation is impossible in a competitive environment like the banking industry. Banks everywhere are delivering the same products. For example, there is usually only minimal variation in interest rates charged or the range of products available to customers. Bank prices are fixed and driven by the marketplace. Thus, bank management tends to differentiate their firm from competitors through service quality. Service quality is an imperative element impacting customers satisfaction level in the banking industry. In banking, quality is a multi-variable concept, which includes differing types of convenience, reliability, services portfolio, and critically, the staff delivering the service.

2.4 Significance of Technological Innovations


The paper titled Why do people use Information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model by Paul Legris, John Ingham, Pierre Collerette (2003), suggested Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2). TAM had proven to be a useful theoretical model in helping to understand and explain use behaviour in IS implementation. It examined the mediating role of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness in their relation between systems characteristics (external variables) and the probability of system use (an indicator of system success). A new and improved version of Daviss model: TAM2 was used that included subjective norms, and was tested with longitudinal research designs. Analysis of empirical research using TAM shows that results were not totally consistent or clear. Research has shown that the influence of some factors on intention to use IS, varies at different stages in the IS implementation process. It was concluded that TAM is a useful model, but has to be integrated in to a broader one, which would include variables, related to both human and social change processes.
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2.5 Empirical Studies


The purpose of the paper named Impact of Information Technology management practices on customer service, by Jahangir Karimi, Toni M. Somers and Yash P. Gupta (2002) was to gauge whether IT management practices differ among firms where IT has a major role in transforming marketing, operations, or both, which gave the firms advantage by affecting customer service. Several research hypotheses were tested using data obtained from a survey of 213 IT-leaders in the financial services industry. The results clearly indicated that the IT leader firms had a higher level of IT management sophistication and a higher role for their IT leaders compared to ITenabled customer focus, IT-enabled operations focus, and IT-laggard firms. The study concluded that IT management practices differed among IT leader firms, IT-enabled customer focus, ITenabled operations focus and IT-laggard firms. This paper was silent on other aspects of IT like functional integration, technological integration, etc., besides customer service. A.P. Sebastian Titus and Albin D. Robert Lawrence (2004) in their paper titled Customer Focus in Banking Services had stressed on importance of customer relationship management. The aim of the banks should be to retain the existing customers and acquire the new customers. In order to add value to the services offered, the banking industry has to efficiently and effectively utilize the technology with an eye on the cost of product and the services offered. To win the customers, the modern banking should integrate technology and deploy marketing strategies that would enable banks to maximize profits through customer satisfaction. In market with fierce competition providing the customers with value addition is the only way to achieve complete sustained customer satisfaction. Joshua Madan Samuel (2003) in his paper titled CRM With special emphasis on financial services and banking, emphasized about growing need of managing customers better in banking. CRM applications applied in banking were customer knowledge, sales effectiveness, customer retention, customer segmentation, product presentation, customer fulfillments, customer acquisition, channel management, marketing intelligence, campaign management. The processes need to be redesigned in order to be able to utilize CRM for the customers and organizational benefits. The three Ss of banking i.e., Size, Speed, Service; are better managed by CRM. In the world of banking CRM technology was the answer to the question of increased growth with less cost.

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In paper titled Capturing the customers voice-A case study in banking by S.K. Bhattacharyya & Zillur Rahman (2002), customer needs and wants in a bank were properly emphasized. Customer needs were categorized as Basic needs, Performance needs and Excitement needs. The various banking services like Tangibility, Reliability, Competence, Courtesy, Understanding customers, Communication, Access, Responsiveness, Credibility, and Security; were related with these needs. This paper helped to identify how customers perceived services of a bank. Agboola (2001) studied the impact of computer automation on the banking services in Lagos and discovered that Electronic Banking has tremendously improved the services of some banks to their customers in Lagos. The study was however restricted to the commercial nerve center of Nigeria and concentrated on only six banks. He made a comparative analysis between the old and new generation banks and discovered variation in the rate of adoption of the automated devices. Aragba-Akpore (1998) wrote on the application of information technology in Nigerian banks and pointed out that IT is becoming the backbone of banks services regeneration in Nigeria. He cited the Diamond Integrated Banking Services (DIBS) of Diamond Bank Limited and Electronic Smart Card Account (ESCA) of All States Bank Limited as efforts geared towards creating sophistication in the banking sector. Ovia (2000) discovered that banking in Nigeria has increasingly depended on the deployment of Information Technology and that the IT budget for banking is by far larger than that of any other industry in Nigeria. He contended that On-line system has facilitated Internet banking in Nigeria as evidenced in some of them launching websites. He found also that banks now offer customers the flexibility of operating an account in any branch irrespective of which branch the account is domiciled. Cashless transactions were made possible in our society of today.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction


This chapter describes the research methodology of the study. It describes the research design, sampling design, target population, data collection procedures, analysis management and the ethical considerations in the study.

3.2 Research Design


Research design refers to the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in the procedure (Babbie, 2002). In addition Kothari (2004) observed that research design is a blue print which facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible hence yielding maximum information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. The author noted that, research design deals with the decision regarding: What techniques were used to gather data? What kind of sampling strategies and tools were used? How time and cost constraints were dealt with? The function of research design therefore is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. This study will use a descriptive design. This design refers to a set of methods and procedures that describe variables. It involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data. Descriptive studies portray the variables by answering who, what, and how questions (Babbie, 2002).

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3.3 Population
A population is a group of individual persons, objects or items from which samples are taken for measurements, it is the group the investigator wishes to make inferences from (Babbie, 2005). The target population will be senior managers in marketing, underwriting, ICT, and finance from 9 insurance companies (Appendix III) of the 44 licensed insurance companies as at end of December 2009 (AKI report, 2009). In addition, this study will be carried in Nairobi since all the selected insurance companies have their headquarters in Nairobi and this will facilitate collection of adequate information of the research subject area by the researcher.

3.4 Sampling Design


A sample is a sub-set or part of the target population; sampling is a process of selecting subjects or cases to be included in the study of the representative of the target population (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). Stratified random sampling technique will be used to obtain the study sample. The target population will be divided into four strata of senior managers in: marketing, underwriting, ICT, and finance. From the 44 licensed insurance companies, the researcher will select five (5) large, five (5) medium, and five (5) small insurance companies. A total sample of fifteen (15) respondents consisting of four (4) senior managers (one each stratum) in each insurance company under each category of large, medium, and small will be used for this study. This method will be suitable since various respondents will divided into subgroups as per the study to represent the senior managers without bias on either group.

3.5 Data Collection


The research instrument in this study will be questionnaires. Both open and closed ended questions were applied to collect primary data. Creswell (1994) noted that, data collection methods for primary data include: structured and semi-structure questionnaires, mailed questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews (personal and telephone interviews), observation and focus group discussions. Questionnaires are the most commonly used methods when respondents can be reached and are willing to co-operate. These methods can reach a large number of subjects who are able to read and write independently. The questionnaire will consist of sections geared to obtain the respondents opinion in strategic control. Respondents to be interviewed will hold at least the level of an underwriting manager at the respective insurance companies and who is actively involved in financial innovation

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processes. The respondents will be expected to give an insight into the financial innovation in the respective insurance companies.

3.6 Data Analysis


In order to analyze collected data Miller (1991) observed that, a researcher needs to have the following information about the statistical data analysis tools namely: descriptive, inferential and test statistics. The author observed that, descriptive statistics are used to describe data collected from a sample. The mean, median, percentages and standard deviation are the most commonly used descriptive statistics. The author further observed that, inferential statistics are used to make inferences from sample statistics to population parameters. These tools help the researcher to generalize the findings from the sample to the target population. The data will be analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as mean scores, frequencies, and percentages. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSSv17) will be used to aid in qualitative analysis in this study. The researcher will examine the completed questionnaires. The information for each item on the questionnaire will be processed and reported through a descriptive narrative. This will be accomplished by use of frequencies. The results will be presented in charts, graphs and tables. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis techniques will therefore be applied. The data was then presented in form of tables and charts.

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23

Others

Organizations are aware that service quality provides strategic competitiveness in dynamic business environment. Literature provides significant relationship between service quality and firms performance based on improved productivity, increased market share, enhanced customers attraction and satisfaction, loyalty, improved staff morale, and sustained profitability (Lassar et al., 2000). Research has found that service quality in banks is critical for satisfaction and retention of customers (Jabnoun & AlTamimi, 2003). Keeping in view the significance of service quality as a means of competitive advantage and organizational sustainability, the banks are pursuing multidimensional approaches to improvement in service quality to attract and retain customers (Newman, 2001). According to Castleberry and Resurreccion (1989), the physical location of banks delivery channels influence perception of customers about quality. Consistent delivery of services, physical dimensions and staff interaction with customers, trustworthy processes and procedures
24

positively affect delivery of services quality (Sureshchandar et al., 2002). Pleasant customer interaction with staff significantly affects customers perception of quality (Yavas et al., 1997). In response to this requirement, banks have initiated flawless delivery processes to reduce delivery timings to improve service quality. Jabnoun, N., & Al-Tamimi, H.A.H. (2003). Measuring perceived service quality at UAE commercial banks. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 20(4), 458- 72. Castleberry, S., & Resurreccion, A. (1989).Communicating quality to consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(3), 21-89. Sureshchandar, G., Rajendran, C., & Anantharaman, R. (2002).The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction a factor-specific approach. Journal of Services Marketing, 16(4), 363-79. Yavas, U., Bilgin, Z., & Shemwell, D. (1997).Service quality in the banking sector in an emerging economy: a consumer survey. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 15(6), 217- 23.

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REFERENCES

Norton, J J (1995). Cross-border Electronic Banking: Challenges and Opportunities, UK: London Press. De Moubray, (1991), increases in corporate advertising and generic image building programmes, increased product proliferation and fragmentation of markets, and a growing potential for niche marketing opportunities (Ennew et al., 1989). Yeung, M., Ging, L., Ennew, C. (2002), "Customer satisfaction and profitability: a reappraisal of the nature of the relationship", Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, Vol.11No.1, pp.24-33. Donnelly, J (1992). Management Lessons: From the Customer's Side of the Counter, USA: Prentice Hall. Davies, F., Moutinho, L., and Curry, B., (1996). ATM users Attitudes: a neural network analysis. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 14 (2), 26-32. Jane Blake (2000) ATM Security Measures. Maxwell (1990).Resolution of banking Disputes. Cronin, MaryJ. (1997)Banking and Finance on the Internet. John Wiley (1997) Banking and Finance on the Internet. Lustsik, O. (2003), "E-banking in Estonia: reasons and benefits of rapid growth", Kroon & Economy, Vol. 3 pp.24-36. Gutek, B & Welsh, T (1999). The Brave New Service Strategy: Aligning Customer Relationships, Market Strategies, and Business Structures, NY: Amacom. Fisher, D M (1998). Understanding Bank Technology: The Customer and the Expectation' in: Managing the New Bank Technology, Ed. Seymann M R, Singapore: Toppan.
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Oliver, R. (1981), "Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction process in retailing setting", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 57 pp.25-48. Davis, M., Heineke, J. (1998), "How disconfirmation perception and actual waiting times impact customer satisfaction", International Journalof Service IndustryManagement, Vol. 9 No.1, pp.6473. Wayland, R E and Cole, P M (1997). Customer Connections, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Schneider, B & Bowen, D (1999). Understanding Customer Delight and Outrage. Sloan Management Review, Vol 41, pp. 35 - 44. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., Berry, L. (1994), "Alternative scales for measuring service quality: a comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 70 No.3, pp.201-30. Dabholkar, P. (1994), "Technology based service delivery", Advances in Service Marketing and Management, Vol. 3 No.1, pp.241-71. Jamal, A., Naser, K. (2003), "Factors influencing customer satisfaction in the retail banking sector in Pakistan", InternationalJournalofCommerce &Management, Vol. 13 No.2, pp.29-53 Frenzel, C.W. (1996), Information Technology Management, Cambridge: Thomson Publishing Company. Joseph, M., and Stone, G., (2003).An empirical evaluation of US bank customer perceptions of the impact of technology in service delivery in the banking sector. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. 31 (4), 190-202. MarionKimtai (April, 2008) Banking the Unbanked, The standard Newspaper Leeds, B. (1992). 'Mystery Shopping' Offers Clues to Quality Service. Bank Marketing, 24(11), November, pp. 24-27. Reichheld, F. F. (1996). Learning from Customer Defections. Harvard Business Review, March/April, pp. 56-69.

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Storbacka, K., Strandvik, R and Gronroos, C. (1994). Managing Customer Relationship for Profit: The Dynamics of Relationship Quality. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(5), pp. 21-38. Fornell, C. (1992). A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience. Journal of Marketing, 56, January, pp. 6-21. Ioanna, P. D. (2002). The Role of Employee Development in Customer Relations: The Case of UK Retail Banks. Corporate Communication, 7(1), pp. 62-77. Jahangir Karimi, Toni M. Somers and Yash P. Gupta (2002). named Impact of Information Technology management practices on customer service A.P. Sebastian Titus and Albin D. Robert Lawrence (2004). Customer Focus in Banking Services Agboola, A. A. (2001) Impact of Electronic Banking on Customer Services in Lagos, Nigeria in Ife Journal of Economics and Finance. Department of Economics, O.A.U, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, vol. 5, Nos. 1&2 Aragba-Akpore, S. (1998): The Backbone of Banks Service Regeneration, Moneywatch, July 22, p23. Ovia, J. (2000):From Banking Hall to E-Platform, Financial Standard, January 15. Cronin, MaryJ. (1997)BankingandFinanceonthe Internet Jane Blake(2000) ATMSecurityMeasures John Wiley (1997)BankingandFinance ontheInternet. John Mc Gill(2004) ATMs-Technologicalchange Davies, F., Moutinho, L., and Curry, B., (1996). ATM users Attitudes: a neural network analysis. Marketing Intelligence&Planning. 14 (2), 26-32.

Parasuraman, A.et al. (1988), SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64 pp.12-40. Parasuraman, A., Colby, C.L. (2001), Techno-Ready Marketing: How and Why Your Customers Adopt Technology, Free Press, New York, NY.
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Smith (1999).Quality aspects of services marketing, marketing intelligence & planning, vol.8 pp25-32. Bitner, J.M. (2001), Service and technology: opportunities and paradoxes, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 11 No.6, pp.375-9. Joseph et al. (2003), Service quality in the banking sector: the impact of technology on service delivery, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 182-91. Ennew, C. et al. (1993).Personal financial service: marketing strategy determination,vol.7 pp 3-8. Smith (1999).Quality aspects of services marketing, marketing intelligence & planning, vol.8 pp25-32. Adrienne et al., (2003), The relative importance of technology in enhancing customer relationships in banking a Scottish perspective, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 172-191. Mugambi D. (2006), A survey of Internal Service Delivery Systems in Kenya Commercial Bank. Unpublished MBA Research Project, University of Nairobi.

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APPENDICES APPENDIX I: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION


The Respondent, P.O. Box ......,

Dear Sir/Madam,

Re: Request for Research Data I am a Postgraduate student at the University of Nairobi pursuing a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. My research project topic is Relationship between Financial Innovation and Growth in Insurance Companies in Kenya. The purpose of the research is to assess the growth insurance companies as a result of their financial innovations. The attached questionnaires have been designed to help the researcher gather data from the respondent with respect to this purpose. You have been identified as one of the respondents. Kindly facilitate the data collection necessary by answering the questions precisely and accurately as possible. The information sought is purely for academic purposes. Yours truly,

Student

Supervisor

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Mr. Robert Karanja. W. Email: rwachirak@gmail.com Cell phone +254720 967 196

Mr. Mirie Mwangi

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APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE


Section I: Demographic Information
1. Name of your insurance company (optional)

......................................................................................................................
2. What is your gender? (Tick as appropriate)

Male (

Female (

3. What is your designation in the

company? ..............................................................................................................
4. For how long have you worked in that position? (Tick as appropriate) a) Less than 2 years b) Between 2 to 5 years

( (

) ) ) )

c) Between 6 to 10 years (
d) Over 10 years

5. What is your level of education? (Tick as appropriate)

a) Secondary Level b) College Level c) University First degree d) Masters degree e)

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

Other (Specify)................................................................

Section II: Company information


6. When was the company incorporated?

i) Less than 5 years ago

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ii) Between 5 and 10 years ago iii) Between 10 to15 years ago iv) Between 15 to 20 years ago v) More than 20 years ago
7. What is the gross written premium of your company? .

Section III: Products


8. How often do you review your products? (Tick appropriate) a) Quarterly

) ) ) ) )

b) Semi- Annually ( c) Annually d) Bi-annually e) Other (specify)

( ( (

9. Averagely, how many new products were launched by your company in the following years?

Year No. Of Products

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

10. Please circle the appropriate number in the appropriate column to indicate the degree to

which you either agree or disagree with the following as objectives of innovating new products in your insurance company. Neither disagree agree Strongly to some nor disagree extent disagree 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Agree to some extent 4 4 4 4 4 4

a)

b) c) d) e) f)

Objectives of innovations To suit customers needs To increase market share To increase profitability To remain competitive To comply with the regulation Due to technological advancement

Strongly agree 5 5 5 5 5 5

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11. Are the products mainly? (Tick appropriate) a) Tailor-made

( )

b) Totally new products ( ) 12. To what extents have the products in the market been successful? (Tick appropriate) i) Not at all ii) Less extent iii) Fair extent iv) Large extent

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

v) Very large extent ( ) 13. a) Have new products contributed to the growth in your company? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

No

b) If yes, to what extent? i) Not at all ii) Less extent iii) Fair extent iv) Large extent ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

v) Very large extent ( )

Sectional III: Operation System


14. a) Are all the operations automated? (Tick appropriately)

Yes

( )

No

( )

b) If no, are there plans to automate tasks that are carried out manually?(Tick appropriately)

Yes

( )

No (

15. a) Does your insurance company have branches? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

( )

No

( )

b) If yes, are you branches inter-connected in terms of your IT systems? (Tick appropriate) 34

Yes

( )

No

( )

c) Do you have other IT sub-system? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

( )

No

( )

16. How often do you review your operations system(s)? (Tick appropriate)

a) Quarterly

) ) ) )

b) Semi- Annually ( c) Annually d) Bi-annually e) Other (specify) ( ( (

17. a) Have your IT systems contributed to the growth in your company? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

( )

No

( )

b) If yes, to what extent? (Tick appropriate)

i) Not at all ii) Less extent iii) Fair extent iv) Large extent

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

v) Very large extent ( )

Section IV: Bank Assurance


18. a) Is your company affiliated to other financial institutions? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

( )

No

( )

b) If yes, which of the following is your insurance company affiliated with? i) Bank ii) Insurance company

( ) ( ) )
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iii) Both bank and insurance company (

iv) Other (specify). c) If yes in 16(a) above, what was the reason for affiliation? (Tick appropriate) i) To have countrywide presence ii) To increase market share

( ) ( )

iii) Other (specify).............................................................. 19. a) Do you offer joint products with the affiliated institutions? (Tick appropriate)

Yes

( )

No

( )

b) Has the partnership in 17(a) contributed to growth in your company? (Tick appropriate) Yes ( ) No ( )

b) If yes in 17(b) above, to what extent? (Tick appropriate) i) Not at all ii) Less extent iii) Fair extent iv) Large extent ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

v) Very large extent ( )

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