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1. Whatisthedifferencebetweenroutingandforwarding?

(10%)
2. What is the HeadoftheLine (HOL) blocking? (b) Draw a figure to
showit.(10%)
3. (a) Describe how packet loss can occur at input ports. (b) Describe
howpacketlossatinputportscanbeeliminated.(10%)
4. (a) Describe the assumption and purpose of the Dijkstras
shortestpath algorithm. (5%) (b) Show how the algorithm works by
computingatable.(6%)(c)Showtheforwardingtableofthesource
node.(5%)(note: 5 0source
node v; 1sourcenode w; 2sourcenode
x; 3sourcenode y; 4sourcenode z

16%)
5

2
1

5. IPv4ClassB (18%)
a. Class B ID? (2%) IP (4%)
IP (2%)
b. Class B 3 subnetsubnet mask
(2%) subnet ID (2%) IP (4%)
IP (2%)
6. (a)WhatisthemainmotivationoftheNAT?(3%)
(b)HowtoimplementNATattherouter?(6%)(9%total)
7. Describe the goal of DHCP (2%) and draw a figure and describe the
fourmessageflowofDHCP.(8%)(10%total)
8. (a)WhatarethethreemotivationsofIPv6?(3%)
(b)Draw a figure to explain how to tunnel IPv6 datagrams between
twoIPv4routers?(8%)(11%total)
9. WhataretwomainfunctionsofICMPtocommunicatenetworklevel
informationbyhosts&routers?(6%)

1. (10%)
(a) Forwarding is about moving a packet from a routers input link to the
appropriateoutputlink.(5%)
(b) Routing is about determining the endtoend routes between sources and
destinations.(5%)

2.
(a) HOLblockingaqueuedpacketinaninputqueuemustwaitfortransferthrough
thefabricbecauseitisblockedbyanotherpacketattheheadoftheline.(5%)
(b) (5%)

3.
Ans:
(a)Packetlossoccursifqueuesizeattheinputportgrowslargebecauseofslow
switchingfabricspeedandthusexhaustingroutersbufferspace.(5%)
(b)Itcanbeeliminatediftheswitchingfabricspeedisatleastntimesasfastas
theinputlinespeed,wherenisthenumberofinputports.(5%)

4. (a) Describe the assumption and purpose of the Dijkstras shortestpath


algorithm.(5%) (b)Showhowthealgorithmworksbycomputingatable.(6%)
(c)Showtheforwardingtableofthesourcenode.(5%)(note:
5 0sourcenode v; 1sourcenode w;
2source node x; 3source node y; 4source node
z
)
5

2
1

1
(a) (5%)

net topology, link costs known to all nodes (2%)


z accomplished via link state broadcast
z all nodes have same info
computes least cost paths from one node (source) to all other nodes (2%)
z gives forwarding table for that node (1%)

(b) v ( 1%, 6%)


Step

D(u), p(u)

D(w), p(w)

D(x), p(x)

D(y), p(y)

D(z), p(z)

2, v

3, v

2, v

vu

3, v

2, v

vux

3, v

3, x #1

vuxw

3, x

8, w #2

vuxwy

vuxwyz

5, y #3

#1D(y)=min(D(y),D(x)+C(x,y))=min(,2+1)=3
#2D(z)=min(D(z),D(w)+C(w,z))=min(,3+5)=8
#3D(z)=min(D(z),D(y)+C(y,z))=min(8,3+2)=5
Forwarding table ( 1%, 5%)
Destination

Next hop (output link)


u

w
Step

D(u), p(u)

D(v), p(v)

D(x), p(x)

D(y), p(y)

D(z), p(z)

5, w

3, w

3, w

1, w

5, w

wy

5, w

3, w

2, y #1

wyx

3, x #3

3, w

3, y

wyxu

3, w

3, y

wyxuv

wyxuvz

#1D(x)=min(D(x),D(y)+C(y,x))=min(3,1+1)=2
#2D(z)=min(D(z),D(y)+C(y,z))=min(5,1+2)=3
#3D(u)=min(D(u),D(x)+C(x,u))=min(5,2+1)=3

3, y #2

3, y

Forwarding table
Destination

Next hop (output link)


u

x
Step

D(u), p(u)

D(v), p(v)

D(w), p(w)

D(y), p(y)

D(z), p(z)

1, x

2, x

3, x

1, x

xu

2, x

3, x

1, x

xuy

2, x

2, y #1

3, y #2

xuyv

2, y

3, y

xuyvw

xuyvwz

3, y

#1D(w)=min(D(w),D(y)+C(y,w))=min(3,1+1)=2
#2D(z)=min(D(z),D(y)+C(y,z))=min(,1+2)=3
Forwarding table
Destination

Next hop (output link)


u

y
Step

D(u), p(u)

D(v), p(v)

D(w), p(w)

D(x), p(x)

D(z), p(z)

1, y

1, y

2, y

yw

6, w #1

4, w #2

1, y

2, y

ywx

2, x #3

3, x #4

2, y

ywxu

3, x

2, y

ywxuz

3, x

ywxuzv

#1D(u)=min(D(u),D(w)+C(w,u))=min(,1+5)=6
#2D(v)=min(D(v),D(w)+C(w,v))=min(,1+3)=4
#3D(u)=min(D(u),D(x)+C(x,u))=min(6,1+1)=2
#4D(v)=min(D(v),D(x)+C(x,v))=min(4,1+2)=3

Forwarding table
Destination

Next hop (output link)


u

z
Step

D(u), p(u)

D(v), p(v)

D(w), p(w)

D(x), p(x)

D(y), p(y)

5, z

2, z

zy

3, y #1

3, y #2

zyw

8, w #3

6, w #4

zywx

4, x #5

5, x #6

zywxu

zywxuv

3, y

5, x

#1D(w)=min(D(w),D(y)+C(y,w))=min(5,2+1)=3
#2D(x)=min(D(x),D(y)+C(y,x))=min(,2+1)=3
#3D(u)=min(D(u),D(w)+C(w,u))=min(,3+5)=8
#4D(v)=min(D(v),D(w)+C(w,v))=min(,3+3)=6
#5D(u)=min(D(u),D(x)+C(x,u))=min(8,3+1)=4
#6D(v)=min(D(v),D(x)+C(x,v))=min(6,3+2)=5
Forwarding table
Destination

Next hop (output link)


u

5. (18%)
a.
Network ID 191.254.0.0 Network ID
10111111.11111110.00000000.00000000;(2 )
Host ID 10111111.11111110.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX, 16 bit X
0 1 HostID 10111111.11111110.00000000.
00000001=191.254.0.1(2 )
Host ID 10111111.11111110.11111111.11111110 =
191.254.255.254(2 )
> 2162=65534 HostID(2 )
b.

Class B 3 subnet 0 1
subnetID 3+2=5subnetmask => HostID 3
bits subnetID subnetmask ClassB defaultsubnet
mask 255.255.0.0 11111111. 11111111. 11100000.000000000 =>
255.255.224.0(2 )

subnet ID Class B Network ID


10111111.11111110.00000000.00000000 HostID 3 bits
subnetID 0 1 subnetID 10111111.11111110.
00100000.00000000=>191.254.32.0(2 )
Host ID 10111111.11111110. 001XXXXX.XXXXXXXX, 13 bit X
0 1 HostID 10111111.11111110.00100000.
00000001=191.254.32.1(2 )
Host ID 10111111.11111110. 00111111.11111110 =
191.254.63.254(2 )
> 2132=8190 HostID(2 )

6. (a)(3%)
rangeofaddressesnotneededfromISP:justoneIPaddressforalldevices
(b)NATroutermust:(6%)
z outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing
datagramto(NATIPaddress,newport#)(2%)
remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as
destinationaddr.
z remember(inNATtranslationtable)every(sourceIPaddress,port#) to(NAT
IPaddress,newport#)translationpair (2%)
z incomingdatagrams:replace(NATIPaddress,newport#)indestfieldsofevery
incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in
NATtable (2%)

7. DHCP:(10%)
Goal:allowhosttodynamicallyobtainitsIPaddressfromnetworkserverwhen
itjoinsnetwork(2%)
Flow:(8%)
z hostbroadcastsDHCPdiscovermsg(1%,1%)
z DHCPserverrespondswithDHCPoffermsg
z hostrequestsIPaddress:DHCPrequestmsg
z DHCPserversendsaddress:DHCPackmsg


8. (11%)
(a) (3%)
z 32-bit address space soon to be completely allocated.
z header format helps speed processing/forwarding
z header changes to facilitate QoS
(b)HowtotunnelIPv6datagramsbetweentwoIPv4routers?(8%)
Logical view:

Physical view:

IPv6

IPv6

IPv6

IPv6

IPv6

tunnel

IPv6/IPv4

IPv4

IPv4

IPv4/IPv6

IPv6

Flow: X

Src:B

Src:B

Flow: X

Src: A

Dest: E

Dest: E

Src: A

Dest: F

Flow: X

Flow: X

Src: A

Src: A

Dest: F

Dest: F

A-to-B:

B-to-C:

IPv6

IPv6 inside

(1%)

IPv4 (1%)

Dest: F

B-to-C:

E-to-F:

IPv6 inside

IPv6

IPv4 (1%)

(1%)

the source IPv4 router encapsulates the new IPv4 datagram by including the
originalIPv6datagramasitspayloadandIPv4addressesofthetwoIPv4routers
asthenewsourceanddestinationIPaddressesinthenewIPv4header. (2%)
the new IPv4 datagram is decapsulated in the destination IPv4 router and the
originalIPv6datagramisfurthertransmittedthroughIPv6.(2%)

9. What are two main functions of ICMP to communicate network-level information


by hosts & routers? (6%)
Ans:
error reporting: unreachable host, network, port, protocol (3%)
echo request/reply (used by ping) (3%)