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c

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Before we
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Before we
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Before we

Before we start in Drive test we will make a fast revision on GSM basics.

GSM Structure: SSSS AUC PLMN PLMNPLMN S C SMSC -GMSC ISDN ISDNISDN H L R
GSM Structure:
SSSS
AUC
PLMN
PLMNPLMN
S C
SMSC -GMSC
ISDN
ISDNISDN
H L R
SMS -IWMSC
GWMSCGWMSC
PSTN
PSTN
M I N
D T I
E I R
B G W
MSC/VLRMSC/VLR
BSSBSS
SGSN
BSC/TRCBSC/TRC
GPRS
Air I/f
O S S
MMSS
BTSBTS
SGSN BSC/TRCBSC/TRC GPRS Air I/f O S S MMSS BTSBTS Mobile station (MS) ( GSM )

Mobile station (MS)

( GSM ) لا ىلع هطيسب هعجارم لمعنه( Drive test ( لا حرش ىف بابش اي أدبن ام لبق . ادج هيرورض ىد هعجارملا اعبطو

The Mobile Station is the interface between the user and the network. The MS consists of two independent parts:

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card

Mobile equipment (ME).

The MS consists of two independent parts :  Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card  Mobile
The MS consists of two independent parts :  Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card  Mobile

2

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Base transceiver
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Base transceiver

Base transceiver station (BTS)

A BTS acts as the interface between MS’s and the network, by providing radio coverage functions from their antennae to provide the coverage area for one cell.

• Converts the GSM radio signals into a format that can be recognized by the
Converts the GSM radio signals into a format that can be recognized by the BSC
Ciphering using the ciphering key
Channel coding and interleaving
Modulation and demodulation.
Records and passes to the BSC the Signal strength measurements
Base station controller (BSC)
The BSC is the central node within a BSS and co-ordinates the actions of Base
Stations. The BSC controls a major part of the radio network
Hand over calculations.
Power control calculations.
Supervises the transmission network and the operation of each BTS
Mobile switching center (MSC)
The primary node in a GSM network is the MSC. It is the node, which controls
calls both to MS’s and from MS’s.
The primary functions of an MSC include the following:
 Switching and call routing to or from MS.
 Charging.
 Service provisioning.

Control of connected BSC’s.

Direct access to Internet services.

3

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Gateway mobile
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Gateway mobile

Gateway mobile switching center (GMSC)

Gateway functionality enables an MSC to interrogate a HLR in order to route a mobile terminating call. It is not used in calls from MS’s to any terminal other than another MS.

• For example, if a person connected to the PSTN wants to make a call
• For example, if a person connected to the PSTN wants to make a call to a GSM
mobile subscriber, then the PSTN exchange will access the GSM network by first
connecting the call to a GMSC
Home location register (HLR)
The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile
subscriptions belonging to a specific operator.
It acts as a permanent store for a person’s subscription information until that
subscription is cancelled.
The primary functions of the HLR include:
 Stores for each mobile subscriber:
• Basic subscriber categories.
• Supplementary services.
• Current location.
• Allowed/barred services.
• Authentication data.
 Subscription database management
Visitor location register (VLR)
The role of a VLR in a GSM network is to act as a temporary storage location for
subscription information for MSs, which are within a particular MSC service
area.

Thus, there is one VLR for each MSC service area. This means that the MSC does not have to contact the HLR (which may be located in another country) every time the subscriber uses a service or changes its status.

The VLR is always integrated with the MSC

4

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea • For
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea • For

For the duration when the MS is within one MSC service area, then the VLR contains a complete copy of the necessary subscription details, including the following information:

Identity numbers for the subscriber

 Supplementary service information (e.g. Does the subscriber has call waiting activated or not) 
 Supplementary service information (e.g. Does the subscriber has call
waiting activated or not)
 Activity of MS (e.g. idle or busy)
 Current Location Area of MS
Authentication center (AUC).
To protect GSM systems, the following security functions have been defined:
Subscriber authentication: by performing authentication, the network
ensures that no unauthorized users can access the network, including
those that are attempting to impersonate others.
Radio information ciphering: the information sent between the network
and a MS is ciphered. A MS can only decipher information intended for it.
Equipment identification register (EIR)
Because the subscriber and equipment are separate in GSM, it is necessary to
have a separate authentication process for the MS equipment.
The equipment identification procedure uses the identity of the equipment
itself (IMEI) to ensure that the MS terminal equipment is valid.
Operation and maintenance center (OMC)
The operation and Maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in
the SS (the GMSC, MSCs, HLR, VLR, AUC, EIR and the BSCs).

It can be viewed as a computerized monitoring center were staff can monitor and control the network remotely

5

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea GSM air
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea GSM air

GSM air interface

“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea GSM air interface  Full rate (TCH)
 Full rate (TCH) 
 Full rate (TCH)

Traffic Channel

Carries either encoded speech or user data up and down link between a single mobile and a single BTS.

Types of traffic channel:

Transmits full rate speech (13 Kbits/s). A full rate TCH occupies one physical channel.

Kbits/s). A full rate TCH occupies one physical channel.  Half rate (TCH/2)  Transmits half

Half rate (TCH/2)

Transmits half rate speech (6.5 Kbits/s).

Two half rate TCH’s can share one physical channel, thus doubling the capacity of a cell.

6

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Control Channels
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Control Channels

Control Channels

These are used to carry signaling or synchronization data. They are divided into

three types:

 Broadcast Channels (BCH)  Common Control Channels (CCCH)  Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH’s) 1.
 Broadcast Channels (BCH)
 Common Control Channels (CCCH)
 Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH’s)
1. Broadcast Channels (DL)
From Single BTS to all the mobiles in the area
 Frequency Correction Control Channel (FCCH)
Pure signal is transmitted to help the MS to lock on the frequency
on the BTS
 Synchronization Channel (SCH)
 Carries 2 important pieces of information
 TDMA frame number (max = 2715684 )
 Base station identity Code (BSIC)
 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
 Broadcasts some general cell information such as:
Location Area Identity (LAI),
maximum output power allowed in the cell
 The identity of BCCH carriers for neighboring cells.

Cell parameters (Power , idle mode parameters)

7

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 2. Common
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 2. Common

2. Common Control Channels

To or from a certain BTS to a single mobile

Paging Channel (PCH)

 BTS Transmits a paging message to indicate an incoming call or short message. The
BTS Transmits a paging message to indicate an incoming call or
short message. The paging message contains the identity number
of the mobile subscriber that the network wishes to contact. (DL)
 Random Access Channel (RACH)
MS Answers paging message on the RACH by requesting a signaling
channel of SDCCH. (UL)
 Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
 Assigns a signaling channel (SDCCH) to the MS. (DL)
3. Dedicated Control Channels
 Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
Used for signaling purposed: call setup, location update, IMSI
attach – detach.
Used to send / receive SMS in idle mode.
 Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
Always allocated with traffic channel to transmit measurement
reports.
DL: Commands from the network to the MS to adjust its power,
Timing advance (TA).
 UL: information about the MS own power, received signal
strength, quality and SS for neighbor cells.

Used to send SMS in active mode.

Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)

Transmits handover information.

8

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Site Types:

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

9

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

10

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Antenna Tilting:
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Antenna Tilting:

Antenna Tilting:

Direction of the antenna vertical beam.

Types of tilting:

No Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed towards the horizon.

Down Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed lower the horizon. Up Tilt:
Down Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed lower the horizon.
Up Tilt: The vertical beam of the antenna is directed above the horizon.
Mechanical Tilting : tilting the physical body of the antenna
Electrical Tilting: change the phase of the current fed the internal
dipoles which will result in tilting the main beam.

Types of Tilting:

change the phase of the current fed the internal dipoles which will result in tilting the

11

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea What is
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea What is

What is the better, Mechanical tilting or Electrical tilting …????

Mechanical tilting :

-With Mechanical down tilting, the main beam will be down tilted but the back lobe will be up tilted that make interference. -With Mechanical tilting you can’t change the tilt of one band alone.

 Electrical tilting :
 Electrical tilting :

- With Electrical down tilting, the main beam will be down tilted but the back lobe will not be up tilted so back lobe interference decreased. - With Electrical tilting you can change the tilt of any band alone. So Electrical Tilting is better than Mechanical Tilting

EX:

Electrical tilt = 2

can change the tilt of any band alone. So Electrical Tilting is better than Mechanical Tilting

12

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea To
Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea To

To down tilt it by 8 degrees (Electrical tilt = 10):

Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea To

13

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ) Drive
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ) Drive

)Drive test( لا حرش ىف أدبن ىقب نكمم ىد هعيرسلا هعجارملا انصلخ ام دعبو

Who is drive tester??

نامك اهيلع فرعتنه )Tools( هيوشو قاوسو هيبرع هاعم تلاصتاا

سدنهم )Drive tester( لا

. Network performance and problems لا فرعي ردقي ىد )Tools( لا هدعاسمبو هيوش ؟؟؟؟ ٍد
. Network performance and problems لا فرعي ردقي ىد )Tools( لا هدعاسمبو هيوش
؟؟؟؟ ٍد TOOLS ها وياً ةيط
1- Laptop.
2- GPS
3- TEMS software (ويت نيىاغش َيىا جٍانرثىا َقت هدً)
4- Dongle (Tems license )(وجاح وغشا فرعى شٍ هريغ نٍ َيىا هدً(
5-
Mobile (Support TEMS)
6- Cables
7- Inverter
ادك دعبو تاسوريفلا ليشن اعبطو ديدج زودنيو لزننو بلالا طبظنه بابش اي اهلمعنه هجاح لوا
لمحنو ايندلا طبظنو تلايبوملا لصونو اهمدختسنه ىللا تلايابوملا فرعنو )TEMS( لا بطسن
.دعب اميف ليصفتلاب هحضونه هد ملاكلا اعبطو (Cell file) لا

14

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea TEMS ها
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea TEMS ها

TEMS ها حرش َف أدثنى باثشاي َقت َتقٌىدً

TEMS وى ًاعىا رظنَىا هدً

َتقٌىدً TEMS وى ًاعىا رظنَىا هدً 2G لا ناشع اعبطو 3G لاب صاخ ءزجو 2G
َتقٌىدً TEMS وى ًاعىا رظنَىا هدً 2G لا ناشع اعبطو 3G لاب صاخ ءزجو 2G

2G لا ناشع اعبطو 3G لاب صاخ ءزجو2G لاب صاخ ءزج ىف نا نيفراع بابش اي اعبط .هيب أدبنه مهلااو ساسلاا اوه

لاب صاخ ءزج ىف نا نيفراع بابش اي اعبط .هيب أدبنه مهلااو ساسلاا اوه 15

15

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1- GSM
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1- GSM
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1- GSM

1- GSM serving + Neighbors

” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1- GSM serving + Neighbors Serving cell Neighbor cells
” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1- GSM serving + Neighbors Serving cell Neighbor cells

Serving cell

Neighbor cells

Cell Name: Name of the serving cell and neighbor cells

BSIC: Base Station Identity Code

BSIC = NCC (Network color code [0 >7]) + BCC (Base Station Color Code [0 > 7]).

ARFCN: Absolute Radio Frequency Number >> BCCH Carrier of the cell

Radio Frequency Number >> BCCH Carrier of the cell Ex: Freq 980.2 ----  ARFCN =

Ex: Freq 980.2 ----ARFCN = 1

ددرتلا سيلو ددرتلا نع ربعيب مقر ARFCN لا : كناب ٗههخ

Freq 980.4 ----ARFCN=2

Rx lev: Received signal strength - signal strength measured by the MS (dbm).

16

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Ranges (Legend):
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Ranges (Legend):

Ranges (Legend):

Ranges Color Grade -10 > -65 Excellent -65 > -75 Very good -75 > -85
Ranges
Color
Grade
-10
>
-65
Excellent
-65
>
-75
Very good
-75
>
-85
Good
-85
>
-95
Accepted
-95
>
-115
Bad
C1: Cell selection quantity
Cell ىا ىلع Select يه اوه فرعي ناشع اهبسحيب ليابوملا ىد C1 لاو
C1 = (Received SS - ACCmin)-max (CCHPWR – P, 0).
ACCmin: (Access minimum) Minimum allowed Received DL SS at the MS to access the
network.
CCHPWR: (Common channel power) Maximum allowed power by the MS in the
Uplink.
P: Maximum output power by the MS according to its class
: كناب ٗههخ
ACCmin, CCHPWR are parameters sent to the MS at the BCCH.
C2: Cell reselection quantity
:يه وأ Serving cell لا ىلع لظيه ررقيه ليابوملا هقيرط نع ىللا Parameter لا هدو
Reselect to another cell

C2 = C1 ± CRO

CRO: Cell Reselection Offset

17

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea C1 ,
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea C1 ,

C1 , لا عوضوم اعبطو ىرخلاا نع Cells لا ضعبل هيلضفا لمعا نكمم CRO لا قيرط نعو .سب هطيسب هركف وكيدأ تيبح انا سب ادك نم رتكا ليصافت هيف C2

C31, C32: GPRS signal strength Threshold in both Packet idle and packet dedicated.

strength Threshold in both Packet idle and packet dedicated. 2-GSM Current Channel Time : Computer system

2-GSM Current Channel

Time: Computer system time

Cell Name: Serving cell name (from cell file)

system time Cell Name : Serving cell name (from cell file) MCC : CGI : Cell

MCC:

CGI: Cell global identity [MCC , MNC , LAC , CI ] , Unique for each cell

Mobile Country Code (602 - Egypt)

MNC: Mobile network Code (01 > Mobinil, 02 > Vodafone, 03 > Etisalat)

LAC: Location Area code

CI:

Cell Identity

18

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Cell GPRS
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Cell GPRS

Cell GPRS support: Yes or No

Band: 900 / 900E / 1800

BCCH ARFCN: The Frequency on which two time slots are used for control (broadcast, Common channels and SDCCH), and the other TS’s for Traffic.

TCH ARFCN: The Frequency that carry Traffic only. C C T T T T T
TCH ARFCN:
The Frequency that carry Traffic only.
C
C
T
T
T
T
T
T
BCCH Carrier
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
TCH Carrier
BSIC: Base Station Identity Code
BSIC = NCC (Network color code [0 >7]) + BCC (Base Station Color Code [0 > 7]).
Mode: idle / dedicated
Time Slot: Current TCH of the carrier (0 > 7).
Channel Type: BCCH or TCH
EX: idle mode: BCCH
Call set up: SDCCH / SAACH
Dedicated mode: TCH / ACCH’s
سيوك هد ىاج ىللاءزجلا مهفته شم لولأا ىف ىللا هعجارملا ءزج شتركاذم تنإ ول : كناب ٗههخ
Channel mode: Coding mode (Speech full rate or half rate).
Channel Codec:
FR: Full rate

HR: Half rate

AMR: adaptive multi rate

19

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Ciphering Algorithm:
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Ciphering Algorithm:

Ciphering Algorithm: A5/1 for example.

Sub Channel Number: SDCCH is divided into 8 sub channels (index of the used one).

Hopping Channel: Yes / No on the cell level.

Hopping Frequencies: Frequencies allocated in the hopping group.

MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Number):

0: Cyclic hopping sequence. 1 > 63: Random hopping sequence.
0: Cyclic hopping sequence.
1 > 63: Random hopping sequence.

On which frequencies call will start.

EX: MAIO = 0 >>> Call will start on the first frequency

Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Sequence of which MS hop on frequencies on the same TS.

HSN: 0 > 63

3-GSM Radio Parameters

Sequence Number (HSN): Sequence of which MS hop on frequencies on the same TS. HSN :
Sequence Number (HSN): Sequence of which MS hop on frequencies on the same TS. HSN :

20

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Rx lev:
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Rx lev:

Rx lev: Measured signal strength (-10 > -115)

Rx Qual: Voice quality (0 > 7) depend on BER (bit error rate)

Ranges (Legend): Ranges Color Grade 0 > 2 Excellent 2 > 4 Good 4 >
Ranges (Legend):
Ranges
Color
Grade
0
>
2
Excellent
2
>
4
Good
4
>
6
Bad
6
>
7
Very bad
FER (Frame Erasure Rate): Percentage of frames being dropped
BER actual: (Number of bit errors / Number of bit transmitted)
SQI: Speech Quality Index
Ranges (Legend):
Ranges
Color
Grade
-20
>
0
Very bad
0
>
9
Bad
9
>
18
Good
18
>
30
Excellent
MS Power control level: Power control (0 > 8) depend on network design.

DTX: Discontinuous Transmission.

21

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea TA :
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea TA :

TA: Timing advance (0 > 63)

Enable MS to advance its transmission to compensate the propagation delay

0: 500m

1: 1 K , and so on. 4-GSM Hopping Channels ARFCN: Traffic carriers. Rx Lev:
1: 1 K
,
and so on.
4-GSM Hopping Channels
ARFCN: Traffic carriers.
Rx Lev: measured signal strength of each carrier.
C/I: Carrier to Interference ration
Interference: Co-Channel or Adjacent interference
Ranges (Legend):
Ranges
Color
Grade
0
>
9
Very bad
9
>
15
Accepted
15
>
30
Good

Interference >>>> bad C/I >>>> Bad Rx qual >>>> Bad SQI.

22

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1-WCDMA Serving
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1-WCDMA Serving
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 1-WCDMA Serving

1-WCDMA Serving / Active set + Neighbors

Type: SC: idle mode AS: dedicated mode MN: Monitoring neighbor. DN: Detected neighbor. ؟؟؟ MN
Type:
SC: idle mode
AS: dedicated mode
MN: Monitoring neighbor.
DN: Detected neighbor.
؟؟؟ MN , DN لا ٍيب قرفنا ّيإ سب
نكمم ىنعي Neighbor ك ىل هفرعتم ىقبت MN اهفياش انا ىللا cell لا . ادج طيسب عوضوملا
Hand over اهل لمعا
hand over اهل لمعا شردقم ىنعي ايل هفرعتم شم DN اهفياش انا ىللا Cell لإ اما

23

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Cell Name:
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Cell Name:

Cell Name: Name of cells according to loaded cell file.

SC (Scrambling code): Each cell in the network is assigned a Primary Scrambling Code. (Integer value 0-511)

It is important to avoid CO-UARFCN CO-Scrambling Code use in the same geographic area. However, if there are more than 512 cells in use, Scrambling Codes must be reused very carefully.

Received power (dbm) of common pilot channel Ranges Color Grade -10 > -65 Excellent -65
Received power (dbm) of common pilot channel
Ranges
Color
Grade
-10
>
-65
Excellent
-65
>
-75
Very good
-75
>
-85
Good
-85
>
-95
Accepted
-95
>
-135
Bad

Ranges

Color

Grade

0

>

- 8

 

Excellent

-8

>

-10

 

Very good

-10

>

-12

 

Accepted

-12

>

-14

 

Bad

-14

>

-24

 

Very bad

UARFCN: (UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number), where UTRA stands for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access where UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telephony System. These are used to identify frequencies in the UMTS frequency bands.

CPICH RSCP: Common Pilot Channel Received Signal Code Power

Ranges (Legend):

Ec/No: The Primary Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) received Energy per Chip (Ec) to Noise (No) ratio. Used to measure the received quality of the Primary Common Pilot Channel (CPICH).

Noise ( No ) ratio. Used to measure the received quality of the Primary Common Pilot

Ranges (Legend):

24

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 2- HSDPA
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 2- HSDPA

2- HSDPA analysis :

“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 2- HSDPA analysis : HS session: Active

HS session: Active or no (Only active during HSDPA connection)

HS serving cell: Scrambling code of serving cell.

HS serving cell: Scrambling code of serving cell. CQI : Channel quality index CQI لا ىلع

CQI: Channel quality index

CQI لا ىلع اساسا دمتعي HSDPA لاو Radio conditions لا نع ربعتب CQI لاو

25

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Relationship among
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Relationship among
Relationship among the CQI reported by UE, pilot Ec/Io, and throughput rate: 9 > CQI
Relationship among the CQI reported by UE, pilot Ec/Io, and throughput rate:
9 > CQI
15 > CQI ≥ 9
CQI ≥ 15
Subscribers' feeling
Poor
Fair
Good
throughput rate at MAC-
HS layer for single
subscriber
0–320 kpbs
320 kbps to1.39 Mbps
> 1.39 Mbps
Ec/Io
> –15dB
–15dB to –9dB
≥ – 9dB
؟؟؟؟ Ec/No , Ec/Io نيت قرفىا ويا ؟ لىات َييخ
No: Noise power (thermal noise, interference, external …………)
Io: Interference noise only (Not practical).
DSCH throughput: Throughput by Kb/s
Or by DU Meter software

ضعب دجوي نكلو 2G , 3G لا ىف همهملا Windows لا حرش انصلخ نوكن بابش اي ادكبو : ىز اضيا اهجاتحنب ىللا windows لا

Events:
Events:

26

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea It includes
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea It includes

It includes events such as: Call attempt, call established, call end, handover, dropped call, and blocked call ……………

handover, dropped call, and blocked call …………… Layer 3 messages: It includes Uplink and Down link
handover, dropped call, and blocked call …………… Layer 3 messages: It includes Uplink and Down link

Layer 3 messages:

It includes Uplink and Down link messages between the MS and the Network.

call …………… Layer 3 messages: It includes Uplink and Down link messages between the MS and

27

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟؟ اييم
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟؟ اييم
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟؟ اييم
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟؟ اييم

؟؟؟؟

اييم ٍد ايييع انيق َيىا Windows ها ةيجت ٍازإ :

هأسي دحاً َتقٌىد ننٍَ

. ملعماي ىقب لماعتإو presentation نم : ادج طيسب عوضوملا هلوقنه

ننٍَ . ملعماي ىقب لماعتإو presentation نم : ادج طيسب عوضوملا هلوقنه 28

28

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟. MAP
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟. MAP

؟؟؟. MAP لا عي مياعتَ ٖازإ ىهعتَ ٍيسياع ٗقب ٗتقٕندٔ

Map

و
و

هنع ملكتنه هدو Cell file لا اهيلعو ملاك ىأ ام دح ىلا هطيرخ نع هرابع هطاسب لكب بابشاي MAP لا

coverage layer لا و Pinpoint layer لا ىز Layers هيوش ودرب اهيلعو هيوش نامك

Layers هيوش ودرب اهيلعو هيوش نامك : ٗتلأا مًعُْ ِد رظًُهن مصَٕ
Layers هيوش ودرب اهيلعو هيوش نامك : ٗتلأا مًعُْ ِد رظًُهن مصَٕ

: ٗتلأا مًعُْ ِد رظًُهن مصَٕ ٌاشعٔ

1- Make Geoset map 2- Load Geoset on Map 3- Load cell file

29

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 30
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”)
By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 30

30

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 31
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”)
By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 31

31

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea :: tab
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea :: tab

:: tab file ٔا ِرٕص عضا ٌاشعٔ

Omar Abd El-Badea :: tab file ٔا ِرٕص عضا ٌاشعٔ :: Layer فسحا ٔا Layer فيضا
Omar Abd El-Badea :: tab file ٔا ِرٕص عضا ٌاشعٔ :: Layer فسحا ٔا Layer فيضا

:: Layer فسحا ٔا Layer فيضا ٌاشعٔ

Omar Abd El-Badea :: tab file ٔا ِرٕص عضا ٌاشعٔ :: Layer فسحا ٔا Layer فيضا

32

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Rxlev or
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Rxlev or

Rxlev or Rxqual لا,Map لا ىلع هيا رهظا زياع انا مكحتا نكمم Theme setting لا قيرط نعو

اذكهو

Cell line لاو Cells لا ناولا ىف مكحتا نكمم نامكو or RSCP or Ec/No

ىف مكحتا نكمم نامكو or RSCP or Ec/No ؟؟؟ TEMS ها َيع Load وى وَعا ٍازاً
؟؟؟ TEMS ها َيع Load وى وَعا ٍازاً هد Cell file ها ويا : لأسي
؟؟؟
TEMS ها َيع Load وى وَعا ٍازاً هد Cell file ها ويا :
لأسي
لا نع تامولعملا لك هيف Sheet نع هرابع هد Cell file لا
معاي

دحأ ٍكًي ٗتقٕندٔ

هطاسبلا ىهتنم ىف عوضوملا

Cell name , CI , ARFCN , Lon , Lat , Azimuth , Beam width , BSIC لا لاثم ىز Sites

ىف عوضوملا Cell name , CI , ARFCN , Lon , Lat , Azimuth , Beam

33

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . هأرقي
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”)
By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
. هأرقي TEMS لا ىللخي ىللا اوه cell file لا ىف ROW لوا :
. هأرقي TEMS لا ىللخي ىللا اوه cell file لا ىف ROW لوا :

كناب ٗههخ

Omar Abd El-Badea . هأرقي TEMS لا ىللخي ىللا اوه cell file لا ىف ROW لوا

34

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea ؟؟؟؟؟ TEMS
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “1”)
By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
؟؟؟؟؟
TEMS
لا ٗهع Cell file لا مًحا ٖازأ بيط
Configuration
>>>
General
>>>
Cell file load
؟؟؟؟؟
مغشهن TEMS لا سٓجَ ٖازا Window لك هفيظو انفرع ام دعبو
لا لصوتهو كعاتب بوت بلالا لغشته )اعبط هيوش رخأتا نوكيهو( الله ءاش نا ادك كليجي قاوسلا ام دعب
هجاح لوأو TEMS لا حتفته ادك دعبو
Dongle لاو GPS لاو ) نحشتب اهنا دكأتت مزلاو( تلايابوم

:: اهلصوم تنا هجاح لك ىراق TEMS لا نا دكأتت اهلمعته

35

: Connect مهل لمعا ادك دعبو : ادك رظنملا نوكيه Connect أ ام دعبو Drive
: Connect مهل لمعا ادك دعبو : ادك رظنملا نوكيه Connect أ ام دعبو Drive
:
:

Connect مهل لمعا ادك دعبو

: Connect مهل لمعا ادك دعبو : ادك رظنملا نوكيه Connect أ ام دعبو Drive Test

: ادك رظنملا نوكيه Connect أ ام دعبو

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

نوكيه Connect أ ام دعبو Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” )

36

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : اعبط
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : اعبط

: اعبط Log file لجسه مامت هجاح لكو GPS لاو تلايابوملا تلصو ام دعبو

: اعبط Log file لجسه مامت هجاح لكو GPS لاو تلايابوملا تلصو ام دعبو 37

37

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . ميصٕتنا
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . ميصٕتنا

. ميصٕتنا دعب ميابًٕنا صئاصخ ٗف ىكحتَ ٖازا لوقن نيزياع ىتقولدو

Equipment properties:

RAT control (CAS system capability control):  Normal  2G  3G
RAT control (CAS system capability control):
 Normal
 2G
 3G

ىتقولدو Equipment properties: RAT control (CAS system capability control):  Normal  2G  3G 

38

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Band
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Band

Band control

900

900E

1800

Abd El-Badea  Band control  900  900E  1800  Idle mode control (GSm

Idle mode control (GSm cell selection control): To lock on certain cell, lock on its
Idle mode control (GSm cell selection control):
To lock on certain cell, lock on its BCCH
900  900E  1800  Idle mode control (GSm cell selection control): To lock on

39

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Dedicated
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Dedicated

Dedicated mode control (GSM HO control):

“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Dedicated mode control (GSM HO control):
WCDMA cell selection control
WCDMA cell selection control

“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea  Dedicated mode control (GSM HO control):

40

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . سدنهمشاب
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . سدنهمشاب

. سدنهمشاب اي كلغش أدبت ردقت ىقب ىتقولدو

ىتقولد هنع ملكتنه ىللا ىقب هد ؟؟؟؟بيط ّهًعْ ٗهنا مغشنا ّيا ىتقولد كسفن لأستب تنا اعبط

Types of Drive test tasks:

1- Clusters
1- Clusters
. هد Sequence لا لمعنب ىازا هيوش نامك فرعنهو
. هد Sequence لا لمعنب ىازا هيوش نامك فرعنهو

This test is mainly used to check network accessibility (Blocking) and retainability (quality).

To check Accessibility: Short Calls (Using sequence control) (EX: 30 (call duration) , 10 (duration between calls)).

To check Retainability: Long call (Don’t forget ending the call before the hour and starting new Call).

Ex: Marina cluster

Retainability: Long call ( Don’t forget ending the call before the hour and starting new Call).

41

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea How to
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea How to

How to make Call sequence:

ىرخلااو هملاكم لك نيبو هيناث 30 هملاكم لك هملاكم 100 لاثم لمعي ليابوملا ىللخا ىازا ىنعي

10

؟؟؟؟؟

ىناوث

هطاسبلا ىهتنم ىف عوضوملا

>>> Command sequence >>> edit
>>> Command sequence >>> edit
ىناوث هطاسبلا ىهتنم ىف عوضوملا >>> Command sequence >>> edit Control 42

Control

ىناوث هطاسبلا ىهتنم ىف عوضوملا >>> Command sequence >>> edit Control 42

42

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Then you
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Then you

Then you can adjust settings (call duration, Wait, MS), Then Press RUN.

-Main roads, Polygons and global coverage are the same concept.

2- New Site Acceptance 2G Acceptance DT procedures – 2G macro sites follow one of
2- New Site Acceptance
2G Acceptance DT procedures
– 2G macro sites follow one of the below mentioned templates:
Three cells E, F, G with BCCHs on the 900 band and TCHs on the
900 and 1800 bands. (Concentric GSM)
Six cells A, B, C with BCCHs and TCHs on the 1800 band and E, F,
G with BCCHs and TCHs on the 900 band. (Dual BCCH)
In Idle mode, for all sectors the following are checked:
Each sector is serving with satisfactory level in its expected service area.
Cell reselection from site to neighbors.
Cell reselection from neighbors to site.
Cell reselection between site sectors in a clockwise and anti-clockwise
manner.
In Dedicated mode, for all sectors the following are checked:
Each sector is serving with satisfactory quality in its expected service
area.
Cell handover from neighbors to site.
Handover between site sectors in a clockwise and anti-clockwise
manner.
Level difference between the hopping channels should not exceed 15
dbm, otherwise we have a hardware problem and faulty TRX should be
replaced.
The following tests are also done for every cell in the site:
 10 voice calls with a duration of 10 seconds
• Blocked and dropped calls are reported

An SMS sent and received

To check SMS success

Logging-on to the internet

To check PDP (Packet Data Protocol)

In dual BCCH site The same procedure is done on A, B and C cells, as well as E, F and G cells.

43

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 3G Acceptance
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 3G Acceptance

3G Acceptance DT procedures

In Idle mode, the following are checked:

Each cell is serving with satisfactory level

Cell reselection from site to neighbors

Cell reselection from neighbors to site

• In Dedicated mode, the following are checked:  Each cell is serving with satisfactory
In Dedicated mode, the following are checked:
 Each cell is serving with satisfactory RSCP and Ec/No
 Soft handover between site and neighbors
The following tests are also done for each sector.
 5 voice calls (60-30)
 2 terminating calls.
 3 video calls.
 An SMS sent and received to check SMS success.
 IRAT test (Hand over from 3G to 2G).
 Reselection from 2G to 3G.
 Logging-on to the internet
To check PDP (3G-R99); throughput should exceed 350 Kbit/sec
To check (3.5G-HSDPA); throughput should exceed1mbit/sec
(mobile used should support HSDPA)

44

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 3- Benchmarking
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 3- Benchmarking

3- Benchmarking

This test is done to compare the performance of each operator. This test is done using 3 mobiles.

EX:
EX:

45

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 4- 2G
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea 4- 2G

4- 2G Sites problems

a- Cross sector and cross feeder

فرعن مزلا cross feeder وا Cross sector هيا ىنعي لوقن ام لبق بابشاي اعبط : ىعيبطلا عضولا ىف هيا هلكش site لا

: ىعيبطلا عضولا ىف هيا هلكش site لا  Totally cross sector : : لاثم هلك

Totally cross sector :
Totally cross sector :

: لاثم هلك S2 عم لدبتم هلك S1 نوكيه ىد هلاحلا ىفو

لا  Totally cross sector : : لاثم هلك S2 عم لدبتم هلك S1 نوكيه ىد

46

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . )
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . )

. )GSM , DCS( ىناتلا sector لا ناكم ىف Serve يه Sector لك دليفلا ىف ادج حضاو ىقبيب هدو

DCS cross sector :

. طقف DCS

لا اوه لدبتم ىللا ىد هلاحلا ىفو

ىقبيب هدو  DCS cross sector : . طقف DCS لا اوه لدبتم ىللا ىد هلاحلا

47

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: In
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: In

EX:

In front of S2 GSM dedicated:

A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: In front
A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: In front

In front of S3 GSM dedicated:

A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: In front

48

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : DCS
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : DCS

: DCS لا ىقب فوشن , ميلس GSM لا نا فياش ادك انا

In front of S2 DCS dedicated:

نا فياش ادك انا In front of S2 DCS dedicated: Hard ware problem لوقتو شعرستتم ؟؟
Hard ware problem لوقتو شعرستتم ؟؟ ايه هيا سب . هلكشم هيف DCS لا
Hard ware problem لوقتو شعرستتم ؟؟ ايه هيا سب . هلكشم هيف DCS لا

وااااو

. ىناتلا Sector لا فوشن ولاعت

؟؟ ايه هيا سب . هلكشم هيف DCS لا وااااو . ىناتلا Sector لا فوشن ولاعت

49

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

In front of S3 DCS dedicated:

) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front of S3 DCS dedicated: ودرب ؟؟؟؟؟ هد Sector
ودرب ؟؟؟؟؟
ودرب
؟؟؟؟؟

هد Sector لا ىف ىعيبط شم DCS level لا نا وكلاب نيدخاو اعبط

cross هيف ريبك لامتحا ىقبي ادك

هيا لمعا دكاتا ناشع بيط

نيدخاو اعبط cross هيف ريبك لامتحا ىقبي ادك هيا لمعا دكاتا ناشع بيط 50

50

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

In front of S2 locked on S3:

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

In front of S3 locked on S2:

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

51

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . هنيباكلا
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . هنيباكلا

.هنيباكلا لا نم هحلصنه اعبط هدو DCS cross sectorىف نإ اندكاتأ ادكو ادج هحضاو تقب ادك ايندلا اعبط

GSM cross sector :

تقب ادك ايندلا اعبط  GSM cross sector : EX: . كدحاٌى رنفت تنا كزًاع .
تقب ادك ايندلا اعبط  GSM cross sector : EX: . كدحاٌى رنفت تنا كزًاع .

EX:

ادك ايندلا اعبط  GSM cross sector : EX: . كدحاٌى رنفت تنا كزًاع . هد

. كدحاٌى رنفت تنا كزًاع . هد هاثَىا َف صىاخ ٌينتى شٍ انا

52

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

In front of S2 GSM:

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

In front of S3 GSM:

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

53

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : ىتلاا
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea : ىتلاا

: ىتلاا لمعنه DCS لا فوشن ناشعو GSM Cross ىف نا حضاو ادك اعبط

In front of S2 locked on it DCS:

GSM Cross ىف نا حضاو ادك اعبط In front of S2 locked on it DCS: In
GSM Cross ىف نا حضاو ادك اعبط In front of S2 locked on it DCS: In

In front of S3 locked on it DCS:

GSM Cross ىف نا حضاو ادك اعبط In front of S2 locked on it DCS: In

54

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . طقف
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea . طقف

. طقف GSm لا ىف Cross لا ىنعي , هناكم ىف DCS لا نوكي ادكبو

Cross feeder :

نكمم . 2 feeders for GSM , 2 feeders for DCS هيف Sector لك نا نيفراع انحا اعبط اذكهو S2 نم Feeder عم لدبتي S1 نم Feeder لاثم

GSM cross feeder:
GSM cross feeder:
انحا اعبط اذكهو S2 نم Feeder عم لدبتي S1 نم Feeder لاثم GSM cross feeder: 55

55

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

DCS cross feeder:

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea
Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

EX:

In front of S2 DCS:

Drive Test From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

56

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

In front of S3 DCS:

“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front of S3 DCS: ىللا 2
“ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front of S3 DCS: ىللا 2

ىللا 2 feeders لا نوكي نكمم ىنعي bad level freq in each sector اندنع ىقبي ادكبو : ىتلاا لمعنه دكأتن ناشعو , ضعب عم نيلدبتم 2 frequencies لا نيلياش

In front of S2 locked on S3:

دكأتن ناشعو , ضعب عم نيلدبتم 2 frequencies لا نيلياش In front of S2 locked on

57

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front

In front of S3 locked on S2:

) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea In front of S3 locked on S2: حيضوت 3G cross
حيضوت 3G cross sector: the same concept.
حيضوت
3G cross sector: the same concept.

هجاتحم شم روصلا اعبط

In front of S3 locked on S2: حيضوت 3G cross sector: the same concept. هجاتحم شم

58

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea b- Bad
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea b- Bad

b- Bad quality

Rx qual is proportional to BER (Bit Error Rate), that affected by interference.

There are two types of interference:

1- Co-Channel interference 2- Adjacent interference  Interference is appeared in hopping channel window (C/I)
1-
Co-Channel interference
2-
Adjacent interference
Interference is appeared in hopping channel window (C/I)
C/I: Carrier to interference ratio.
High Interference >>>> bad C/I >>>> Bad Rx qual >>>> Bad SQI
If we have interfered frequency, we should change it by another one.
EX:

The frequencies 518, 531 are interfered (Bad C/I), so quality is bad.

59

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Recommendations: change
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea Recommendations: change

Recommendations: change the two frequencies by non interfered frequencies.

change the two frequencies by non interfered frequencies. c- Faulty DTRU DTRU: Dual Transceiver Unit, Generate
c- Faulty DTRU DTRU: Dual Transceiver Unit, Generate two frequencies.
c- Faulty DTRU
DTRU: Dual Transceiver Unit, Generate two frequencies.

.ادج وحضاً ايندىا ادم نظا

c- Faulty DTRU DTRU: Dual Transceiver Unit, Generate two frequencies. .ادج وحضاً ايندىا ادم نظا 60

60

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: Solution:
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: Solution:

EX:

A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: Solution: replace
Solution: replace the faulty DTRU by another one
Solution: replace the faulty DTRU by another one

Cross feeder شيفي ٌا لٔلأنا دكأتت وزلا Faulty DTRU ٗف ٌا ررقتاي مبق : كناب ٗههخ

feeder شيفي ٌا لٔلأنا دكأتت وزلا Faulty DTRU ٗف ٌا ررقتاي مبق : كناب ٗههخ 61

61

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea d- Over
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea d- Over

d- Over shooting

It means that the cell serve at very long distance with good level

This area that the cell overshoots in it most probably have cells with Co-channel or adjacent BCCH, so it will make interference that will result in bad quality.

it will make interference that will result in bad quality . e- Bad coverage EX: f-

e- Bad coverage

EX:

that will result in bad quality . e- Bad coverage EX: f- Dropped calls The call
f-
f-

Dropped calls

The call may be dropped due to:

Bad quality due to interference.

Faulty TRX.

Bad coverage.

Transmission problem.

62

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea g- Blocked
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea g- Blocked

g- Blocked calls.

The call may be blocked due to:

Cell congestion

Bad quality due to interference.

 Faulty TRX.  Bad coverage.  Transmission problem.  Long distance between MS and
 Faulty TRX.
 Bad coverage.
 Transmission problem.
 Long distance between MS and BTS (MAX TA = 63).
h- Hand Over failure.
HO failure means that MS fails to reach the target cell due to bad
quality or bad coverage or congestion, so it return to the old cell.
5- 3G sites problems
a- Cross sector : the same concept of 2G cross sector
b- Bad coverage.
c- Pilot pollution.
Presence of more than pilot of approximately equivalent signal strength
covers an area without primary pilot that result in bad Eq/No, that may
make dropping in call, and also result in low capacity.
Recommendations:
Down tilt the antennas of the surrounding sites to decrease the
Interference caused by them to have dominant cell.
 Increase the power of one of them or decrease power of surrounding
cells.
 Adjust the antenna azimuth.

d- Missing neighbors.

Existence of DN neighbor with high RSCP without adding it to AS list that result in bad Eq/No.

63

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: e-
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: e-

EX:

A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea EX: e- Overshooting.
e- Overshooting. Finding a high DN but far from the detection area. f- Drooped calls.
e- Overshooting.
Finding a high DN but far from the detection area.
f- Drooped calls.
 Pilot pollution
 Bad coverage (Low RSCP)
 Bad quality (Eq/No)
 Missing neighbor
 Over shooting
 Downlink interference
 Uplink interference
 Unidirectional missing neighbor
 Transmission problem
g- Blocked calls.

The call may drop due to:

problem g- Blocked calls. The call may drop due to: The call may block due to:

The call may block due to:

Cell congestion

Uplink interference

Bad Eq/No

Hardware problem

Transmission problem

64

Drive Test From A to Z (Part 1) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea

From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea h- IRAT
From A to Z (Part “ 1 ” ) By: Ahmed Omar Abd El-Badea h- IRAT

h- IRAT (HO from 3G to 2G) failure.

The RSCP is decreased under the IRAT threshold, no IRAT done, that result in dropping the call. IRAT failure happen due to missing 2G neighbors

للها ءاش ٌا قرشي مبقتسًب ىكن ٗتايًُت
للها ءاش ٌا قرشي مبقتسًب ىكن ٗتايًُت

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نع اعبط رذتعبو,ىد هطيسبلا هركذملا لمع ىف ىنقفو هنإاعبط انبر ركشب ماتخلا ىفو

لمعا ىسفن ناكو . للملا مدعو طيسبتلا ىدصق لك انا سب هيماعلا ظافللاا مادختسا

ىا نع رسفتسي زياع ىللا اعبطو تقولا قيضل هرذعم سب ريتكب ادك نم نسحا هجاح

Map info ACTIX Problems analysis Reporting and post processing

.همدخلا ىف انا هجاح

:ٗتلاا ّيف حرشْ وداقنا ءسجنا للها ءاش ٌأ

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