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# AMITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE LEARNING Post Box No.

503, Sector-44 Noida 201303 Mathematics (MCA) Assignment A Marks 10 Answer all questions.

1. a)What is a set? Explain various methods to represent a set in set theory. b) Define the following with the help of suitable examples. (i) Singleton Set (ii) Finite Set (iii) Cardinality of a Set (iv) Subset of a Set 2. a)What is a truth table? Distinguish between Tautology & Contradiction? Prepare the truth tables for the following statements and then check which are the tautologies. (i) (( p q ) q ) p (ii) (( p q ) (q r )) ( p r ) (iii) ( p q ) (q p ) b) Let Dn be the set of all divisors of n. Construct a Hasse diagram for D15, D20, D30. Check whether it is a lattice and Complement lattice. 3. (a) Let A,B,C and D be sets. Suppose R is a relation from A to B, S is a relation from B to C and T is a relation from C to D then Prove Ro ( SoT ) = ( RoS )oT (b) Define Abelian group. If is an imaginary cube root of unity then the set [1, 2 ] is an abelian group under multiplication (where 3 = 1 ) , (c) By using Mathematical Induction, Show that: 13 + 2 3 + 33 + .......... .. + n 3 = (1 + 2 + 3 + ........ + n) 2 4. a) Differentiate between DFA and NFA. Convert the following Regular Expression into DFA. (0+1)*(01*+10*)*(0+1)*. Also write a regular grammar for this DFA. b) Define the following concept with an example: a. Ambiguity in CFG b. Push-Down Automata c. Turing Machine 5. a) Distinguish between Mealy and Moore Machine? Construct a Mealy machine that can output EVEN or ODD According to the total no. of 1s encountered is even or odd. Mathematics (MCA) Assignment B Marks 10 Answer all questions.

1 .a) Construct a PDA (only write a transition rules for ) for the following Language: 1) The set of all strings over {a,b} with equal no. of as and bs. 2) {amb2m |m,n>=1} 1

3)

L = {w |cw {wa,b} * }
r

## where w r is the reverse of w.

b) State & prove pumping lemma for regular set. Show that for the language L={ap |p is a prime} is not regular? 2. a) Prove that following are the equivalent statements. (i) p (q r ) ( p q ) ( p r ) (ii) ( p q ) p q b) Define isomorphic group. Let R+ be the multiplicative group of all positive real numbers and R be the additive group of real numbers. Show that the mapping g: + R+R defined by g ( x ) = log x , x R is an isomorphism. 3. a) Explain the Chomskys classification of grammar. b) Find the highest type number that can be applied to the following grammar: SbA/aB AbAA/aS/a BaBB/bS/b 4. a) State and Prove the Ardens theorem for Regular Expression. b) Find the Regular Grammar for the following Regular Expression: a(a+b)*(ab*+ba*)b. 5. a) Construct a Context free Grammar, G generating all integers (with sign). b) Given a grammar G: SaB/bA Aa/aS/bAA Bb/bS/aBB For the string aaabbabbba , find 1) Left-most-derivation 2) Right-most-derivation 3) Parse tree 4) Check whether the given grammar, G is ambiguous or not.

Mathematics (MCA) Assignment C Marks 10 Answer all questions. Tick Marks () the most appropriate answer 1. If R is a relation on a set A to B then a) R AxB b) R AxB c) R AxB d) None of these 2. If A and B are two sets with |A|=m and |B|=n then a) |AxB|=m.n b) |BXA|=m.m c) |AxB|=n.n d) All of these 3. If AxB= then a) A= b) B= 2

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

c) Both A= and B= d) All of these. If A={1,2,3} then the relation R={(1,1), (2.2)} is a) Reflexive b) Symmetric c) Both a) & b) d) Symmetric & Anti-symmetric. A function is called invertible if it a) One-one & into b) One-one & Onto c) Onto & into d) Into & onto If f(n)=n+1 and g(n)=2.n then fog is a) n+1 b) 2(n+1) c) 2n+1 d) 2n+2 If f(n)=n+1 and g(n)=2.n then gof is a) n+1 b)2(n+1) c) 2n+1 d) 2n+2 If A=(1,2,3,4}. Which of the following ordered pairs is a function from A to A? a) {(2,1), (3,4), (4,1), (1,4)} b) {(2,1), (3,4), (2,2), (1,4)} c) {(2,1), (3,4), (4,4), (2,4)} d) {(1,1), (3,4), (2,1), (1,4)} The equivalent formula for P Q is a) ( P Q ) (Q P) b) (Q p ) ( P Q ) c) (P Q ) (Q P) d)All of these The solution of the recurrence relation a n = a n 1 + 3 ; n 2 with a1 = 2 is a) a n = 2 + 3(n 1) b) a n = 3 + 2(n 1) c) a n = 4 + 3( n 1)

d) a n = 2 + 3n 1 11. If |A|=n , then the number of elements in the P(P(A)) is a) 2.n b) n 2 c) 2 n d) none of these 12. If n(A)=100 and n(B)=200 and , then n( A B) = a) 300 b) 50 c) 75 d) None of these 13. The solution of the recurrence relation t n = 3t n 1 + 4t n 2 with t 0 = 0 a) t n = 1 + 4
n n n n b) t n = 4 ( 1) n n c) t n = 4 + ( 1)

and

t1 = 5 is

d) t n = (4) ( 1) 14. The pumping lemma for the regular set is based on a) Divide & conquer
n n

## b) Pigeonhole c) Dynamic programming d) None of these 15. If ={a,b} then a)

+
*

={a, b, aa , ab , ba , bb , aaa ,...} b) ={a, b, aa , ab , ba , bb , aaa ,...} c) ={a, ab , abb , abbb ,...}
+

d) All of these 16. If S0S1/0A1 A1A/1 then the language (L(G)) generated by this grammar is a) L(G ) ={0 n1n | n 1} b) L(G ) ={0 n1m | n, m 1} c) L (G ) = {0 n1m | m > n 1} d) L (G ) = {0 n1m | n > m 1} 17. The regular Expression describe by the grammar in Question no. 14 is a) 0.0*11(1)* b) 0*1* c) 0*(11)* d) (00)*.(11)* 18. A Relation is called a Partial order if it is: a)Reflexive, symmetric, Transitive b) Reflexive, symmetric, Anti-symmetric c) Reflexive, Anti-symmetric, Transitive d) All of these 19. We say that f(n)=(g(n)) iff a) f(n) <=c.g(n) b) f(n) >=c.g(n) c) c1.g (n)<=f(n) <=c2.g(n) d) f(n) <=(c1+c2).g(n) 20. The Null () transition is allowed in case of a) DFA b)NFA c) Both NFA and DFA d) PDA 21. The grammar SaSb/Ab ABBA AbA/b Ba is of type a) 0 b)1 c)2 d)3 22. Ardens theorem is used to find a) Regular Expression to Finite Automata b) b) Finite Automata to Regular Expression c) NFA to DFA d) Regular Expression to DFA 23. A Finite Automata with some Auxiliary memory is Known as a) NFA b) DFA c) PDA d) a and c both 24. Let (Z, *) be an algebraic structure where Z is the set of integers and the operation * is 4

defined by n* m = maximum (n, m), which of the following statements is true for (z,*). a) (z,*) is a monoid b) (z,*) is an Abelian group c) (z,*) is a group d) None of the above , 25. If is an imaginary cube root of unity then the set [1, 2 ] w.r.t. to multiplication operation (where 3 = 1 ), is an a) Monoid b) Group c) Abelian group d) All of these 26. The permutation group a) (1,2,3,4,5) b) (1,3,2,4,5) c) (2,3,4,1,5) d) (1,3,5,4,2) 27. In case of Mealy machine, if the length of the input string |w|=n , then the output string will have a) (n+1) characters b) (n+2) characters c) (n-1) characters d) n characters 28. In case of Moore machine, if the length of the input string |w|=n , then the output string will have a) (n+1) characters b) (n+2) characters c) (n-1) characters d) n characters 29. Which of the following language is not regular a) {a m b n | m, n 1} b) {a n b m | m, n 1} c) {a m b m | m 1}

1 2

2 3

3 4

4 5

## 5 can also be written as 1

d)

{w | w {a,b} * }
a) Regular b) Context-free c) Phase structure d) Context sensitive

## 30. Type 2 grammar is also called

31. If only Closure and associative properties is satisfied on any set for some binary operation , then the set is called 5

a) Groupid b) Monoid c) Abilean Group d) Semi-Group 32. Turing Machine is an example of: a) Phase structure grammar b) Context sensitive grammar c) CFG d) Regular grammar 33. The equivalent Well formed formula (WFF) of x y is b) x y a) y x

c) y x d) All of these ) 34. The number of edges in the Hasse diagram of ( P{a, b, c}, is a) 6 b) 7 c) 8 d) 10 35. The inverse of the permutation a)

1 2

2 3

3 4

4 5

5 is 1

1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 b) 2 4 5 1 3 1 2 3 4 5 c) 5 1 2 3 4 d) None of these 36. A lattice is called a complemented lattice if a) At least one element of a set has a complement
b) At least two elements has a complement c) All the elements has a complement d) None of these 37. The conjunctive normal form (CNF) of the function f ( x, y ) = x. y + x . y + x . y is a) x + y b) x + y c) x + y d) x + y 38. The number of edges in the Hasse- diagram for the divisibility relation on the set {3, 6, 12, 24, 48} is a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6 6

39. The equivalent formula for P Q is a) (P Q ) (Q P) b) (Q P) (P Q) c) ( P Q) (Q P) d) All of these 40. Which of the regular expressions corresponds to the grammar: SAB/AS, Aa/aA, Bb a) aa*b* b) aa*b c) (ab)* d) a(ab)*

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