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General Classification of Turbines

According to the energy used Impulse turbine Reaction turbine

Direction of water flow Axial flow Inward flow

- Radial in axial out - Outward flow

According to the head available to the inlet of turbine

High Head Turbine (250-1800m), Medium Head Turbine (50-250m), Low Head Turbine ( <50m),

According to the specific speed Low specific speed ( <50)

Pelton Wheel Francis Turbine Kaplan Turbine

Pelton wheel

Medium specific speed (50 < N s < 250) Francis

Kaplan

High Specific speed ( >250)

According to the fluid used Water Turbine (Pelton Wheel, Francis, Kaplan) Gas Turbine Steam Turbine

Classification of Hydraulic Turbines

Hydraulic Turbines have a row of blades fitted to the rotating shaft or a rotating plate. Flowing liquid, mostly water, while passing through the Hydraulic Turbine strikes the blades of the turbine and makes the shaft to rotate. While flowing through the Hydraulic Turbine, the velocity and pressure of the liquid reduce which results in the development of torque and rotation of the turbine shaft.

There are different forms of Hydraulic Turbines in use depending on the operational requirements. For every specific use a particular type of Hydraulic Turbine provides the optimum output.

1. Based on flow path

Water can pass through the Hydraulic Turbines in different flow paths. Based on the flow path of the liquid, Hydraulic Turbines can be categorized into 03 types.

1. Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbines: This category of Hydraulic Turbines has the flow path of the liquid mainly parallel to the axis of rotation.

Kaplan Turbines has liquid flow mainly in axial direction.

2. Radial Flow Hydraulic Turbines: Such Hydraulic Turbines has the liquid flowing mainly in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

3. Mixed

Flow

Hydraulic

Turbines:

For

most

of

the

Hydraulic Turbines used, there is a significant component of

both axial and radial flows. Such types of Hydraulic Turbines are called as Mixed Flow Turbines.

Francis Turbine is an example of mixed flow type. in Francis Turbine, water enters in radial direction and exits in axial direction.

None of the Hydraulic Turbines are purely axial flow or purely radial flow. There is always a component of radial flow in axial flow turbines and of axial flow in radial flow turbines.

2. Based on pressure change

One more important criterion for classification of Hydraulic Turbines is whether the pressure of liquid changes or not while it flows through the rotor of the Hydraulic Turbines.

Based on the pressure change Hydraulic Turbines can be classified as of 02 types.

1. Impulse Turbine: The pressure of liquid does not change while flowing through the rotor of the machine. In Impulse Turbines pressure change occurs only in the nozzles of the machine.

One such example of impulse turbine is Pelton Wheel.

2. Reaction Turbine: The pressure of liquid changes while it flows through the rotor of the machine. The change in fluid velocity and reduction in its pressure causes a reaction on the turbine blades; this is why the name Reaction Turbine may have been derived.

Francis and Kaplan Turbines fall in the category of Reaction Turbines.

Classification of Steam Turbines

Steam turbines can be classified in several different ways:

1. By details of stage design:

Impulse

reaction

2. By steam supply and exhaust conditions:

Condensing Non-condensing (back pressure) Automatic or controlled extraction Mixed pressure (where there are two or more steam sources at different pressures) Reheat (where steam is extracted at an intermediate stage, reheated in the boiler, and re-admitted at a lower turbine stage)

3. By casing or shaft arrangement:

Single casing Tandem compound (two or more casings with the shaft coupled together in line) Cross compound (two or more shafts not in line, and possibly at different RPM)

4. By number of exhaust stages in parallel:

02 flow 04 flow 06 flow

5. By direction of steam flow:

Axial flow radial flow tangential

6. By the number of stages:

Single Multi-stage

7. By steam supply:

Superheat saturated.

8. By inlet steam pressure:

low-pressure (p<2.5MPa) intermediate pressure(2.5MPa <p<6.5MPa) high pressure (p>6.5MPa)

Any particular turbine may be classified by combinations of these classifications, e.g., tandemcompound, 03-casing, 04-flow extraction turbine.