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NETWORK ANALYSIS

AND SYNTHESIS

i-

->

FRANKLIN F. KUO

SECOND EDITION

£1.50

PETER CLARKE

SECOND HAND BOOKS

T«l. Rochdale 50514

Network

Anal/sis and

Synthesis

Second Edition

Wiley International Edition

Network

Analysis and

Synthesis

Second Edition

by Franklin F. Kuo

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York | London | Sydney

Toppan Company. Ltd. , Tokyo, Japan

Copyright © 1962, 1966 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This book or any part thereof

must not be reproduced in any form

without the written permission of the publisher

Wiley International Edition

This book is not to be sold outside the country

to which it is consigned by the publisher.

Libray of Congress Catalog Card Number : 66-16127

Printed in Singapore by Toppan Printing Co. (S) Pte. Ltd.

To My Father and Mother

Preface

In the second edition, I have tried to keep the organization of the first

edition. Most of the new material are additions aimed at strengthening

the weaknesses of the original edition. Some specific changes deserve

mention. The most important of these is a new chapter on computer

applications (Chapter 15). In the past five years, digital computers have

brought about many significant changes in the content of engineering

subject matter concerned with both analysis and design. In analysis, computation has become an important adjunct to theory. Theory estate

lishes the foundation of the subject matter; computation provides clarity, depth, and insight. In design, the computer has not only contributed

precision and speed to existing procedures but has made practicable design methods that employ iteration and simulation. The importance of

computer-aided design cannot be overemphasized. In Chapter 15 I have

attempted to survey some digital computer applications in the areas of

network analysis and design. I strongly encourage all students to read

this chapter for cultural interest, if not for survival.

Another new section contains a rigorous treatment of the unit impulse.

It was difficult to decide whether to incorporate this material in Chapter 2 in the discussion of signals or in a separate appendix. By putting general-

ized functions in an appendix, I have left the decision of whether to teach

the rigorous treatment up to the individual instructor.

Other changes worth mentioning are: (1) two new sections on the

Fourier integral in Chapter 3 ; (2) a section on initial and final conditions

in Chapter 5; (3) a section on Bode plots in Chapter 8;

(4) revised

material on two-port parameters in Chapter 9; and (5) new sections on frequency and transient responses of filters in Chapter 13. Major or

minor changes may be found in every chapter, with the exception of

Chapters 11 and 12. In addition, many new problems are included at the

end of each chapter.

vii

viii

Preface

A brief description of the subject matter follows. Chapters 1 and 2

deal with signal representation and certain general characteristics of

linear systems. Chapter 3 deals with Fourier analysis, and includes the

impulse method for evaluating Fourier coefficients. Chapters 4 and 5

discuss solutions of network differential equations in the time domain.

In Chapters 6 and 7, the goals are the same as those of the two preceding

chapters, except that the viewpoint here is that of the frequency domain.

Chapter 8 deals with the amplitude, phase, and delay of a system function.

The final seven chapters are concerned with network synthesis. Chapter 9 deals with two-ports. In Chapter 10, the elements of realizability theory

are presented. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with elementary driving-

point and transfer function synthesis procedures. In Chapter 13, some

fundamental concepts in modern filter design are introduced. Chapter 14

deals with the use of scattering matrices in network analysis and design.

And, as mentioned earlier, Chapter 15 contains a brief survey of digital

computer techniques in system analysis. In addition, there are five

appendices covering the rudiments of matrix algebra, generalized functions,

complex variables, proofs of Brune's theorems, and a visual aid to filter

approximation. The book is intended for a two-semester course in network theory.

Chapters 1 through 8 may be used in a one-semester undergraduate or

beginning graduate course in transient analysis or linear system analysis.

Chapters 9 and 15 are to be used in a subsequent course on network

synthesis.

The second edition is largely a result of the feedback from the professors who have used this book and from their students, Who have discovered

errors and weaknesses in the original edition. I wish to express my sincere

appreciation to those who provided this feedback. Special thanks are due to the following people: Robert Barnard of Wayne State, Charles Belove and Peter Dorato of the Polytechnic

Institute of Brooklyn, James Kaiser and Philip Sherman of the Bell

Telephone Laboratories, Evan Moustakas of San Jose State College,

A. J. Welch of the University of Texas, and David Landgrebe of Purdue.

I am particularly indebted to Mac Van Valkenburg of Princeton University

and Robert Tracey of Illinois for editorial advice and to Donald Ford

of Wiley for help and encouragement.

In addition, I wish to thank Elizabeth Jenkins, Lynn Zicchino, and

Joanne Mangione of the Bell Telephone Laboratories for their efficient

and careful typing of the manuscript.

Berkeley Heights,

»

i

tj

u.

New Jersey,

December, 1965

F. F. Kuo

Preface to the First Edition

This book is an introduction to the study of electric networks based upon

a system theoretic approach. In contrast to many present textbooks,

the emphasis is not on the form and structure of a network but rather on

its excitation-response properties. In other words, the major theme is

concerned with how a linear network behaves as a signal processor.

Special emphasis is given to the descriptions of a linear network by its

system function in the frequency domain and its impulse response in the

time domain. With the use of the system function as a unifying link, the

transition from network analysis to synthesis can be accomplished with

relative ease.

The book was originally conceived as a set of notes for a second course

in network analysis at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. It assumes

that the student has already had a course in steady-state circuit analysis.

He should be familiar with Kirchhoff's laws, mesh and node equations,

standard network theorems, and, preferably, he should have an elementary understanding of network topology.

A brief description of the subject matter follows. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with signal representation and certain characteristics of linear net-

works. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 discuss transient analysis from both a time

domain viewpoint, i.e., in terms of differential equations and the impulse

response, and a frequency domain viewpoint using Fourier and Laplace

transforms. Chapter 7 is concerned with the use of poles and zeros in

both transient and steady-state analysis. Chapter 8 contains a classical treatment of network functions.

The final five chapters deal with network synthesis. In Chapter 9, the

elements of realizability theory are presented. Chapters 10 and 1 1 are

concerned with elementary driving-point and transfer function synthesis

procedures. In Chapter 12, some fundamental concepts in modern filter

design are introduced. Chapter 13 deals with the use of scattering matrices

ix

x

Preface to the First Edition

in network analysis and synthesis. In addition, there are three appendices

covering the rudiments of matrix algebra, complex variables, and proofs

of Brune's realizability theorems.

The book is intended for a two-semester course in network theory.

Chapters 1 through 7 can be used in a one-semester undergraduate or

beginning graduate course in transient analysis or linear system analysis. Chapters 8 through 13 are to be used in a subsequent course on network

synthesis.

It was my very good fortune to have studied under Professor M. E. Van

Valkenburg at the University of Illinois. I have been profoundly influenced by his philosophy of teaching and writing, which places strong emphasis

upon clarity of exposition. In keeping with this philosophy, I have tried

to present complicated material from a simple viewpoint, and I have

included a large number of illustrative examples and exercises.

In addition,

I have tried to take a middle ground between mathematical rigor and

intuitive understanding. Unless a proof contributes materially to the

understanding of a theorem, it is omitted in favor of an intuitive argument. For example, in the treatment of unit impulses, a development in terms

of a generalized function is first introduced. It is stressed that the unit

impulse is not really a function but actually a sequence of functions whose

limit point is undefined. Then, the less rigorous, intuitive notion of an

impulse "function" is presented. The treatment then proceeds along the

nonrigorous path.

There are a number of topics which have been omitted. One of these

is network topology, which seems to be in vogue at present. I have pur-

posely omitted topology because it seems out of place in a book that

de-emphasizes the form and structure approach to network analysis.

In an expository book of this nature, it is almost impossible to reference adequately all the original contributors in the vast and fertile field of

network theory. I apologize to those whose names were omitted either

through oversight or ignorance. At the end of the book, some supple-

mentary textbooks are listed for the student who either wishes to fill in

some gaps in his training or wants to obtain a different point of view.

I acknowledge with gratitude the help and advice given to me by my

colleagues at the Bell Telephone Laboratories and by my former colleagues

at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the many reviewers whose advice and criticism were invaluable in revising preliminary drafts of the manuscript. Professors R. D. Barnard of Wayne State University and R. W. Newcomb of Stanford

University deserve specific thanks for their critical reading of the entire

manuscript and numerous helpful suggestions and comments.

In addition, I wish to thank Mrs. Elizabeth Jenkins and Miss Elizabeth

Preface to the First Edition

xi

La Jeunesse of the Bell Telephone Laboratories for their efficient and careful typing of the manuscript.

Finally, to my wife Dora, I owe a special debt of gratitude.

Her

encouragement and cooperation made the writing of this book an

enjoyable undertaking.

Murray Hill, New Jersey,

January, 1962

F. F. KUO

Contents

Chapter I:

Signals and Systems

1.1 Signal Analysis

1.2 Complex Frequency

1.3 Network Analysis

1.4 Network Synthesis

Chapter 2:

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Signals and Waveforms

General Characteristics of Signals

General Descriptions of Signals

The Step Function and Associated Waveforms

The Unit Impulse

Chapter 3: The Frequency Domain: Fourier Analysis

3.1 Introduction

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

Orthogonal Functions

Approximation Using Orthogonal Functions

Fourier Series

Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients

Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients Using Unit Impulses

The Fourier Integral

Properties of Fourier Transforms

xiii

I

1

4

7

14

20

20

24

28

33

46

46

47

48

50

52

58

63

67

xiv

Contents

Chapter 4:

Differential Equations

75

4.1

Introduction

75

4.2

Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations

76

4.3

Nonhomogeneous Equations

82

4.4

Step and Impulse Response

85

4.5

Integrodifferential Equations

91

4.6

Simultaneous Differential Equations

93

Chapter 5:

Network Analysis: I

100

5.1 Introduction

100

5.2

Network Elements

103

5.3

Initial and Final Conditions

106

5.4

Step and Impulse Response

HI

5.5

Solution of Network Equations

114

5.6

Analysis of Transformers

122

Chapter 6:

The Laplace Transform

134

6.1

The Philosophy of Transform Methods

134

6.2

The Laplace Transform

135

6.3

Properties of Laplace Transforms

137

6.4

Uses of Laplace Transforms

144

6.5

Partial-Fraction Expansions

148

6.6

Poles and Zeros

155

6.7

Evaluation of Residues

162

6.8

The Initial and Final Value Theorems

165

Chapter 7:

Transform Methods in Network Analysis

175

7.1

The Transformed Circuit

175

7.2

Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems

180

7.3

The System Function

187

7.4

The Step and Impulse Responses

194

7.5

The Convolution Integral

197

Contents

xv

Chapter 8: Amplitude, Phase, and Delay

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

Chapter 9:

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

Chapter 10:

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

Amplitude and Phase Response

Bode Plots

Single-Tuned Circuits

Double-Tuned Circuits

On Poles and Zeros and Time Delay

Network Analysis: II

Network Functions

Relationships Between Two-Port Parameters

Transfer Functions Using Two-Port Parameters

Interconnection of Two-Ports

Incidental Dissipation

Analysis of Ladder Networks

Elements of Readability Theory

Causality and Stability

Hurwitz Polynomials

Positive Real Functions

Elementary Synthesis Procedures

212

212

221

229

238

245

253

253

264

266

271

276

279

290

290

294

299

308

Chapter 1 1 : Synthesis of One-Port Networks with Two Kinds

of Elements

315

11.1 Properties of L-C Immittance Functions 315

319

325

11.4 Synthesis of R-C Impedances or R-L. Admittances 329

11.5 Properties of R-L Impedances and R-C Admittances 331

11.2 Synthesis of L-C Driving-Point Immittances

11.3 Properties of R-C Driving-Point

Impedances

11.6 Synthesis of Certain R-L-C Functions

333

xvi

Contents

Chapter 12: Elements of Transfer Function Synthesis

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

Properties of Transfer Functions

Zeros of Transmission

Synthesis of Y n and Z S1 with a 1-Q Termination

Synthesis of Constant-Resistance Networks

341

341

345

347

352

Chapter 13:

Topics in Filter Design

365

13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5

13.6

13.7

365

The Filter Design Problem

The Approximation Problem in Network Theory

The Maximally Flat Low-Pass Filter Approximation 368

365

Other Low-Pass Filter Approximations

Transient Response of Low-Pass Filters

A Method to Reduce Overshoot in Filters 392

A Maximally Flat Delay and Controllable Magnitude

Approximation

395

397

402

404

373

388

13.8

13.9

Synthesis of Low-Pass Filters

Magnitude and Frequency Normalization

13.10 Frequency Transformations

Chapter 14:

The Scattering Matrix

14.1

Incident and Reflected Power Flow

14.2

The Scattering Parameters for a One-Port Network

14.3

The Scattering Matrix for a Two-Port Network

14.4

Properties of the Scattering Matrix

14.5

Insertion Loss

14.6

Darlington's Insertion Loss Filter Synthesis

Chapter 15: Computer Techniques in Circuit Analysis

15.1 The Uses of Digital Computers in Circuit Analysis

15.2 Amplitude and Phase Subroutine

15.3 A Fortran Program for the Analysis of Ladder

Networks

15.4 Programs that Aid in Darlington Filter Synthesis

413

413

415

419

426

429

431

438

438

450

453

457

Contents

xvii

Appendix A:

A.1

A.2

A.3

A.4

A. 5

Introduction to Matrix Algebra

Fundamental Operations

Elementary Concepts

Operations on Matrices

Solutions of Linear Equations References on Matrix Algebra

Appendix B: Generalized Functions and the Unit Impulse

B.l Generalized Functions

B.2

Properties of the Unit Impulse

Appendix C: Elements of Complex Variables

C.l

C.2 Analysis

Elementary Definitions and Operations

C.3

C.4

Singularities and Residues

Contour Integration

Appendix D: Proofs of Some Theorems on Positive Real Functions

461

461

462

464

468

469

470

470

476

481

481

483

486

487

490

Appendix E: An Aid to the Improvement of Filter Approxi-

mation

E.l Introduction

E.2

Constant Logarithmic Gain Contours

E.3

Constant Phase Contours

E.4

Contour Drawings

E.5

Correction Procedure

E.6

Correction Network Design

E.7 Conclusion

Bibliography

Name Index

Subject Index

493

493

494

495

496

498

502

504

£05

$09

si I

chapter I

Signals and systems

This book is an introduction to electric network theory. The first half

of the book is devoted to network analysis and the remainder to network

synthesis and design. What are network analysis and synthesis? In a

generally accepted definition of network analysis and synthesis, there are

three key words: the excitation, the network, and the response as depicted

in Fig. 1.1. Network analysis is concerned with determining the response,

given the excitation and the network. In network synthesis, the problem

is to design the network given the excitation and the desired response.

In this chapter we will outline some of the problems to be encountered in this book without going into the actual details of the problems. We

will also discuss some basic definitions.

I.I SIGNAL ANALYSIS

For electric networks, the excitation and response are given in terms of

voltages and currents which are functions of time, t. In general, these functions of time are called signals. In describing signals, we use the two

universal languages of electrical engineering—time andfrequency. Strictly

speaking, a signal is a function of time. However, the signal can be described equally well in terms of spectral or frequency information. As

between any two languages, such as French and German, translation is needed to render information given in one language comprehensible in the

Excitation

>-

Network

Response

>

FIG. I.I. The objects of our concern.

Network analysis and synthesis

m

Ao-

FIG. 1.2. Sinusoidal signal.

other. Between time and frequency, the translation is effected by the

Fourier series, the Fourier integral, and the Laplace transform. We shall

have ample opportunity to define and study these terms later in the book.

At the moment, let us examine how a signal can be described in terms of both frequency and time. Consider the sinusoidal signal

s(t) = A

sin (a> t +

O)

where A is the amplitude,

O is the phase shift, and <w

frequency as given by the equation

coo = Y

0.1)

is the angular

< L2 >

where T is the period of the sinusoid. The signal is plotted aguinst time in Fig. 1.2. An equally complete description of the signal is obtained if we

D Ao

a

i

o.

E

b>0

W

Angular frequency

FIG. 1.3a. Plot of amplitude A versus angular frequency <o.

o>o

to

Angular frequency

FIG. 1.3b. Plot of phase 6 versus angular frequency <o.

«a —6>4 —6)3 a>2 6>i

Signals and systems

&>0

«">1

»2

±

"3

ft>4

+<<>

FIG. 1.4a. Discrete amplitude spectrum.

ft)

fc>4 W3 ft)2 ft>i

b)i

T

0)2

0>3

ft>4

+0)

FIG. 1.4b. Discrete phase spectrum.

let the angular frequency co be the independent variable. In this case, the

signal is described in terms of ^4 > w o> an£l ^0. as shown in Fig. 1.3a, where

amplitude is plotted against frequency, and in Fig. 1.36, where phase shift

is plotted.

Now suppose that the signal is made up of 2n + 1 sinusoidal components

s(t) =%A i sin (<v + fy)

<—

(1.3)

The spectral description of the signal would then contain 2n + l lines at

±(» as given in Figs. 1.4a and b. These discrete spectra

±<*>i, ±«>2

of amplitude A versus co and phase shift 6 versus co are sometimes called

line spectra. Consider the case when the number of these spectral lines

become infinite and the intervals oo i+1 w f between the lines approach

zero. Then there is no longer any discrimination between one frequency and another, so that the discrete line spectra fuse into a continuous spectra,

as shown by the example in Figs. 1.5a and b. In the continuous case, the sum in Eq. 1.3 becomes an integral

xo £

A(o>) sin [mt + 0(to)] dm

(1.4)

where A{m) is known as the amplitude spectrum and 0(co) as the phase spectrum.

As we shall see later, periodic signals such as the sine wave in Fig. 1.2

can be described in terms of discrete spectra through the use of Fourier

series. On the other hand, a nonperiodic signal such as the triangular

4

Network anal/sis and synthesis

—a

Mo>)

<a

FIG. 1.5a. Continuous amplitude spectrum.

FIG. 1.5b. Continuous phase spectrum.

pulse in Fig. 1.6 can only be described in terms of continuous spectra through the Fourier integral transform.

1.2 COMPLEX FREQUENCY

In this section, we will consider the concept of complex frequency. As

we shall see, the complex frequency variable

s = a + ja>

(1.5)

is a generalized frequency variable whose real part a describes growth and

decay of the amplitudes of signals, and whose imaginary part/cu is angular

frequency in the usual sense. The idea of complex frequency is developed

by examining the cisoidal signal

= aJ»*

S(f) = Ae

(1.6)

FIG. 1.6. Triangular signal.

Signals and systems

5

ReS

FIG. 1.7. Rotating phasor.

when S(0 is represented as a rotating phasor, 1 as shown in Fig. 1.7.

The angular frequency m of the phasor can then be thought of as a