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PIANC PICIL WG28 on Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls Identification and Evaluation of Design Tools Report of Sub-Group A H. F. Burcharth 2001 Members of the Sub-Group Prof. Dr.techn. H. F. Bureharth chairman Aalborg University, Denmark Dr. J. W. van der Met Infram, The Netherlands co-el Prof. A. Lejeune University of Liege, Belgium Prof. Dr. K. Tanimoto Saitama University, Japan Prof. Dr. H, Oumeraci University of Braunschweig, Germany Dr. R. W. Whalin Waterways Experiment S tion, Mis., U.S Individual contributors PhD Erik Christiani, when student at Aalborg University, Denmark MSc J. W. Bruining, when student at Delt. University of ‘lechnology Dr. Zhou Liu Aalborg University, Denmark Contents 1 Introduction and ‘Terms of Reference 2. Types of structures 3. Wave loads 31 3.2 33 34 3.5 38 Introduction to wave loads Wave loads on impermeable vertical face structures 3.2.1 ‘The Saintiou formula for fully retlected standing waves The extended Goda wave load formula for irregular waves The ‘Lakashi et al. modification of Goda’s formula, to include impulsive forces from breaking waves Resulting wave induced forces and moments Wave loads on impermeable inclined walls Wave loads on sloping top structures Wave loads on vertical walls protected by a rubble mound (horizontal composite structure type) Wave loads on perforated front structures . Effect of structure length and alignment. on wave height and wave pressure distributions along the structure 3.7.1 Diffraction etfect 3.7.2. Hifect of oblique non-braking waves 3.7.3 Effect of oblique breaking waves Impulsive wave loads and dynamic amplification related to caissons