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IUPhysicsP201F2009

Assignment 6a

Due at 12:00pm on Tuesday, October 14, 2008

View Grading Details

Impulse on a Baseball

Description: Calculation of the impulse and momentum change on a baseball. Learning Goal: To understand the relationship between force, impulse, and momentum. The effect of a net force acting on an object is related both to the force and to the total time the force acts on the is a measure of both these effects. For a constant net force, the impulse is

The impulse is a vector pointing in the same direction as the force vector. The units of

are

or

Recall that when a net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate, causing a change in its velocity. Hence the object's momentum ( ) will also change. The impulse-momentum theorem describes the effect that an impulse has on an object's motion: . So the change in momentum of an object equals the net impulse, that is, the net force multiplied by the time over which the force acts. A given change in momentum can result from a large force over a short time or a smaller force over a longer time. In Parts A, B, C consider the following situation. In a baseball game the batter swings and gets a good solid hit. His swing applies a force of 12,000 to the ball for a time of .

Part A Assuming that this force is constant, what is the magnitude Enter your answer numerically in newton seconds. ANSWER: = of the impulse on the ball?

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We often visualize the impulse by drawing a graph of force versus time. For a constant net force such as that used in the previous part, the graph will look like the one shown in the figure.

Part B The net force versus time graph has a rectangular shape. Often in physics geometric properties of graphs have physical meaning. ANSWER: For this graph, the area of the rectangle corresponds to the impulse.

The assumption of a constant net force is idealized to make the problem easier to solve. A real force, especially in a case like the one presented in Parts A and B, where a large force is applied for a short time, is not likely to be constant. A more realistic graph of the force that the swinging bat applies to the baseball will show the force building up to a maximum value as the bat comes into full contact with the ball. Then as the ball loses contact with the bat, the graph will show the force decaying to zero. It will look like the graph in the figure.

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Part C If both the graph representing the constant net force and the graph representing the variable net force represent the same impulse acting on the baseball, which geometric properties must the two graphs have in common? ANSWER:

j k l m n maximum force i j k l m n area j k l m n slope

When the net force varies over time, as in the case of the real net force acting on the baseball, you can simplify the problem by finding the average net force acting on the baseball during time . This average net force is treated as a constant force that acts on the ball for time as . . The impulse on the ball can then be found

Graphically, this method states that the impulse of the baseball can be represented by either the area under the net force versus time curve or the area under the average net force versus time curve. These areas are represented in the figure as the areas shaded in red and blue respectively.

The impulse of an object is also related to its change in momentum. Once the impulse is known, it can be used to find the change in momentum, or if either the initial or final momentum is known, the other momentum can be found. Keep in mind that . Because both impulse and momentum are vectors, it is essential to account for the direction of each vector, even in a one-dimensional problem. Part D Assume that a pitcher throws a baseball so that it travels in a straight line parallel to the ground. The batter then hits the ball so it goes directly back to the pitcher along the same straight line. Define the direction the pitcher originally throws the ball as the +x direction. ANSWER: The impulse on the ball caused by the bat will be in the negative x direction.

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Part E Now assume that the pitcher in Part D throws a 0.145baseball parallel to the ground with a speed of 32 in

the +x direction. The batter then hits the ball so it goes directly back to the pitcher along the same straight line. What is the ball's velocity just after leaving the bat if the bat applies an impulse of to the baseball? Enter your answer numerically in meters per second. ANSWER: =

The negative sign in the answer indicates that after the bat hits the ball, the ball travels in the opposite direction to that defined to be positive.

Description: The definitions of the center of mass and the center of gravity are introduced, along with the formulas for locating the center of mass. Students are required to complete several conceptual and computational questions that deal with systems of point particles. (version for algebra-based courses) Learning Goal: To learn the definition of the center of mass for systems of particles and be able to locate it. Imagine throwing a rock upward and away from you. With negligible air resistance, the rock will follow a parabolic path before hitting the ground. Now imagine throwing a stick (or any other extended object). The stick will tend to rotate as it travels through the air, and the motion of each point of the stick (taken individually) will be fairly complex. However, there will be one point that will follow a simple parabolic path: the point about which the stick rotates. No matter how the stick is thrown, this special point will always be located at the same position within the stick. The motion of the entire stick can then be described as a combination of the translation of that single point (as if the entire mass of the stick were concentrated there) and the rotation of the stick about that point. Such a point, it turns out, exists for every rigid object or system of massive particles. It is called the center of mass. To calculate the center of mass for a system of massive point particles that have coordinates the following equations are used: , and masses ,

In this problem, you will practice locating the center of mass for various systems of point particles. Part A Two particles of masses system located? ANSWER: and ( ) are located 10 meters apart. Where is the center of mass of the

j k l m n less than 5 meters from the particle of mass j k l m n exactly 5 meters from the particle of mass more than 5 meters but less than 10 meters from the particle of mass i j k l m n

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Part B For the system of three particles shown, which have masses mass located? , , and as indicated, where is the center of

ANSWER:

j k l m n to the left of the particle of mass and the particle of mass j k l m n between the particle of mass i j k l m n

Perhaps you "feel" that the center of mass should be located to the right of the particle of mass

, since the

particle to the right of it has greater mass than the particle to the left. A calculation, however, allows one to pinpoint the exact location of the center of mass. Part C For the system of particles described in Part B, find the x coordinate of the center of mass. Assume that the particle of mass is at the origin and the positive x axis is directed to the right. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = .

Part D Let us now consider a two-dimensional case. The system includes three particles of equal mass located at the

vertices of an isosceles triangle as shown in the figure. Which arrow best shows the location of the center of mass

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ANSWER:

j k l m n1 j k l m n2 j k l m n3 i j k l m n4 j k l m n5

Part E What is the x coordinate of the center of mass of the system described in Part D? .

From the symmetry of the situation, you can see that the x and y coordinates of the center of mass are the same. Part F A system of four buckets forms a square as shown in the figure. Initially, the buckets have different masses (it is not known how these masses are related). A student begins to add water gradually to the bucket located at the origin. As a result, what happens to the coordinates of the center of mass of the system of buckets?

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Hint F.1

As the bucket at the origin gets heavier, will the center of mass move closer to the origin or away from it? ANSWER:

j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same; the y coordinate increases. j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same; the y coordinate decreases. j k l m n The x coordinate increases; the y coordinate stays the same. j k l m n The x coordinate decreases; the y coordinate stays the same. j k l m n The x coordinate increases; the y coordinate increases. i j k l m n The x coordinate decreases; the y coordinate decreases. j k l m n The x coordinate stays the same; the y coordinate stays the same. j k l m n There is not enough information to answer the question.

Part G Find the x coordinate of the center of mass of the system of particles shown in the figure.

ANSWER:

Part H Find the y coordinate of the center of mass of the system of particles described in the previous part. Express your answer in meters to two significant figures. ANSWER: =

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Introduction to Collisions

Description: Basic questions about two disks colliding, elastically and perfectly inelastically, with varied mass ratios. General definition of elasticity of a collision introduced in the last part. Uses applet. (version for algebrabased courses) Learning Goal: To understand how to find the velocities of objects after a collision. There are two main types of collisions that you will study: perfectly elastic collisions and perfectly inelastic collisions. When two objects collide elastically, both total kinetic energy and total momentum are conserved. These two conservation laws allow the final motion of the two objects to be determined. When two objects collide inelastically, total momentum is conserved, but the total kinetic energy is not conserved. After an inelastic collision the two objects are stuck together, and thus travel with the same final velocity; this fact, together with conservation of momentum, allows the final motion of the two objects to be calculated. In reality, there is a range of collision types, with elastic and perfectly inelastic at the extreme ends. These extreme cases allow for a more straightforward analysis than the in-between cases. The applet at the end of the problem will give you a chance to explore the "in-between" collisions. Let two objects of equal mass initially stationary. Part A If the collision is perfectly elastic, what are the final velocities Hint A.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision, you can always use conservation of momentum as long as there are no external forces acting on the colliding objects. In elastic collisions you can also use the conservation of kinetic energy. Each of these conservation laws will allow you to write down an equation relating , , and . Once you have the equations, use algebra to eliminate from the system to get a formula for in terms of . Then, go back to the original system and eliminate to get a formula for in terms of . Part A.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum and of objects 1 and 2? collide. Object 1 has initial velocity , directed to the right, and object 2 is

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER:

i j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

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Part A.3

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of energy for the two objects? ANSWER:

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

i j k l m n j k l m n

(and a factor of

Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocity in terms of . ANSWER: =

Part B Now suppose that the collision is perfectly inelastic. What are the velocities collision? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem and of the two objects after the

In analyzing any collision, you can always use conservation of momentum. In perfectly inelastic collisions you can also use the fact that the final velocities of the objects are equal. Each of these facts will allow you to write down an equation relating , , and . Once you have the equation from conservation of momentum, simply substitute using the equation to find the final velocity of each object in terms of . Part B.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER:

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n

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j k l m n

Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . ANSWER: =

Part C Now assume that the mass of object 1 is are the final velocities and , while the mass of object 2 remains . If the collision is elastic, what

of objects 1 and 2?

Hint C.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision, you can always use conservation of momentum. In elastic collisions you can also use the conservation of kinetic energy. Each of these conservation laws will allow you to write down a linear equation relating , , and . Once you have the equations, you can use algebra to eliminate from the system to get a formula for in terms of . Then, go back to the original system and eliminate to get a formula for in terms of . Part C.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER:

j k l m n i j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

Notice that

Part C.3

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of kinetic energy for this part? ANSWER:

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j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

i j k l m n

j k l m n

Notice that

Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . ANSWER: =

Note that in both the conservation of momentum equation and the conservation of energy equation, cancels out. This is a general feature of many collision situations: The ratio of the two masses is important, but the absolute masses are not. Part D Let the mass of object 1 be and the mass of object 2 be . If the collision is perfectly inelastic, what are the velocities of the two objects after the collision? Hint D.1 How to approach the problem In analyzing any collision, you can always use conservation of momentum. In perfectly inelastic collisions you can also use the fact that the final velocities of the objects are equal. Each of these facts will allow you to write down an equation relating , , and . Once you have the equation from conservation of momentum, simply substitute using the equation to find the final velocity of each object in terms of . Part D.2 Find the equation that results from conservation of momentum

Which of the following equations correctly expresses conservation of momentum for the two objects? ANSWER:

i j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

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j k l m n

j k l m n

Notice that

Give the velocity of object 1 followed by the velocity velocities in terms of . ANSWER: =

This applet shows two disks colliding. The orange disk always has the same initial velocity. You can change the ratio of the masses of the two disks as well as the elasticity of the collision. is a measure of how elastic a collision is; a perfectly elastic collision has elasticity elasticity to see how the value of the elasticity affects the various collisions. , while a perfectly inelastic collision has . You should use the applet to reproduce the collisions of Parts A-D. You can then adjust

Description: Conceptual: A bullet embeds in a stationary, frictionless block: type of collision? what is conserved? v_final? A bullet of mass is fired horizontally with speed at a wooden block of mass resting on a frictionless table. The bullet hits the block and becomes completely embedded within it. After the bullet has come to rest within the block, the block, with the bullet in it, is traveling at speed .

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Hint A.1 Types of collisions An inelastic collision is a collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved. In a partially inelastic collision, kinetic energy is lost, but the objects colliding do not stick together. From this information, you can infer what completely inelastic and elastic collisions are. ANSWER:

j k l m n perfectly elastic j k l m n partially inelastic i j k l m n perfectly inelastic

Part B Which of the following quantities, if any, are conserved during this collision? Hint B.1 When is kinetic energy conserved?

j k l m n kinetic energy only i j k l m n momentum only j k l m n kinetic energy and momentum j k l m n neither momentum nor kinetic energy

Part C What is the speed of the block/bullet system after the collision? Part C.1 Find the momentum after the collision of the block/bullet system after the collision? and other given quantities.

Part C.2

The momentum of the block/bullet system is conserved. Therefore, the momentum before the collision is the same as the momentum after the collision. Find a second expression for , this time expressed as the total momentum of the system before the collision. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = , , and . and other given quantities.

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Description: Conceptual question on using kinetic energy and momentum to analyze motion. The two toy cars shown in the figure, with masses as given in the figure, are ready to race. Both cars begin from rest. For each question, state whether the correct answer is car A, car B, or whether the two cars have equal values for the parameter in question.

For the next three parts assume that the cars' motors supply the same force to each car over the course of a 1.0meter race. Part A Which car crosses the finish line 1.0 away first?

Hint A.1 Three ways to analyze motion Newton's second law, the work-energy relation, and the impulse-momentum relation can all be used to draw conclusions about the forces that act on an object and the object's motion. Which approach to use depends on the information given in the problem statement and the information you are trying to determine. In this case, you are asked a kinematic question, so you should use the technique that will give you a useful kinematic quantity such as acceleration or initial velocity. ANSWER:

j k l m n Car A wins i j k l m n Car B wins j k l m n Both cars cross the finish line at the same time.

Part B Which car has the larger kinetic energy when it crosses the finish line 1.0 Hint B.1 The work-energy relation away?

Since both cars start from rest and move in the same direction, the work done on each car is equal to its final kinetic energy. Recall that work is given as the product of applied force (parallel to the direction of motion) and the distance over which the force is applied. Notice you are told about both force and distance in the description of the race. ANSWER:

j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B

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i j k l m n

Part C Which car has a larger momentum when it crosses the finish line 1.0 Hint C.1 The impulse-momentum relation Since both cars start from rest, the impulse applied to each car is equal to its final momentum. Recall that impulse is given as the product of applied force and the time interval over which the force is applied. You are given the equality of the forces in the description of the race. The time is the subject of Part A. ANSWER:

i j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars have the same momentum.

away?

In the the next three parts we analyze a different type of race, in which the cars' motors supply the same force to each car over the course of a 10-second race. Part D Which car has traveled farther after 10 ? ANSWER:

j k l m n Car A i j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars travel the same distance.

Part E After 10 Hint E.1 which car has a larger kinetic energy? The work-energy relation

Since both cars start from rest and move in the same direction, the work done on each car is equal to its final kinetic energy. Recall that work is given as the product of applied force (parallel to the direction of motion) and the distance over which the force is applied. You are given the equality of the forces in the description of the second race. The distance is the subject of Part D. ANSWER:

j k l m n Car A i j k l m n Car B j k l m n Both cars have the same kinetic energy.

Part F After 10 Hint F.1 which car has a larger momentum? The impulse-momentum relation

Since both cars start from rest, the impulse applied to each car is equal to its final momentum. Recall that impulse is given as the product of applied force and the time interval over which the force is applied. Notice you are told

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about both force and time in the description of the second race. ANSWER:

j k l m n Car A j k l m n Car B i j k l m n Both cars have the same momentum.

Summary

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10/6/2008

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