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Application Case

Tropical Storm Charley

In August 2004, tropical storm Charley hit North Carolina and the Optima Air Filter Company. Many employees homes were devastated and the firm found that it had to hire almost 3 completely new crews, one for each of its shifts. The problem was that the Old-timers had known their jobs so well that no one had ever bothered to draw up job descriptions for them. When about 30 new employees began taking their places, there was general confusion about what they should do and how they should do it. The storm quickly became old news to the firms out-of state customers- who wanted filters, not excuses. Phil Mann, the firms President, was at his wits end. He had about 30 new employees, 10 old-timers, and his original factory supervisor, Maybelline. He decided to meet with Linda Lowe, a consultant from the local universities business school. She immediately had the oldtimers fill out a job questionnaire that listed all their tasks, duties & responsibilities. Arguments ensued almost at once- Both Phil & Maybelline thought the old-timers were exaggerating to make themselves look more important, and the old-timers instead that the list faithfully reflected their duties. Meanwhile, the customers clamoured for their filters.

Questions: Should Phil & Linda ignore that old-timers protests and write up the job descriptions as they see fit? Why? Why not? How would you go about resolving the differences? Solution: No, Phil & Linda should never ignore the old-timers protest. Since its the oldtimers who have full knowledge about the tasks, duties & responsibilities they used to perform. Ignoring them may result to turbulence among the workers and theyll feel cheated hence leading to lower productivity. Writing job description without the information acquired from old-timers would be like climbing mountain without a guide. Since they know the nature and requirement of the job very well, they must be asked about the information of the job before writing a job description. To resolve the problem I would have used a questionnaire with both structured as well as openended questions. That would have lead to lesser confusion and misinterpretation by Phil & Maybelline. (The Job Information Sheet is given below which consist of both structured and unstructured questions)

Question: How would you have conducted the job analysis? What should Phil do now? Solution: I would have conducted the job analysis in one of the two ways. Either I would have used questionnaire (with both structured as well as unstructured questions) or the interview method. In the interview method, after collecting the information, I would further proceeded to get the information reviewed and verified by the immediate supervisor of the interviewee and the interviewee. Phil should now use the information, which is verified and reviewed by supervisor and worker both, for the training purpose of the new worker. The information consists of task, duties & responsibilities of the workers. When the workers will be trained accordingly theyll know what to do and how to do, resulting in lesser confusion and time-wastage & increase in productivity so that Optima Air Filter Company comes back on track.

Questionnaire with Structured & Unstructured Question

Job Analysis Information Sheet

Job Title: ___________________________________________ Date: _______________________ Job Code: ________________________________ Dept.: _________________________________ Superior's Title: _________________________________________________________________ Hours worked _______ AM to ________ PM Job Analyst's Name: _____________________________________________________________ 1. What is the job's overall purpose? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

2. If the incumbent supervises others, list them by job title; if there is more than one employee with the same title, put the number in parentheses following. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Check those activities that are part of the incumbent's supervisory duties. Training Performance appraisal Inspecting work Budgeting Coaching and/or counseling Others (please specify) __________________________________________________

4. Describe the type and extent of supervision received by the incumbent. ______________________________________________________________________________

5. JOB DUTIES: Describe briefly WHAT the incumbent does and, if possible, HOW he or she does it. Include duties in the following categories: a. Daily duties (those performed on a regular basis every day or almost every day) _______________________________________________________________________ b. Periodic duties (those performed weekly, monthly, quarterly, or at other regular intervals) _______________________________________________________________________ c. Duties performed at irregular intervals _______________________________________________________________________

6. Is the incumbent performing duties he or she considers unnecessary? If so, describe. ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. Is the incumbent performing duties not presently included in the job description? If so, describe. ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. EDUCATION: Check the box that indicates the educational requirements for the job (not the educational background of the incumbent). No formal education required Eighth grade education High school diploma (or equivalent) 2-year college degree (or equivalent) 4-year college degree (or equivalent) Graduate work or advanced degree (specify:) Professional license (specify:)

9. EXPERIENCE: Check the amount of experience needed to perform the job. None Less than 1 month 1 to 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 to 3 years 3 to 5 years 5 to 10 years More than 10 years

10. LOCATION: Check location of job and, if necessary or appropriate, describe briefly.

Outdoor Indoor Underground Pit Scaffold Other (specify)

11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: Check any objectionable conditions found on the job and note afterward how frequently each is encountered (rarely, occasionally, constantly, etc.) Dirt Dust Heat Cold Noise Fumes Odors Wetness/humidity Vibration Sudden temperature changes Darkness or poor lighting Other (specify)

12. HEALTH AND SAFETY: Check any undesirable health and safety conditions under which the incumbent must perform and note how often they are encountered.

Elevated workplace Mechanical hazards Explosives Electrical hazards Fire hazards Radiation Other (specify)

13. MACHINES, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, AND WORK AIDS: Describe briefly what machines, tools, equipment, or work aids the incumbent works with on a regular basis: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 14. Have concrete work standards been established (errors allowed, time taken for a particular task, etc.)? If so, what are they? ______________________________________________________________________________ 15. Are there any personal attributes (special aptitudes, physical characteristics, personality traits, etc.) required by the job? ______________________________________________________________________________ 16. Are there any exceptional problems the incumbent might be expected to encounter in performing the job under normal conditions? If so, describe. ______________________________________________________________________________ 17. Describe the successful completion and/or end results of the job. ______________________________________________________________________________

18. What is the seriousness of error on this job? Who or what is affected by errors the incumbent makes?

______________________________________________________________________________ 19. To what job would a successful incumbent expect to be promoted?

[Note: This form is obviously slanted toward a manufacturing environment, but it can be adapted quite easily to fit a number of different types of jobs.]

Job Description (Example Overview)

The example below is for a sales person who is selling financial service products. About 75% of his/her time is spent in the office and the other 25% is out on the road making presentations to customers. The job requires a Certified Financial Planners designation and requires heavy duty lead generation.

Job Requirements
A: Summary of Position Researches and identifies target client sectors for financial product services. Develops and implements a sales process to include initial contact, follow up, presentation and closing procedures. Maintains records of contacts and sales status including contact reports, sales projections and quota ratios. B. Job Duties Research and Create targeted new client lists within Delhi/NCR territory Makes initial contact with potential clients Performs routine and regular follow up with potential clients Performs routine and regular follow up with former clients Visits potential clients and makes sales presentations Closes sales Maintains regular record reporting sales activity

C. Computer Skills and Software Used Windows operating system MS Office including Word, Excel and PowerPoint Constant Contact or other Customer Relations Management Software

D. Reporting Structure Reports to regional sales manager

Has nobody directly reporting to this position Required to participate in Annual Sales Meeting

Employee Requirements
A. Education and Training Bachelor Degree in business, finance or accounting or commerce or 0-2 Years experience, Bachelors Degree Preferred Certified Financial Planner

B. Skills and Aptitudes Fearless cold caller, 250+ Outbound calls per week Ability to close a sale Adapt to changing financial conditions and meet customer expectations

C. Environment and Physical Work in high volume sales office Be able to sit for prolonged periods of time Be able to travel to client locations 25% of time

D. Licenses/Certifications CFP - Certified Financial Planner Indian Driving License

Success Factors
A. Grow Sales Increase market channel penetration by 30% in first Year

Develop 3 secondary channels in first 180 days Grow referral-based sales from 15% to 20% in first year

B. Develop Sales Department Recruit and train 2 junior sales associates with gross sales of 100K by 3nd quarter Increase number of sales presentations by 20% within 12 months Implement Web-Meeting presentation System to Reduce travel costs by 20% per year

Comments____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

HR Representative___________________________________ Department Manager__________________________________ Date Completed______________________________________

Structured Questionnaire (Example) Sample Job Analysis Checklists ROUTINE CLERICAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Activity D Types labels, letters, envelopes, and invoices. Determine layout and format, and type in finished format. Proof read and correct errors. Set up an type financial and statistical reports. Take dictation and transcribe. Transcribe dictation from voice recordings. Record, type, and distribute meeting minutes. Compose standard letters in response to routine correspondence. Schedule appointments without prior clearance, schedule meetings and conferences, and make travel arrangements including reservations. Prepare meeting and conference rooms. Maintain, process, distribute, and update records, files, and documents. Maintain confidential records and files, and handle confidential correspondence and records. Open, sort and distribute mail. Answer telephones, screen and place calls, monitor and follow up on voice mail recordings, refer callers to appropriate parties. Prepare, process, and verify invoices, bills, checks and receipts. Maintain and report expense account activity. Receive and welcome visitors, and refer to appropriate parties. Maintain and update mailing lists. Enter data electronically and verify. Process payroll records. Perform calculations, post and verify figures, trace and adjust

Frequency W M O

errors. Maintain inventory of office supplies, requisition new supplies, and distribute supplies to authorized parties. Schedule and monitor equipment repairs and service contracts. Maintain locks and keys for storage cabinets and other facilities, and distribute to authorized parties. Orient and train new employees. Schedule work for co-workers as requested. Handle cash and negotiable instruments. Maintain cash box. Sign legal documents. Act as resource for others as to staff and locations. Maintain records of cash receipts and disbursements. Review job applicants/applications and conducts screening interviews. Collate and bind. Make copies. Date and stamp documents. Recommend improvements in operations and procedures. Modify operations and/or procedures. Maintain procedures and information manuals. Develop operating budget for approval. Research, tabulate, and summarize information of routine, periodic or special reports. Present findings in oral or written form. Record and verify entries or accounts, journals, logs, and general ledgers.

Balance accounts and reconcile statements.

Indicate the equipment that is operated as a regular part of the responsibilities of the job: Calculator Computer Microfilm equipment Security equipment Word processor Other equipment: ________________ Other Activities: Camera Dictation equipment Photocopier Sorter Cash register/petty cash Facsimile machine Postage machine Switchboard

CHECKLIST OF ROUTINE MANAGERIAL/SUPERVISORY DUTIES Analyze, on a periodic basis, workload and personnel needs of an organizational unit. Recommend changes in the staff level of the work unit. Review documentation for new positions and positions that have been revised. Obtain approval to modify positions. Interview candidates for employment and make hiring decision or recommendations. Orient new subordinates concerning policy and procedures, work rules, and performance expectation levels. Review position responsibilities. Plan, delegate, communicate and control work assignments and special projects concerning subordinates. Establish and maintain specific work goals and objectives or quantitative and qualitative work standards to be achieved by subordinates. Train, develop, and motivate subordinates to improve current performance and to prepare for higher- level jobs. Determine significant changes in responsibilities and major duties of subordinates by reviewing their job responsibilities on a regular basis.

Evaluate the performance of subordinates. Document and discuss present and past performance with each direct report. Keep supervisor informed of results. Review salaries of subordinates and recommend changes according to policy and procedures. Recommend personnel actions such as promotions, performance awards, demotions, etc., according to budget guidance and policy. Advise superiors and subordinates of developments that impact job duties. Ensure proper communications. Maintain discipline, recommend and administer corrective action according to policy and procedures. Communicate and administer personnel programs in accordance with design and objectives. Maintain proper documentation on all subordinates. Other responsibilities:

Reference Textbooks a. Rao V.S.P., Human Resource Management, Excel Books (2009)
b. Cascio, Wayne F. Managing Human Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.,

c. DeCenzo, David A. and Stephen P. Robbins. Human Resource Management.

New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

d. Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. and David B. Balkin. Managing Human Resources. Upper

Saddle River: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 2001.

Internet Sources For job analysis/personality research visit