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Chapter 2 Overview of Power

Semiconductor Devices

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-1


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Diodes

• On and off states controlled by the power circuit

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-2


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-3
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-4
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Diode Turn-Off

• Fast-recovery diodes have a small reverse-recovery time

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-5


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-6
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Thyristors

• Semi-controlled device
• Latches ON by a gate-current pulse if forward biased
• Turns-off if current tries to reverse
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-7
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Thyristor in a Simple Circuit

Reverse voltage & tq

• For successful turn-off, reverse voltage required


for an interval greater than the turn-off interval
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-8
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
• PHASE-CONTROL THYRISTORS : primarily for rectifying line
frequency voltage and currents (phase controlled AC and DC
motor drivers and high voltage power transmission). Average
current 4000A, blocking voltage 5-7kV and on-state voltage
1.5-3V

• INVERTER-GRADE THYRISTORS: small turn-off times (from


a few µs to100µs depends on their blocking voltage and on-
state voltage drops), and small on-state voltage,
2500V-1500A.

• LIGHT-ACTIVATED THYRISTORS: triggered by a pulse of


light guided by optical fibers to a sensitive region, used
primarily in high voltage application such as high voltage
power transmission 4kV-3kA

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-9


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Generic Switch Symbol

• Idealized switch symbol


• When on, current can flow only in the direction of the arrow
• Instantaneous switching from one state to the other
• Zero voltage drop in on-state
• Infinite voltage and current handling capabilities

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-10


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Switching Characteristics (linearized)

Switching Power Loss is


proportional to:
• switching frequency
• turn-on and turn-off times

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-11


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-16
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

• Used commonly in the past


• Now used in specific applications
• Replaced by MOSFETs and IGBTs

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-17


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-18
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-22
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Various Configurations of BJTs

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-23


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-28
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
MOSFETs

• Easy to control by the gate


• Optimal for low-voltage operation at high switching frequencies
• On-state resistance a concern at higher voltage ratings

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-29


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-30
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
IGBT

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-41


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-51
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors (GTO)

• Slow switching speeds


• Used at very high power levels
• Require elaborate gate control circuitry

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-52


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
GTO Turn-Off

• Need a turn-off snubber

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-53


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
MCT

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-54


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Comparison of Controllable Switches

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-59


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-60
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Summary of Device Capabilities

Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-61


by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview
Copyright © 2003 Chapter 2 Power Semiconductor 2-63
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Switches: An Overview