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Chilled Water Piping

Chilled Water Piping
 The following organizations in the United States issue codes
and standards for piping systems and components
 ASME — American Society of Mechanical Engineers
 ASTM — American Society for Testing and Materials
 NFPA — National Fire Protection Association
 BOCA — Building Officials and Code Administrators,
 MSS — Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
 AWWA — American Water Works Association
Steel Pipe
 Steel pipe is manufactured with wall thick
nesses identified by schedule and weight.
Although schedule numbers and weight
designations are related, they are not constant
for all pipe sizes.
 Standard weight (STD) and Schedule 40 pipe
have the same wall thickness through 10 in.
NPS. For 12 in. and larger standard weight pipe,
the wall thickness remains constant at 0.375
in., while Schedule 40 wall thickness increases
with each size.
 A similar equality exists between Extra Strong
(XS) and Schedule 80 pipe through 8 in.; above 8
in., XS pipe has a 0.500 in. wall, while Schedule
80 increases in wall thickness.
Steel Pipe

 Joints in steel pipe are made by welding or

by using threaded, flanged, grooved, or
welded outlet fittings. Unreinforced
welded-in branch connections weaken a
main pipeline, and added reinforcement is
necessary, unless the excess wall
thickness of both mains and branches is
sufficient to sustain the pressure.
Copper Tube

 Because of their inherent resistance to corrosion

and ease of installation, copper and copper alloys
are often used in heating, air-conditioning,
refrigeration, and water supply installations.
 There are two principal classes of copper tube.
ASTM Standard B88 includes Types K, L, M, and
DWV for water and drain service. ASTM Standard
B280 specifies air-conditioning and refrigeration
(ACR) tube for refrigeration service.
Copper Tube

 Types K, L, M, and DWV designate descending wall thick

nesses for copper tube. All types have the same outside
diameter for corresponding sizes.
 Usually Tables are used to know the properties of ASTM B88
copper tube. In the plumbing industry, tube of nominal size
approximates the inside diameter.
 The heating and refrigeration trades specify copper tube by
the outside diameter (OD). ACR tubing has a different set of
wall thick nesses.
 Types K, L, and M tube may be hard drawn or annealed
(soft) temper.
Copper Tube

 The heating and air-conditioning industry

generally uses Types L and M tubing, which have
higher internal working pressure ratings than the
solder joints used at fittings.
 Type K may be used with brazed joints for higher
pressure-temperature requirements or for direct
 Type M should be used with care where exposed
to potential external damage
Joining methods

 Soldering and Brazing

 Flared and Compression Joints
 Steel pipe joints over 2 in. in diameter that have
been welded offer the following
 Other Joints
 Plastic piping systems
Open System
 In this system, the water flows thru heat
exchanger and then exposed to atmosphere.
 such as in Cooling tower and air washer.
Closed system
 In this system, the water flow is not exposed to
the atmosphere at any point.
 But some times contains an expansion tank that
is open to the atmosphere but water area
exposed is insignificant. Such as Chilled water
Closed Water Piping System

Parallel Piping System

 Reverse return piping
 Reverse return header with direct return
 Direct return piping

Compound Piping system

(Primary & Secondary System)
Reverse Return Piping
Reverse Return Headers with
Direct Return Risers
Direct Return Water Piping
Primary & Secondary Piping

When water flows in a pipe, friction is

produced by the rubbing of water particles
against each other and against the wall of
the pipe. This friction produced by the
flowing water causes a loss in pressure,
which is called Friction Loss.
The Friction losses depends upon:
Water velocity
Interior surface roughness
Pipe length
Pipe diameter
Flow Rate Limitation

Installation Cost
Operating Cost
All above limit Maximum and
minimum velocities in piping
Recommended Water
Velocities Based on Services
Pump Discharge 8-12 FPS
Pump Suction 4-7 FPS
Header 4-15 FPS
Riser 3-10 FPS
Drain Line 4-7 FPS
General Service 5-10 FPS
City Water 3-7 FPS

Erosion in water piping system is

the impingement on inside surface
of pipe of rapidly moving water
containing air bubbles, sand and
other solid matter.
Due to this impingement, pipes
gets eroded over a period of time if
Recommended velocity not
maintained in piping systems.
Normal Operation Velocity Range
1500 Hrs/Year 15 FPS
2000 “ 14 FPS
3000 “ 13 FPS
4000 “ 12 FPS
6000 “ 10 FPS
8000 “ 8 FPS
Noise Generation

Velocity-dependent noise in piping systems

results from any or all of four sources:
Release of entrained air
Water hammer
In investigations of flow-related Noise, Marseille,
Ball and Webster and Rogers reported that
velocities on the order of 10 to 17 fps lie within the
range of allowable noise levels for residential and
commercial buildings.
Ashrae Recommendations For
Hydronic System
Friction Loss Rate should be taken as 1 to
4 Feet/100 feet of Pipe Eq.Length.
A Value of 2.5 Feet/100 Feet is the mean
to which most systems are designed.
For 2 Inch and below pipes, Velocity limit
is 4 FPS.
For above pipes, FLR limit is 4 Feet/100
As per Carrier Guide Line FLR is 8-10 feet /100
feet and velocity limit 10 FPS.

 Water Flow
Based on Cooling load on respective AHU
Can be calculated as:
Tonnage X 24
Flow In GPM= ---------------------------------
Temperature difference

 Friction Loss Rate / Velocity Limitation

specified by consultant or ASHRAE.
Pipe Sizing Method

Step -1
Make a layout sketch showing individual
AHU,FCU and BCU on Master layout plan.
Step - 2
Mark selected /design flow on individual AHU,
FCU and BCU.
Step - 3
Review layout sketch w.r.t. space available ,
other services,economy and consultant
Conclude layout.
Pipe Sizing Method……..

Step -4
Starting from most remote terminal working
towards the pump, Mark the Cumulative flow in
mains and branch circuits.
Step -6
Select pipe size for required Flow and as per
selected Friction Loss Rate from Friction chart
for respective application.
Re-check Chart water velocity with
recommended velocity. If within limit.Selection
is ok.
 Repeat for other flow requirements.
Friction Loss Rate Vs Flow Charts -
Sch. 40 pipes
Head Loss & Calculation

It is the total loss of pressure energy due to

friction/resistance offered by Pipes & Fittings
in the piping system
The Head Loss is equal to the Total
Frictional Losses in highest resistant
circuit of piping system.
To Calculate Head Loss, Calculate the Total
Frictional Losses
of pipes
of fittings
of equipments
Valve & Fitting Losses

 Valves & Fitting cause pressure losses greater than

those caused by the pipe alone.
 Fitting Losses are frequently expressed in Equivalent
length of pipe,
 It can be expressed as per following equation
h = K x V2/2g
h- Head/Pressure loss in Feet
K - Geometry & Size dependent loss coefficient
V - Average velocity of water
g - Gravitational force as 32.20
K Factors-Screwed Fittings
K Factors-Flanged Fittings
Fitting Losses in Equivalent Length of
Valves Losses in Eq. Length of
System Friction Losses

Relation between
Flow & Head Losses
for a system:
1.85 -1.9
H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1)
Q1& Q2 = Flows
H1 & H2=Head Losses
Water Piping Diversity

When the air conditioning load is determined for

each exposure of a building, it is assumed that the
exposure is at peak load. Since the sun load is at a
maximum on one exposure at a time, not all of the
units on all the exposures require maximum water
flow at the same time to handle the cooling load.
Units on the same exposure normally require
maximum flow at the same time; units on the
adjoining or opposite exposures do not. Therefore,
if the individual units are automatically controlled
to vary the water quantity, the system water
quantity actually required during normal operation
is less than the total water quantity required for
the peak design conditions for all the exposures.
Diversity Application

 The principle of diversity allows the

engineer to evaluate and calculate
the reduced water quantity.
 For applying diversity two
conditions must be satisfied:
 The water flow to the units must he
automatically controlled to compensate
for varying loads.
 Diversity may only be applied to piping
that supplies units on more than one