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Introduction: - Semiconductors are the materials whose ability to conduct electricity Ialls between
that oI conductors and insulators. At very low temperatures, pure or intrinsic semiconductors behave like
insulators. At higher temperatures, intrinsic semiconductors act as conductors. Germanium and silicon are
the good examples oI semiconductors.
Semiconductor Atom: - A material that cannot be subdivided into simpler substances using
chemical means is called element. The smaller portion oI an element that still exhibits all the
characteristics oI that element is called an atom.
You know that metals such as copper and aluminum are used to carry current in an electrical circuit.
Metals carry current are classiIied as conductors because they oIIer minimum opposition to the current
Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductor: - The electrical activity in semiconductor material is
highly dependent on temperature. At extremely low temperatures, valence electrons are held tightly to the
parent atom through covalent bond. Because these valence electros cannot driIt, the material cannot
support current Ilow.
Conduction in Extrinsic Semiconductor: - Pure semiconductors materials conduct very little
current as they contain very less number oI electrons and holes at room temperature. However the
conductivity oI these materials can be increased considerably by process known as doping.
Doping is the process oI adding other materials called impurities to a semiconductor material. Basically
there are two types oI impurities that are added to Ge to Si Crystal. One type oI impurity is reIerred to as
a pentavalent material because it is made up oI atoms which have Iive valence electrons.
N -Type Semiconductor: - When a pure semiconductor material is doped with a pentavalent
element such as arsenic (As), some oI the atoms oI the tetravalent semiconductor are replaced by arsenic
(As) atoms.
P -Type Semiconductor: - Doping pure semiconductors materials with a trivalent element, such as
Gallium (Ga), causes some oI the semiconductor tetravalent atoms to be displaced by trivalent atoms.