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FM 3-09.

Final Draft


Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below


31 May 2001

FM 3-09.30 (6-30) Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.



The purpose of this field manual (FM) is to provide a source for the most current essential information about fire support at the battalion task force and company team levels and discuss the technical, operational, and organizational aspects of observed fire procedures. The doctrinal foundations for this publication are found in FM 3-09 (6-20), Doctrine for Fire Support. Fire support tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for brigade, division, and corps operations are in FM 3-09.4 (6-20-40), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Brigade Operations, FM 3-09.5 (6-20-30), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Division Operations, and FM 3-09.6, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Corps Operations. The TTP for the targeting process are in FM 3-60 (6-20-10), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Targeting Process. The target audience for this manual is battalion task force fire support personnel, company team fire support team (FIST) personnel, and other fire support observers to include combat observation lasing teams (COLTs), Strikers, and maneuver shooters. This publication implements the following international agreements (standardization agreements [STANAGs] and quadripartite standardization agreements [QSTAGs]): STANAG 1034, Edition 8, Allied Spotting Procedures for Naval Gunfire Support. STANAG 2934 A ARTY P-1 Artillery Procedures. STANAG 3736, Edition 7, Offensive Air Support Operations. QSTAG 224, Edition 3, Manual Fire Direction Equipment, Target Classification, and Methods of Engagement. The proponent of this publication is Commandant, United States Army Field Artillery School (USAFAS). Send comments and recommendations directly to: Commandant USAFAS ATTN: Warfighting Integration and Development Directorate (ATSF-D) Fort Sill, OK 73503-5600. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.


*FM 3-09.30 (6-30)

Field Manual No. 3-09.30 (6-30) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, D.C., [pending date]

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below

PREFACE ...................................................................................................................vii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO FIRE SUPPORT ..................................................................... 1-1 Role of Fire Support .................................................................................................. 1-1 Fire Support Effectiveness ........................................................................................ 1-1 Tactical Missions ....................................................................................................... 1-6 Fire Support Planning and Coordination ...................................................................1-7 Targets ....................................................................................................................1-26 Target Acquisition Assets........................................................................................1-32 Chapter 2 BATTALION TASK FORCE FIRE SUPPORT ......................................................... 2-1 Fire Support Element Organization ........................................................................... 2-1 Fire Support Planning and the Military Decision Making Process ............................ 2-4 Battalion Task Force Fire Support Products ...........................................................2-18 Rehearsals ..............................................................................................................2-21 Fire Support Coordination and Execution ...............................................................2-23 Split TOC Operations ..............................................................................................2-24 The Tactics of Fire Support .....................................................................................2-24

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. ________ *This publication supersedes FM 6-20-20, 27 December 1991 and FM 6-30, 16 July 1991

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Chapter 3

COMPANY TEAM FIRE SUPPORT......................................................................... 3-1 Fire Support Team .................................................................................................... 3-1 Preparation for Operations........................................................................................ 3-5 Vehicle Employment Options.................................................................................... 3-7 Observation Posts..................................................................................................... 3-8 Company Team Fire Support Planning Using the Troop Leading Procedures ...... 3-10 Required Products .................................................................................................. 3-19 Company Team Fire Support Coordination and Execution .................................... 3-20

Chapter 4

COMMUNICATIONS ................................................................................................ 4-1 Fire Support Communications Nets.......................................................................... 4-1 Fire Support Communications Net Diagrams ........................................................... 4-4

Chapter 5

TARGET LOCATION ............................................................................................... 5-1 Terrain-Map Association ........................................................................................... 5-1 Introduction to Methods of Target Location .............................................................. 5-1 Direction .................................................................................................................... 5-2 Distance .................................................................................................................... 5-8 Altitude/Elevation .................................................................................................... 5-14 Terrain Sketch......................................................................................................... 5-16 Methods of Target Location ................................................................................... 5-17 Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver ...................................................................... 5-20

Chapter 6

CALL FOR FIRE....................................................................................................... 6-1 Description ................................................................................................................ 6-1 Six Elements of the Call for Fire ............................................................................... 6-2 Corrections of Errors................................................................................................. 6-9 Message to Observer................................................................................................ 6-9 Additional Information ............................................................................................. 6-10 Authentication ......................................................................................................... 6-11 FDC Commands ..................................................................................................... 6-11 Sample Missions ..................................................................................................... 6-12

Chapter 7

ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE .......................................................................................... 7-1 Section I - Subsequent Corrections...................................................................... 7-1 Purpose of Adjustment.............................................................................................. 7-1 Adjusting Point .......................................................................................................... 7-1 Spottings ................................................................................................................... 7-2 Types of Corrections................................................................................................. 7-5 Sequence of Subsequent Corrections ...................................................................... 7-7


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Section II - Area Fire (Adjustment and Fire for Effect) ......................................7-11 Adjustment Techniques ...........................................................................................7-11 Fire for Effect ...........................................................................................................7-14 Refinement and Surveillance ..................................................................................7-14 Section III - Artillery and Mortar Precision Fires ................................................7-16 Types of Precision Missions....................................................................................7-16 Precision Registration .............................................................................................7-16 Destruction Mission .................................................................................................7-30 High Burst and Mean Point of Impact Registration .................................................7-30 Section IV - Moving Targets .................................................................................7-35 Target of Opportunity...............................................................................................7-35 Planned Target ........................................................................................................7-35 Moving Target Calculations.....................................................................................7-36 Trigger and Intercept Point Considerations.............................................................7-40 Chapter 8 SPECIAL MUNITIONS.............................................................................................. 8-1 Section I - Improved Conventional Munitions ...................................................... 8-1 Characteristics........................................................................................................... 8-1 Call for Fire and Adjustment......................................................................................8-3 Sample ICM Missions................................................................................................ 8-3 ICM Considerations ................................................................................................... 8-4 Section II - Field Artillery Delivered SCATMINEs ................................................. 8-5 Characteristics........................................................................................................... 8-5 Types of Minefields.................................................................................................... 8-6 Selection of Mine Density.......................................................................................... 8-7 Selection of SD Time................................................................................................. 8-7 Target Location.......................................................................................................... 8-8 Call for Fire and Adjustment......................................................................................8-8 Sample SCATMINE Missions....................................................................................8-9 FSO Technical Planning Data ................................................................................... 8-9 Section III - Illumination ........................................................................................8-11 Characteristics.........................................................................................................8-11 Employment Considerations ...................................................................................8-11 Call for and Adjustment of Illumination....................................................................8-13 Coordinated and Continuous Illumination ...............................................................8-15 Sample Illumination Missions ..................................................................................8-16 Section IV - Smoke ................................................................................................8-18 Characteristics.........................................................................................................8-18 Smoke Rounds ........................................................................................................8-19


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Employment Considerations ................................................................................... 8-20 Smoke Delivery Techniques ................................................................................... 8-26 Immediate Smoke ................................................................................................... 8-27 Quick Smoke........................................................................................................... 8-28 Sample Missions ..................................................................................................... 8-29 Mortar Procedures .................................................................................................. 8-31 Section V - Copperhead ....................................................................................... 8-32 Characteristics ........................................................................................................ 8-32 Employment ............................................................................................................ 8-32 Engagement............................................................................................................ 8-33 Targets of Opportunity ............................................................................................ 8-35 Planned Targets...................................................................................................... 8-36 Copperhead Call for Fire......................................................................................... 8-37 Chapter 9 OBSERVER SPECIAL MISSIONS........................................................................... 9-1 Fires for the Aviation Battalion .................................................................................. 9-1 Fires for Pilots ........................................................................................................... 9-4 High-Angle Fire ......................................................................................................... 9-8 Final Protective Fire .................................................................................................. 9-9 Multiple Missions..................................................................................................... 9-11 Auxiliary Adjusting Point ......................................................................................... 9-11 Observer Not Oriented............................................................................................ 9-12 Irregularly Shaped Target ....................................................................................... 9-12 Adjustment by Sound.............................................................................................. 9-13 Observer Emergency Procedures .......................................................................... 9-14 Chapter 10 CLOSE AIR SUPPORT, ATTACK HELICOPTERS, AND NAVAL GUNFIRE...... 10-1 Section I - Close Air Support ............................................................................... 10-1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 10-1 Request................................................................................................................... 10-1 Employment ............................................................................................................ 10-3 Emergency CAS Mission Control ......................................................................... 10-16 Aircraft Characteristics.......................................................................................... 10-19 Risk Estimate Distance ......................................................................................... 10-22 Levels of Threat .................................................................................................... 10-24 Informal ACA Separation Techniques .................................................................. 10-24 Section II - Attack Helicopters ........................................................................... 10-30 Fire Support .......................................................................................................... 10-30 Capabilities............................................................................................................ 10-30


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Army and Air Force Coordination ..........................................................................10-33 Target Handover....................................................................................................10-33 Section III - Naval Gunfire ...................................................................................10-35 Introduction............................................................................................................10-35 Elements of the Call for Fire..................................................................................10-35 Adjustment of Naval Gunfire .................................................................................10-42 Ship Characteristic ................................................................................................10-53 Troop Safety ..........................................................................................................10-54 Appendix A MUNITIONS EFFECTS AND CAPABILITIES..........................................................A-1 Observer Responsibilities..........................................................................................A-1 Target Description .....................................................................................................A-1 Most Suitable Ammunition.........................................................................................A-2 Method of Attack........................................................................................................A-4 Effects of Munitions ...................................................................................................A-4 Appendix B BRIEFINGS, REPORTS, AND CHECKLISTS .........................................................B-1 Fire Support Status Brief ...........................................................................................B-1 FIST Report ...............................................................................................................B-1 Shelling Report ..........................................................................................................B-1 SALUTE Report.........................................................................................................B-2 FIST/FO SLoCTOP Checklists..................................................................................B-3 FSO/FSE Planning and Execution Checklists...........................................................B-5 MOUT Checklists.......................................................................................................B-7 Precombat Checks and Precombat Inspections .................................................... B-16 Appendix C FIRE SUPPORT VEHICLES.................................................................................... C-1 M981 FIST Vehicle ................................................................................................... C-1 Bradley Fire Support Team Vehicle ......................................................................... C-3 Striker ....................................................................................................................... C-4 Summary .................................................................................................................. C-5 Appendix D LASER RANGE FINDERS AND DESIGNATORS AND WEAPONS SYSTEMS ... D-1 Introduction............................................................................................................... D-1 Ground/Vehicular Laser Locator Designator............................................................ D-2 AN/GVS-5 Laser Rangefinder .................................................................................. D-6 AN/PVS-6 Mini Eyesafe Laser Infrared Observation Set......................................... D-7 Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder .............................................................. D-8 AH-64 Target Acquisition and Designation Sight ..................................................... D-8 OH-58D Mast Mounted Sight ................................................................................... D-9 Laser Target Designator........................................................................................... D-9

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Modular Universal Laser Equipment.........................................................................D-9 Air Force Laser Systems.........................................................................................D-10 Laser Guided Weapons ..........................................................................................D-10 Laser Safety During Training ..................................................................................D-12 Glossary Bibliography Index GLOSSARY .................................................................................................. Glossary-1 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................... Bibliography-1 INDEX .................................................................................................................Index-1


Chapter 1

Introduction to Fire Support

1-01. Fire support is the collective and coordinated employment of the fires of armed aircraft, land- and sea-based indirect fire systems, and electronic warfare (EW) systems against ground targets to support land combat operations. 1-02. Fire support operations must be flexible enough to integrate and synchronize lethal and nonlethal fires and effects with the scheme of maneuver across full spectrum operations to include: offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations. At the battalion task force level field artillery (FA), mortars, armed aircraft, and naval gunfire (NGF) deliver lethal fires and effects. Nonlethal means include effects from illumination, smoke, EW capabilities, and information operations (IO). 1-03. Fire support provides the maneuver commander a means to: Destroy, neutralize, and suppress the enemy. Obscure the enemy's vision. Isolate enemy formations and positions. Slow and canalize enemy movements. Influence the fight at ranges greater than direct fire weapons. Reduce the effect of enemy artillery with counterfire.


BATTALION TASK FORCE FIRE SUPPORT 1-04. At battalion task force level the fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) is the task force fire support officer (FSO). He is in charge of the battalion task force fire support element (FSE) and the principal fire support advisor to the battalion task force commander and his staff. The battalion task force FSE plans, coordinates, and executes fire support for the battalion task force commander's concept of operations. See Chapter 2 for a discussion of fire support at the battalion task force level. COMPANY TEAM FIRE SUPPORT 1-05. At company team level the FSCOORD is the company team FSO. He is in charge of the FIST. He is the principal fire support advisor to the company team commander. The FIST plans, coordinates, and executes fire support for the company team commander's concept of operations. See Chapter 3 for a discussion of fire support at the company team level.


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THE FIELD ARTILLERY TEAM 1-06. Fire support gunnery involves the coordinated efforts of the FA team, which consists of the observer, the fire direction center (FDC), and the firing element-all linked by an adequate communications system and field artillery tactical data systems (FATDS). Doctrine requires team members to operate with a sense of urgency, to continually strive to reduce the time required to execute an effective fire mission, and to strive to achieve first-round fire for effect (FFE) whenever possible. Observer 1-07. The observer serves as the "eyes" of indirect fire systems. He detects and locates suitable indirect fire targets within his zone of observation. To attack a target the observer transmits a request for indirect fires and adjusts the fires onto the target when necessary. An observer provides surveillance data pertaining to his fires. See Chapter 3 for a discussion of the observer and his FIST. Chapters 5 through 9 discuss observed fire TTP. Fire Direction Center 1-08. An FDC serves as the "brain" of the system. It receives the call for fire from the observer and sends a fire order to the firing unit. An FDC has the capability to determine how to attack a target (tactical fire direction) as well as determining firing data and converting this data to fire commands (technical fire direction). Firing Unit 1-09. The firing unit serves as the "brawn" of the system. The firing unit delivers fires as directed by the FDC. Newer FA weapon systems have, or will have, the onboard ability to determine technical fire direction data. SYSTEM RESPONSIVENESS 1-10. The fire support system consists of target acquisition (TA), weapons and munitions, and command and control (C2). To be an effective force in battle, fire support must be responsive to the needs of maneuver forces. Procedures must be streamlined to minimize the time between TA and effects on the target. Delays can result in failure to achieve adequate effects on the target. Responsiveness can be achieved by: Accomplishing all fire support planning, coordination, and execution by digital means when possible. Planning fire support requirements in advance. Streamlining the call for fire. Limiting radio transmissions on fire nets to time-sensitive, missionessential traffic only. Effective Fires on Target 1-11. The ability of the fire support system to place effective fires on a target will depend, in part, on the method of fire and type of ammunition selected to attack the target. Maximum effect can be achieved through accurate initial fires and massed fires


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1-12. Accurate Initial Fires. Observers must strive for first-round FFE. Figure 1-1 compares effect achieved to length of adjustment.

High E f f e c t

Unwarned, Short Adjustment

Warned, Long Adjustment


0 0

Rounds in Adjustment 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Warning Time (minutes)

Figure 1-1. Effectiveness Compared to Length of Adjustment 1-13. Massed Fires. Massing all available fires normally enables us to inflict maximum effect on a target with a minimum expenditure of ammunition. It also reduces our vulnerability to enemy TA devices. Failure to mass fires gives the enemy time to react and seek protection. Figure 1-2 compares massed fire and successive volley ammunition expenditures to get equivalent effect. Massed fires of three battalions firing one round are more effective against soft targets than one battalion firing the same total number of rounds in successive volleys. This is because of the minimum time lag between volley impacts. Massed fires ensure maximum effect in attacking targets that can easily change their posture category; for example, a soft target (personnel in the open) can easily become a hard target (personnel with overhead cover). Massed fires do not necessarily provide increased effectiveness against hard targets, because volume of fire is more critical than round impact timing.


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Target Postures Initial Volley 60% Standing 40% Prone Subsequent Volleys 25% Prone 75% In Foxhole or Equivalent

Weapon and Target Data

Weapon: 155-MM M198, M109A6 Target Diameter: 250 meters Target: Personnel In Open



Rounds 200 180

100 54

Three Battalions 1 Volley

One Battalion 10 Volleys

One Battery 43 Volleys

Figure 1-2. Number of Rounds Required for Equivalent Effect 1-14. Proper Munitions. In attacking the target, the shell-fuze combination selected must be capable of producing the desired results against the most vulnerable part of the target; for example, the gun crew versus the gun. Failure to select proper shell-fuze combinations will result in an excessive expenditure of ammunition and a reduction in effects on target. Figure 1-3 compares ammunition expenditures and effects on target.


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Weapon and Target Data Weapon: 155-MM M198, M109A6 Target Diameter: 250 meters Target: Personnel In Open

Rounds HE/Q



Same Number of Casualties Achieved

Figure 1-3. Ammunition Expenditures and Relative Effects 1-15. Law of War Considerations. In addition to the above tactical considerations, the selection of targets, munitions, and techniques of fire must comply with the Geneva and Hague Convention regarding prohibited targets and tactics. CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS 1-16. The accuracy of calls for fire depends on the actions and capabilities of observers and company team FISTs and the accuracy of fire support plans. Error-free self-location and precise target location by the observer supports first round FFE. First round FFE on a target of opportunity and immediate and effective suppression of enemy direct fire systems are essential if the supported maneuver unit is to accomplish its mission. Moreover, accurate location of planned targets is imperative to effective execution of a fire support plan. Accurate location of planned targets is possible only if the enemy is under actual observation by an observer or other targeting asset and continuous target refinement data is reported to the appropriate headquarters. 1-17. Achievement of these goals is primarily situation dependent. Accuracy of FA fires also depends to a great extent on the skill and experience of the observer who calls for fire and the equipment he uses for self-location and target location.


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1-18. Past observers, equipped with nothing more than a map, binoculars, and compass could expect a mean target location error of about 500 metersclearly not good enough for first round FFE or target suppression. 1-19. Attainable accuracy for today's observers teams equipped with optical and electronic devices such as laser rangefinders and position-locating systems has improved greatly over the past few years. When properly used by trained and qualified observers, these devices enable the observer to attain first round accuracy. Care must be exercised however, when using lasing devices that are not eye-safe. Severe eye injuries can be inflicted through improper use.

Lasers have inherently hazardous characteristics. Lasers that are not eye-safe can inflict severe eye injury. 1-20. Observer teams, battalion task force FSOs, and company team FSOs must ensure the maneuver commander recognizes the capabilities and limitations on attainable accuracy of indirect fire systems and considers this when developing his scheme of maneuver.

1-21. The FSO informs the battalion task force or company team commander of the tactical missions assigned to the FA units supporting the operations. These tactical missions shown in Table 1-1 describe the fire support responsibilities of FA units. This information is vital to planning fire support for tactical operations.


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Table 1-1. The Seven Inherent Responsibilities of Field Artillery Tactical Missions
AN FA UNIT WITH A TACTICAL MISSION OFAnswers calls for fire in priority fromDIRECT SUPPORT (DS) 1. Supported unit 2. Own observers1 3. Force FA headquarters (HQ) Zone of action of supported unit. REINFORCING (R) 1. Reinforced FA 2. Own observers1 3. Force FA HQ GENERAL SUPPORT REINFORCING (GSR) 1. Force FA HQ 2. Reinforced unit 1 3. Own observers Zone of action of supported unit to include zone of fire of reinforced FA unit. No requirement. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Force FA HQ or reinforced FA unit if approved by force FA HQ. Force FA HQ. GENERAL SUPPORT (GS) 1. Force FA HQ 2. Own observers1

Has as its zone of fire-

Zone of fire of reinforced FA.

Zone of action of supported unit.

Furnishes fire support personnel2 Furnishes liaison toEstablishes communication withIs positioned by-

Provides temporary replacements for causality losses as required. No requirement. FSOs and supported maneuver unit HQ. DS FA unit commander or as ordered by force HQ. Develops own fire plan.

No requirement. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit or as ordered by force FA HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ.

No requirement. No requirement No requirement.

Force FA HQ.

Has its fires planned by1 2

Force FA HQ.

Includes all TA means not deployed with supported unit (radar, aerial observers, survey parties, and so on). An FSE for each maneuver brigade, battalion task force, or cavalry squadron and one FIST with each maneuver company team or ground cavalry troop are trained and deployed by the FA unit authorized these assets. After deployment, FISTs and FSEs remain with the supported maneuver unit throughout the conflict.


TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Fire Support Planning 1-22. Fire support planning is the continual process of analyzing, allocating, and scheduling fire support. The goal of fire support planning is to effectively integrate fire support into battle plans to optimize combat power. It is performed as part of the military decision making process (MDMP). Fire Support Coordination 1-23. Fire support coordination is the continual process of implementing fire support planning and managing the fire support assets that are available to a maneuver force.


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Fire Planning 1-24. Fire planning is the continual process of selecting targets on which fires are prearranged to support a phase of the commander's plan. Essential Fire Support Task 1-25. An essential fire support task (EFST) is a task for fire support to accomplish that is required to support a combined arms operation. Failure to achieve an EFST may require the commander to alter his tactical or operational plan. A fully developed EFST has a task, purpose, method, and effects (TPME). The task describes what targeting objective (e.g., delay, disrupt, limit, or destroy) fires must achieve on an enemy formation's function or capability. The purpose describes why the task contributes to maneuver. The method describes how the task will be accomplished by assigning responsibility to observers or units and delivery assets and providing amplifying information or restrictions. Typically, the method is described by covering three categories: priority, allocation, and restrictions. Effects quantify successful accomplishment of the task. Concept of fires 1-26. The concept of fires is the logical sequence of EFSTs, integrated with the scheme of maneuver, that will accomplish the mission and achieve the commander's intent. It allocates in broad terms, the fire support assets to achieve the EFSTs. The concept of fires is the basis of the fires paragraph. Scheme of Fires 1-27. The scheme of fires is the detailed, logical sequence of targets and fire support events to find and attack high-payoff targets (HPTs). It details how we expect to execute the fire support plan in accordance with the time and space of the battlefield to accomplish the commander's EFSTs. The products of the fire support annex: fire support execution matrix (FSEM), target list/overlay, and/or a target synchronization matrix (TSM) articulate the scheme of fires. FIRE SUPPORT TASKS 1-28. The basic fire support tasks are as follows: Support forces in contact. Support the concept of operations. Synchronize fire support. Sustain fire support operations. 1-29. The following fire support tasks are performed in support of all combat operations: Locate targets. Integrate all available fire support. Destroy, neutralize, or suppress enemy direct and indirect fire weapons. Provide illumination and smoke. Provide fires in support of joint air attack team (JAAT) and suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) operations.


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Deliver scatterable mines (SCATMINEs). Prepare for future operations. Provide positive clearance of fire. 1-30. Offensive fire support tasks include the following: Execute all plans as the commander intends. Support the movement to contact or meeting engagement. Soften enemy defenses before the attack by arranging short, violent preparations when required. Provide support during the attack by attacking HPTs. Plan for deep area and flanking fires. Plan for fires to support the close area fight. Plan fires during consolidation. Plan fires for exploitation and pursuit. Provide counterfires. 1-31. Defensive fire support tasks include the following: Execute all plans as the commander intends. Disorganize, delay, and weaken the enemy before the attack. Provide counterfires. Provide fires in support of planned engagement areas (EAs). Attack HPTs. Plan fires in support of barrier and obstacle plans. Plan for deep, flanking, and rear area fires. Provide fires to support counterattacks. Plan final protective fire (FPFs). MANEUVER COMMANDER RESPONSIBILITIES 1-32. The maneuver commander has the responsibility to ensure that fire support is synchronized with the scheme of maneuver. When he discusses current or future operations, concepts, or courses of action, the FSO, as FSCOORD should be at his side. The maneuver commander provides the commander's intent for an operation and issues guidance for fire support. It is incumbent upon the FSO to understand the commander's intent and translate his guidance for fire support into EFSTs. Additionally, the maneuver commander: Approves the fires paragraph of the operation order, high-payoff target list (HPTL), the attack guidance matrix (AGM), target selection standards (TSS), or the TSM that combines the preceding three, and the EFSTs. Approves fire support coordinating measure (FSCMs). Clears indirect fires. Normally delegated to the command post (CP) and executed by the battle staff under the lead of the FSE. Train company team commanders to know, understand, and execute targets in their zone.


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Commander's Intent 1-33. FM 101-5, Chapter 5 defines commander's intent as " a clear, concise statement of what the force must do to succeed with respect to the enemy and the terrain and to the desired end state. It provides the link between the mission and the concept of operations by stating the key tasks that, along with the mission, are the basis for subordinates to exercise initiative when unanticipated opportunities arise or when the original concept of operations no longer applies." Commander's Guidance for Fire Support 1-34. The maneuver commander's guidance for fire support provides the FSO doctrinally stated tasks and purposes. A task for fire support describes a targeting effect against a specific enemy formation's function or capability. The purpose describes how this effect contributes to accomplishing the mission within the commander's intent. The planning guidance for fire support becomes the basis for the concept of fires and the fires paragraph discussed in the paragraphs below. The maneuver commander considers the following with respect to issuing fire support guidance: Method of engagement against potential HPTs (e.g., maneuver, lethal or nonlethal fires) and the desired effects. Engagement criteria (guidance on the size and type of units fires engage at different points in the operation). Observer plans (e.g., employment of FISTs, COLTs, and Strikers). Special munitions considerations (e.g., use of SCATMINE, smoke, or illumination). Radar and counterfire considerations (e.g., radar security, establishment of critical friendly zones [CFZs] or call for fire zones [CFFZs]). SEAD. FSCMs. Rules of engagement (ROE) and protected targets. FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING PROCESS 1-35. The fire support planning process has four imperatives: Fire support planning must be a part of the MDMP and be fully integrated into the existing planning process. Note: The fire support planning process using the MDMP at the battalion task force level is discussed in Chapter 2. Company team fire support planning is discussed in Chapter 3. Fire support planning must truly integrate the targeting process and its functions of decide, detect, deliver, and assess (D3A). Fire support planning must support and be integrated with the reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) plan. The R&S plan is a key link between the MDMP and fire support planning/targeting. The R&S plan links acquisition assets to finding specific enemy formations or required information to answer the commander's critical information requirements. The result of the fire support planning process is an effective, integrated, and executable plan.


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An effective plan clearly defines and focuses on achieving the effects required against the identified HPTs. An integrated plan provides the focus and timing for acquisition and attack systems to achieve a unified effect on HPTs. An executable plan ties detect and deliver assets to the HPTs and includes assessment of effects achieved. The plan must be simple, clearly communicated and have built in flexibility using well-defined decision points and triggers. 1-36. The fire planning process involves the identification of EFST requirements and responsibilities, the allocation of all assets necessary to accomplish or support those EFSTs, and the continual refinement of all data applicable to the successful execution of the EFSTs through planning, preparation, and execution. The fire planning process is summarized in Figure 1-4. (Note: TF = task force, TM = team)
Brigade Identify Requirements for Division EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Division EFSTs Develop Brigade EFSTs Develop Targets to Support Brigade EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Brigade EFSTs Allocate Assets to Battalions/TFs Verify Refinement Rehearse & Execute Rehearse & Execute Battalion/TF Identify Requirements for Brigade EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Brigade EFSTs Develop Battalion/TF EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Battalion/TF EFSTs Allocate Assets to Companies Verify Refinement Company/TM Identify Requirements for Battalion/TF EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Battalion/TF EFSTs Develop Company EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Company EFSTs Rehearse & Execute

Figure 1-4. The Fire Planning Process FIRE SUPPORT PLAN 1-37. The FSO in coordination with the maneuver operations officer and other fire support representatives prepares the fires portion of the concept of operations subparagraph of the operation order (OPORD) during the MDMP. The FSO also coordinates the preparation of the fire support paragraph, which includes a subparagraph for fire support assets included in an operation (e.g., close air support [CAS], FA and mortars, and NGF). These two paragraphs and the supporting annexes (if any), target lists, schedules, matrices, or other documents make up the fire support plan. The OPORD


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format is shown in Figure 1-5. For further details see FM 101-5, Staff Organization and Operations.
OPORD ***** 1. SITUATION 2. MISSION 3. EXECUTION Intent a. Concept of Operations (1) Maneuver (2) Fires ***** b. Tasks to Maneuver Units c. Tasks to Combat Support Units ***** (3) Fire Support (a) Air Support (b) Field Artillery Support (c) Naval Gunfire Support (d) Fire Support Coordinating Measures d. Coordinating Instructions 4. SERVICE SUPPORT 5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL

Figure 1-5. OPORD Format Paragraph 3a(2) - the fires paragraph 1-38. As a subparagraph to the concept of operations, the fires paragraph describes the concept of fires that, along with the scheme of maneuver communicates how the force as a whole will achieve the commanders intent. The primary audience for the fires paragraph is the subordinate maneuver commanders and their staffs. It must clearly describe the logical sequence of EFSTs and how they contribute to the concept of operations. 1-39. The overall paragraph organization should mirror that of the scheme of maneuver paragraph. If the maneuver paragraph is phased or otherwise organized, the fires paragraph will take on the same organization. The internal format for the fires paragraph uses four subcategories: TPME. Within each phase of an operation, each EFST will be described in the sequence of planned execution using TPME. The fires paragraph must be concise but specific enough to clearly state what fires are to accomplish in the operation. The information required in each subcategory is outlined below. 1-40. Task. Task describes the targeting objective fires must achieve against a specific enemy formation's function or capability. These formations are HPTs or contain one or more HPT. Task is normally expressed in terms of objective, formation, and function.


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Objective. Clearly describes the targeting objectives that must be achieved. Use terms such as disrupt, delay, limit or any other terms that describe the effects required. Formation. A specific element or subelement of the enemy. This can specify a specific vehicle type or target category as long as the element or subelement is clear. Function. A capability of the formation that is needed for it (the enemy formation) to achieve its primary task and purpose. 1-41. Purpose. Purpose describes the maneuver or operational reason for the task. This should identify as specifically as possible the friendly maneuver formation that will benefit from the targeting objective and describe in space and time what the objective will accomplish.

TASK AND PURPOSE Objective Disrupt the ability of Formation the motorized infantry platoon at point of penetration Function to place effective direct fire against the breach force

to allow a mechanized team to breach the obstacle without becoming decisively engaged by the motorized infantry platoon at the point of penetration 1-42. Method. Method describes how the task and purpose will be achieved. It ties the detect function to the deliver function in time and space and describes how to accomplish the task. It is normally described in terms of a priority, allocation, and restriction. Method includes: Priority of fires (POFs). Observers (primary/alternate). Triggers. Target allocation. Priority targets. CAS allocations. FPFs. Restrictions. Special munitions. Intelligence and electronic warfare assets. Any other instructions. 1-43. Priority. For detection assets, it assigns priorities for named areas of interest (NAIs), targeted areas of interest (TAIs), EAs, and/or HPTs to find. For deliver assets, it assigns the priority of which HPT that system will primarily be used against. 1-44. Allocation. For both detection and deliver assets, it describes the allocation of assets to accomplish the EFST.


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1-45. Restriction. Describes constraints-either requirements to do something; or prohibition on action. Considerations include ammunition restrictions and FSCMs.

METHOD FA POF to Team Alpha, mortar POF to Team Charlie. Primary observer for AB1000 (motorized infantry platoon at point of penetration) is Team Alpha from Observation Post (OP) 1, No Fire Area (NFA) 1. Alternate observer is COLT 2, NFA 3 no dualpurpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM) within 300 meters NP177368.Airspace Coordination Area (ACA) Lion in effect when CAS at initial point. 1-46. Effects. Effects attempt to quantify the successful accomplishment of the task. They provide a guide to determine when we are done with the task. One measure is to determine if the purpose was met. If multiple delivery assets are involved, it helps clarify what each must accomplish. Effects determination also provide the basis for the assess function of targeting and contribute to the decision of whether to re-attack the target.

EFFECTS No hostile fire on the breach force from enemy motorized infantry platoon unit at least the assault force has passed through. 25 percent of vehicles and 50 percent of enemy motorized infantry platoon destroyed. 1-47. Note: At battalion task force and below, a formal written OPORD may not be produced. A fire support plan at this level may be an operations overlay with written instructions, an FSEM, and a target list/overlay. Quick Fire Plan 1-48. The purpose of a quick fire plan is to quickly prepare and execute fire support in anticipation of an impending operation. Quick fire plan techniques constitute an informal fire plan. Quick fire plans may be developed by brigade, battalion task force, or company team FSOs to support their respective organizations. Like all fire support plans, the maneuver commander approves the quick fire plan. In quick fire planning the FSO assigns targets (and possibly a schedule of fires) to the most appropriate fire support means available to support the operation. In this type of fire support planning the available time usually does not permit evaluation of targets on the target list and consolidation with targets from related fire support agencies. 1-49. The approved quick fire plan is disseminated digitally or by Department of the Army (DA) Form 5368-R (Quick Fire Plan) to attack systems, higher


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headquarters FSEs, and those who will implement the plan to include the FA battalion CP and the mortar platoon leader. Figure 1-6 shows an example of a completed quick fire plan using DA Form 5368-R. The scheduling work sheet is on the reverse side of the form. QUICK FIRE PLAN
For use of this form, see FM 6-20; the proponent agency is Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). FIRE PLAN SUPPORTING ORIGINATOR MODIFICATIONS BY OKLAHOMA TF 2-64 F34 F34 H-HOUR SHEET OF DATE-TIME-GROUP 1 1 1700 1630Z TARGET INFORMATION

TARGET NUMBER (a) BB4003 BB4004 BB4005 BB4006


LOCATION (c) WA607218 WA604215 WA602217 WA596242



1 2 3 4

L I N E 1 ORGANIZATION (f) 2-39 FA FIRE UNIT (g) A -15 4003 36 4003 36 4003 36 4 TF MORTARS -10 TIMINGS (h) -5 4004 66(a) 4004 66(a) 4004 66(a) 4005 240 5 CAS Two Sorties 4003 H +5 4004 48(b) 4004 48(b) 4004 48(b) REMARKS (j) 4006 4(d)


3 C

(c) 6

a) 50% WP b) 50% HE c) Bombs/ Rockets d) WP/HC

Figure 1-6. Example Quick Fire Plan


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1-50. Table 1-2 provides an example sequence of actions and possible concurrent activities during the planning and preparation of a quick fire plan. The table is based on actions of the battalion task force commander and his FSO, but the sequence is similar at all levels. Table 1-2. Suggested Sequence of Actions for Preparing a Quick Fire Plan
Maneuver Commander or S3 1. Briefly describe operation. 4. Position mortars and forward air controllers. 7. Provide detailed description of operation. Brigade, Battalion Task Force, or Company Team FSO or Observer 2. Inform DS battalion S3 by situation report and warning order. 5. Position COLTs, Strikers, FISTs and/or observers. 8. Assess supportability of operation and inform maneuver commander. 9. Recommend guidance on attack of targets. 10. Brief observers DS Battalion S3 or Firing Unit 3. Inform DS battalion commander and assess brigade priorities 6. Send availability of firing units and ammunition. Begin positioning.

11. Position mortars as necessary.

12. Position firing units as necessary. 13. Send time check to FSO and firing units. 14. Give time check to maneuver command, aviation, mortars, and forward air controller (FAC). 15. Send target information to mortars, CAS, aviation, FA, and naval gunfire. 18. Send schedule of targets to FA and mortars. 22. Brief company team FSOs and observers. 24. Tell maneuver commander READY on fire support plan. 25. Rehearse with all participants. 26. Review fire support plan and modify as necessary. 27. Join maneuver commander to control fire support plan or go to designated location.

16. Begin production of target data for firing units. 19. Prepare mortar ammunition in sufficient quantities. 21. Mortars and/or CAS report READY on fire plan.

17. Begin production of target data for firing units. 20. Prepare ammunition in sufficient quantities. 23. Report READY on fire support plan.

25. Participate in rehearsals.

25. Participate in rehearsals.

Triggers 1-51. A trigger is a physical location (point, object, or terrain feature) or event or action that is used in determining when to initiate fires on a target or targets, or to initiate a fire plan. Triggers are integral parts of both the maneuver and fire support plans and thus should be addressed developed (at least in general detail) during course of action (COA) development. 1-52. Triggers are often associated with both friendly and enemy force movements. In the offense, a priority target or preparation fires may be triggered by the FSO when the friendly force crosses a particular phases line


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or by the unit commander after he receives the report that all units are in attack positions. In the defense an FPF may be triggered by the FSO when the enemy advance reaches a certain point on the ground, or by the commander at a point when he determines the position has become potentially untenable. Fires in support of an obstacle may be triggered by an FSO or company commander only at the time that a company or battalionsized enemy force has been halted at the obstacle. 1-53. Commanders and FSOs use triggers to time fires for critical missions and maximize their effects. The FSO ensures that primary and alternate triggering responsibilities are assigned for each critical target in the fire plan, that the person responsible for the trigger is in a position to observe the target and trigger the fires or will receive all necessary battlefield and decision-making information to make the triggering decision, and that the conditions required to initiate or withhold the trigger are clearly understood. Often, reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and TA (RISTA) activities and elements are linked to triggering decisions. As an example, a scout or forward element may be relied on to conduct the initial target identification and provide early warning to allow the FSO or observer responsible for the trigger enough time to be in position, orient equipment, make decisions, and/or initiate an AT MY COMMAND fire mission. An event may involve multiple triggers for various RISTA, maneuver, and fire support decisions. 1-54. As an example, the approach of an enemy unit toward an intersection in the brigade deep battle area (observed by a long range surveillance unit (LRSU) unit) may trigger the launching of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to monitor its progress. The direction it takes at the intersection may trigger the movement of a maneuver company to intercept it at a given point, and serve as a warning to a battalion FSO to prepare to implement the fire plan for a particular EA. The enemys crossing of a bridge and subsequent entrance into canalizing terrain (observed by the UAV) may trigger the firing of SCATMINE by the battalion FSO, behind the enemy and in the EA. The arrival of the enemy at a point in the EA (observed by a platoon observer with the responding maneuver company) may trigger the initiation of a fire plan by the company FSO. And the enemys breeching of the SCATMINE minefield and advance of surviving enemy forces (reported by the platoon leaders) may cause the company commander to trigger an FPF that facilitates disengagement and movement to subsequent positions. 1-55. Thus FSOs and commanders must understand the inter-relationships of the various triggers, and the communication paths required to facilitate timely sensor-shooter and sensor-C2-shooter linkages. The process for determining trigger points associated with moving targets is described in detail in Section VI, Chapter 7 of this manual. FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATING MEASURES 1-56. The FSO coordinates all fire support impacting in the area of responsibility of his supported maneuver commander, including that requested by the supported unit. He ensures that fire support will not jeopardize troop safety, will interface with other fire support means, and will not disrupt adjacent unit operations. FSCMs help him in those efforts. FSCMs are designed to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and at the


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same time provide safeguards for friendly forces. All FSCMs are drawn and lettered in black. Permissive Measures 1-57. Permissive measures are those that facilitate the attack of targets. 1-57a. Coordinated Fire Line. The coordinated fire line (CFL) (Figure 1-7) is a line beyond which conventional surface fire support means (mortars, FA, NGF ships) may fire at any time within the zone of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. A brigade (or higher) headquarters normally establishes it; however, an independently operating maneuver battalion may also establish it.

TF 2-4 AR TF 1-2 AR

CFL 2 BDE 061600Z JUL

2 X 1

061600Z JUL
3 X 2

Figure 1-7. Coordinated Fire Line 1-58. Fire Support Coordination Line. The appropriate land or amphibious force commanders may establish a fire support coordination line (FSCL) within their boundaries in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders. FSCLs facilitate the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity beyond the coordinating measure. The FSCL applies to fires of air, land, and sea-based weapon systems using any type of ammunition. Forces attacking targets beyond an FSCL must inform all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Supporting elements attacking targets beyond the FSCL must ensure that the attack will not produce adverse effects on, or to the rear of, the line. Short of an FSCL, the appropriate land or amphibious force commander controls all air-to-ground and surface-to-surface attack operations. The FSCL should follow well-defined terrain features. Coordination of attacks beyond the FSCL is especially critical to commanders of air, land, and special operations forces. In exceptional circumstances, the inability to conduct this coordination will not preclude the attack of targets beyond the FSCL. However, failure to do so may increase the risk of fratricide. The FCSL is depicted in Figure 1-8.


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Figure 1-8. Fire Support Coordination Line 1-59. Free-Fire Area. A free-fire area (FFA) is a specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. Normally, it is established on identifiable terrain by division or higher headquarters. It is depicted in Figure 1-9.

FFA X CORPS 080800 081200Z AUG OR EFF 080800Z AUG

Figure 1-9. Free-Fire Area Restrictive Measures 1-60. Restrictive measures are those that provide safeguards for friendly forces and noncombatants, facilities, or terrain. 1-61. Restrictive Fire Area. A restrictive fire area (RFA) is an area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions may not be delivered without prior coordination with the establishing headquarters. Normally, a battalion task force or higher headquarters establishes an RFA. The RFA is depicted in Figure 1-10.



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RFA TF 1-20 AR 210600 211000Z JUL NO DPICM

Figure 1-10. Restrictive Fire Area 1-62. Restrictive Fire Line. A restrictive fire line (RFL) (Figure 1-11) is a line established between converging forces that prohibit fires or their effects from crossing the line without coordination with the affected force. The next higher common commander of the converging forces establishes it.

RFL X CORPS EFF 121200Z 131200Z OCT

RFL X CORPS EFF 121200Z 131200Z OCT


Figure 1-11. Restrictive Fire Line 1-62a. No-Fire Line (NFL). An NFL is a line short of which artillery or ships do not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander, but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly troops. The NFL is primarily used at joint and multinational force level and is generally similar to the CFL. JP 1-02 is the source reference. 1-62b. Fire Support Safety Line (FSSL). An FSSL is a line short of which indirect fire systems do not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander who established the line, but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly troops. The FSSL is used to


X (US)

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expedite the quick attack of targets beyond it by fire support units (of higher levels), without the delay of unnecessary coordination but also to guarantee that no targets are attacked short of it without coordination with the responsible maneuver commander. It is normally located as close in as the establishing supported commander desires and should follow, if possible well defined terrain features. The FSSL is normally established by the commanders of division and brigade size forces, but may on occasion, be established by the commander of a battalion-size force. It is similar to the NFL. 1-62c. An FSSL could be a stretched line in front of the force as well as a circular line in case the restriction on indirect fire should be imposed on a certain area. As per AAP-6, the FSSL is shown on maps, charts, and overlays with a dashed black line. The abbreviation "FSSL" and the establishing headquarters are written above the line, at the ends, with the effective date/time groups immediately below the line (e.g. From 121500Z to 121800Z). If the FSSL is given a previously arranged code name, this is also placed below the line. 1-63. No-Fire Area. A NFA (Figure 1-12) is an area in which no fires or effects of fires are allowed. Two exceptions are: When the establishing headquarters approves fires temporarily within the NFA on a mission-by-mission basis When an enemy force within the NFA engages a friendly force, the commander may engage the enemy to defend his force.


Figure 1-12. No-Fire Area


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1-64. Airspace Coordination Area. An ACA is a means of providing airspace for the relatively safe travel of aircraft. An ACA facilitates the simultaneous attack of a target or targets near each other by multiple fire support assets to include air and surface-to-surface. A formal ACA (a three dimensional box of airspace) requires detailed planning (Figure 1-13). More often an informal ACA is established using time, lateral separation, or altitude to provide separation between surface-to surface and air delivered weapons effects.

Maximum Altitude Center Line

Minimum Altitude

Width Coordinate Point Length No Surface Fires

Coordinate Point

Figure 1-13. Formal ACA 1-65. The airspace control authority establishes formal ACAs at the request of the appropriate ground commander (normally at brigade and higher level). Information defining the formal ACA includes minimum and maximum altitudes, a baseline designated by grid coordinates at each end, the width (on either side of the baseline) and the effective times (Figure 1-14). When time for coordination is limited an informal ACA is used. In an informal ACA, aircraft and surface fires may be separated by time or distance (lateral, altitude, or a combination of the two). The informal ACA can be established at battalion task force or higher level. An informal ACA is normally in effect for a short period of time. Usually, the period is only long enough to get aircraft into and out of the target area. See Chapter 10, Section I for a further discussion of informal ACAs for CAS operations. 1-66. Both types of ACAs are constructed with the assistance of the air liaison officer (ALO) to ensure they meet the technical requirements of the aircraft and weapons. Altitude for ACAs is expressed in feet above mean sea level (MSL). For additional information see FM 3-09.4 and Joint Pub 3-09-3, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Close Air Support (CAS).


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ACA 53ID (M) MIN ALT: 500 MAX ALT: 3000 GRIDS NK2313 to NK3013 to NK2320 to NK3022 EFF 281400 281800Z AUG

Figure 1-14. Airspace Coordination Area CLEARANCE OF FIRES 1-67. Clearance of fires is the process of approving or obtaining approval for attacking targets with indirect fires both within and outside the boundaries of the maneuver unit for which fires are provided. Fires must be cleared to prevent inadvertent engagement of friendly elements and noncombatants. Clearance of fires requires positive action; silence is not consent. 1-68.Maneuver commanders clear fires. Normally this is delegated to their main CPs and executed by the battle staff under the lead of the FSE. The FSE at the maneuver headquarters initiating the request for fires is normally responsible for obtaining internal clearance (clearance from subordinate units) and as necessary, clearance from adjacent units in whose areas the targets lie. Acting as the maneuver commander's agent for clearance of fires is an inherent task of FSE organizations. 1-69. The commander establishes unit boundaries or other maneuver control and FSCMs for his subordinate elements as a means of separating units, synchronizing fires and maneuver, and facilitating clearance of fires. Tools to facilitate clearance of fires include: Automated battle command systems designed to interpret control measures and FSCMs, Active or passive recognition systems. 1-70. Even with automated systems, clearance of fires remains a command responsibility at every level. The maneuver commander considers mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations (METT-TC) factors and analyzes the risks associated with relying on automated systems. Maneuver Control Measures 1-71. The first step in effective clearance of fires is the use of maneuver control measures. Boundaries serve as both permissive and restrictive measures. Boundaries allow the unit that "owns the ground" to engage targets quickly, requiring coordination and clearance only within that organization. Boundaries divide battle space and define responsibility for


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clearance of fires. The decision not to use boundaries at the lowest possible level may impact on the timely clearance of fires. 1-72. FSEs must be knowledgeable of maneuver control measures and their impact on clearance of fires. For example, boundaries are both restrictive and permissive; corridors are restrictive; while routes, axis, and directions of attack are neither. FSCMs 1-73. The next step in effective clearance of fires is to properly use FSCMs. Permissive FSCMs (such as a brigade or division CFL) should be established far enough out to protect ground forces. Permissive measures offer the opportunity for safe responsive fires on targets of opportunity if positioned correctly and disseminated to all higher, adjacent, and subordinate units. Units should establish restrictive FSCMs (such as NFAs) on all forces forward of the CFL. Restrictive FSCMs are sent to higher, adjacent and subordinate units as well. NFAs should be established on assets short of the CFL if those assets are not task organized to the force in whose zone or sector they are positioned. For example, brigade COLTs in TF 1-1's sector or TF 1-1 scouts in TF 1-2's sector. The size of restrictive measures should be verified to preclude unwarranted delays for otherwise safe fires. 1-74. Note: CFLs apply only to surface-to-surface fires. It is doubtful that the corps FSCL will be shallow enough to facilitate CAS attacks for the battalion task force. Therefore units owning the ground must clear all CAS missions, regardless of whether long or short of the CFL. Preclearance 1-75. Next determine which fires will be considered precleared. In some very specific instances, fires may be cleared during the planning phase. Two such instances are: Fires into a planned CFFZ resulting from a radar acquisition in that planned CFFZ. Fires on a preplanned target with a definable trigger, against a specific enemy, and according to the scheme of fires. 1-76. Prior to preclearing any fire missions the maneuver commander should conduct a fratricide risk assessment to determine if this method should be employed. Clearance of Fires Drill 1-77. When fires are requested that are not precleared or allowed by a permissive FSCM, they must be positively cleared. Clearance of fires should be a drill in all CPs and operations centers. A call should be sent on a communications nets requesting, from the force on the ground, clearance of a particular grid. The best method is a redundant drill where a call for clearance of fires is simultaneously transmitted over two nets; the fire support net and a maneuver net. The following example illustrates this method.


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If a brigade COLT wants to fire an unplanned fire mission short of the CFL in TF 319's zone, the call for request of clearance of fires is sent over the brigade command or operations and intelligence (O&I) net and the brigade fire support net: TF 3-19 FSE/TOC THIS IS BRIGADE TOC/FSE. REQUEST CLEARANCE ON GRID NK395176. Within TF 3-19 the process is repeated on the battalion task force command or O&I nets and the heavy mortar net: GUIDONS THIS IS TF 3-19 TOC/FSE REQUEST CLEARANCE ON GRID NK395176. This request, received at the company team CP and the company team FSO's Bradley fire support team vehicle (BFIST) is acknowledged, the specific grid is cleared and the response is sent back to the battalion task force tactical operations center (TOC)/FSE and then back to brigade as a cleared fire mission. 1-78. Fires across one battalion task force boundary into the zone/sector of another battalion task force are best cleared at the lowest possible level. An effective method to clear fires in this instance is for the brigade to authorize direct clearance of fires between battalion task forces. That is, TF 3-19 can call directly to TF 2-19 to clear a fire mission. This is best done on the brigade fire support coordination net. The brigade FSE will monitor the action, and will get involved only to facilitate coordination (i.e., communications between battalion task forces are poor). 1-79. This same approach can be taken with clearing fires across company team boundaries within a battalion task force using the battalion task force O&I and heavy mortar net. AFATDS and Clearance of Fires 1-80. The advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS) assists in clearance of fires procedures by automatically sending a digital request for coordination (clearance) when fires are requested cross-boundary or when an FSCM is violated by a request for fires. The clearance drill must still be accomplished with the responsible TOC, then the results transmitted digitally to the originator. Consider the impact on rapid clearance of fires when establishing AFATDS intervention criteria and safe distance radii relating to FSCM establishment. 1-81. NFA and RFA Considerations. The size of these areas should be just large enough to safeguard the force, element, or individual for which they are established. An NFA with a 1 km radius established over a COLT position offers a much larger buffer zone than required to protect the COLT (munition dependent). With AFATDS, if that buffer zone is "touched" by the artificial criteria of the input target buffer zone (a radius around the target that approximates a particular munition's effects), the mission will be delayed for coordination. The FSO should closely review and validate NFA/RFA size as well as target buffer zone inputs for the various munitions.


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TYPES 1-82. The term target is the most fundamental term used in fire support planning. In fire support operations, a target is personnel, materiel, or terrain that is designated and numbered for future reference and or firing. Each target can be classified as either a target of opportunity or a planned target. Target of Opportunity 1-83. A target of opportunity is a target that is visible to a surface or air sensor or observer, is within range of available weapons, and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. Planned Target 1-84. A planned target is a target on which fires are prearranged. The degree of prearrangement varies, but some prior coordination or action has been made to facilitate its engagement. Planned targets may be further subdivided into scheduled, on-call, and priority targets. 1-85. Scheduled Target. A scheduled target is a planned target on which fires are to be delivered at a specific time. This time may be related to an H-hour or other time reference. However, once the reference has been established, the scheduled target will have a definite time sequence. 1-86. On-call Target. An on-call target is a planned target other than a scheduled target on which fires are to be delivered when requested. The oncall target requires less reaction time than a target of opportunity. 1-87. Priority Target. A priority target is a target on which the delivery of fires takes precedence over all other fires. The supported maneuver commander designates a priority target. He provides the FSCOORD specific guidance as to when a target will be a priority target. The commander should also state the desired effects on the target and special munitions to use if applicable. When not engaged in fire missions, firing units lay on assigned priority targets. 1-88. Final Protective Fire. An example of a priority target in a defensive situation is an FPF. An FPF is an immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. In fire support operations an FPF is continuous artillery and or mortar fires on a preplanned target. Indirect fire FPFs should be integrated with maneuver direct fire FPFs. An FPF is fired at the maximum rate of fire until the firing unit is requested to stop, ammunition is exhausted, or the firing unit is forced to move. The brigade commander normally allocates FA FPFs to the battalion task force, which may allocate to company team level.


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The battalion task force commander normally allocates heavy mortar FPFs to company team level. The authority to shoot an FPF is that of the lowest maneuver commander in whose area the FPF is placed or his authorized representative. The company team FIST has the responsibility to adjust in the FPF when the tactical situation dictates (see Chapter 9 for FPF adjustment procedures). The FPF is cancelled when no longer required. 1-89. Table 1-3 provides information necessary in planning FPFs. The FPF widths in Table 1-3 are neither precise nor restrictive. The sheaves can be opened or closed (see Chapter 6 for sheaf descriptions) to cover the specific terrain on which the FPF is located. Table 1-3 is derived from data on the bursting diameter of rounds extracted from various sources. The bursting diameter of an high-explosive (HE) round is generally considered to be twice the distance from the point of impact at which the round will reliably place one lethal fragment per square meter of target. Table 1-3. FPF Planning Size 120 mm 120 mm 81 mm (M252) 81 mm 60 mm 155 mm 155 mm 105 mm 105 mm SYMBOLS 1-90. Standard symbols are used in the preparation of maps, charts, and overlays to identify targets by type (point, linear, rectangular, circular, FPF, or target reference point). These symbols are shown in Figures 1-15 through 1-20. They are keyed to targets on the sample target list work sheet in Figure 1-15. Note: DA Form 4655-R (Target List Work Sheet) facilitates fire planning. It is a preliminary list of targets and their descriptions from which fire support personnel can select targets for a fire support plan. Number of tubes 4 2 4 2 2 6 3 6 3 Approximate Width (meters) Mortars: 300 150 150 75 60 Howitzers: 300 150 210 105 Approximate Depth (meters) 75 75 50 50 30 50 50 35 35


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LINE TARGET NO NO DESCRIPTION a b AA3411 82 mm Mortar 1 Position-4 tubes AA3412 Mech Infantry in 2 Trench Line AA3413 Aircraft Landing 3 Strip AA3414 Suspected 4 Regimental CP AA3415 FPF 5 6 AA3416 Suspected OP For use of this form, see FM 6-20-40; the proponent is TRADOC. SHEET __1__ OF __1__ SIZE SOURCE / LOCATION ALTITUDE ATTITUDE LENGTH WIDTH ACCURACY REMARKS c d e f g h i WA923435 WA918560 WA920450 WA947343 WA875689 WA885670 (Radius 800 m) 340 1600 4800 400 1200 50 200



Team Alpha TRP A3

Figure 1-15. Sample Target List Work Sheet Point Target 1-91. A point target (Figure 1-16) is a target area 200 meters or less in width and length. Minimum accuracy of the target location on the target list is a six-digit grid (AA3411 in Figure 1-15). Linear Target 1-92. A linear target (Figure 1-17) is one that is more than 200 meters but normally less than 600 meters long; for example, a trench line. Targets longer than 600 meters will require fire support assets other than FA or will be made into multiple targets. A linear target (AA3412 in Figure 1-15) is designated by two grids or by a center grid, a length, and an attitude. Rectangular Target 1-93. A rectangular target (Figure 1-18) is one that is wider and longer than 200 meters; for example, a landing strip or a city block. It is designated on the target list by four grids or by a center grid, a length, width, and an attitude (AA3413 in Figure 1-15).


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Figure 1-16. Point Target Circular Target

Figure 1-17. Linear Target

Figure 1-18. Rectangular Target

1-94. A circular target (Figure 1-19) is one that is in a circular pattern or is vague as to exact composition. On a target list, it is designated by a center grid and radius greater than 100 meters (AA3414 in Figure 1-15).


Figure 1-19. Circular Target Final Protective Fire 1-95. An FPF is an immediately available, prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. The symbol for an FPF is shown in Figure 1-20. It includes the target number (AA3415 in Figure 1-15), FPF, and, optionally, the unit to fire and caliber (e.g., 155mm) or type of weapon (e.g., mortar). Anchor points. This graphic requires three anchor points. Points 1 and 2 define the endpoints of the graphics vertical line. Point 3 defines the endpoint of the graphics horizontal line. Size/Shape. Points 1 and 2 determine the length of the vertical line. Points 2 and 3 determine the length of the horizontal line, which will project perpendicularly from the midpoint of the vertical line. Orientation. The head of the T typically faces enemy forces.
PT. 1 PT. 3


PT. 2

AA3415 FPF B/2-10 FA (155mm)

Figure 1-20. Final Protective Fire


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Target Reference Point 1-96. A target reference point (TRP) (Figure 1-21) is an easily recognizable point on the ground (either natural or man-made) used for identifying enemy targets or controlling fires. A TRP can also designate the center of an area where the commander plans to distribute or converge the fires of all his weapons rapidly. A TRP is designated with a standard target symbol and a target number issued by the FIST or FSO. Once designated, a TRP also constitutes an indirect fire target (AA3416 in Figure 1-15).

(TRP A3) AA3416

Figure 1-21. Target Reference Point MULTIPLES Group 1-97. A group of targets consists of two or more targets on which the maneuver commander desires simultaneous attack. It is graphically portrayed by circling the targets and identifying them with a group designator (Figure 1-22). This designator consists of the two letters assigned to the maneuver brigade target block with a number between the letters. The numbers should be assigned sequentially as they are used. The number of FA firing batteries and or battalions available must be considered in planning groups of targets. Including individual targets in a group does not preclude them from being attacked individually.
A1A AA3412 AA3413


Figure 1-22. Group of Targets Series 1-98. A series is a number of targets and or groups planned to be fired in a predetermined sequence to support a maneuver operation. A series may also be fired on call, at a specified time, or when a certain event occurs. The maneuver commander determines the need for a series on the advice of his


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FSO. The series is indicated by a code name or nickname (Figure 1-23). Including individual targets or a group of targets in a series does not preclude these targets from being attacked individually.


AA3409 AA3410 AA3412 AA3413 AA3411 AA3414 A1A

Figure 1-23. Series of Targets Program 1-99. A program is the predetermined sequential attack of targets of a similar nature. It may be executed on call, at a specific time, or when a particular event occurs. Targets are designated by their nature and are based on the commander's guidance. For example, in a counterfire program, all the targets are artillery-system related: OPs, artillery batteries, or mortar platoons. A program is not graphically displayed. NUMBERING SYSTEM 1-100. Target designators consist of two letters followed by four numerals, for example, AA1000. The two-letter group denotes the originator of the target. The first letter designates a particular nation or a corps associated with a particular nation. The second letter is assigned by corps down to brigade level. Blocks of numbers are assigned by those headquarters having two assigned letters. (See Table 1-4). Table 1-4. Assignment of Blocks of Numbers NUMBERS ASSIGNED TO 0001-1999 FSE 2000-2999 FSO, lowest numbered maneuver battalion task force or squadron1 3000-3999 FSO, second lowest numbered maneuver battalion task force or squadron 4000-4999 FSO, third lowest numbered maneuver battalion task force or squadron 5000-6999 Additional FSOs 7000-7999 FDC, direct support FA battalion 8000-8999 Counterfire targets 9000-9999 Spare 1 Lowest regimental number


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1-101. A battalion task force or squadron-size element with a block of numbers may suballocate numbers as shown in Table 1-5. Consult unit tactical standing operating procedures (TSOP) for specific unit target numbers. Table 1-5. Subassignment of Blocks of Numbers NUMBERS ASSIGNED TO 000-199 FSO or FSE 200-299 FIST, Company Team A 300-399 FIST, Company Team B 400-499 FIST, Company Team C 500-599 FIST, Company Team D 600-699 COLTs, Strikers 700-799 Maneuver battalion or company team mortars or squadron howitzer battery 800-999 As required Note: If additional numbers are needed, company team FSOs get them from supervising FSEs.


1-102. The fire support system consolidates targeting information from many different agencies. The "grass roots" of the TA effort are the FIST, COLT, and Striker observers and the supported soldiers who aggressively report targeting information. These observers at battalion task force, company team, and platoon levels acquire targets for the entire fire support system by observing the battlefield to detect, identify, and locate targets. TA assets for the battalion task force and below include the following: FIST, COLT, and Striker. Weapons locating radars (AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37/47). Ground surveillance radar (AN/PPS-5). Remotely employed sensors. Combat outposts. Reconnaissance from scouts and patrols. Listening posts or observation posts. Enemy prisoners of war. Battle damage assessment reports. Local populace and refugees. OH-58D (see Appendix D). COMBAT OBSERVATION LASING TEAM (COLT)/STRIKER Description 1-103. The COLT is a brigade-level observer team (see FM 6-20-40) designed to maximize the use of smart munitions. Although originally conceived to interface with the Copperhead munition, a COLT can be used with any munition that requires reflected laser energy for final ballistic guidance.


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COLTS can also be used as independent observers to weight key or vulnerable areas. The ground/vehicular laser locator designator (G/VLLD) provides the COLTs accurate range, azimuth, and vertical angle to attack targets with standard munitions as well. 1-104. Within the heavy division structure, a COLT is comprised of three personnel equipped with a G/VLLD, a fire support vehicle, three combat net radios, and a digital device. There are one or more COLTs per maneuver brigade in heavy divisions. For light forces, current authorizations provide one COLT to each DS artillery battalion and three COLTs to the division artillery. 1-105. The mission of Strikers (see Special Text (ST) 6-20-92, The Strike / Reconnaissance (Recon) Platoon TTP) is to provide the maneuver brigade commander with high-technology observations teams that are dedicated to executing fires throughout the depth of the brigade's battlespace. The mission includes calling for conventional artillery and rocket fires, providing laser designation for smart munitions and, as a secondary mission, providing reconnaissance and surveillance for the brigade. 1-106. The Striker platoon is organic to the brigade's DS artillery battalion. The platoon headquarters (platoon leader, platoon sergeant, and drivers) controls and employs the Striker teams. In a heavy division each platoon will be comprised of six three-man Striker teams. In a light division each platoon will be comprised of three three-man teams. Employment Considerations 1-107. If COLT or Striker assets are decentralized at the brigade level and allocated to the battalion task force and below, the subordinate FSOs should consider the following issues with respect to employment: If COLTs/Strikers are attached to battalion task forces and below the mission should be clearly defined. The brigade FSO, through the Striker platoon leader can facilitate the coordination of time and location linkups and logistics support relationships. Clearly defined task and purpose for each Striker mission. Clearly defined attack criteria and desired effects for each target. Tentative redundant OPs for every target. The mode/method the teams will use to get to the OP (air, ground, dismounted; routes, checkpoints, and dismount points) Observer and firing unit positioning (<800 mils angle T) for Copperhead. Range of G/VLLD and firing unit to expected targets. For CAS, the location of the observer and the ability of the aircraft to fly within an optimal attack zone based on the observer-target (OT) line (laser guided munitions) (See Chapter 10, Section I). Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) codes for laser guided munitions. Communications capabilities to include verification of frequency modulated (FM) radio line of sight, use of retransmission assets, and possible modification of radio net structures. Passage through friendly units and deconfliction with scout/FIST movement.


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Force protection and security measures including anti-fratricide measures (e.g., infantry, air defense or engineer support; FSCMs; radar zones) AN/TPQ-36 1-108. The Q-36 Firefinder radar is optimized to detect short-range high angle weapons such as mortars. In addition, it can locate artillery and rockets. For planning purposes the minimum range of the Q36 is 750 meters. The maximum range is 12 kilometers for artillery and mortars and 24 kilometers for rockets. The Q-36 can search a sector from 230 to 1,600 mils in width or 6,400 mils in the extended azimuth mode. Probabilities of detection data are shown in Table 1-6. AN/TPQ-37 1-109. The Q-37 Firefinder radar is optimized to detect low angle long-range weapons. For planning purposes the Q-37 has a minimum range of 3 kilometers and a maximum range of 30 kilometers for artillery and 50 kilometers for rockets. In addition, it locates short-range high angle weapons complementing the Q-36. The Q-37 can search a sector from 300 to 1,600 mils in width. Probabilities of detection data are shown in Table 1-6. Table 1-6. Q36 and Q37 Probabilities of Detection
General Planning Ranges Radar Minimum Artillery Range & Mortars 750 meters 3 km 12 km 30 km Rockets Mortars <3 km: 45-89% 3-12 km: 90% 12-24 km: <90% 4-19 km: 90% (if higher charge fired) Probability of Detection Data Light/Medium Artillery 3-10.5 km: 70% 10.5-24 km: <70% 4-25 km: 85% >25 km: <80% Heavy Artillery Rockets

Q36 Q37

24 km 50 km

3-10.5 km: 70% 8-24 km: 80% 10.5-24 km: <70% <8 km: <80% 4-30 km: 85% >30 km: <85% 4-50 km: 85% (large rockets)

GROUND SURVEILLANCE RADAR AN/PPS-5 1-110. Ground surveillance radar (GSR) teams provide mobile, all-weather battlefield surveillance. When employed in pairs they can provide observation from a given vantage point 24 hours a day. GSR targets are classified as dismounted, light vehicle, heavy vehicle, or tracked vehicle. The AN/PPS-5 has a line of sight range of 10 km against vehicles and 6 km against personnel. It can detect targets through light camouflage, smoke, haze, light snow and rain, and darkness. Foliage and heavy rain and snow seriously restrict its radar detection capability. 1-111. GSR is designed to detect targets moving against a background. It is generally ineffective against an air target unless the aircraft is flying close to the ground. It is vulnerable to enemy direction-finding and jamming equipment. The GSR must be positioned in an area that is free of ground clutter such as trees, thick vegetation, and buildings and that affords longrange observation and a wide field of view.


Chapter 2

Battalion Task Force Fire Support

2-01. The fire support organization at battalion task force is comprised of an FSE with the personnel shown in Table 2-1. This organization is representative of light and heavy forces FSEs to include the aviation FSEs. Table 2-1. Battalion Task Force Fire Support Element Title Fire Support Officer Assistant Fire Support Officer (Plans) Fire Support Sergeant Fire Support Sergeant Fire Support Specialist DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Battalion Task Force FSO 2-02. At battalion task force level the FSCOORD is the FSO. The FSO enables the battalion task force commander to synchronize fires with maneuver. The FSO accomplishes this by clearly understanding the commander's intent and translating his guidance into EFSTs. The FSO advises the commander and staff on the proper employment of fire support means and actively manages the execution of the fire support plan. Duties and responsibilities include: Plans and coordinates fire support for the battalion task force. Principal advisor on fire support matters (assets, capabilities, limitations, and missions) to the battalion task force commander and his staff. Assists in the synchronization of fires and maneuver. Participate in the MDMP and targeting process. Develop the fire support plan for approval. During the MDMP and targeting meetings, recommends in coordination with the S2 and S3, what targets to attack, when and where to attack them, and with what assets (lethal/nonlethal). Develops the battalion task force observation plan. Plans for and supervises the execution of assigned and developed EFSTs. Ensure company FSOs are aware of assigned EFSTs and are refining targets in accordance with top-down fire planning, bottom-up refinement. Produces the battalion task force target list. Rank CPT 1LT SFC SSG SPC Quantity 1 1 1 1 2


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Recommends to the battalion task force commander how to best employ and control FISTs. Options include centralized control of a "pool" of FISTs to execute brigade and battalion EFSTs; decentralized control down to company team level to execute brigade and battalion task force and company team EFSTs; or a combination of the two. Participate in the battalion task force and brigade combined arms rehearsals. Keeps the battalion task force commander and staff informed of the current status and activity of all fire support assets. Acts upon and coordinates requests for fire support from company FSOs. Continually assess fire support asset availability and recommends priorities and allocation of fire support. Resolves duplication of planned target lists. Manages the clearance of fire battle drill within the tactical operations center. Recommends FSCMs. Assists the battalion task force S3 in terrain management for fire support assets. Coordinates with the ALO and S3 Air for use of CAS and with the S3 Air for Army airspace command and control (A2C2) actions. Coordinates with the intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW), IO, civil affairs, psychological operations (PSYOP) and other nonlethal representatives as appropriate for the nonlethal attack of targets and integration of information operations into the concept of the operation. In coordination with the engineer plans fires to support mobility and countermobility operations. Anticipates changes during mission execution and recommends and coordinates revisions to the fire support plan. In coordination with the brigade FSO, plans for the employment of Firefinder radars and the establishment and managing of radar zones. In coordination with the ALO and air defense artillery (ADA) representative, plans to suppress or destroy enemy air defense as necessary during CAS and Army aviation employment. Assistant Fire Support Officer (Plans) 2-03. The plans officer performs the duties of the FSO in his absence. The assistant FSO (plans) duties and responsibilities are as follows: Help the battalion task force S2 write the TA and surveillance plan. Provides information on target vulnerabilities. Advises on target location assurance, target description details, and minimum dwell time of targets for viable attack. Help provide staff supervision of the TA assets attached, organic, and under operational control of the battalion task force. Develop a target list and recommend the attack guidance matrix to the commander. Disseminate products to subordinate elements.


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Recommend changes to target list and attack guidance matrix as appropriate. Determine, recommend, and process time-sensitive HPTs to the FSE. Coordinate with the battalion task force S2: TA coverage and processing of battalion task force HPTs. Produce TSS matrix for TA assets in support of the battalion task force. Battalion Task Force Fire Support Sergeant (Sergeant First Class) 2-04. The battalion task force fire support sergeant is the senior enlisted assistant to the battalion task force FSO. His duties and responsibilities include: Ensures the battalion task force FSE is adequately manned, equipped, and trained. Ensures voice and digital connectivity with key personnel, FSOs and FSE, and units as required. Conducts battle tracking/situational awareness of company FISTs. Trains and validates the enlisted personnel in the FSE and the maneuver FISTs Assists the FSO in developing EFSTs. Plans and coordinates all administrative and logistical support for the FSE. Fire Support Sergeant (Staff Sergeant) 2-05. The duties and responsibilities of the fire support sergeant are as follows: Assists the battalion task force FSO (plans) in his duties. Assist in planning and coordinating fire support. Supervise the fire support specialists. Maintain and update fire support status charts and situation maps. Fire Support Specialist 2-06. The duties and responsibilities of the fire support specialist are as follows: Work under the guidance of the fire support sergeant. Help operate and maintain section equipment, to include computer equipment. Assist in fire support planning and coordination. Operate and maintain communications equipment. Prepare and maintain a situation map. Prepare and post daily staff journals and reports. Help establish, operate, and displace the fire support equipment.


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2-07. The MDMP is an adaptation of the Army's analytical approach to problem solving (see FM 101-5). The process with respect to fire support planning at the brigade level is described in FM 3-09.4. At battalion task force level, the FSO plays a crucial role in the MDMP as both the staff fire support expert and as a member of the targeting team. RECEIPT OF MISSION AND MISSION ANALYSIS Inputs and Actions 2-08. In preparation for receipt of mission and mission analysis, the battalion task force FSE continuously monitors and tracks the status of fire support assets. It ensures its SOPs and status charts are updated. The FSE gathers specifics on fire support personnel and equipment status, delivery systems, and ammunition available. The FSO should know company team FIST personnel status and the maintenance status of FIST vehicles and targeting devices. He should also know the location, disposition, and current ammunition resupply status of battalion task force mortars and DS artillery. 2-09. If receipt of mission involves the battalion task force commander attending a brigade orders briefing, the battalion task force FSO must plan on accompanying him. This provides the FSO the opportunity to hear first hand how the brigade intends to integrate maneuver and fires and to understand the battalion task force role in the brigade's scheme of fires so that the battalion task force can execute its portion. Note: Accompany the battalion task force commander on reconnaissance as well, to gain a clearer picture of the commander's guidance for fires. Instill in the FSE the ability to continue the staff planning process in your absence. 2-10. While all the specifics of the upcoming mission may not be known, plan on sending out an initial warning order to the company team FSOs and battalion task force mortars to facilitate concurrent planning. At a minimum include the mission, area of operations (AO), initial planning time line, friendly and enemy situation. 2-11. The FSE conducts the fire support portion of mission analysis as part of the battalion task force battle staff. Table 2-2 depicts inputs to the FSE, actions the FSE takes, fire support outputs, maneuver commander actions, and actions that will follow.


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Table 2-2. Receipt of Mission and Mission Analysis Inputs to FSE

Brigade OPORD Facts from higher (brigade), lower (FIST), adjacent FSEs Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) products Facts from fire support assets

Understand brigade OPORD Organize and analyze facts Identify specified and implied tasks Translate status of fire support assets into capabilities Analyze effects of IPB on fire support Develop draft EFSTs

Fire support portion of mission analysis brief Recommend EFSTs

Battalion Task Force Commander Input

Receives detailed mission analysis briefing from battle staff Modify or approve draft EFSTs Provide commander's intent Gives planning guidance to include fire support planning guidance to battle staff

Next Action
Modify outputs based on commander's input Issue warning order Begin COA development

2-12. Understand brigade OPORD. The battalion task force FSO must understand the next two higher headquarters mission and intent. He must fully understand the brigade headquarters operational and fire support plan. This understanding of the brigade plan and how the battalion task force "fits" in the plan is essential in top down fire support planning. The FSO must understand the brigade concept of the operation to include maneuver and fires. He must also identify what his unit's responsibilities are to the brigade fire support plan as well as the resources the task force has been allocated. 2-13. Organize and analyze facts. The FSO can simplify the organization of facts by using status charts or a status book. Once the FSE gathers the facts and organizes them, the FSO must make a determination if and how they bear on the mission. 2-14. Identify specified and implied tasks. The specified tasks for fire support should be available from the brigade order (paragraph three, the fire support annex, and the R&S plan). If the brigade FSO has provided a complete topdown fire support plan, the battalion task force FSO is primarily focused on understanding and refining that plan, not inventing a new one. The fires paragraph outlines EFSTs that the battalion task force must execute and is a good start point. 2-15. The FSO must understand the brigade priority of fires, and the targets (task and purpose) and allocated assets for which he is permitted to plan. The FSO must know which targets the battalion task force has primary and alternate execution responsibilities for and where those targets fit into the scheme of fires. The FSO must understand how these assigned responsibilities (specified tasks) are going to affect the battalion task force. 2-16. Translate status of fire support assets in capabilities. The goal of this step is to organize for the battalion task force commander the array of available capabilities so he can understand what can be reasonably accomplished with respect to fire support. In addition to knowing the status


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of fire support assets, the FSO must translate raw facts and data that the FSE routinely tracks into meaningful capabilities by applying some planning factors, assumptions and analysis. For example, FA ammunition counts need to be translated to a form that better communicates capabilities to the battalion task force commander; 300 M825 smoke rounds (raw data) may translate to ten, 20-minute 600-meter smoke screens. The FA battalion, as part of unit SOP can determine these capabilities. 2-17. The FSO must factor time analysis from the S2's IPB or S3's operational analysis into his fire support analysis. For example, a firing unit may have sufficient ammunition to fire 15 FA battalion three-round massed missions, but the time available may only allow five missions to be fired. 2-18. Analyze effects of IPB on fire support. The IPB is a systematic and continuous process of analyzing the enemy, weather and terrain in a specific geographic area. IPB is a critical part of mission analysis. It involves the entire battalion task force staff to include the FSO. IPB products that support fire support mission analysis include the effects of terrain and weather on fire support systems, enemy order of battle, enemy mission, enemy COAs to include enemy critical events, and high-value targets (HVTs). HVTs are those assets the enemy commander requires to successfully complete his mission. The IPB is broken down into the following four steps: 1. Define the battlefield environment. This step focuses the IPB effort on areas and characteristics of the battlefield, which will influence the task force mission and provides parameters for the FSO in terms of the battalion/TF AO, area of interest, and battlespace. 2. Describe the battlefield's effects. This step identifies effects on friendly and enemy COAs in terms of terrain and weather with respect to fire support. 2-19. The modified combined obstacle overlay provides the FSO a tool to determine the effects the terrain will have on enemy and friendly movement. The terrain is analyzed in terms of obstacles, avenues of approach, key terrain, observation and fields of fire, and cover and concealment. This analysis may provide indicators on likely EAs or objectives, for example, and focus battalion task force targeting efforts early. The FSO should consider terrain composition in his analysis as well. Soft or boggy terrain may impact the effectiveness of improved conventional munitions (ICM) for example. Hard, rocky terrain may cause SCATMINES and smoke canisters to roll thus affecting density and distribution patterns. Terrain impacts are discussed further in Chapter 8. 2-20. Weather analysis takes the predictions of the forecasted weather and applies it to the modified combined obstacle overlay to determine any effects the weather will have given the terrain in the AO. The FSO determines the effects the weather may have on the fire support plan in terms of temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud height, and visibility. The FSO considers temperature, humidity, and wind speed in determining smoke buildup, distribution, and dissipation. Predicted cloud height and visibility may impact Copperhead employment while the percent of natural illumination may impact the use of illuminating shells during night operations. See Chapter 8 for further discussion on weather impacts.


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3. Evaluate the threat. This step determines threat force capabilities and the doctrinal principles and TTP threat forces prefer to employ with respect to fire support. Doctrinal templates are used in this step to portray enemy doctrinal employment and HVTs are identified. Selected HVTs become HPTs (a target whose loss to the threat will contribute to the success of the friendly COA) and EFSTs through war-gaming and subsequent targeting meetings. 2-21. The FSO should be very knowledgeable on threat indirect fire assets to include when and where they are able to engage friendly force. Graphical representations of enemy indirect fire range arcs superimposed on a map facilitate depicting threat capabilities to the battalion task force commander and staff. 4. Determine threat COAs. Threat COAs that will affect the friendly mission are identified. The FSO and battalion task force S2 work together to refine the enemy situation template for enemy fire support systems. Situation templates are graphic depictions of expected threat dispositions with terrain and weather considerations should the enemy adopt a particular COA. Event templates are also developed. The event template is a guide for collecting and R&S planning. Event templates depict when and where HVTs appear. Event templates are situation templates overlayed to determine named areas of interest. Later, event templates are further refined to support friendly decisions during the war-gaming phase. 2-22. In determining how the enemy is going to fight his indirect fire battle the FSO should be able to articulate the following information: Where are enemy fire support assets most likely located? When can we expect to receive indirect fire based on the COA under consideration? What is the expected volume of fire and type of ammunition? Do we expect the enemy to receive additional fire support from its higher headquarters? 2-23. Develop draft EFSTs. The FSO develops draft EFSTs using the information derived from mission analysis. The initial EFSTs identify the essential tasks that must be planned, coordinated, resourced, and executed. Outputs 2-24. Fire support portion of mission analysis briefing. The FSO may not personally brief the results of this analysis but he must ensure the analysis is done and that significant results are briefed to the battalion task force commander. The briefing should include the following information: Higher fire support plan- Focus on concept of fires and battalion task force responsibilities to the brigade fire support plan Fire support status. Fire support capabilities. Fire support IPB analysis.


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Fire support timeline (if not incorporated in the battalion task force S3's timeline). Recommended EFSTs. 2-25. Recommend EFSTs. Based on his analysis and his interactions with the S2 and S3, the battalion task force FSO recommends the essential tasks and purposes for fire support for the operation. When an EFST is simply restated from the brigade fire support plan it is briefed in terms of TPME (see Chapter 1). The battalion task force commander can accept, modify the recommendations, or reject and create new tasks and purposes in his guidance for fire support. Prior to modifying, rejecting, or creating a new EFST using brigade-level assets not already allocated to the battalion task force, the battalion task force commander must gain approval from the brigade commander and DS FA battalion commander. Receive Commander's Guidance for Fire Support 2-26. The commander's guidance for fire support becomes the basis for the battalion task force concept of fires and the fires paragraph. It is important for the FSO and the battalion task force commander to have a common understanding of what fires must do to support the operation before the FSO begins to develop the plan of how to do it. The battalion task force battle staff (with the commander's approval) may further define the initial EFSTs as the MDMP progresses, but the more clearly the commander defines them initially the more focused and effective fire support planning will be. A technique to facilitate this process is to provide the battalion task force commander draft guidance for fire support prior to the mission analysis briefing which he can approve or amend and then issue at the briefing. Commander's guidance for fire support should be in terms of tasks and purposes. Consider stating the task as a targeting objective against a formation that provides the enemy a function. State the purpose in terms of how the targeting effect will benefit a friendly maneuver formation. 2-27. An example commander's guidance checklist shown in Figure 2-1 illustrates the topics the commander may articulate in his guidance for fire support to the FSO. EFSTs. What fire support is to accomplish, providing task and purpose at a minimum. Focus for Fires. Focus by phase of the battle and linked to specific events. Targets. The type of target to be engaged and the desired effect on each. Force Protection Priorities. The priorities for protecting friendly forces and for counterfire. Restrictions and Priorities for Special Munitions. (i.e., use of smoke, SCATMINE, Copperhead, or illumination) Special Fire Support Concerns. (i.e., employing FSCMs, positioning and employment of mortars, COLTs, or FISTs.) Figure 2-1. Example Topics for Commander's Guidance for Fire Support


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The battalion task force FSO must understand what the commander expects from fires. In order to do this the FSO must take the commander's guidance and ask enough leading questions (one technique) to translate the commander's guidance into quantifiable effects that fire support systems available to the commander can achieve in time and space allowed. Commander' Guidance: Destroy vehicles at the point of penetration. Example questions: Do you want me to destroy every combat system that can range the 6-digit grid at the breach site? Can we destroy some vehicles and use smoke and suppressive fires and still achieve your guidance? How long do you expect the breach to take? Do we continue this task from the time maneuver forces enter direct fire range through the time they get on the objective? When will we be able to end this task and move on to the next one? Is there any priority that would override this one (i.e., counterfire, smoke, counterattack force)? How many combat systems do I need to destroy and will you wait until I destroy them before the breach begins? Quantifiable Effects: Destroy 4 BMPs that can influence the breach. Provide a 30-minute 1000-meter smoke screen. Provide suppressive fires on a large irregular shaped target (1000 meters) for 25 minutes. 2-28. Issue 2d Warning Order. After receiving commander's guidance the FSO should have a more detailed understanding of how the battalion task force is going to accomplish its mission. The FSO's next warning order to the company team FISTs should provide additional details in the following areas: Enemy capabilities and COAs. Friendly situation. Approved mission statement. Commander's intent and concept. EFSTs - TPME for each phase. Concurrent activities such as movement and resupply actions. Timeline COA DEVELOPMENT 2-29. As the battalion task force battle staff begins COA development, the FSO conceptualizes how to integrate fires into developing concept of operations. The FSO uses the approved EFSTs and battalion task force commander's guidance for fire support to develop where and how he recommends the allocation of fire support assets to each COA. The output for this step is a draft fire support plan for each COA. Table 2-3 illustrates inputs, actions, and outputs to support COA development.


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Table 2-3. COA Development BattalionTask Force Commander Input

Approve or modify the draft fire support plan(s), as part of approving COAs that will be analyzed in the next step

Inputs to FSE
Fire support portion of mission analysis brief Approved EFSTs Battalion task force commander's guidance for fire support

Determine where to find and attack EFST formations Identify HPTs in those formations Quantify effects for EFSTs Plan methods for EFSTs Allocate assets to acquire Allocate assets to attack Integrate triggers with maneuver COA Use battle calculus Assist S2 in reconnaissance and surveillance plan development

For each COA develop a draft fire support plan that includes: Concept of fires Draft FSEM Draft target list / overlay R&S plan

Next Action
Modify outputs based on commander's input Issue warning order Prepare for and conduct COA analysis

Actions 2-30. Determine where to find and attack EFST formations. The battle staff determines where the enemy formations identified by the commander can be found be found and attacked. The staff graphically portrays these locations using TAIs or EAs. 2-31. Identify HPTs in EFST Formations (Target Value Analysis). Certain subelements, capabilities or equipment sets within the EFST formations may be more vulnerable to attack with fires and or may provide the best effects if attacked. The process results in identifying or refining the HPTs. 3-32. The battalion task force FSO uses products from brigade level target value analysis to assist him in the targeting process (decide phase) during COA development. These products include: HPTL - a prioritized list of HPTs. AGM - addresses which targets will be attacked, how, when, and desired effects. TSS - addresses accuracy and time criteria that must be met before targets can be attacked 2-33. Note: At battalion task force level the FSO will rarely develop his own HPTL, AGM, or TSS. Examples of targeting products developed at brigade level can be found in FM 3-09.4. For further explanation of these products refer to FM 3-60.


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2-34. Quantify Effects for EFSTs. Quantify success. Focus on what must be accomplished to achieve the EFST. If desired effects cannot be achieved with the assets allocated, the staff must rework the method or request additional assets. 2-35. Plan Methods for EFSTs (Allocate assets to acquire/allocate assets to attack). This step involves allocating or assigning assets to detect and track HPTS. The maneuver S2, S3, and battalion task force FSO work together as they build this part of the R&S plan. They then determine who can execute the task based on the battalion task force scheme of maneuver, acquisition asset capabilities, and the priorities of the collection plan. 2-36. The FSO must consider asset general movement and positioning requirements (e.g., forward observers [FOs], FISTs, or COLTS) to enable execution of fires with refinements made during war-gaming. 2-37. Integrate triggers with maneuver COA. The synchronization of maneuver and fire support is essential for success. The FSO must understand the relative timing of maneuver and fires and establish triggers that reflect this timing (see Chapter 7), for example, "When the lead team crosses Phase Line Dog, the obscuration smoke will be fired at grid NK 124757". Triggers are further refined during the COA analysis war-gaming process. 2-38. Use battle calculus to test feasibility. As the FSO and battle staff develop COAs, they must apply doctrinal or measured rates, planning factors, speeds, and other data to ensure the plan is feasible. 2-39. Assist S2 in R&S plan development. The FSO coordinates with the S2 and S3 to ensure there are adequate, redundant collection assets to find, track, and attack the HPTs in the fire support plan. Outputs 2-40. The desired output is a draft fire support plan for each COA, branch plan, or sequel. EFSTs should be clearly identified. The draft battalion task force fire support plan will include the following: Concept of fires/draft fires paragraph (see Chapter 1). Draft FSEM - graphically communicates the details of the fires paragraph. It ties executors to targets relative to time/events of the scheme of maneuver. Draft target list worksheet and overlay - provides detailed description of targets, tentative target locations based on IPB, and in modified form can provide the task and purpose of each target and link each target to the EFST it supports. The overlay provides a graphic depiction of the target locations. R&S plan - FSO assists S2 and S3 in development. COA ANALYSIS (WAR-GAME) AND COA COMPARISON 2-41. COA analysis affords the battle staff the tools to develop the details of the concept of operation. During the war-game process targets and triggers are refined. As the battle staff conducts an action-reaction-counteraction drill


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to cause and respond to enemy acts, the war-game provides the FSO the opportunity to finalize targeting decisions (refine targets, establish primary and alternate executors, and their triggers), visualize and synchronize the fire support plan with maneuver, test and refine the fire support plan and modify the plan based on the above. Based on the issues identified by the war-game, the FSO and staff can modify the draft fire support plan and products. Table 2-4 depicts the inputs, actions, and outputs for COA analysis. The outputs are the final drafts of the output products discussed under COA development. Table 2-4. COA Analysis and COA Comparison Battalion Task Force Commander Input
Approve war-game if not a participant

Inputs to FSE
For each COA develop a draft fire support plan that includes: Concept of fires Draft fire support execution matrix Draft target list / overlay R&S plan Requested EFSTs from company FISTs

Targeting decisions: finalize HPTL War-game fire support plan(s) against enemy COAs Modify/refine inputs as required Refine and test fire support plan

Final drafts of: Fires paragraph Fire support annex to include: - FSEM - Target list - Target overlay

Next Action
Modify outputs based on commander's input Prepare COA decision briefing

COA APPROVAL AND ORDERS PRODUCTION 2-42. The FSO uses the inputs and actions described in Table 2-5 to produce outputs for the battalion task force commander's consideration. 2-43. During this step the fire support plan is approved as part of the approved COA. EFSTs should be developed and in the format in which they will appear in the OPORD. For each phase of the operation, each EFST should be described in the sequence of planned execution using the TPME format described in Chapter 1. Example EFSTs 2-44. The following paragraphs illustrate several examples of EFSTs. The EFSTs must be refined by the FSO based on the actual tactical scenario and the battalion task force commander's guidance for fire support. The corresponding sample briefing to the battalion task force commander for each example EFST is illustrated in the boxed examples. 2-45. Disruption of Enemy Reconnaissance. Task. Disrupt regimental reconnaissance vehicles in order to prevent them from identifying friendly battle positions.


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Purpose. To allow the task force to maximize the effectiveness of direct fire weapons in EA Dog. Method. Priority - FA POF to COLT 2, mortar POF to Team Alpha Allocation - COLT 2 primary observer (P), COLT 1 alternate observer (A) fires AB2000 (Copperhead priority target) when the reconnaissance vehicles come through Eagle Pass. COLT 3 (P), COLT 4 (A) fires AB2005 (Copperhead priority target) when the reconnaissance vehicles come through Hawk Defile. Restrictions - NFA 200 meter radius over all COLT positions. No DPICM within 500 meters of Highway 44. CFL is Phase Line Oscar. Effects. 3 X BMPs destroyed.

Task and Purpose - Disrupt reconnaissance assets to prevent them from identifying our battle positions in order to maximize our surprise. Method - As our COLTs identify enemy reconnaissance vehicles coming through either Eagle Pass or Hawk Defile, we will attack them with Copperhead. Effects - 3 vehicles destroyed. 2-46. Delay Combined Arms Reserve (CAR). Task. Delay CAR counterattack for 20 minutes in order to prevent their ability to counterattack Task Force 1-4. Purpose. To allow Task Force 1-4 to consolidate on the objective and destroy the CAR with direct and indirect fires. Method. Priority - FA POF to COLT 3. Mortar POF to Striker 1. Allocation- Striker 1 (P), COLT 3 (A) fires AB1015 (SCATMINE, 400 x 400, medium density, short self-destruct) when lead vehicles of the CAR are located vicinity Benchmark 343. Restrictions - SCATMINE requires brigade commander approval. NFA (150 meter radius) on COLTs and scout OPs. Division and brigade CFL is Phase Line Apple. Effects. CAR counterattack delayed 20 minutes. CAR unable to penetrate Phase Line Pear.


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Task and Purpose - Delay the CAR to allow us to destroy it with direct fire. Method - A 400 meter SCATMINE minefield will be fired when we see the CAR approach Benchmark 343. Effects - Counterattack is delayed 20 minutes and is unable to penetrate defenses. Approval Briefing 2-47. The FSO must be prepared to brief the fire support portion of the final plan staff briefing to the battalion task force commander for approval. The level of detail for this brief will vary depending on the level of participation of the commander in the war-game and the requirements of the commander. 2-48.Cover details of the fires paragraph emphasizing the method to accomplish each EFST. Discuss targets, executors, and effects. For example, "Phase I, Team Alpha will fire AB2005, battalion 4, HE at the combat security outpost (CSOP) prior to crossing the line of departure. Team Charlie is the alternate shooter. This will neutralize the CSOP and allow Team Bravo to confirm its destruction. Phase II, Team Charlie will" 2-49. Use of a sketch, map overlay, or terrain model can help convey the details of the fire support plan more clearly. 2-50. Be prepared to discuss fires flexibility to react to unanticipated enemy actions. 2-51. The commander may accept the COA as presented or modify it. Brief the commander on the impact of significant changes made that affect EFST accomplishment. For example, including the requirement to fire on two additional OPs may impact the ability of the artillery to be in position and thus delay firing smoke to support an advance. Orders Production 2-52. Contribution to the OPORD will include the fires paragraph, FSEM, and target list/overlay.


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Table 2-5. COA Approval and Orders Production Battalion Task Force Commander Input
Approve war-game if not a participant

Inputs to FSE
Fires paragraph Fire support annex to include: - FSEM - Target list - Target overlay

Approval briefing Fire support plan briefed as part of each COA FSO presents analysis as part of battle staff

Fires paragraph Fire support annex to include: - FSEM - Target list - Target overlay

Next Action
Modify outputs based on commander's input Prepare COA decision briefing

ORDERS BRIEFING 2-53. The primary audience for the fire support portion of this briefing is the company team commanders, FSOs, mortar platoon leader, and supervisors of those responsible for executing EFSTs. The briefing should include the following: Scheme of fires (includes EFSTs and fire support products) Clearance of fires procedures (if different than TSOP) FSCMs Cutoff times for target refinement and company team requests for battalion task force planned fires Rehearsal instructions. Ensure EFST responsibilities are reviewed at the OPORD confirmation brief. TIME-CONSTRAINED MDMP Introduction 2-54. FM 101-5 references four techniques to save time: Increase the commander's involvement, allowing him to make decisions during the process without waiting for detailed briefings after each step. The commander becomes more directive in his guidance, limiting options. This saves the staff time by focusing members on those things the commander feels are most important. The commander limits the number of COAs developed and war-gamed. In extreme cases, he can direct that only one COA be developed. This technique saves the most time. Maximize parallel planning. In a time-constrained environment, the importance of warning orders increases as available time decreases. A verbal warning order now is worth more than a written order one hour from now. The same warning orders used in the time-unconstrained MDMP should be issued when the process is abbreviated. In addition to warning orders, share all available information with subordinates especially IPB products, as early as possible. 2-55. While the steps used in the time-constrained environment are the same as the time-unconstrained MDMP, many of them may be done mentally by


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the commander, or with less staff involvement than during the full process. The products developed when the process is abbreviated may be the same as those developed for the full process; however, they may be much less detailed and some may be omitted altogether. The keys to success in the timeconstrained environment are anticipation, organization, and prior preparation. FSO Considerations The FSE and the battalion task force battle staff should train to the timeunconstrained MDMP to build proficiency in the planning process, however, once they are proficient in the fundamentals the bulk of training should be dedicated to the time-constrained MDMP. Time constrained planning is often the norm in fast-paced military operations at the battalion task force level. 2-56. The planning steps in the time-constrained MDMP are the same as the time-unconstrained MDMP, but the level of detail may not be as great. A formal "written" order is often replaced by "matrix" order. However, there is still the requirement to present a scheme of fires to include the task and purpose of those fires. The following techniques should be considered as a minimum when performing the time constrained MDMP. 2-57. Receipt of Mission. The requirements are no different from the timeunconstrained MDMP. However, consider a more detailed warning order due to the shorter timeline. Conduct as much concurrent activity as possible. 2-58. Mission Analysis. The commander must still understand capabilities fire support provides. In most instances the mission analysis brief will be a quick verbal brief. Consider: Status of systems. Ammunition available. Specified tasks from brigade (i.e., EFSTs, targets). Significant fire support IPB concerns. Provide a verbal warning order to company team FSOs (you may not have time to send a formal warning order). Communication with the DS FA battalion S3 and commander (brigade FSCOORD) is critical, as the FA plan must be developed concurrently with the maneuver plan. 2-59. COA Development. Due to time constraints, the commander may be more directive in his guidance. Realize that only one maneuver and fire support COA may be developed. Concentrate on critical events identified in the plan. Keep company FSOs and FA battalion staff informed. Identify critical targets, targeted areas, and fires (such as smoke) that will be required to support the COA. Allocate fires and establish fire support priorities. Much of the initial targeting data will be general in nature, based on estimates on where and when enemy forces will be in the future. This targeting information will be continually refined and updated throughout the planning and execution processes.


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2-60. COA Analysis and Comparison. Understand the task and purpose for each target in order to more fully develop method during war-gaming. Wargame only the critical events during the battle. The triggers must be fully developed, however, effects may not be very well defined. Concentrate efforts on producing the FSEM and target list--they will be used to brief the OPORD. A fully developed fires paragraph may not be necessary. COA comparison is not done if only one COA is developed. 2-61. COA Approval and Orders Production. The commander most likely will have participated to a greater extent than the time-unconstrained MDMP during war-gaming and provided ongoing approval. This step may not be done as a formal briefing, but be prepared to talk to any issues that came out of war-gaming. Your products (FSEM and target list/overlay) will already be complete and you can quickly prepare for the orders briefing. 2-62. Orders Briefing. At a minimum convey the purpose for each target, the triggers, and primary and alternate shooters. For rehearsals concentrate only on the critical events of the battle and the essential actions taken at those times. Rehearse targets, triggers, primary and alternate shooters. TARGET REFINEMENT 2-63. Refinement involves the fine-tuning and continuous updating of the battalion task force's (and lower echelon) EFSTs and refinements to the targeting data of those EFSTs based on improvements to the plans and changes in the battlefield situation (enemy and friendly). 2-64. The battalion task force must clearly understand not only the brigade concept of fires and how it is synchronized to support brigade maneuver, but also the battalion task force's role in the brigade scheme of fires so that the battalion can execute its portion. The battalion task force must also develop its own concept of fires involving EFSTs assigned from the brigade and targets to support the battalion task force close area/direct fire fight. The battalion task force scheme of fires (includes both brigade and battalion task force targets) is passed down to company teams where another level of refinement is conducted. After the company teams conduct bottom-up refinement and forward their fire support requests to the battalion task force, the battalion task force consolidates, resolves duplications and forwards the battalion concept of fires and target refinements to the brigade. Figure 2-6 depicts the brigade and battalion role in this process.


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Figure 2-6. Fire Support Planning Roles Brigade Role Synchronize the brigade concept of fires with brigade maneuver. Develop brigade scheme of fires and assign EFSTs to subordinates. Provide fire support for battalion task force close/direct fire fight. Integrate refinements from subordinates. Integrate movement of fire support assets into the scheme of maneuver. Battalion Task Force Role Understand the integration of brigade maneuver and fires. Understand battalion role in the brigade scheme of fires. Execute assigned EFSTs. Develop battalion concept and scheme of fires. Integrate and refine brigade EFSTs for the close area/direct fire fight. Plan for the synchronization of battalion task force mortars with the scheme of fires and their movement with the scheme of maneuver. Bottom-up refinement from company teams. Forward battalion concept of fires and target refinements to brigade.

2-65. Target data refinement considerations include: Changing target locations, but not the purpose of the target. The purpose was established during the MDMP and is linked to the EFST for which that target was developed. Adhere to higher HQ target refinement cutoff times. This does not preclude the attack of targets of opportunity, but does allow for proper positioning of fire support assets based on the location of planned targets assigned to those assets. It also allows for the most accurate location to be disseminated to the delivery assets.


FIRE SUPPORT EXECUTION MATRIX 2-66. The FSEM is a concise, easy planning tool, which shows the many factors of a fire support plan. It helps the FSO and the commander understand how the fire plan supports the scheme of maneuver. It is a valuable planning tool that illustrates what aspects of the fire support plan the FSO is responsible for and at what phase during the battle these aspects apply. When approved, the matrix becomes the primary execution tool. The format of and information in FSEMs will vary from unit to unit. The TSOP should standardize FSEM preparation to ensure synchronization with maneuver matrices.


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2-67. A sample FSEM is shown in figure 2-7A and B.

Company Team (Co Tm) Battalion Task Force (Bn TF)

Commander's Guidance For Fires: FA Organization for Combat: Mortars (Tactical mission and locations) BnTF Mortars: CoTm Mortars: Fire Support Coordination Measures: Bde/BnTF Commander's Attack Guidance: (circle one)

Co Tm/Bn TF Priorities Of Fire:

(circle one)

Ammo available to: Co/Bn

(circle one)


Bn TF Mortars HE: Illum: WP: Co Tm Mortars

(available to Co Tm/Plts) (circle one)

HE: Illum: Smoke:

HE: Illum: WP:

Special Munitions (SCATMINE/Copperhead)


CAS/NGF: Succession of Fire Support Responsibility: Bde/Bn TF Commander's Guidance for Fire Support: (circle one)

Coordinating Instructions:

Figure 2-7 A. Sample Fire Support Execution Matrix (Page 1)


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Purpose / Engagement Criteria / Trigger Point / Desired Effects / End State

Primary Executor

Alternate Executor


Phase 1 2 3 4 5 FSCM A B C D E F 6

Figure 2-7 B. Sample Fire Support Execution Matrix (Page 2) 2-68. The first page (2-7A) of the matrix provides the following information: Task force mission. Commander's guidance for fires. Task force priorities of fire. FA organization for combat. Mortar missions and locations. Mortar and FA ammunitions available to support the operation. FSCMs. Brigade commander's attack guidance. Special munitions (SCATMINE, Copperhead). HPTs. CAS or NGF. Coordinating Instructions. Succession of fire support responsibility. 2-68a. The second page of the matrix (2-7B) provides the following information:


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Target numbers and corresponding information to include: Purpose Engagement criteria Trigger point Desired Effects Primary executor, alternate executor, and fire support asset Execution Matrix. The matrix is set up with the maneuver elements or targets executors along the left side and maneuver control measures (phases lines, events, or times) of the mission along the top of the matrix. Phases should always correspond to phases established on maneuver execution matrices. 2-68b. At battalion task force level the matrix is used as follows: If priority of an indirect fire support means is allocated to a company team it is indicated by an abbreviation of that fire support asset in the appropriate matrix box. If an FPF has been allocated, the acronym FPF preceded by the type of indirect fire means responsible for firing that FPF will appear in the appropriate box. If a priority target is allocated to a company team it will appear in the box as priority (Pri) target (Tgt) preceded by the means of fire support responsible for firing the target. Once a target is determined as the priority target, the corresponding target number is placed in the box. If a certain FSO is responsible for initiating specific fires, the target number, group, or series will be listed in the box for that FSO. Specific guidelines concerning fires not included on the target list worksheet are included in the box. If an FSCM is to be put into effect by a particular FSO, the FSCM acronym followed by the code word designated for that FSCM will be shown in the appropriate box. Other factors that apply to a certain company team during a specific time frame may also be included in the appropriate box.

GENERAL 2-69. Rehearsal procedures should be established as a part of the unit TSOP. The following considerations should be addressed: Who participates? Who is in charge of the rehearsal? Specify time and method of rehearsal (suitable or actual terrain, terrain model or sand table, map, or radio). What is the sequence of the rehearsal? (Have a predetermined list of items to be covered). Ensure key participants are present. A rehearsal is a practice of the plan, not a war-game. During the rehearsal address specific actions to accomplish tasks. Correct problems on the spot.


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Rehearsal Outcome Ensures understanding of the plan. Synchronizes fire support with the maneuver plan. Exercises primary and alternate communications nets. Ensures redundant observers and attack systems. Improves responsiveness of fires. Verifies target triggering responsibility. Validates the plan.

FIRE SUPPORT REHEARSALS 2-70. Fire support rehearsals focus on the execution of EFSTs, the effectiveness of FSCMs, and the timing and synchronization of all fire support efforts with each other and with the scheme of maneuver. Fire support rehearsals serve as a tool to prepare for the combined arms rehearsal and to refine and reinforce key fire support tasks after the combined arms rehearsal. The battalion task force fire support rehearsal and the FA technical rehearsal should normally take place before the combined arms rehearsal. It is imperative that the battalion task force FSO, company team FSOs, and the FA battalion know they can support the plan. If a combined arms rehearsal is not conducted, a fire support rehearsal may serve as the primary preparation for execution of the fire support plan. 2-71. A fire support rehearsal may include key maneuver and fire support personnel involved in planning and executing the fire support plan, to include the DS FA battalion TOC. The fire support rehearsal may also be limited in scope with only fire support personnel and FA battalion personnel participating. A technique is to use the FSEM as a script for executing fires to support the scheme of maneuver. The FA battalion uses and verifies the FA support plan. 2-72. The battalion task force FSO runs the battalion task force fire support rehearsal. This rehearsal serves as a precursor to the battalion task force rehearsal and the combined arms rehearsal conducted by the brigade. Consider using the same rehearsal method the battalion task force will use. Include the battalion task force S2 in the rehearsal to consider enemy actions. Ensure subordinate FSOs and observers are able to understand their role in the battalion task force and brigade plan by having them articulate the targets and triggers they are responsible for to include how fires will be lifted and shifted during an operation. The key is to ensure the battalion task force is able to execute its EFSTs. The fire support rehearsal should address: Commander's guidance for fire support. Integrate intelligence. Scheme of maneuver and fires (by phase). Movement planning and positioning. Observation planning (i.e., primary and alternate observers, signals to lift and shift fires). Targets (i.e., location, engagement criteria) and associated triggers. Firing unit positioning. Target verification.


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BATTALION TASK FORCE REHEARSAL 2-73. The battalion task force FSO ensures the commander and S3 know the sequence of fires that support the battalion task force's EFSTs. This provides the FSO the opportunity to prepare the commander for the combined arms rehearsal and highlights the company team fire support responsibilities for the company team commanders. The FSO provides concise, essential information during the battalion task force rehearsal to include: Targets, ammunition, and triggers. Observation plan (highlight observers that impact on the brigade plan) Actions based on clearly articulated branches or sequels. For example, if the reconnaissance elements approach through Eagle Pass, I will fire AB4000. If they approach through Pigeon Defile, I will fire AB4020. COMBINED ARMS REHEARSAL 2-74. During the combined arms rehearsal the battalion task force commander may brief the maneuver plan by phase and allow the FSO to brief the synchronized fire support plan by phase. Another option is for the battalion task force commander to brief the maneuver and fires plan. In either case the FSO should be prepared to provide concise comments regarding how the battalion task force fire support plan fits into the brigade scheme of maneuver and fires.


2-75. The battalion task force FSO's primary duties in coordinating and executing fire support are as follows: Establish and maintain communications with key personnel, FSOs and FSEs, and units as required. Prepare and disseminate fire support documents. Monitor status of available fire support assets. Receive and act on priorities for fire support requested by the maneuver commander. Rehearse the fire support plan with all participants. Participate in maneuver and FA rehearsals as required. Establish and operate the FSE in accordance with guidance and TSOPs of the supported force commander and the force FA commander. Receive and allocate FA, mortar, CAS, NGF, aviation, TA, and survey assets as required. Establish and allocate priority targets and priority of fires. Execute the fire support plan. Provide for positive clearance of fires. Cue TA assets as required. Anticipate changes dictated by the developing battle and recommend revision of the fire support plan if required. Continually locate and coordinate the attack of targets within the battalion's AO. Call for, adjust, and direct all types of fire support as required.


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Aggressively prepare and send reports and information to higher and subordinate fire support organizations and firing unit HQ as required. Be prepared to establish necessary procedures, communications, and capabilities to operate from a tactical command post or from a position or vehicle separate from the FSE as required.


2-76. A tactical CP may be formed during fast-moving offensive or retrograde operations to maintain communications and facilitate the movement of the main CP. In such circumstances, the commander may designate one of the CP vehicles from the main CP to act as a tactical CP. Some or the entire command group may locate at the tactical CP at various times. 2-77. The command group consists of the commander and those he selects to go forward to help him control maneuver and fires during battle. It normally includes the FSO, the ALO and/or FAC, and the S3. There is no requirement for these people to collocate. Normally, however, the FSO is either with the commander in the commander's vehicle or in another vehicle collocated with the commander during battle. The FSO may occupy the ALO's vehicle as an option if no other vehicle is available. 2-78. Given the limited personnel and equipment resources of battalion task force FSEs, the FSO must carefully consider how to best use his assets if required to man a tactical CP and/or go forward in battle. The FSO should have a digital device available when not physically in the FSE at the main CP. This will permit digital communications with other FSOs and provide access to AFATDS. Other requirements for C2 vehicles, radios, and personnel should be include in the unit TSOP.


OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS 2-79. The offense is the decisive form of operations-the commander's ultimate way of imposing his will on the enemy. The purpose of the offense is to defeat, destroy, or neutralize the enemy force. Fire support in offensive operations is characterized by centralized planning with decentralized execution. The four general types of offensive operations are movement to contact, attack, exploitation and pursuit. Movement to Contact 2-80. Movement to contact is a type of offensive operation designed to develop the situation and establish or regain contact with the enemy. Enemy situation will probably be vague. Keep fire support plan simple. Support the lead elements and incorporate any known enemy positions into the plan. Plan targets where friendly maneuver cannot respond (targets out of range of direct fire systems). Concentrate on areas where antitank systems or OPs are templated.


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Establish priority targets. Put these targets into effect and cancel them based on the forward element's movement. Consider placing battalion task force mortars with the advance guard in a battalion task force movement to contact to provide immediately responsive fires. Consider fire support for reconnaissance and security forces. Consider consolidating FIST assets. (Do the trail companies need their FISTs when they could be executing brigade EFSTs or augmenting the lead company team?) Be prepared to support any in-stride breaches with obscuration fires. Once contact is made the battalion task force (FSO recommendation to maneuver commander) should shift control of all available fire to the observer who is in the best position to control fires against the enemy. Plan fires on reserves and uncommitted forces to facilitate freedom of action once contact is made. Have fires planned along the axis of advance to assist in dealing with contingencies. Likely support by fire positions should be covered with on call CFZs. Consider movement of fire support assets tied to known triggers. Attack 2-81. An attack is a type of offensive operation that defeats an enemy force, seizes and secures terrain or both. Attacks may be either hasty or deliberate operations, depending on the time available for assessing the situation, planning, and preparing. Commanders execute hasty attacks with immediately available forces and minimal preparation. Deliberate attacks occur when there is time to develop and coordinate preparation. 2-82. Hasty Attack. Commanders direct a hasty attack to seize an opportunity to destroy the enemy or gain the initiative. They occur during movements to contact and defensive operations. Depending on time available, fire support plans are generally more centralized and directive. Consider the use of quick fire planning techniques. Develop SOP items that facilitate planning under time constraints. If a hasty attack is being conducted from a transition out a movement to contact have a clear understanding of triggers for any planned command or support relationship changes. For example, the mortars may have been DS to the lead company team in a movement to contact now revert back to GS for the hasty attack; or a COLT/Striker team attached to the battalion task force reverts back to brigade control. Be prepared to suppress enemy direct fires weapons. Use smoke to screen friendly forces and obscure enemy OPs and direct fire weapons. 2-83. Deliberate Attack. Deliberate attacks are fully synchronized operations based on a thorough assessment of the enemy situation.


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Be prepared to discuss the pros and cons of preparatory fires with the staff and maneuver commander prior to the maneuver commander's issuance of planning guidance. Support the brigade's top down fire planning with bottom up refinement from the companies. Comply with brigade's target refinement cutoff time and enforce it at the company team level. Understand the commander's bypass and engagement criteria. Support breaching operations. Consider the likely competing demands for fires: destruction of the enemy at the point of penetration, suppressing antitank systems and adjacent enemy formations, obscuring the breach site and providing suppressive counterfire. Exploitation and Pursuit 2-84. Exploitation is a type of offensive operation that rapidly follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. Exploitations seek to disintegrate the enemy to the point where he has no alternative but surrender or flight. 2-85. Pursuit is a type of offensive operation designed to destroy enemy forces attempting to escape. Pursuits follow successful attacks or exploitations. Use lethal and nonlethal fires to sustain momentum Consider using fires to suppress pockets of resistance to allow uninterrupted advance of maneuver units. Plan fires to slow the enemy's withdrawal and to disrupt reinforcements. If SCATMINEs are used precise safety determination and dissemination are critical so that friendly momentum will not be lost. Plan for frequent displacement of mortars and FA. ECHELONING FIRES IN THE ATTACK 2-86. The purpose of echeloning fires is to maintain constant fires on an objective while using the optimum delivery system up to the point of its risk estimate distance (RED) in combat operations or minimum safe distance (MSD) in training. Echeloning fires provides protection for friendly forces as they move to and assault an objective, allowing them to get in close with minimal casualties. It prevents the enemy from observing and engaging the assault by forcing the enemy to take cover, allowing the friendly force to continue the advance unimpeded. 2-87. The concept behind echeloning fires is to begin attacking targets on or around the objective using the weapons system with the largest RED-combat (or MSD-training). As the maneuver unit closes the distance (i.e., crosses the RED line) enroute to the objective, the fires lift (or shift). This triggers the engagement of the targets by the delivery system with the next largest REDcombat (or MSD-training). The length of time to engage the targets is based on the rate of the friendly force's movement between the RED-combat (or MSD-training) trigger lines. The process continues until the system with the least RED-combat (or MSD-training) lifts and the maneuver unit is close enough to make its final assault and clear the objective.


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RED-Combat (Or MSD-Training) 2-88. The RED-combat (or MSD-training) takes into account the bursting radius of particular munitions and the characteristics of the delivery system and associates this combination with a percentage for the probability of incapacitation (PI) of soldiers at a given range. Table 2-6 provides REDs for mortars and cannon artillery (see Chapter 10 for aircraft delivered ordnance and NGF REDs). The RED-combat (or MSD-training) is defined as the minimum distance friendly troops can approach the effects of friendly fires without suffering appreciable casualties of 0.1% PI or higher.

Risk estimate distances are for combat use and do not represent the maximum fragmentation envelopes of the weapons listed. Risk estimate distances are not minimum safe distances for peacetime training use. Casualty Criterion 2-89. The casualty criterion is the 5-minute assault criterion for a prone soldier in winter clothing and helmet. Physical incapacitation means that a soldier is physically unable to function in an assault within a 5-minute period after an attack. A PI value of less than 0.1 percent can be interpreted as being less than or equal to one chance in one thousand. Table 2-6. Risk Estimate Distances for Mortars and Cannon Artillery Risk Estimate Distances (Meters) 10% PI 0.1% PI 2/3 Max 1/3 2/3 range range range range 65 65 100 150 80 80 165 185 100 100 150 300 85 90 175 200 100 125 200 280 180 200 280 300

System M224 M252 M120/121 M102/M119 M109/M198 Risk

Description 60 mm mortar 81 mm mortar 120 mm mortar 105 mm howitzer 155 mm howitzer 155 mm DPICM

1/3 range 60 75 100 85 100 150

Max range 175 230 400 275 450 475

2-90. Using echelonment of fires within the specified RED-combat (or MSDtraining) for a delivery system requires the unit to assume some risks. The maneuver commander determines by delivery system how close he will allow fires to fall in proximity to his forces. The maneuver commander makes the decision for this risk level, but he relies heavily on the FSO's expertise. Planning Steps Determine what fire support assets are available or allocated. Consider mortars, FA, CAS, and NGF.


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Consider amount and type of ammunition available. Determine both suspected and confirmed locations of the enemy weapon systems the commander wants to engage. Determine where the indirect fire assets will be positioned to determine RED-combat (or MSD-training) based on range. Sequence the fire plan --understand the battalion task force scheme of maneuver, movement rate, and axis/route of advance. The maneuver commander approves the RED-combat (or MSD-training) for each weapon system. Determine the timing of fires, positioning of the RED-combat (or MSDtraining) phase lines from the targets. Preparation Steps Participate in leader's reconnaissance to identify phase lines and targets in the vicinity of the objective. Lead element observers should consider using the precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR) [see Chapter 5] to input phase line locations in order to lift and trigger the appropriate weapon system at the right time. Conduct fire support rehearsal emphasizing target purposes, refined target locations, route to the objective, communications plan, REDcombat or MSD-training phase lines, primary and alternate observers. Include representatives from every delivery asset participating in echeloning fires. Conduct radio technical rehearsal to verify communications nets are operable. Execution Steps When the lead elements of the battalion task force approach the designated phase line enroute to the objective the FSO begins the preparation. Lead element observers and/or company team FSOs track movement rates and confirm them for the battalion task force FSO. The battalion task force FSO may need to adjust the plan during execution based on unforeseen changes to anticipated movement rates. As the unit continues its movement toward the objective, the first delivery system engages its targets. It maintains fires on the targets until the unit crosses the next phase line that corresponds to the RED-combat (or MSD-training) of the weapon. To maintain constant fires on the targets the unit must start the next asset before the previous asset lifts. This ensures no break in fires, enabling the friendly forces' approach to continue unimpeded. However, if the unit rate of march changes, the fire support system must remain flexible to the changes. The FSO lifts and engages with each asset at the prescribed triggers, initiating the fires from the system with the largest RED to the smallest. Once the maneuver element reaches the final phase line to lift all fires on the objective, the FSO shifts to targets beyond the objective.


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Scenario This scenario outlines a basic technique that allows the infantry-fire support team to keep close fires on the enemy for the longest possible time. The ability to accomplish the commander's guidance is dependent on many variables and each tactical situation is different. Light Company Attack The company has FA and mortar priority of fire. Assets available: 105 mm DS FA battalion. 155 mm R FA battalion. Battalion 81 mm mortars. Company 60 mm mortars. Movement rates are based on 1.5 km per hour. The commander reviews the RED table at Figure 2-6 and assesses the risk he's willing to accept plus unit capabilities. The commander sets the following REDs: 155 mm - 350 meters 105 mm - 200 meters 81 mm - 175 meters 60 mm - 150 meters The commander issues the following guidance for attacking targets on the objective: Destroy targets AB2000, 20005, 2010, and 2015 Disrupt enemy observation efforts Keep suppressive fires on the objective as long as possible. Based on the commander's guidance the FSO conducts battle calculus, taking into account: Movement rate of friendly forces. The FSO determines a movement rate of 1.5 km per hour equates to 25 meters per minute. Note: Observers and company FSOs can verify this rate on the ground during execution with their PLGRs. REDs established by the commander Fire support systems available Rounds required and available to achieve the commander's guidance Time to fire required number of rounds.


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Results The FSO determines that to meet the commander's guidance for the destruction of targets AB2005 and 2010 155 mm FA must fire for 10 minutes and lift fires when the company team is within 350 meters of the objective (155 mm RED). Based on the friendly force rate of movement he determines the company will move 250 meters in 10 minutes. Therefore, 155 mm FA begins firing when the company team is 600 meters from the objective and concludes when the company team reaches the 350meter RED line. The FSO determines that to achieve the commander's guidance for destruction of AB2000 and 2015, 105 mm FA must fire for 16 minutes and lift fires when the company team is within 200 meters of the objective (105 mm RED). Based on the friendly force rate of movement, he determines the company team will move 400 meters in 16 minutes. Therefore, 105 mm FA fires should begin when the company team is 600 meters from the objective and conclude when the company team reaches the 200-meter RED line. The FSO determines that to meet the commander's guidance for obscuration of AB2020 and 2025, he must fire nine minutes of 81 mm mortar smoke and lift the smoke when the company reaches the 175-meter RED line. Based on friendly rate of movement, he determines the company team will move 225 meters in nine minutes. Therefore, the 81 mm mortars begin firing when the company team is 400 meters from the objective and lift fires when the company reaches the 175-meter RED line. The FSO determines that to meet the commander's guidance for suppression of the objective, he can fire 60 mm mortars on the targets until the company team reaches the 150-meter RED line. He begins firing suppressive fires with the 60 mm mortars on AB2010 and 2005 when the company team is 300 meters from the objective. Once the 105 mm FA lifts fires, the mortars will also place suppressive fires on targets AB2000 and 2015. 2-91. Figure 2-8 illustrates the light company attack. H-hour times represent the time in minutes it takes for the maneuver force to cover the distance shown and the simultaneous amount of time that indirect fire systems have to achieve the commanders guidance for effects on target. For example, based on the scenario movement rate of 25 meters per minute, it will take the infantry 10 minutes (H-24 to H-14) to cover the 250 meters between the 600meter and 350-meter RED. Simultaneously, the 155 mm FA will have 10 minutes to deliver the desired effects on AB2010 and AB2005.


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RED (meters)


81 mm mm

m 05 10


m 55 15



mm mm

155 mm FA (AB2010,2005) 105 mm FA (AB2000,2015)

m m


AB2000 AB2005 AB2010 AB2015

AB2020 AB2020 AB2025 AB2025

81 mm Mortar (AB2020,2025) 60 mm Mortar (AB2000-2015)









Figure 2-8. Echeloning Fires in the Light Company Attack DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS 2-92. The purpose of defensive operations is to defeat an enemy attack. Army forces defend until they gain sufficient strength to attack. Fire support in defensive operations is characterized by centralized planning with centralized execution. The three types of defensive operations are mobile defense, area defense, and retrograde. Mobile Defense 2-93. The mobile defense is a type of defensive operation that concentrates on the destruction or defeat of the enemy through a decisive attack by a striking force. It combines fire and maneuver to defeat the enemy. The mobile defense requires the defender to have greater mobility than the attacker. When part of the striking force, plan and integrate fires as for a deliberate attack. Consider location of the fixing force and the need for an RFL. When part of the fixing force, plan and integrate fires as for an area defense. Consider the location of the striking force and need for an RFL. Area Defense 2-94. The area defense is a type of defensive operation that concentrates on denying enemy forces access to designated terrain for a specific time rather than destroying the enemy outright. Consider initial priority of fires allocated to forward security forces. If enemy is attacking in echelons, focus fires on the follow-on echelon(s) in order to isolate the first echelon. Use counterpreparation fires to disrupt enemy preparatory fires. Planning considerations are similar to a preparation in terms of ammunition consumption, counterfire, and assets required.


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If the defense is a phased operation (counterreconnaissance, security zone, main battle, counterattack) understand the EFSTs and HPTs for each phase. Know the engagement criteria for each defensive phase. Consider the use of engineer assets to provide survivability positions for mortar, FA and radar positions. Consider augmenting the security zone with additional observers (under battalion task force centralized control) based on EFSTs to be executed. Know the location of all security zone elements and be prepared to recommend the appropriate FSCMs for force protection. Recommend to brigade FSO that CFL be established close to forward units in order to facilitate rapid attack of targets. Be prepared to recommend how obstacles can be covered with indirect fires based on available assets. Use redundant observers to accomplish EFSTs. Make recommendations on who gets FPFs. Include allocation of mortar FPF. Coordinate with the ALO, maneuver S3 and S3 air with respect to airspace/indirect fires deconfliction. Retrograde 2-95. A retrograde is a type of defensive operation that involves organized movement away from the enemy. The three forms of retrograde operations are delays, withdrawals, and retirements. 2-96. Delay. A delay is a form of retrograde in which a force under pressure trades space for time by slowing down the enemy's momentum and inflicting maximum damage on the enemy without, in principle, becoming decisively engaged. Plan fires far forward. Suppress enemy forces and degrade their ability to maneuver. Consider the use of fire support to assist in disengaging. Consider FPFs as necessary. Consider CAS to help disengage and slow/attrit advancing enemy forces. Consider role of fire support in covering obstacles, gaps, and flanks. Provide massed fires to delay the advancing enemy and integrate nonlethal fires including screening fires into the scheme. 2-97. Withdrawal. A withdrawal, a form of retrograde, is a planned operation in which a force in contact disengages from an enemy force. Plan to mask the movement of friendly forces with smoke during both day and night operations. Use considerations similar to those for a delay. 2-98. Retirement. A retirement is a form of retrograde in which a force not in contact with the enemy moves away from the enemy. Consider fires for security forces covering the retirement.


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STABILITY OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS 2-99. Combatant commanders employ Army forces to conduct stability operations outside the US and US territories to promote and protect US national interests. Stability operations influence the political, civil, and military environments, and disrupt specific illegal activities. Their overarching purpose is to promote and sustain regional and global stability. Stability operations are diverse, continuous, and often long term. They are inherently complex and place great demands on small units and leaders. Stability operations require the mental and physical agility to shift between combat and noncombat operations. Use offensive lethal fires strictly in accordance with the ROE. Use defensive fires to protect the force. ROE will still apply. Plan fires for base camp defense (if base camps are used). Ensure radar zones become an integral part of the force protection plan. Consider dissemination of the fire support plan down through company team and platoon to the leaders in charge of checkpoints, patrols, and logistics convoys. The minimization of collateral damage will become a major constraint. Refer to the ROE frequently as FSCMs are established. Clearance of fires may include coordination with designated civilian organizations. Plan and rehearse clearance of fires drills. Establish liaison with allied military organizations to facilitate calls for fire and clearance of fires. Ensure censor zones (CZs) are placed over friendly indirect fire positions. SUPPORT OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS 2-100. In support operations Army forces provide essential support, services, assets or resources to help civil authorities deal with situations beyond their capabilities. Army forces conduct support operations to assist foreign and domestic civil authorities to prepare for or respond to crises and relieve suffering. The overarching purpose of support operations is to meet the immediate needs of designated groups for a limited period of time until civil authorities can accomplish these tasks without Army assistance. The two types of support operations are domestic support operations and foreign humanitarian assistance. 2-101. Consider that the fire support structure is capable of providing: Effective C2. Establishing OPs. Conducting convoy operations. Providing local security. Conducting sustainment operations. Performing liaison capabilities. MILITARY OPERATIONS ON URBAN TERRAIN (MOUT) 2-102. The scheme of maneuver may include movement to contact or air assault (or a combination), breaching operations, a hasty or deliberate attack to seize objectives in a city or town, and providing fires for a follow-on


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mission. FSO should consider fires for the entire operation, nor just the urban terrain phase. A detailed FSO checklist for MOUT operations is at Appendix B. 2-103. The FSO should consider the following for MOUT operations: The approval process based on the political sensitivity of engaging MOUT targets in certain situations can reside at command levels much higher than the battalion task force. The FSO and members of the targeting team should be aware of and understand this process. What are the indirect fire ROE? What is on the restricted target list? Disseminate the maneuver scheme and fire support products down to the lowest level. Know who positions the COLTs/Strikers. What radar zones and cueing agents are required in the objective city? Where are the underground fuel and industrial storage tanks, gas distribution lines, gas storage tanks, and gas lines above ground? How has the enemy reinforced buildings? How will fire support and other personnel requesting fires determine 8digit grid coordinates to targets in the built-up areas? What is the general construction or composition of buildings, road surfaces, and barrier obstacles that require breaching? Which buildings have basements? Which buildings/structures require large-caliber weapon/howitzer direct fire before assaulting? Where does tall building masking prevent indirect fire from engaging targets? Where are areas between tall buildings that prevent aircraft from engaging targets? Which sites provide the best observations posts (both friendly and enemy)? Which can be used for laser designators? Will an OH-58D be available for laser designation? Where are the best positions for mortars, towed and self-propelled artillery (both within and outside the city)? Which positions permit 6400mil firing? Identify enemy mortar capability and radar zone requirements and limitations. Which areas of the city are most likely to be affected by the incendiary effects of detonating artillery and mortar rounds? Are targets outside the city to help block advancing enemy elements planned and triggers determined? PASSAGE OF LINES 2-104. Passage of lines is an operation in which a force moves forward or rearward through another force's position with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy. 2-105. A clear fire support battle handover approved by the battalion task force commander is necessary. The transfer of fire support coordination responsibility may occur prior to the maneuver unit's battle handover because of the greater range of FA systems. Key is to provide continuous fire


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support for the stationary and moving units. Close coordination between FSEs is required. 2-106. Information should be exchanged between the stationary and passing force's FSEs including: Unit TSOPs. Target lists and fire plans. Status of fire support assets. Attack guidance, target selection standards, and engagement criteria. EFSTs and HPTs. FSCMs and maneuver control measures. Recognition signals. Information on obstacles. Positions for fire support assets. Meteorological and survey information. Automated database and electronic messaging information. Signal operating instructions. ROE and security measures in effect. Intelligence situation. A clear fire support battle handover identified and approved by the battalion task force commander. As a minimum consider: The event or time for the transfer of control. It may not coincide with the maneuver battle handover. The key is to provide continuous fire support for the stationary and moving units. Close coordination between FSEs is required. The frequencies on which fire missions will be passed. Observers from the passing force monitor and transmit on the stationary force's frequencies. 2-107. The FSO should consider the following for a forward passage of lines: Use of smoke to obscure enemy observers of screen friendly movement. The stationary force supports the close area battle, while the passing force's artillery and mortars moves through. The FSE of the passing force sends a liaison to the FSE of the stationary force. The CFL is continually updated. FSOs must know the lead element's position continuously. Ensure counterfire is planned and controlled by the stationary force. Fire support assets should be positioned near the passage point without interfering with the passage of lines. Priority of positioning will usually be given to the passing force. The passing force plans fires to support operations after the passage of lines. 2-108. FSO should consider the following for a rearward passage of lines: Use smoke to conceal movement through passage points.


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Plan fires to support disengagement of forces and the deception plan (if part of the concept of operations). Consider smoke and suppressive fires. Priority of positioning will usually be given to the stationary force. The FSE of the stationary force sends a liaison to the FSE of the passing force. Ensure counterfire is planned and controlled by the stationary force. AIRBORNE OPERATIONS 2-109. An airborne operation is a joint operation involving the air movement of ground force into an objective area. 2-110. The FSO should consider the following: Conduct or fire support coordination distinguishes the initial assault phase from subsequent phases. During the assault phase, C2 is conducted from an airborne platform. Fire support planning and coordination functions are transferred to the ground forces when the assaulting force commander and FSO are on the ground and operational. At first, the assaulting force FSO is more concerned with close-in targets, while the airborne FSE focuses on deeper targets. Fire planning for the ground tactical plan should consider EFSTs that support the concept of operations and those that support defending the airhead. FSE personnel should be cross-loaded in the landing plan so that loss of an aircraft does not completely disrupt fire support provided to the assaulting force. The FSO should review SEAD requirements in support of the air movement plan. Initial targeting intelligence is likely to come from national assets. Information links to the FSE must be thoroughly reviewed and understood by the targeting team. AIR ASSAULT OPERATIONS 2-111. In air assault operations, assault forces (which provide combat, combat support, and combat service support) using the firepower, mobility, and total integration of helicopter assets maneuver on the battlefield under the control of the ground tactical commander. Their goal is to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. 2-112. The FSO should consider the following when planning fire support for an air assault operation: Fire support should be synchronized with the ground tactical plan, landing plan, and air movement plan. Ammunition resupply procedures must be carefully integrated into the operation due to limited haul capability. Will the landing zones be prepared with preplanned fires? Is lethal SEAD required? Will false landing zones be utilized? If so, are false preparations desired? Where are the flight routes in relation to planned targets and delivery assets? Determine flight times, checkpoints, and code words.


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How are air defense systems being targeted? How will they be destroyed or suppressed? For how long (if suppression is called for)? What are the abort criteria? What A2C2 measures will be required? Will additional detect/assess or deliver assets be required from higher headquarters? Input for air mission briefing. OBSTACLE BREACHING Introduction 2-113. Obstacle breaching is the employment of tactics and techniques to project combat power to the far side of an obstacle. Breaching is a synchronized combined-arms operation under the control of a maneuver commander. Fundamentals 2-114. Suppress, obscure, secure, reduce, and assault (SOSRA) are the breaching fundamentals applied to ensure success when breaching against a defending enemy. These fundamentals always apply but may vary based on METT-TC. 2-115. Suppress. Suppression is the focus of all available fires on enemy personnel, weapons, or equipment to prevent effective fires on friendly forces. Suppressive fires include the full range of systems from direct fires, indirect fires, electronic attack, and directed energy. The purpose of suppression is to protect forces reducing and maneuvering through the obstacle, to soften the initial foothold (assault force objective), and isolate the breaching site. 2-116. Obscure. Obscuration hampers enemy observation and TA and conceals friendly activities and movement. Obscuration smoke deployed on or near the enemy position minimizes the enemy's vision. Screening smoke employed in the breaching area or between the breaching area and the enemy conceals friendly movement and obstacle reduction activities. Obscuration should be employed to protect obstacle reduction, passage of assault forces, and deployment of forces in assault formations. 2-117. Secure. The force secures the breaching operation site to prevent the enemy from interfering with obstacle reduction and passage of the assault force through the lanes created during the reduction. In general, fires secure enemy tactical obstacles and protective obstacles are secured by force. If defenders control the breaching site and cannot be adequately suppressed, the force must secure the breaching site by occupation before it can reduce the obstacle. 2-118. Reduce. Reduction means creating lanes through or over the obstacle to allow the attacking force to pass. The number and width of lanes should be sufficient to allow the assaulting force to cross and accomplish the mission. The unit reducing the obstacle will mark and report obstacle and lane


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locations and conditions to higher HQ. Follow-on units will further reduce or clear the obstacle when possible. 2-118a. Assault. A breaching operation isnt complete until friendly forces have assaulted and destroyed enemy forces covering the obstacle and until the breaching force has completed battle handover with follow-on forces (unless no battle handover is planned). The assault force may also be responsible for seizing enough terrain on the far side of the obstacle to allow the quick passage and dispersion of follow-on forces, and/or seize positions that allow it to protect the flanks of follow-on forces in the immediate vicinity of the obstacle. Breaching Organization 2-119. The maneuver commander organizes the force to accomplish SOSR breaching fundamentals quickly and effectively. This requires him to organize support, breach, and assault forces with the necessary assets to accomplish their roles. 2-120. Support Force. The support forces primary responsibility is to eliminate the enemys ability to interfere with the breaching operation. It should: Isolate the battlefield with fires and suppress enemy fires covering the obstacle. Mass direct and indirect fires to fix the enemy in position and destroy any weapons that are able to bring fires on the breaching force. Employ and control obscuring smoke to prevent enemy-observed direct and indirect fires. 2-121. Breach Force. The breach forces principal mission is to create and mark the lanes that enable the attacking force to pass through the obstacle and continue the attack. Since the support force may not be in a position to effectively observe and suppress all enemy direct-fire systems, the breach force must be capable of providing or controlling suppressive fires. 2-122. Assault Force. The assault forces primary mission is to destroy or dislodge the enemy on the far side of the obstacle. It secures the far side by physical occupation. The assault force may be tasked to assist the support force with suppression while the breach force reduces the obstacle. Breaching Techniques 2-123. The four types of breaching techniques include the in-stride, deliberate, assault, and covert breach. 2-124. In-stride Breach. Brigades and battalion task forces use an in-stride breach to quickly overcome unexpected or lightly defended tactical obstacles. Brigade and battalion task force commanders plan and prepare their force for an in-stride breach by task organizing subordinate battalion task forces or company teams with the forces necessary to conduct independent breaching operations. An in-stride breach may be conducted when:


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An unclear situation with regard to obstacle locations makes it necessary for several lead subordinate units to be capable of independent breaching operations to accomplish the mission. The enemy defense (obstacles and fires) is so weak that forces necessary to support, breach, and assault can be reasonably task organized into a subordinate unit and do not require the maneuver of other subordinate units to adequately suppress, secure, or reduce the obstacle. 2-125. Deliberate Breach. The deliberate breach is a scheme of maneuver specifically designed to cross an obstacle in order to continue the mission. A unit conducts a deliberate breach when the force allocation ratios for support, breach, and assault forces are beyond the capability of a task-organized subordinate unit. Thorough reconnaissance, detailed planning, extensive preparation, and explicit rehearsal characterize the deliberate breach. One or more subordinate units are specifically tasked to perform the role of support, breach, and assault forces. The deliberate breach is centrally planned and executed. 2-126. Assault Breach. The assault breach allows a force to penetrate an enemy's protective obstacle and destroy the defender in detail. Company teams and platoons assigned the mission of assaulting an objective as part of a larger force's attack conduct the assault breach. 2-127. Covert Breach. Dismounted forces use the covert breach during limited visibility. It is silently executed to achieve surprise and to minimize casualties. The covert breach relies on stealth, quiet manual lane reduction techniques and dismounted maneuver. 2-128. Table 2-7 shows typical types of breaching operations versus the size of the enemy force overwatching the obstacle. Table 2-7. Types of Breaching Operations Versus Enemy Size Maneuver Unit Brigade Battalion Task Force Company Team In-stride Deliberate X 3 X 3 X Assault X Covert X Enemy Size Overwatching Obstacle MRB MRC MRP MRB MRC MRP MRB MRC MRP



Legend: X - Type of breach normally conducted 3 - Possible variation depending on scheme of maneuver MRB - Motorized rifle battalion MRC - Motorized rifle company MRP - Motorized rifle platoon


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Fire Support Considerations 2-129. The FSO generally focuses on suppress and obscure-related EFSTs. Suppressing the objective and obscuring the breach lane are key elements of a successful breach. Sustained suppression of the objective assists the direct fire target reduction. 2-130. Fire support tasks (to include mortars) at the battalion task force level in support of the breach may include: Provide obscuration and suppression fires. Destroy and/or suppress antitank weapons systems and dismounted infantry positions. Delay, disrupt, or neutralize repositioning forces. Destroy, suppress, or obscure enemy observation posts. Use battalion task force scouts and other observers to set the conditions at the breach site prior to the arrival of the main body. Identifying where to penetrate, suppress, and obscure is imperative. Plan target handoff with observers and scouts. Target for all wind speeds and directions (see Chapter 8). Position observers with redundancy. Plan for shifting priority of fires (know the triggers) to the support force, then to the assault force. Determine who will have the best situational understanding to effectively lift and shift fires between the support force and the assault force. Consider suppression of enemy's direct fire systems near breach site. Consider suppression against enemy indirect fires. Suppression allows the support force to get in the support by fire position. Consider suppressive fires prior to obscuration fires to avoid enemy speculation fires through the smoke. Obscuration reduces the effectiveness of direct fire against the breach and assault elements. Consider force protection measures: CFZs and/or restrictive FSCMs on breach site, support by fire positions, and holding areas. NFAs around scouts and observers.


Chapter 3

Company Team Fire Support

ORGANIZATION 3-01. Indirect fire support is essential to the success of combined arms operations. To ensure the accuracy of indirect fires, qualified observers are needed to locate targets and fires. For artillery and mortar support, FIST personnel are the observers or "eyes" for the maneuver company team. They are normally assigned to the artillery units providing direct support to maneuver. Although the personnel and equipment in each FIST vary depending on the type of force supported, each FIST has a four-man HQ with the personnel shown in Table 3-1. This organization is representative of light and heavy forces FISTs. The platoon forward observer teams (Table 3-2) however, are only authorized in light unit FISTs. Table 3-1. Company Team Fire Support Team Title Fire Support Officer Fire Support Sergeant Fire Support Specialist Radio Telephone Operator Rank 1LT SSG SPC PFC Quantity 1 1 1 1

Table 3-2. Platoon Forward Observer Team Title Forward Observer Radio Telephone Operator MISSION 3-02. The mission of the fire support team is to provide fire support for the supported maneuver company team. To accomplish this mission, the FIST is responsible for the tasks discussed below. Fire Support Planning 3-03. Fire support planning includes developing fire plans (target lists and overlays) and determining FO control options (light forces) to ensure fire support is integrated into the company team commander's scheme of maneuver and can be executed in a timely manner. Rank SGT PFC Quantity 1 1


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Fire Support Coordination 3-04. The FIST must stay abreast of the maneuver situation at all times and monitor requests for fire support within the company team to prevent fratricide as the result of friendly fire support. The FIST must advise the maneuver commander on FSCMs in effect. Target Location and Calls for Indirect Fire 3-05. With an accurate target location and a proper match of fire support asset to a target, the FIST can increase the effectiveness of indirect fire support. Battlefield Information Reporting 3-06. The observers are the eyes of the FA and a major source of information for the fire support community. Information may be sent in the form of artillery target intelligence or spot reports. Information is also gathered from the target description and the surveillance received in each call for fire. Emergency Control of CAS and NGF 3-07. FACs and NGF spotters may not be available. Therefore the FIST must be proficient in controlling CAS and NGF. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 3-08. As much as possible, all of the company fire support personnel should be cross-trained in each others duties and responsibilities. The FSO and fire support sergeant must especially understand each others jobs; the FOs and senior fire support specialists prepare themselves to perform the fire support sergeants or even the FSOs duties; and the junior fire support personnel learn each others duties and any FSO/FO leader tasks possible. 3-09. Some tasks are team tasks, with responsibilities assigned based on various scenarios and SOP battle drills. As an example, an M7 BFIST equipped FIST will designate primary operators for the M242, 25mm gun and M240C coax, and for the eyesafe laser range finder (ELRF) and integrated sight unit (ISU) (to acquire targets) based on the a particular situation/battle drill. However all personnel in the FIST must be able to operate and maintain the equipment. 3-10. In some instances this may require formal training, qualification, or certification. The FSO and fire support sergeant must understand all of the training requirements related to the operation of the entire FIST and actively manage and track cross training within the FIST. The following paragraphs highlight the major duties and responsibilities of the company team fire support personnel. Company Team Fire Support Officer 3-11. The company team FSO is the unit FSCOORD. He works with the company team commander during combat operations to successfully accomplish all company team-level fire support tasks. While the maneuver commander is responsible for integrating fire support and maneuver, the FSO must understand the scheme of maneuver as well as the company team


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commander does. One the basis of the commander's guidance, the FSO devises his fire support plan, which must be presented to the commander for his approval. His responsibilities include the following: Plan, coordinate, and execute fire support. Advise the company team commander on fire support matters to include capabilities, limitations, and employment of all fire support assets available to support his operation. Ensure the company team fire support plan is developed as an integral part of the company team OPORD/operation plan (OPLAN) and that EFSTs are adequately addressed in maneuver company team rehearsals. Make recommendations to integrate fire support assets (FA and mortars) into the maneuver commander's battle plan. Keep key personnel informed of pertinent information (by spot reports and situation reports). Train the FIST and FOs in applicable fire support matters. Request, adjust, and direct all types of fire support. Ensure the fire support plan and/or execution matrix is prepared and disseminated to key personnel. Advise the company team commander on positioning and use of company team mortars. Allocate FOs and other observers to maintain surveillance of target and named areas of interest. Integrate and employ COLTs and/or Strikers (when allocated) into planned operations. Plan, direct, and manage the employment of observer platforms and laser equipment where they will best support the commander's concept of operation. Provide emergency control of CAS and NGF in the absence of qualified personnel. Fire Support Sergeant 3-12. The company team fire support sergeant is the senior enlisted assistant to the company team FSO. He must be able to perform the duties of the FSO and act in his absence. His responsibilities include the following: Keep key personnel informed of pertinent information (by spot reports and situation reports). Advise the FSO on the allocation and tasking of FOs and other observers. Train the FIST and FOs in applicable fire support tactics and techniques. Request, adjust, and direct all types of fire support. Supervise the maintenance of team equipment. Supervise the establishment of FIST communications. Fire Support Specialist 3-13. The fire support specialist must be able to set up, operate, and maintain all of the equipment of the FIST HQs or an FO party. He works under the guidance of the fire support sergeant to: Set up, operate and maintain section equipment.


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Employ all means of indirect fire support. Assist in fire support planning and coordination. Prepare and maintain staff journals, reports, and map displays. Operate and maintain the fire support vehicle. Ensure security of the vehicle is maintained during all operations.

Radio Telephone Operator (RTO) 3-14. The RTO must be able to set up, operate, and maintain all of the equipment of the FIST HQ or an FO party. As a member of the FIST HQ or the FO party, he must be able to perform the duties of the fire support specialist at the FIST HQ or of the FO at the light infantry platoon. He works under the guidance of the fire support sergeant to: Set up, operate, and maintain radios and digital communications devices. Perform position improvement tasks; under the direction of the fire support sergeant. Send/forward all reports to higher headquarters as per SOP. Forward Observer 3-15. As the maneuver platoon's fire support representative, the primary duty of the FO is to locate targets and call for and adjust indirect fire support. Additional responsibilities include the following: Refine or submit key targets for inclusion in the company team fire plan. Prepare maintain, and use situation maps. Establish and maintain communications with company team FIST. Advise the platoon leader as to the capabilities and limitations of available indirect fire support. Report battlefield intelligence. Laser designate targets when required. FIRE SUPPORT TEAM CONTROL OPTIONS Option 1: Centralized (as COLTS) at Battalion Task Force Level 3-16. Consolidate FISTs at the battalion/TF level to maximize the battalion/TF commander's ability to influence the battle at a critical time and place. This option may provide the battalion/TF commander flexibility and redundancy to meet the demands of a nonlinear area of operations and an expanded distributed battlespace. Company team commanders would retain access to fire support expertise in the planning process while the FISTs would be centralized at the battalion/TF level for execution. Option 2: Decentralized at Company Team Level 3-17. FIST assets remain at the company team level for fire support planning, coordination, and execution. FORWARD OBSERVER CONTROL OPTIONS 3-18. There are three communications options available to the company team FSO. After considering the tactical situation, the degree of training of his


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FOs, and the availability of fire support assets, the company team FSO determines which option is best suited to the mission. Under all options, the company team FSO monitors all calls for fire. Option 1 (Decentralized) 3-19. The platoon FO may call for fire from fire support assets available to support his operation. This option gives him the most responsive fires; however, it allows the FIST HQ the least amount of control. Since the FO is allowed to determine which asset should engage each target, this option generally requires a highly trained observer and company team FSO. Option 2 (Predesignated) 3-20. The FO is assigned a particular fire support asset from which he may request fire support, and he operates on that unit's net. If the FO thinks his target should be engaged with a different fire support asset, he must request permission from the FIST HQ to change assets. Permission is granted on a mission-by-mission basis. Under this option, fire support is highly responsive if the asset is suitable to the type of target. Option 3 (Centralized) 3-21. The FO must contact the FIST HQ for each call for fire. The FIST HQ refers the observer or relays his request to an appropriate fire support asset. This option is least responsive for the observer, but it offers the highest degree of control to the FIST HQ. This option is generally used when maneuver personnel are observers for their platoon. Tailoring 3-22. Since the level of training and the tactical situation vary for each observer, the company team FSO may assign each observer under his control an appropriate option. For example, the 1st Platoon FO may be decentralized, the 2nd Platoon FO may be predesignated, and the 3rd Platoon FO may be centralized.


PRECOMBAT CHECKS AND INSPECTIONS 3-23. The FSO and fire support sergeant assign precombat checks (PCC) / precombat inspections (PCI) priorities of work and integrate them with the company team PCI checklist. Include the operational status, conducting preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) and accountability of the following as a minimum: Fire support equipment. Hand-held terminal unit (HTU). Lightweight computer unit (LCU) (M7 only). G/VLLD with cables; mounted and dismounted operational status. Eye-safe laser rangefinder (M7 only). Navigation devices.


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Night vision equipment and night sights. Binoculars. Laser range finders. Compass (declinated). Copperhead templates/observed fire fans for dismounted operations. Communications Equipment. Call signs and frequency lists (posted by radios). Required cables and radio status. Radio functions check. Man pack radio(s) Basic load of charged batteries. Battery charger status. Speakers. Antennas to include field expedient means. Vehicle load plan. Fuel and water. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) products. Prescribed load list (PLL) status for belts. Crew served weapons and ammunition (zeroed, head space and timing). DA Form 5988s or 2404 (vehicle and communications equipment). Dispatch paperwork in accordance with (IAW) TSOP. M256 kit, nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC). Day/Night trigger marking kit. Identification marking system (IAW TSOP). Personal packing list/load plan. Food, ammunition. Load carrying equipment, rucksack. VS-17 panels, chemical lights, flashlights. Protective mask. Weapons. Special equipment required for mission. Dismounted rucksack with own PCC/PCI checklist. Combat medic equipment/aid bag. Fire support and maneuver documents. Map with graphics. FSEM. Brigade consolidated target list. Intelligence update. Battle tracking documents, manuals, checklists, call sign board. Mortars. Ammunition distribution/load plan, prestockage plan, drop-off plan, resupply. Displacement criteria and positioning plan.


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Fire support documents. Communications plan. Meteorological plan/ survey. Safety Review. Completed risk assessment. Roll over and evacuation drill rehearsal/review. Hearing and eye protection equipment on hand. Seatbelts functional and worn. Meteorological plan/ survey.


3-24. The manner in which a maneuver commander organizes and uses his FIST assets will vary depending on the factors of METT-TC. The company team FSO advises the maneuver commander as to the means of employment that will best allow the FIST to accomplish its EFSTs. Three options are discussed below: OPTION 1 3-25. The company team FSO in the fire support vehicle is positioned to support the company team scheme of maneuver and to control indirect fires while remaining near the company team commander. The fire support vehicle should be positioned where the company team FSO can effectively observe and control execution of the fire support plan. This option allows the company team FSO to conduct required fire support coordination and maintain contact with the company team commander commander's vehicle for face-to-face coordination when needed. The fire support vehicle should not be immediately next to the company team commander's vehicle; rather, it should be within visual range OPTION 2 3-26. The fire support vehicle is positioned to support the company team on terrain to maximize the use of the laser designator rangefinder. The company team FSO rides with the company team commander in his vehicle. This option allows the company team FSO to maintain close coordination with the company team commander, however the company team FSO's ability to observe fires and control the execution of the fire support plan is limited. OPTION 3 3-27. The fire support vehicle is used as a COLT within the battalion/TF or brigade and is controlled by another headquarters. The company team FSO rides with the company team commander or in another company team vehicle. The FSO takes with him two radios and a fire support specialist. This option may degrade fire support to the supported maneuver company team by taking away the fire support vehicle and half of the FIST's fire support communications capability. This option of splitting the FIST team is seldom used.


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3-28. An OP is a position from which military observations are made, or fire directed and adjusted, and which possess appropriate communications. The selection of an OP is critical to the ability of the observer to effectively call for and adjust fire, as well as to his survivability. SELECTION The OP must permit observation of the area of operation of the supported unit and facilitate accomplishment of assigned EFSTs. The selected position must enable an observer to: Observe targets in the supported unit's area of operation (identifiable points on the ground). Evaluate the effects of fire brought on targets. Cover obstacles with indirect fire. Note: The supported maneuver unit should always keep obstacles under surveillance and be able to call for fires through the supporting FIST. An obstacle not observed and covered by fire is no obstacle at all. The company team FSO must check with the maneuver commander to ensure obstacles are under surveillance. This is also verified during rehearsals. Observe TRPs the same as other targets. Coordinate OP selection with other observers' OPs and maneuver OPs to prevent/minimize gaps or dead space. Ensure OP is not vulnerable. OPs can be identified from the air by loose dirt, wire lines, paths to the position, and detection of antennas. Select a position that enhances survivability through concealment. Select an OP that can accommodate establishing and maintaining communication. OP should have entry and exit route without arousing suspicion of the enemy. Use elevated points such as crests, but avoid landmarks and prominent terrain features. Consider the characteristics of forward slope positions (military crest) versus those of the reverse slope. Forward Slope Considerations Offers view to front and flanks. Fires impacting on topographical crest will not neutralize the position. Hillside provides background and aids in concealment. Occupation during daylight is difficult without risking disclosure of the position. Radio communications may be difficult. It may be necessary to remote antennas to the reverse slope. Position does not provide cover from direct fire.

Reverse Slope Considerations The position may be occupied during daylight. It allows greater freedom of movement over forward slope.


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Position facilitates installation and concealment of communications equipment. Provides protection from direct fire. Affords limited field of view to the front. OP may be neutralized when enemy fire is adjusted on topographical crest. TACTICAL OCCUPATION OF AN OBSERVATION POST 3-29. When conducting a deliberate occupation of an OP, the observer's defensive posture will be relatively permanent and will allow the use of many procedures that would normally be omitted during offensive operations. Many of the procedures used below extremely valuable, but time intensive, and only possible during static actions such as defensive operations. One technique that the observer may use is represented by the acronym SLoCTOP, which stands for security, location, communications, targeting, observation, and position improvement (see Appendix B checklist). S-Security Before occupying the OP, conduct security sweep of the surrounding area. Ensure sweep covers 6,400 mils with a 500-meter radius around the tentative OP location. Ensure that scouts do not silhouette themselves during sweep - full camouflage, noise and light discipline and adherence to tactical movement should be exercised during all phases of OP occupation. L-Location While security sweep is being conducted, the remaining team members should be finalizing the selection of the exact OP site. Degree of accuracy for self-location must be within 100 meters. Select position that is not sky-lined or easily identifiable as an OP (military crest, i.e., 2/3 up, on nondescript high ground). The team should prepare its observed fire (OF) Fan for use, begin its terrain sketch using reference points within its area of responsibility, and develop its visibility diagrams. Ensure the observer's situation map is updated and contains all current friendly units, known/suspected enemy positions, and graphic control measures. Send location to the FSE, artillery/mortar FDC and supported maneuver organization. C-Communication Communication is the number one priority for the team. Establish communications during the security and location phases of SLoCTOP. Communication is the most valuable resource for developing situational awareness during occupation. Ensure a member of your team records all information (i.e., other missions; position updates; size, activity, location, unit, time and equipment [SALUTE] reports) in order to assist your smooth transition from a mobile to a static observation posture.


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If communications cannot be established or they are distorted, measures must be taken to establish them. Consider changing locations, or attaching the ten-foot whip or larger antenna (OE-254) or using field expedient antenna. Ensure that higher headquarters (both maneuver and fire support) are updated with most current observer location and other relevant information such as enemy situation. T-Targeting Locate targets using most accurate and expedient means available, incorporate into terrain sketch. (mini eyesafe laser infrared observation set [MELIOS]/PLGR). Ensure GVLLD is well concealed and both the GVLLD and the MELIOS are operated within safety parameters. Affix the AN/TAS-4 night sight to the GVLLD as soon as possible. (Although it may be daylight, the night sight will see through smoke and other obscurations.) O-Observation Ensure all team members are proficient in friendly/enemy forces recognition. Clear fields of view. Refine company team targets and those assigned by higher HQ. Identify trigger points, TRPs, review engagement criteria. Ensure all team members understand this information. Ensure there is a plan to sustain 24-hour operations. P- Position Improvement Dig in position; establish parapet. Through use of regional foliage and items organic to the area, ensure a "natural" look to position is preserved. View OP from enemy's point of view. Improve camouflaging; erect net as soon as possible. Adhere to unit TSOPs for conduct on OP such as rotation schedule, placement and use of latrine, and eating procedures. Conduct continuous position improvement. Specific areas for concentration are security, communications, noise and light discipline, camouflage, weapons and equipment maintenance. Verify alternate OP provides cover/concealment and adequate target area observation.

3-30. The fire support planning process at the company team level mirrors the maneuver planning process. This process is known as troop leading procedures (TLP). The eight steps of TLP are not always performed sequentially; some can occur simultaneously. What follows are company team FSO actions at each step of the TLP. These actions serve as a guide for the


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FSO. TLP should be adjusted to fit the tactical situation. For example, in a time-constrained environment, the FSO may have to abbreviate steps of the TLP. 1. RECEIVE THE MISSION Receive the mission as an oral or written order. Accompany the company team commander to the battalion/TF orders briefing. (This allows the FSO to hear firsthand what the mission is and how the company team fits into the scheme of maneuver and fires. It also provides FSO the opportunity to conduct face-to-face coordination with the battalion/TF FSO.) Obtain Information 3-31. Intelligence Information. During the OPORD briefing the S2 describes in detail how the enemy is anticipated to fight. Focus on the following information from the intelligence briefing and the OPORD: Terrain and weather impacts. Enemy situation and most likely and most dangerous courses of action. Enemy organization for combat and equipment. Enemy fire support capabilities and how they can influence friendly operations. 3-32. Operations Information. The operations officer's briefing focuses on the brigade and battalion/TF mission as well as the commander's intent (this allows the FSO to visualize how the brigade and battalion/TF will fight and his company team's part in the plan). Focus on the following information from the operations officer's briefing and OPORD: Brigade and battalion/TF mission and commander's intent. Concept of operations and scheme of maneuver. Task organization. Specified and implied tasks for the company team and mortars. Graphics and execution/synchronization matrix. 3-33. Fire Support Information. The battalion/TF FSO briefing describes the specifics of how the brigade and battalion/TF will execute the fire support plan to support the brigade and battalion/TF schemes of maneuver. Focus on EFSTs and what responsibility the company team has for accomplishing them. This information is found in the OPORD fires paragraph (see Chapter 1) and associated matrices (brigade and battalion/TF FSEMs). The FA organization for combat provides the company team FSO information on what FA assets are available to the brigade. Gather the following information from the FSO briefing and OPORD: Concept and scheme of fires (brigade, battalion/TF, adjacent units). Fire support assets available (locations, weapons status, range capabilities). Additions, deletions, and changes to fire support task organization. Priority of fires and how it will be executed/triggered.


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Allocation of targets (i.e., priority targets, FPFs, Copperhead). Allocation of mortars and CAS. Ammunition on hand and available for planning. Fire support plan to support reconnaissance, security operations, tactical assembly area operations, and tactical road marches. Target responsibility and observation plan (to include directed OPs). Triggers (marking standards and requirements). FSCMs. Coordinating instructions: Target list worksheet with any special instructions. Brigade and battalion/TF FSEMs. Engagement criteria by phase/event. Communications plan (digital/voice). Clearance of fires procedures. Radar zone allocations. Target cut-off time. Time, place, and means of battalion/TF/brigade fire support rehearsals.

3-34. Refinement. Refinement of all fire support information is a continuous process throughout the planning, preparation, and execution phases of an operation. Higher echelons may push down general or tentative target locations, fire support allocations (e.g., FPFs and priority fires), or responsibilities (e.g., observe and report, laze Copperhead) with requirements for company level personnel to acquire or refine the information, or coordinate specific details and arrangements during planning, preparation, or even execution. 3-35. In the defense company personnel can often walk the terrain and survey in targets. Trigger markers can be emplaced and observation points hardened. EA fires, obstacle support fires, and FPFs can be adjusted in to improve accuracy. Wind conditions can be measured and updated for smoke and illumination fires. An example of preparing an EA in the defense (later in this chapter) includes some examples of company level refinement. 3-36. In the offense, scouts or forward maneuver or fire support personnel may be responsible for locating and reporting accurate target locations and descriptions for planned targets based on incomplete information and estimates. Often there will be little time between when the target can be confirmed and when fires will be required. Thus responsibilities for refinement and sensor-to-shooter communications procedures must be well coordinated, with backup plans in place. Attend Company Team Commander's Confirmation Brief 3-37. After receipt of the OPORD, the battalion/TF commander may require the company team commander to brief back the plan to ensure initial guidance is understood. The confirmation brief provides the FSO the opportunity to hear the company team mission statement and any task clarification issues. The following is a sample format for the fire support portion of the confirmation brief:


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3-38. Purpose of Fires. Battalion/TF commander's concept for fire support. EFST responsibilities (company EFSTs and company responsibilities for battalion EFSTs). Other specified and implied fire support tasks. 3-39. Priority of Fires. Scheme of fires (brigade, battalion/TF, adjacent units - FA and mortars). Hand-off or transition of priority of fires from brigade to battalion/TF or adjacent units. Company team responsibilities in executing fire support plan. 3-40. Assets Available and Allocations. Location of all artillery units and mortars. Ammunition available to support all phases of the operation. Special ammunition allocations (i.e., SCATMINE, smoke, illumination, Copperhead). 3-41. Restrictions. Ammunition constraints. Range limitations. FSCMs. Rules of engagement. Land management issues. Areas of accepted risk. 3-42. Rehearsal Schedules. Battalion and higher rehearsals. Company rehearsals. FIST/observer rehearsals and/or battle drills. Receive Company Team Commander's Guidance 3-43. Before receiving the company team commander's guidance, inform and clarify with the commander what EFSTs the company team is responsible for executing. This allows the commander to formulate a scheme of maneuver and issue guidance based on maneuver and fires. Receive commander's restated mission. Receive commander's guidance for fire support. 2. ISSUE THE WARNING ORDER 3-44. In concert with the company team commander's warning order, the FSO takes the following actions: Participate in company team warning order.


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Brief all available information on the execution of fires and provide fire support documents to platoon leaders, FIST, FOs, and mortar leaders as applicable. Additionally FIST/FOs specific PCCs and PCIs to complete the operation. Get the commander's timeline. Notify company team commander/battalion/TF FSO of changes in status. 3. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN 3-45. FIST personnel must understand that company fire planning is a parallel and collaborative process linked with battalion/TF planning. This requires rapid response to battalion/TF requests for information, expeditious forwarding of company fire support requirements to the battalion/TF FSE, and quick dissemination of critical data to company fire support and maneuver personnel involved in the execution of company and higher EFSTs. The flowing planning considerations must also be addressed. Consider the following guidance from the company team commander prior to planning: Objectives for fires. Desired effect, when, where, why, and the relationship of fires and maneuver. Requirement for priority targets, FPFs, smoke, illumination, obstacle coverage, and registrations. Basic scheme of maneuver and fires with graphics. Phases/events and transition between phases. Main effort by phase/event and clear triggers to shift priority of fires. Any special operations (i.e., air assault, dismounted). Initial positioning for observers. Conduct concurrent planning as the company team commander refines his plan. Consider the following throughout the planning process: Development of company team targets. Observation plan - assignment of targets within company team. Development of company team FSEM (scheme of fires). Development of fire support overlay. Mortar plan, if available, coordinated with mortar platoon leader. Engagement criteria for artillery and mortars by phases/events. Develop a fire support plan based on the commander's guidance received and what is known about the brigade and battalion/TF plan. Analyze the battalion/TF OPORD to determine what EFSTs/targets the company team is responsible for executing and if the targets require refinement. (See Figure 1-4 in Chapter 1 and review the battalion/TF fire planning chapter to better understand the company role in the development and execution of EFSTs.) Identify targeting, observation, trigger, lasing, communications, and other issues that need to be refined or require additional clarification or coordination to ensure effective execution of responsibilities for battalion/TF EFSTs. Conduct necessary actions. Where/when must observers be in position?


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Will they require maneuver support for protection? Is TA/intelligence information from higher echelon assets, and the advance warning it provides, critical to the execution of battalion/TF and or company EFSTs? Will the company level personnel actually trigger the fires in support of battalion/TF EFSTs or report observations to the battalion/TF FSE that will control the fires? Will the company FIST need to coordinate with and assist and brigade or battalion/TF controlled COLT/Striker teams operating in the company area? Do sensor-to-shooter communications require any non-standard communications links, equipment, or procedures? Is abort and control execution guidance for EFSTs understood by company fire support personnel? (Who can determine whether or not to cancel or modify fires?) Is lasing required? Are laser codes correct? What type of weapon will lasing be provided for? Are the initial target locations tentative locations? Will company fire support personnel need to provide updated target locations for planned fires during the operation? Who in the company is responsible for acquiring and reporting the updated locations? How much time will there be between the time of target confirmation and the time planned fires will be required? How will the updated targeting information be expedited to the shooter? List specified and implied tasks for fires (commander's guidance). Determine if any brigade or battalion/TF targets meet the company team commander's guidance, thus eliminating duplication of targets. Plan any additional targets necessary to meet the company team commander's guidance based on target allocations. Advise commander if guidance can or cannot be met with assets available and allocations. Ensure all digital systems are updated; maneuver and threat graphics, targets, obstacles, and FSCMs, mortar and artillery positions plotted on digital overlays; and the information is disseminated to the lowest level. If digital systems are not available then: Attach operations overlay to map. Plot obstacles and known enemy locations. Attach target overlay to map. Plot battalion/TF targets and applicable brigade targets. Refine targets if necessary. Verify that all targets, especially company mortar targets, are logistically supportable. Identify essential mortar and FA fires where shooter moves/positioning critical to successful execution and conduct necessary coordination ensure rapid notification of problems and execution of backup plans. Digitally update/plot new company team targets on overlay to account for remaining commander's guidance (do not violate target allocation).


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Determine target purpose, engagement criteria, trigger points, and primary and alternate executors. Develop target list worksheet and FSEM (scheme of fires). Develop FSO briefing to commander (see Step 6). 4. INITIATE MOVEMENT Position FOs, if applicable, and FIST vehicle based on the observation plan and move with the company team as required (i.e., movement to assembly area or attack position). Always ensure battlefield observation is maintained. Coordinate gain/loss of forward observers due to task organization. 5. CONDUCT RECONNAISSANCE METT-TC will determine the type of reconnaissance the commander will conduct. Always accompany the company team commander on reconnaissance. Ensure FOs accompany platoon leaders on reconnaissance. Verify target locations, trigger points, and observation plan (primary and alternate executors). Confirm the following: Targets support scheme of maneuver. Refine if necessary. Proposed observer positions allow observation of targets and triggers. Movement or repositioning plan for observers (routes), FIST vehicles, dismounted operations, and FOs. 6. COMPLETE THE PLAN Modify plan as necessary after reconnaissance or any changes. Refine all targeting dated and ensure the battalion/TF FSE and supporting FA and mortar FDCs receive the most current targeting data in a timely manner. Brief company team commander on the fire support plan. An example briefing format is shown in Figure 3-1. Complete the fire support plan, with any modifications, and produce the following products to issue to key personnel at the company team OPORD brief with a copy furnished of the approved company team fire support plan to the battalion/TF FSO for his review: Target list worksheet. Fire support overlay to include FSCMs. FSEM (observation plan and scheme of fires). Continue coordination with the battalion/TF FSO. He should deconflict target duplications and refine accordingly. Brief the company team commander on any modifications made to the plan by the battalion/TF FSO.


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1. Situation: Orient the commander to the map/AO: - Point out grid north/address and briefly explain key terrain. - Point out the battalion/TF and company team AO (phase lines, axes, objectives, EAs), friendly and enemy obstacles, avenues of approach and mobility corridors, and any known or suspected enemy locations - Point out all locations of your company team and other battalion/TF elements. Include any attachments to the company team or battalion/TF as well as other friendly units that will call for fires from the DS artillery battalion (i.e., COLTs, scouts, or adjacent battalion/TF units). Briefly explain: - The battalion/TF commander's mission/intent and concept of the operation, pointing to the map and graphics as you explain. - State the battalion/TF commander's guidance for fires and attack guidance. 2. Mission: State the company team mission verbatim from the commander's guidance and explain the company team scheme of maneuver, pointing to the map and graphics as you explain. 3. Execution: State the company team commander's guidance for fires verbatim: - Briefly address how the guidance was met. - Address and explain any part of the guidance you are unable to meet. - Ask the commander for any changes or additional guidance he may have. State the fire support assets available: - At a minimum, state what assets the company team can request fire support from (i.e., DS battalion, battalion/TF mortars, company team mortars [light companies only], and naval gunfire). Brief other assets available to the brigade, such as a reinforcing battalion and CAS, but emphasize that unless the battalion/TF has allocated them, the company team cannot request fires from these assets. - Priority of fires. State the battalion/TF priority of fires (which company team) by phase, followed by the company team priority of fires (which platoon) by phase. - Priority targets. State the number of priority targets the company team has and point them out on the overlay. - Final protective fires. State the number, size, and asset for each FPF as you point them out on the overlay. - Special munitions allocations. State the quantity, if any, of each special munition the company team is allocated (i.e., 15 minutes of smoke). Discuss smoke (FA and mortar), Copperhead, illumination, SCATMINE, and DPICM. - Any other allocations. The number of targets allocated by the battalion/TF by asset (FA or mortar) for planning. State if the company team is allocated CAS sorties (by aircraft type and ordnance, if known) State the scheme of fires: - Brief the FSEM; brief the scheme of fires target by target, by phase and in the chronological sequence you expect them to be executed. Point to each target on the overlay. Cover all the elements of the EFST (TPME) or at a minimum, the task and purpose for each target. - Explain in detail why each trigger, observer, and location was chosen for each target. Explain how each target supports the company team's plan and how it relates to enemy forces and time. Brief the FSCM and restrictions: - Brief all FSCMs, when they are in effect and other restrictions on fires (i.e., battalion/TF commander's approval to fire illumination) 4. Service Support: Brief the status of company team fire support personnel and equipment (i.e., the number of personnel available, G/VLLDs, radios, weapons, FIST vehicle status, and the amount of fuel available). For light infantry companies brief the ammunition load for the 60 mm mortars on hand and expected resupply. 5. Command and Signal: Point to the location of the FIST vehicle and brief its movement and positioning plan as well. Brief and point out locations of platoon FOs, their movement and positioning plan and control options. Brief what nets you will be operating on, who you will be talking to and call signs for all fire support assets.

Figure 3-1. Example FSO Briefing Format


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7. ISSUE THE ORDER Ensure FOs and mortar section leader attend OPORD briefing if possible. Participate in company team OPORD. Brief the fire support portion of the company team OPORD according to the unit TSOP. The information to be briefed is in the FSO's briefing to the company team commander, specifically the scheme of fires and observation plan. When time is limited, the company FSO should, at a minimum, brief the scheme of fires and the observation plan. 3-46. An example format for the company team fire support portion of the OPORD brief is shown in Figure 3-2.
1. Situation: Issue fire support documents. Orient the audience to the terrain model or map as appropriate. Enemy: Restate the known enemy locations, most likely/dangerous courses of action and how fire support assets could influence the company team (i.e., phases of fire, ranges, ammunition) Friendly: Identify units to the front, rear, left and right and a brief scheme of fires if known. 2. Mission: State the company team mission verbatim. 3. Execution: Restate brigade, battalion/TF, and company team commander's concept for fire support. State fire support assets available (i.e., DS/R/GS/GSR, mortars, CAS, NGF): - Priority of fires. State the company team priority of fires (which platoon) by phase. - Priority targets. State the number of priority targets the company team has and point them out on the overlay. - Final protective fires. State the number, size, and asset for each FPF as you point them out on the overlay. - Special munitions allocations. State the quantity, if any, of each special munition the company team is allocated (i.e., 15 minutes of smoke). Discuss smoke (FA and mortar), Copperhead, illumination, SCATMINE, and DPICM. State the scheme of fires: - Brief the FSEM; brief the scheme of fires target by target, by phase and in the chronological sequence you expect them to be executed. Cover all the elements of the EFST (TPME). - Cover target responsibilities. - Brief observer plan with primary and alternate assigned; movement plan. - Discuss triggers. - Brief engagement Criteria by phases/events. - Brief scheme of mortar support (i.e., movement, positioning, displacement, triggers). - Discuss radar plan if applicable. - Brief any coordinating instructions (i.e., HPTs, ROE). - Brief FSCMs and restrictions. 4. Service Support: Mortar ammunition resupply, load plan, controlled supply rates (CSRs) for various munitions. Medical evacuation plan. Fire support equipment status (i.e., vehicles, communications, weapons). 5. Command and Signal: Brief task organization. Brief FIST vehicle movement and positioning plan. Brief clearance of fires procedures. Discuss chain of command if FSO is killed. Brief call signs and frequencies (i.e., FA, mortars, other fire support nets)

Figure 3-2. Example Briefing Format for Fire Support Portion of Company Team OPORD


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8. SUPERVISE Conduct company team back briefs. Participants include FOs, RTOs, mortar section sergeants and FDC personnel, platoon leaders, and anyone responsible for executing the fire plan. Conduct company team fire support rehearsal. The fire support rehearsal should be conducted by the FSO or fire support sergeant. (If time permits, a company team combined arms rehearsal enhances synchronization of both the scheme of fires and maneuver.) Participate in brigade and battalion/TF fire support rehearsals. Supervise completion of precombat checks and precombat inspections. Continue to refine targets and triggers, actual obstacle emplacement, and new enemy information. Continuously update and coordinate plan as necessary both higher and lower.

FIRE SUPPORT EXECUTION MATRIX 3-47. The FSEM is a concise, easy planning tool that shows the many factors of a fire support plan. It helps the FSO and the commander understand how the fire plan supports the scheme of maneuver. It is a valuable planning tool that illustrates what aspects of the fire support plan the FSO is responsible for and at what phase during the battle these aspects apply. When approved, the matrix becomes the primary execution tool. The format of and information in FSEMs will vary from unit to unit. The TSOP should standardize FSEM preparation to ensure synchronization with maneuver matrices. 3-48. The sample FSEM format illustrated for the battalion/TF in Chapter 2 (Figures 2-7 A and B) is also applicable for company team operations. 3-49. The first page (see Figure 2-7A) of the matrix provides the following information: Company team mission. Commander's guidance for fires. Company team POFs. FA organization for combat. Mortar missions and locations. Mortar and FA ammunitions available to support the operation. FSCMs. Battalion/TF commander's attack guidance. Special munitions (SCATMINE, Copperhead). HPTs. CAS or NGF. Coordinating instructions. Succession of fire support responsibility.


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3-50. The second page of the matrix (see Figure 2-7B) provides the following information: Target numbers and corresponding information to include: Purpose. Engagement criteria. Trigger point. Desired effects. Primary executor, alternate executor, and fire support asset. Execution Matrix. The matrix is set up with the maneuver elements or targets executors along the left side and maneuver control measures (phases lines, events, or times) of the mission along the top of the matrix. Phases should always correspond to phases established on maneuver execution matrices. 3-51. At company team level the matrix is used as follows: If priority of an indirect fire support means is allocated to a platoon it is indicated by an abbreviation of that fire support asset in the appropriate matrix box. If an FPF has been allocated, the acronym FPF preceded by the type of indirect fire means responsible for firing that FPF will appear in the appropriate box. If a priority target is allocated to a platoon it will appear in the box as Pri Tgt preceded by the means of fire support responsible for firing the target. Once a target is determined as the priority target, the corresponding target number is placed in the box. If FIST elements are responsible for initiating specific fires, the target number, group, or series will be listed in the box for that FIST element. Specific guidelines concerning fires not included on the target list worksheet are included in the box. If an FSCM is to be put into effect the acronym for that FSCM followed by the word designated for that measure will be shown in the appropriate box. Other factors that apply to a certain platoon during a specific time frame may also be included in the appropriate box.


3-52. The company team FSOs primary duties in coordinating and executing fire support are as follows: Establish and maintain communications with FOs, battalion FSO/FSE, and mortar and artillery units as required. Prepare and disseminate fire support documents. Monitor status of fire support assets available. Receive and act on priorities for fire support requested by the maneuver commander. Rehearse the fire support plan will all participants. Execute the fire support plan. Provide for positive clearance of fires.


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Cue TA assets as required. Manage lasing operations. Anticipate changes dictated by the developing battle and recommend revision of the fire support plan if required. Continually locate and coordinate the attack of targets within the company team's area of operations. Call for, adjust, and/or direct all types of fire support as required. Aggressively prepare and send reports and information to the battalion FSO/FSE and firing unit headquarters as necessary. Be prepared to assume command or control of the company team during battle. EA PREPARATION 3-53. When a company occupies a defensive position, one of the fire support tasks that a FIST, COLT/Striker, or FSE must usually participation in the preparation of one or more EAs. This is a combined arms event that includes maneuver personnel, engineers, and other members of the combined arms team. Fire support must be integrated and synchronized with direct fires and with the obstacle plan. The following provides a brief overview of the considerations for the preparation on an EA. Planning 3-54. During the planning phase, fire support personnel involved in EA planning should: Review the mission, concepts of operation and fires in applicable OPORD/OPLANS, and other documents to thoroughly understand the situation. Identify potential enemy avenues of approach, mounted and dismounted using the S2s situation template (in the OPORD) and a visual inspection of the terrain (as possible). Receive the company commanders guidance and concerns. Assist the commander in determining where the EA should be (or in determining the location and feasibility of an EA directed by a higher echelon). Assist the commander and engineers in determining the best places for obstacles and the types of obstacles required. Assist the commander in determining how to best integrate and synchronize direct fires and available fire support in the EA plan. Identify the HVTs/HPTs that can be anticipated in the EA and how they can best be attacked. Identify how targets support the defensive plan. Identify the locations of targets/targeted areas that have been assigned to the company by higher echelons. Verify that every target has been assigned primary and alternate observers who will observer and report information and primary and alternate controllers who have authority to trigger the fires. The observer and the controller can be the same individual.


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Identify the firing unit for each target and the communications (device, net, route) used to fire the mission. Determine if there are any key considerations to account for due to the type of system or ammunition being used. Identify possible OPs primary, alternate, supplementary, and whether or not hardening is possible/necessary. Camouflage the position. Preparation 3-55. During the preparation phase, fire support personnel involved in preparation of an EA should: Verify the locations of friendly defensive positions, OPs, targets, trigger points, intercept points, and obstacles, using a PLGR or other devices and methods to improve the accuracy of all data. Record all data. Walk the terrain and ensure all OPs, targets, trigger points, and intercept points are properly positioned. (Often locations may not make sense based on the actual lay of the land or because of changes that the commander makes based on his observations during the preparation phase.) Calculate trigger and intercept points and verify the calculations and factors used with another knowledgeable person such as the commander, battalion FSO, or maneuver or FA S2 (e.g., enemy movement rates, avenues of approach, types of vehicles and objectives). Estimate possible shifts from planned intercept points to alternate intercept points in case the enemy moves in a different direction. Employ/emplace trigger/target markers as possible to ensure ease of identification in all anticipated battlefield conditions. Verify that G/VLLD positions are effectively placed to maximize observation of the EA and survivability. Determine which fires/triggers will be controlled by the FSO/fire support sergeant and which will be delegated to FOs or platoon leaders/NCOs. Identify which fires/triggers the commander wants to personally control. Determine if the positions used for the EA fight are temporary or primary. Is the company expected to remain in place or disengage and move to another defensive position? Conduct backbriefs with FOs to ensure they understand the plan, their responsibilities, and backup plans. Review the terrain sketches of all FOs to ensure they are sufficient. Ensure supported maneuver personnel also understand the FO tasks in case they need to assume his responsibilities. Verify communications, digital and voice. Especially confirm all critical sensor-to-shooter links. Decide if communications will be centralized predesignated, or decentralized. Determine how observers and FIST personnel will receive their first indication of the approaching enemy and how much advance notice they will receive before the enemy is visible and/or entering the EA. Conduct pre-combat checks and inspections of all OP/FIST equipment and personnel. If there company has 60mm mortars, request survey and meteorological support/data.


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Identify FPF requirements for maneuver personnel and/or OPs that are in vulnerable positions supporting the EA plan. Brief the fire support plan to company/platoon leaders. Participate in all rehearsals and direct FIST rehearsals and battle drills as required. Conduct required mortar/FA registrations and adjust in any critical fires when possible. Consider operations security (OPSEC) (may not want to alert the enemy). As time permits, brief the battalion FSO on the company scheme of maneuver and how targets are synchronized so that he better understand how he can support the company. Position yourself and your fire support NCO where you can best support the commander and control the FOs and all fires. Ensure that the commander thoroughly understands the companys targeting responsibilities and the targeting plan. He has ultimate responsibility for the fires and their execution. Execution Continually monitor the progress of the battle as it develops for anything that may require changes to the plans. Direct the implementation of backup plans, or make changes using hasty fire planning techniques. Periodically report progress/battlefield damage assessment (BDA), especially when events are deemed critically important to higher headquarters. Monitor ammunition expenditure rates and the intensity of all fires. Higher than anticipated indirect fire rates may result in FA and/or mortar ammunition shortages. High expenditures of small-arms fires by the company may produce shortages that will mean increased reliance on fire support. Monitor the effectiveness of EA fires. Anticipate branches and sequels based on how the EA battle develops. Determine the impact for follow-on fire plans. Shift personnel and responsibilities as necessary to maintain fire support effectiveness. When necessary, move to an FOs position to assist or take control or direct the fire support sergeant or another FO to do so. Execute FPFs and other defensive fires if the commander directs disengagement and movement to subsequent defensive positions.


Chapter 4

FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATION 4-01. Fire support communication nets are as shown in Table 4-1. Table 4-1. Fire Support Coordination Nets
Net Maneuver battalion /TF fire support net (FM) voice Purpose Calls for fire from nonfield artillery observers Voice fire support coordination between maneuver, FSEs, and FA or mortar command posts Voice fire support coordination within the maneuver brigade area of operations Subscribers1 Battalion/TF FSE net control station (NCS) Battalion/TF FSO Company team FOs Battalion/TF mortar FDC/platoon leader Brigade FSE (NCS) Brigade FSO Battalion/TF FSEs or FSOs Any FSE (as required) FIST HQ or company team FSOs Any FDC (as required) COLTs (as required) Any FSO or observer Brigade FSO DS battalion TOC COLTs FSCOORD (as required) Any FSO (as required) Any FDC (as required) Force FA TOC (as required)

Maneuver brigade fire support net (FM) voice

Subscribers vary according to TSOP and METT-TC factors.

FIRE DIRECTION 4-02. The nets used for fire direction are as shown in Table 4-2.


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Table 4-2. Fire Direction Nets

Net Maneuver battalion/TF mortar fire direction net (FM) digital2 Purpose Tactical and technical fire direction and calls for fire to the mortar platoon FDC(s) Subscribers1 Battalion/TF FSE Battalion/TF FSO Company team FOs (as required or directed) Battalion/TF mortar FDC (NCS) FIST HQ or company team FSOs COLTs (as required) Any FSO or observer (as required) COLTs (as required) Battalion/TF FSE or FSO Brigade FSE or FSO Other FSE or FSOs (as required) FA battery FDCs FA platoon FDCs Brigade FSE Aviation brigade FSE (as required) Other FSE (as required)

Direct support battalion fire direction 1, 2, or 3 2 net (FM) digital

Tactical and technical fire direction and calls for fire to FA battalion, battery, or platoon FDCs

DS battalion FDC (NCS) Platoon FDCs FIST HQ or company team FSOs (as required or directed) FOs (as required or directed) AN/TPQ-36 radar (as required) DS battalion TOC (NCS) Battalion/TF FSEs

DS battalion operations/fire net (FM 2 digital

1 2

Tactical fire direction and fire planning

Subscribers vary according to TSOP and METT-TC factors. These are voice nets in units not equipped with digital devices.

COMMAND AND CONTROL 4-03. The nets used for command and control are as shown in Table 4-3. Table 4-3. Command and Control Nets
Net Maneuver company team command or operations net (FM) voice Purpose Command and control of all maneuver company team elements Subscribers1 Company team command post (NCS) Company team commander Company team executive officer Battalion command post (NCS) Battalion/TF FSE or FSO Any FSE (as required) Company team command post Company team commander Maneuver platoon leaders Other maneuver elements (as required) Other FSE or FSOs (as required) COLTs (As required) Any FSO (as required) Any FDC (as required) Force FA TOC (as required)

Maneuver battalion/TF command or operations net (FM) voice

Command and control of maneuver elements in the battalion/TF

Subscribers vary according to TSOP and METT-TC factors.


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4-04. An example fire support communications net matrix for the battalion/TF and below is shown below in Table 4-4. Table 4-4. Example Fire Support Communications Net Matrix Battalion Task Force and Below
Net/ Subscriber Mvr Co tm cmd/ ops (V) Mvr Bn TF cmd/ ops (V) Mvr Bn TF FS (V) Mvr Bde FS (V) FO X1 Mortar Bn TF FDC COLT Co Tm FIST X Co Tm FSO X1 X X1 X X2 X N X2 X2 X X1 X X X1 X X1 N X X X X N = Net Control Station FD = fire direction D = digital mvr = maneuver 1 = As required or directed tm = team cmd = command X X X X X Bn TF FSE Bn TF FSO

Mvr Bn TF X1 Mortar FD (D) DS FA Bn FD 1, X1 2, or 3 (D) DS FA Bn ops/fire (D) Legend: X = Subscriber 2 = As required V = Voice ops = operations

QUICK FIRE CHANNEL 4-05. A quick fire channel is established to directly link an observer (or other target executor) with a weapon system (Figure 4-1). Quick fire channels may be either voice or digital nets. Quick fire channels within a maneuver brigade are normally established on FA or mortar nets. These channels are designed to expedite calls for fire against HPTs or to trigger preplanned fires. Quick fire channels also may be used to execute fires for critical operations or phases of the battle. Linking a COLT or Striker with a battery/platoon FDC for counter reconnaissance fires or an AN-TPQ-37 radar with the multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) battery FDC for counterfires are examples. Copperhead missions can best be executed by using quick fire channels. The FSCOORDs and or FSOs establish quick fire channels and procedures based on the commander's intent and the concept of operations.


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FDC/POC Observer



Figure 4-1. Quick Fire Channel Illustrating Sensor-to-Shooter Link


4-06. The diagrams in figures 4-2 and 4-3 are model solutions. Standard net structures should be outlined in unit TSOPs and should be kept current as changes in procedures and/or systems occur. MANEUVER COMPANY TEAM FIST 4-07. Example communications nets for the company team FIST are shown in Figure 4-2. The FIST headquarters for the light infantry company will have only three RTs. The maneuver company team command net is not monitored if the FSO is collocated with the commander. If the FSO is not with the FIST headquarters, radios will either be provided by the maneuver headquarters or they must be taken from the FIST headquarters. Net assignments for platoon FOs may vary. In some cases, the FSO may decide to have all FOs on the mortar net (voice or digital).


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Co Team FIST HTU DS Bn FD 1, 2, or 3 FM (D) RT RT Bn TF Heavy Mortar FM (D or V) Bn TF FS FM (V) RT RT Mvr Co Team Cmd FM (V)


Bn TF FS FM (V) DS Bn FD 1, 2, or 3 FM (D) or Bn TF Mortar FD FM (D)


Figure 4-2. Maneuver Company Team FIST Communications MANEUVER BATTALION TASK FORCE FSE 4-08. Example communications nets for the maneuver battalion/TF FSE are shown in Figure 4-3. In heavy battalion or task force FSEs the radios in the FSO's wheeled vehicle may have to be mounted in the FSE tracked vehicle in order to provide maximum FM radio capability. If the FSO is required to go forward with the maneuver commander or establish a split TOC capability, radios will be provided by the maneuver headquarters or they must be taken from the FSE. If the FSO uses an HTU when forward with the commander, he must coordinate with the FA battalion FDC in order to operate on one of the FD nets.


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External Brigade FS FM (V)


Internal Bn FS FM (V)

DS Bn Ops/Fire FM (D)



DS Bn FD 1, 2, or 3 FM (D) or Bn TF Mortar FD FM (D)

Brigade FS FM (V)


Bn TF FS (V)2 or Assigned Digital Net

1 RT 2

is taken or remoted from FSO vehicle Monitors Bn TF cmd/ops FM (V) when not physically with Bn TF commander

Figure 4-3. Maneuver Battalion Task Force FSE Communications


Chapter 5

Target Location
5-1. One of the key requirements for the delivery of accurate predicted fire on a target is accurate target location. To successfully perform his duties, the observer must be able to determine an accurate position of a target on the ground. To develop accurate target locations, the observer: Must be able to self-locate to within 100 meters at all times. Uses prominent terrain features to relate potential target areas to grid locations on a map. Makes a thorough study of terrain by drawing a terrain sketch (in static environment) and visibility diagram (see FM 21-26, Map Reading and Land Navigation). Associates the direction in which he is looking with a direction line on the map. Ensures that a planned target is always a recognizable point on the ground (except "cannot observe" missions). Must be able to use electronic navigational aids with map analysis verification. 5-2. Using large-scale maps (larger than 1:50,000) may make terrain-map association difficult. In these situations the use of position-locating systems or other navigational aids is essential for observer self-location and the accurate location of targets.


5-3. Once a thorough terrain-map study has been conducted the observer will be well prepared to locate targets. Accurate location of targets is critical to achieving first-round effects on targets. Often, only by adjusting fires onto a target, thereby losing surprise and effects of an FFE mission, can errors in target location be corrected. The use of position locating systems or laser devices that are operating from known locations can greatly enhance target location. The following methods of target location are available to the observer: Polar Plot - the observer describes the target location in relation to his position in terms of direction, distance, and vertical shift. Laser Polar- the observer uses a lasing device oriented for direction to describe the target location in relation to his position in terms of direction, distance and vertical angle. Grid Coordinates - the observer locates the target by giving the actual grid location.


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Laser Grid - the observer sends an 8 or 10 digit target grid location and prepares FDC for laze burst corrections. Shift from a known point - the observer describes the target location in relation to a point of known location (planned target or known point). 5-4. In order to perform these target location methods, the observer must possess some fundamental skills to include determining direction, distance, grid, vertical shift, and vertical angle (VA). The following paragraphs outline the basic TTP for determining these elements.

5-5. Determining direction is an essential skill for the observer. Direction is an integral part of terrain-map association, target location, and adjustment of fire. Direction is expressed as a horizontal clockwise angle measured from a fixed reference. TERMS AND RELATIONSHIPS 5-6. The following terms and relationships are provided to assist the observer in preparing to determine direction: Azimuth 5-7. An azimuth is a horizontal, clockwise angle measured from a north baseline. A grid azimuth is measured from grid north. A magnetic azimuth is measured from magnetic north and a true azimuth is measured from true north. The azimuth is the most common military method to express direction. Units of Measurement 5-8. Direction can be measured in mils (preferred) or degrees. 5-9. Mils. A mil is a unit of horizontal clockwise angular measurement that is equal to 1/6,400 of a circle. The mil is used because of its accuracy and the mil relation formula, which is based on the assumption that an angle of 1 mil will subtend an arc of 1 meter at a distance of 1,000 meters. 5-10. The mil relation formula (W = R X m) has several applications in observed fire procedures. It can be used to determine the width of a lateral shift (W) from a known point to a new target (Figure 5-1). The mil relation can also be used in estimating distances based on known equipment dimensions in meters and measured mils (paragraph 5-40) and in determining deviation corrections in adjustment of fire procedures based on deviation spottings in mils and OT distance factor. Note: see Chapter 7 for a discussion of the mil relation formula using the "OT factor". 5-11. Degrees. A degree is a unit of horizontal clockwise angular measurement that is equal to 1/360 of a circle. Degrees may be converted to mils by multiplying the number of degrees by approximately 17.78 (mils = number of degrees X 6400 360).


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Known Point W


Observer-Target (OT) Line

R m

W = R X m, where W = shift in meters (nearest 10 meters) R = shift factor (observer-known point distance to the nearest 100 meters expressed in thousands) m = angular deviation in mils (to nearest 1 mil) Observer

Figure 5 -1. Example of Mil Relation Formula in Shift From a Known Point Cardinal Directions 5-12. Cardinal directions are expressed in terms of north (N), northeast (NE), east (E), southeast (SE), south (S), southwest (SW), west (W), and northwest (NW). The relationship between cardinal directions, mils and degrees is illustrated in Figure 5-2.

00 or 3600 0 or 6,400 MILS 3150 or 5,600 mils NW N NE

450 or 800 mils

2700 or 4,800 mils

900 or 1,600 mils

SW 2250 or 4,000 mils S

SE 1350 or 2,400 mils

1800 or 3,200 mils

Figure 5-2. Cardinal Directions Right-Add, Left -Subtract (RALS) Rule 5-13. By determining the horizontal angular deviation in mils between a reference point of known direction and a target, a direction to the target can be computed by applying the deviation to the known direction. Direction


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increases to the right and decreases to the left. Therefore, to determine the direction to the target, apply the number of mils measured right or left of the reference point known direction by use of the RALS rule (right add; left subtract). For example, the azimuth to the reference point is 2,100 mils. The target is 40 mils to the left of the reference point. The direction to the target is 2,060 mils (2,100 - 40). If the target is 60 mils to the right of the reference point, the direction to the target is 2,160 mils (2,100 + 60). Observer-Target Line 5-14. The OT line is an imaginary straight line from the observer to the target. It is the most commonly used direction for locating targets and conducting adjustments. Gun-Target Line 5-15. The gun-target (GT) line is an imaginary straight line from the gun(s) to the target. Angle T 5-16. Angle T is the angle formed by the intersection of the GT line and the OT line with its vertex at the target (Figure 5-3).








Figure 5-3. Angle T METHODS TO DETERMINE DIRECTION 5-17. There are five methods by which to determine direction. In order of preference, they are: using other measuring devices, measuring from a reference point, using a compass, scaling from a map, and estimating. Using Other Measuring Devices 5-18. When properly oriented, the aiming circle, MELIOS, or G/VLLD provides direction to the nearest mil.


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Measuring From A Reference Point 5-19. Using a reference point with known direction, the observer can measure horizontal angular deviations and apply them to the reference direction. Angular deviations may be measured with binoculars, laser range finder (i.e., AN/GVS-5), AN/PVS-6 MELIOS, or with the hand. In measuring with binoculars, angular deviation is determined to the nearest 1 mil. 5-20. Reticle Patterns. The horizontal and vertical scales of the M19 binocular reticle pattern are divided into increments of 10 mils (Figure 5-4A). The horizontal and vertical scales of the M22 binocular reticle pattern (Figure 5-4B) are divided into increments of 10 mils with hash marks at 5 mil increments. The vertical scales are used in height of burst (HOB) adjustment, but cannot be used to determine vertical angle. Only a leveled measuring device can measure VA. 5-21. The horizontal and vertical scales on the AN/GVS-5 laser range finder reticle (Figure 5-4C) are divided into increments of 10 mils. The centerlines are further divided with hash marks at 5-mil increments. 5-22. The AN/GVS-5 also provides a range to target that is accurate to within +/- 10 meters. Range is converted to meters and displayed in the eyepiece on the range to target display.

In Figure 5-4, the azimuth to the reference point in each reticle pattern is 2,100 mils. Using the RALS rule, the target shown 40 mils to the left of the reference point in each reticle pattern is at a direction of 2,060 mils (2100-40).


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7 6 Reference Point Direction 2100 Target 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 11 2 3 A. M19 Reticle Pattern 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Target Reference Point Direction 2100

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 2 3 B. M22 Reticle Pattern 2 3 4 5

Reference Point Direction 2100


Figure 5-4. Measuring Angular Deviations with Binoculars and AN/GVS-5 5-23. The MELIOS reticle pattern (Figure 5-5) has an aiming circle in the center of the aiming lines. The horizontal and vertical scales on the AN/PVS6 are marked at 5 mil increments. The value is marked at each 10 mil increment. 5-24. Range is displayed at the bottom of the field of view eyepiece. The four digits indicate the range in meters with the last digit displaying a zero or a five. 5-25. Azimuth or VA measurements are displayed at the top of the field of view of the eyepiece display. The digits alternately indicate the azimuth in mils or degrees or VA measurement in mils or degrees.


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40 30 20 10


60 50 40 30 20 10

10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30




Figure 5-5. MELIOS Reticle Pattern 5-26. Hand Measurement of Angular Deviation. When it is necessary to measure angular deviations to determine direction quickly, the observer may use his hand and fingers as a measuring device (Figure 5-6). 5-27. Each observer should calibrate his hand and fingers to determine the values of the angles for the various combinations of finger and hand positions shown, since finger and hand width vary for each observer. 5-28. When using hand and fingers in measuring angular deviation, the observer should fully extend his arm (elbow locked) so that his hand and fingers are always the same distance from his eyes. The palm of his hand is always pointed toward the target area.


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300 A B






Note: Numbers represent mils.

Figure 5-6. Example Hand Measurement of Angular Deviation Using A Compass 5-29. Using an M2 or a lensatic compass, the observer can measure direction to an accuracy of 10 mils. Care must be taken when a compass is used around radios or large concentrations of metal such as vehicles. Observers should move about 50 meters away from vehicles to avoid incorrect readings. Scaling From A Map 5-30. Using a protractor, the observer can scale direction from a map to an accuracy of 10 mils. Estimating 5-31. With a thorough terrain-map analysis of his zone of operation, the observer can estimate direction on the ground. As a minimum, the observer should be able to visualize the eight cardinal directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, and NW). Because of the inaccuracy of this method it is the least preferred method of determining direction.

5-32. Once a direction to the target is determined, the observer must determine a distance to the target. Distance is the horizontal space between a reference point or an observer and a target (OT distance). The meter is the standard unit of measurement for distance. There are several methods to determine distance. LASER 5-33. Lasers are the preferred means of determining the OT distance. When a laser is used, distance may be determined to the nearest 10 meters.


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FLASH-TO-BANG 5-34. When it is necessary to verify OT distance, the flash-to-bang technique is helpful. Sound travels at a speed of approximately 350 meters per second. Use the following equation: 5-35. Elapsed time (seconds) between impact and sound x 350 meters/second = Distance (meters) 5-36. Multiply the number of seconds between round impact (flash) and when the sound reaches the observer (bang) by 350 meters/sec. The answer is the approximate number of meters between the observer and the round. (This procedure can also be used to determine the distance to enemy weapon muzzle flashes.)

The observer wants to determine the approximate distance from his position to a burst. He begins counting when the burst appears and stops when he hears the sound. He counts 4 seconds. Therefore, the distance from the burst to his position is approximately 1,400 meters (350 x 4). ESTIMATION 5-37. In the absence of a more accurate method of determining distance to a target, the observer must estimate distance. The degree of accuracy in this method depends on several factors, such as terrain relief, time available, and the experience of the observer. Generally, the longer the observer remains stationary, the better he can use this technique. Some methods of estimating distances are discussed below. Mental Estimation 5-38. A mental estimate distance is made by use of a known unit of measurement. Distance is estimated to the nearest 100 meters by determining the number of known units of measure, such as a football field (100 yards), between the observer's position and a target. For longer distances the observer may have to progressively estimate distance. To do this, he determines the number of units of measure (i.e., 100 yards) to an intermediate point and doubles the value. The observer should consider the effects in Table 5-1 to estimate distances.


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Table 5-1. Considerations in Mental Estimation of Distances Conditions Where Objects Appear Nearer In bright light. In clear air at high altitude. When looking down from a height. When looking over a depression, most of which is hidden. When looking down a straight feature, such as a road. When looking over water, snow, or a uniform surface such as a cultivated field. When the background is in contrast with the color of the object. Estimating when Visibility is Good 5-39. When visibility is good, distances can be estimated by using the appearance of tree trunks, their branches, and foliage (using the naked eye) in comparison with map data (Table 5-2). Table 5-2. Estimation by Appearance of Trees Distance (meters) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 and beyond Tree Description Trunk and main branches are visible. Foliage appears in cluster-like shape. Daylight may be seen through foliage. Trunk is visible, main branches are distinguishable, and foliage appears as smooth surface. Outline of foliage of separate trees is distinguishable. Lower half of trunk is visible. Branches blend with foliage. Foliage blends with adjoining trees. Trunk and branches blend with foliage. Foliage appears as a continuous cluster. Foliage motion caused by wind cannot be detected. Whole area covered by trees appears smooth and dark. Conditions Where Objects Appear More Distant In poor light or fog. When only a small part of the object can be seen. When looking over a depression, most of which is visible. When the background is similar in color to that of the object. When observing from a kneeling or sitting position on a hot day, when the ground is moist.

Estimating by Using Known Dimensions 5-40. Distances can be estimated by using known dimensions of vehicles and the mil relation formula (W = R x m). By using the width of a vehicle appearing perpendicular to an observer as the lateral distance (W) and measuring the width in mils (m), the distance can be determined by solving the formula for range (R) in thousands, or R = W / m. These data, when compared with map data, will help an observer estimate distance. The dimensions of selected equipment are shown in Table 5-3.


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Table 5-3. Equipment Dimensions Equipment Tank (T-90) (chassis) Tank (T-80) (chassis) Reconnaissance vehicle (BRDM-2) Armored personnel carrier (BTR-80) Armored personnel carrier (BMP) Air Defense Weapon (ZSU-23-4) Dimensions (m) Side View 6.9 6.9 5.7 7.5 6.8 6.5 Front View 3.5 3.5 2.4 2.8 2.9 3.0

An observer sees an armored personnel carrier (BMP). He measures its width (as seen from the side view) as 2 mils. Using the formula, he determines the distance as follows: R=W/m m = 2 mils W = 6.8 meters R = 6.8 / 2 = 3.4 or 3,400 meters Estimating From a Terrain Study 5-41. The observer should always use terrain-map analysis to help him estimate distance. A thorough study of the terrain in comparison with features or objects identifiable on the map can enhance the estimation of distance. The observer should make a mental terrain walk to the target. He compares the features or objects with those found on the map along the same direction (OT line). The use of an OF fan (see below) will help the observer in this. Particular emphasis should be given to color contrasts along the OT line. For example, the distance across successive ridge lines or depressions in the distance may be identifiable to the eye by only slight changes in color. OBSERVED FIRE FAN Description 5-42. The OF fan, GTA 6-7-3 (Figure 5-7) is a transparent protractor that helps the observer identify on the map the terrain he sees on the ground. The OF fan has 17 radial arms that are 100 mils apart and cover a total of 1600 mils. Arcs marked on the radial arms every 500 meters starting at 1,000 and extending to 6,000 meters represent the OT distance. Once the observer has determined an OT direction, he can use the OF fan to help him determine an OT distance on the map.


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Note: Not to Scale.

Figure 5-7. Observed Fire Fan (1:50,000 Meters) (GTA 6-7-3) Preparation 5-43. The scale of the OF fan must match the scale of the map. Prepare the OF fan as follows: Place the vertex of the fan exactly over the observer's location. Place the center radial in the direction of the center of the observer's area of responsibility.


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Move the fan slightly until one of the radial lines is parallel to a grid line. The direction of that radial line is the same cardinal direction as the grid line. For example, a radial line parallel to an east-west grid line, with the OF fan oriented generally east, would be direction 1600. Note: The OF fan does not have to be oriented at a right angle. Any radial line can be paralleled with a grid line. With a non-water based map pen, number the radial of known direction. Drop the last two zeros (1600 would be 16). Then label every other radial line with the appropriate direction. Note: Radial lines are 100 mils apart. Use 5-44. Use the OF fan as follows: Look at the terrain the target occupies. Determine the direction to the target. (Use the compass, terrain sketch with binoculars, or other means such as hand measurement of angular deviation.) Estimate the distance to the target by analyzing the terrain. Set off the direction on the OF fan. Plot the OT direction on the OF fan by finding the two radial lines between which the OT direction falls and visually interpolating the determined direction. Set off the estimated distance to the target. Look out along this interpolated radial line at the estimated OT distance. This is the estimated target location. Use terrain association to refine distance. Compare the terrain near the target with the terrain of the estimated target location on the map. If they do not agree, search along the radial line until the terrain and the map match Determine target location. Determining a grid location for the target is a natural extension knowing the determined OT direction and the refined distance. The observer plots the OT direction and distance to the target on the OF fan and reads the corresponding grid from the map. As an example in Figure 5-8, the observer has determined that his target is at direction 0700 at a distance of 3,300 meters. The corresponding grid location on the map is 535268. The observer can further determine the target grid elevation by using the map contour intervals.


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The observer determines the target location is at direction 0700 at a distance of 3,300 meters. The corresponding grid location on the map is 535268.

Figure 5-8. Target Location Using the OF Fan

5-45. Altitude is the vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level. (Elevation is the vertical distance of a point or level on or affixed to the surface of the earth) There are three methods of measuring altitude: map spot, vertical shift, and vertical angle. The meter is the standard unit of measurement for altitude using the map spot and vertical shift methods. The standard for vertical angle measurement is mils. MAP SPOT 5.46. If measured from a map the altitude of a target is determined by use of contour lines and the contour interval of the map. VERTICAL SHIFT 5-47. Altitude may also be determined as a vertical shift from the altitude of the observer's position (or from a known point) to the target. If there is a significant difference in vertical shift (greater than or equal to 35 meters in altitude between the observer's position [or known point] and the target, the


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observer includes it in his target location [expressed to the nearest 5 meters]. If the target is at a higher altitude than the observer (or known point) the observer determines an UP correction based on the difference in altitude (Figure 5-9). If the target is at a lower altitude, he must give a DOWN correction based on the difference in altitude. 5-48. Whether a vertical shift is sent or not depends on several factors. Normally, if the mission is a FFE mission, a vertical shift should be sent to improve accuracy. The observer should weigh the time needed to determine and send a vertical shift against the time available. Experienced observers who can quickly determine differences in altitude should send a vertical shift when the difference in altitude is greater than or equal to 35 meters and express it to the nearest 5 meters. When responsiveness is paramount, inexperienced observers should not try to send a vertical shift.

Enemy OP

Observer Estimates UP 40

Known Point: Center of Road Junction

Figure 5-9. Vertical Shift VERTICAL ANGLE 5-49. Vertical angle is the angle measured up or down (in mils) in a vertical plane from the horizontal to a straight line joining the observer and target. The vertical angle is expressed as a plus or minus depending on whether the line from the observer to the target is above (plus) or below (minus) the horizontal plane (Figure 5-10). Vertical angle (versus shift) is determined in laser polar missions with a leveled measuring lasing device such as the G/VLLD or MELIOS.


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0 mils Observer with leveled measuring instrument


400 mils

VA = -400 mils Target

Figure 5-10 Vertical Angle

5-50. The terrain sketch is a rough panoramic sketch of the terrain by the observer of his area of responsibility. It aids in target location in a static environment. The terrain sketch should include the following: The skyline (horizon). Intermediate crests, hills and ridges. Other natural terrain features (distinctive bodies of water and vegetation). Man-made features (buildings, roads, power lines, towers, antennas, and battlefield debris. Labels (reference points and targets). 5-51. Each labeled item should include as much information as possible to aid the observer. Use a "T" format (see Figure 5-11) to identify information. Reference point names, target numbers, or known point (kn pt) designations should be placed at the top of the T to identify the feature. Labels for direction (dir), distance (dis), altitude (alt), and grid should be placed on the left side of the T. The observer should fill in all available data for targets and known points. Reference points usually require only the direction to the reference point. Data should be determined to the left edge of the reference point, unless the target has been fired upon; then use the target center of mass. The terrain sketch should also include the observer's name, date, and location. 5-52. Once it is constructed, the observer can use the terrain sketch to help him quickly and accurately locate targets by referencing from information already known in his area of responsibility. A terrain sketch also provides a rapid means of orienting relief personnel. Terrain sketches must be continually refined and updated with data from available fire support planning documents, to include target numbers, FPFs, and FSCMs.


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TOWER DIR 6392 KN PT 1 DIST DIR 6221 ALT DIST 2100 GRID ALT 610 HOUSE GRID 460975 AB4023 DIR 6300 DIR 6240 DIST 2600 DIST 2100 ALT ALT 610 GRID GRID 465980

WILLIAMS 4 APR 00 468953

Note: Bottom of T should point to left edge of reference points.

Figure 5-11. Example Terrain Sketch


POLAR PLOT 5-53. In this method, the observer's location must be known to the FDC. The observer does not need a map. The method is easy and quick; however, the observer must transmit his location by secure means to avoid revealing his location to the enemy. Also, in a mobile situation it may be more difficult for the observer to determine his location and send it to the FDC. The steps used in the polar plot method (Figure 5-12) are as follows: 5-54. Determine the OT direction by one of the methods previously discussed in paragraphs 5-17 through 5-31. 5-55. Estimate the distance to the target to the nearest 100 meters. (Laser rangefinder data can be determined to the nearest 10 meters.) Use all information obtained from the terrain-map study to determine the OT distance. 5-56. Determine a vertical shift, if significant. Determine an up or down shift if the difference between the observer altitude and the target altitude is significant (greater than or equal to 35 meters and expressed to the nearest 5 meters).


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T80 tank with dismounted infantry.

Grid North OT Direction = 0370 370 mils Estimated Distance 3200 OP (Plotted in FDC) Distance = 3200

Note: The observer has determined that there is no significant altitude difference.

Figure 5-12. Polar Plot LASER POLAR 5-57. As in the polar method, the observer's location must be known to the FDC. The observer uses a lasing device (e.g., GVLLD, MELIOS) that has been oriented for direction to provide a quick and accurate means of target location. If the firing unit has met its requirements for accurate fire, the mission type for laser polar should be FFE. The observer determines OT direction to the nearest 1 mil, distance to the target to the nearest 10 meters, and vertical angle (versus shift) to the nearest 1 mil. The FDC determines target location using the vertical angle and incorporating distance as a slant range. The accuracy of the target location is dependent upon the accuracy of the laser location. GRID 5-58. Target location by grid coordinates is a natural extension of the polar plot method. The observer's location need not be known to the FDC. The observer normally locates targets to an accuracy of 100 meters (six-place grid). He does this by polar-plotting on the appropriate map and then reading the grid. When additional accuracy is required (i.e., for registration points and known points), the observer should locate targets to the nearest 10 meters (eight-place grid). Although there is no requirement to send target altitude, transmitting it to the FDC verifies the altitude determined by the FDC. SHIFT FROM A KNOWN POINT 5-59. The observer may have one or more known points in his area of responsibility. These are readily identifiable points whose locations are known to both the observer and the FDC. The observer does not need a map to use this method; he needs only a known point. The FDC does not need the


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observer's location. The steps in locating a target by shift from a known point are as follows: 5-60. Identify to the FDC the known point to be used, for example, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 1. 5-61. Determine the OT direction. This direction can be a grid azimuth expressed to the nearest 10 mils (the preferred method) or a cardinal direction. Examples are (grid azimuth) DIRECTION 4360 and (cardinal direction) DIRECTION, SOUTHWEST. 5-62. Determine a lateral shift from the known point in meters to the new target. By determining the angular deviation from the observer-known point line to the OT line, a shift in meters can be determined by using the mil relation formula, W = R x m (see example in Figure 5-13).

BMP in Tree Line Known Point Church

Dista nce 2500

Direction 0850 Distance 2500 Shift Factor = 2.5

T' 62 mils

Angular Deviation

Observer The observer know that the distance from his location to the known point (CHURCH) is 2,500 meters. He also knows the direction is 0850 mils. With his binoculars, he measures an angular deviation of 62 mils from the church to target. He calculates the lateral shift as follows: 2500 1000 = 2.5 (2500 is already expressed to the nearest 100) W=Rxm W = 2.5 x 62 W = 155 meters 160 meters (The lateral shift is expressed to the nearest 10 meters.) LEFT 160

Figure 5-13. Lateral Shift


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5-63. Note: When a shift of greater than 600 mils is required, the accuracy of computing the lateral shift decreases. Another method of target location should be used. 5-64. Determine a range change to the new target in relation to the known point. The observer must determine whether the target is at a greater or lesser distance than the known point. The lateral shift gives the observer a point on the OT line (T') assumed to be the same distance from him as the known point. If the target is farther away than the known point, the observer must add the estimated distance from T' to the target (Figure 5-14A). If the target is closer than the known point, the observer must drop the estimated distance (Figure 5-14B). The correction for a difference in distance between the known point and the target is expressed to the nearest 100 meters.

Known Point Target T' Known Point T' Range Shift Target Target Range Shift



Figure 5-14. Range Shift 5-65. Determine the vertical shift. If the difference in altitude between the known point and the target is greater than or equal to 35 meters, the observer includes an UP or DOWN shift (expressed to the nearest 5 meters) in his target location.


DESCRIPTION 5-66. The global positioning system (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provides worldwide, continuous, all-weather, three-dimensional position information. The GPS includes satellites and receivers. The current receiver is the AN/PSN-11 PLGR. The PLGR can provide the observer with grid location and navigational information.


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PLGR BATTLE DRILL 5-67. The following procedures describe one method to enable an observer who is moving to determine a grid to a target of opportunity and FFE on the first volley. AN/PSN-11 PLGR Setup 5-68. Setup IAW TM 11-5825-291-13, Operator's Manual Satellite Signals Navigation Set AN/PSN-11 (Table 5-4). Table 5-4. PLGR Setup Field Setup Mode Satellite Type Coordinate system Distance Elevation Elevation reference ANG North reference ERR DTM ANPVS-6 MELIOS Setup 5-69. Setup IAW TM 11-5860-202-10, Operator's Manual Mini Eyesafe Laser Infrared Observation Set. Compass/vertical angle measurement (C/VAM) switch is set to C/VAM. Angle measurement is set to mils. Ensure declination constant is set according to map. MELIOS has been zeroed IAW TM. Procedures Upon Contact 5-70. Table 5-5 describes procedures upon contact with and without the aid of MELIOS. Data Cont Mixed MGRS-New Metric Meters MSL Mils GRID (if declinated M2 compass or MELIOS is used) MAG (if lensatic compass is used) +/-m Datum matches map being used


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Table 5-5. Procedures Upon Contact 1. Seek cover 2. Verify level of accuracy (ERR) on Cont screen is +/- 100 meters or less. 3. Press WP button: Without MELIOS Select RG-CALC Determine and enter direction and distance to target in appropriate fields. With MELIOS: Select SR-CALC. Determine and enter direction, distance, and VA (ELA) to target in appropriate fields. Press down arrow key. Data is converted to target grid and altitude. 4. Verify grid determined by PLGR with a map spot. Note: The PLGR battle drill can be performed by one individual, but is much more expedient if two or more team members are assisting. LIMITATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS 5-71. The PLGR does not relieve the observer of his land navigation responsibilities. He must be able to locate both himself and targets without the aid of GPS for the following reasons: GPS receivers rely on electronic line of sight with the satellites. The PLGR must be able to acquire at least four satellites so that a threedimensional position can be determined. Dense foliage, buildings, mountains, and canyons will mask the GPS signal and cause the receiver to fail. All GPS receivers automatically try to track satellites to a position as low as 100 above the level horizon. Each receiver has a function that displays the direction and vertical angle to each of the satellites being tracked. Use this display to determine if signal masking is what is causing the system to fail. When a satellite signal is masked, the operator can either reorient the PLGR antenna or move to another location to improve signal reception. Multipath distortion (reflected signals) may occur if the receivers antenna is tilted away from a satellite. This causes a reflected signal to be received that has more power than the direct signal. Coordinates determined under these conditions can be off by as much as several hundred meters. To correct this problem, reorient the receiver antenna to a position that eliminates the distortion. Electronic warfare can jam GPS signals for periods of time.


Chapter 6

Call For Fire

6-01. A call for fire is a concise message prepared by the observer. It contains all of the information needed by the FDC to determine the method of target attack. It is a request for fire, not an order. 6-02. To ensure the greatest speed and accuracy possible, most calls for fire are transmitted digitally. FM 3-09 (6-20) states that planning and executing digitally is one of the basic principles of fire support. Following this principle will not, however, compromise the requirement to provide immediately responsive and accurate fires in every circumstance. In a digital call for fire, the elements of the call for fire are the same as for a voice call for fire. The major difference in the digital call for fire is that only one transmission is used to initiate fires. 6-03. The flow of fire missions (who sends which message to what FSE/FDC) must be established and trained in accordance with the degree of centralized control the FSCOORD wishes to exert. In situations where responsiveness is the critical consideration of the fire support system, the observer should route the digital call for fire directly to the lowest level FDC possible (mortar or artillery). Coordinating FSEs receive the call for fire via message of interest processing from the respective FDC and effect any coordination/approval required while the mission is being processed at the delivery unit. In situations where fire support assets must be closely controlled and/or massing are the primary fire support considerations, the observer should route the digital call for fire through the controlling FSE to the controlling FDC. Generally, digital calls for fire are used in the following situations: Normal (non-immediate) FFE or adjust fire missions. Fires on planned targets (data should be pre-loaded into the digital device). For example, during a movement to contact the FIST prepares the FO CMD message to fire the next priority target after passing and canceling the last one. Registrations. 6-04. Voice calls for fire should be used when: Immediate suppression or immediate smoke is required and the mission has not been pre-loaded into the digital device. Fires are requested on preplanned targets and the data has not been preloaded into the digital device. Digital communications have been lost between the observer and the FDC or FSE (unit TSOP or the tactical situation will dictate how many attempts to digitally reach the subscriber will be made before reverting to voice).


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6-05. A call for fire must be sent quickly but clearly enough that it can be understood, recorded, and read back, without error, by the FDC recorder. The observer should tell the radio operator he has seen a target so the radio operator can start the call for fire while the target location is being determined. Information is sent as it is determined, rather than waiting until a complete call for fire has been prepared. 6-06. Regardless of the method of target location used, the normal call for fire is sent in three transmissions consisting of six elements with a break and read back after each transmission. The transmissions and elements are organized in the following sequence: Observer identification and warning order. Target location. Target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control. 6-07. The observer uses the DA Form 5429-R (Conduct of Fire) in conducting fire missions and recording mission data. Section I is used to record the call for fire and subsequent adjustment data. Section II is used to record registration data. Portions of DA Form 5429-R are shown with examples throughout this publication. Reproducible copies are at the back of this manual.


OBSERVER IDENTIFICATION 6-08. This element tells the FDC who is calling for fire. WARNING ORDER 6-09. The warning order clears the net for the fire mission. The warning order consists of the type of mission, the size of the element to FFE, and the method of target location. Type of Mission 6-10. Adjust Fire. When the observer believes that an adjustment must be made (because of questionable target location or lack of registration corrections), he announces ADJUST FIRE. 6-11. Fire for Effect. The observer should always strive for first-round FFE. The accuracy required to FFE depends on the accuracy of target location and the ammunition being used. When the observer is certain that the target location is accurate and that the first volley should have the desired effect on the target so that little or no adjustment is required, he announces FIRE FOR EFFECT. 6-12. Suppress. To quickly bring fire on a target that is not active, the observer announces SUPPRESS (followed by the target identification). Suppression missions are normally fired on preplanned targets, and a duration is associated with the call for fire.


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6-13. Immediate Suppression and Immediate Smoke. When engaging a planned target or target of opportunity that has taken friendly maneuver or elements under fire, the observer announces IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION or IMMEDIATE SMOKE (followed by the target location). Size of Element to Fire for Effect 6-14. The observer may request the size of the unit to FFE, for example, BATTALION. Usually he does this by announcing the last letter in the battalion FDC's call sign. For example, T6H24 is announced H. Due to the advent of secure communication devices, some units use plan language call signs (i.e., Alpha FDC). If the observer does not specify a size of element to FFE, the FDC will make the decision based on the attack guidance received and the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM) solution. Method of Target Location 6-15. Grid. The word grid is not announced; i.e., ADJUST FIRE, OVER. 6-16. Laser Grid. The observer announces LASER GRID, for example FIRE FOR EFFECT, LASER GRID, OVER. 6-17. Polar Plot. The observer announces POLAR, for example, ADJUST FIRE POLAR, OVER. 6-18. Laser Polar. The observer announces LASER POLAR, for example, ADJUST FIRE, LASER POLAR, OVER. 6-19. Shift from a Known Point. The observer announces SHIFT, followed by the designation of the known point or by the target number, for example, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 1, OVER. TARGET LOCATION 6-20. Grid. In a grid mission, six-place grids normally are sent. Eight-place grids should be sent for registration points or other points for which greater accuracy is required. The OT direction normally will be sent after the entire initial call for fire, since it is not needed by the FDC to locate the target. 6-21. Laser Grid. A laser grid mission is the same as a grid mission with the following exceptions: Target grid is sent to a greater level of accuracy (8 or 10 digit grid depending on observation post location accuracy) In an adjust fire mission, corrections are sent in the form of a grid to the burst location. 6-22. Polar Plot. In a polar plot mission, the word polar in the warning order alerts the FDC that the target will be located with respect to the observer's position. The observer's location must be known to the FDC. The observer then sends the direction and distance. A vertical shift tells the FDC how far, in meters, the target is located above or below the observer's location. Vertical shift may also be described by a vertical angle in mils, relative to the observer's location.


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6-23. Laser Polar. Laser data are sent to the nearest 1 mil for direction and vertical angle and the nearest 10 meters for distance. 6-24. Shift. In a shift from a known point mission (Figure 6-1) the target will be located in relation to a preexisting known point or recorded target. The point or target from which the shift is made is sent in the warning order. (Both the observer and the FDC must know the location of the point or recorded target.) The observer then sends the OT direction. Normally, it is sent in mils. However, the FDC can accept degrees or cardinal directions, whichever is specified by the observer. The corrections are sent next: The lateral shift in meters (how far left or right the target is) from the known point. The range shift (how much farther [ADD] or close [DROP] the target is in relation to the known point, to the nearest 100 meters). The vertical shift (how much the altitude of the target is above [UP] or below [DOWN] the altitude of the known point, expressed to the nearest 5 meters). Vertical shift is usually only significant if it is greater than or equal to 35 meters.

Target Vertical Shift (UP) Known Point

Range Shift (ADD)


Figure 6-1. Shift from a Known Point TARGET DESCRIPTION 6-25. The observer must describe the target in enough detail that the FDC can determine the amount and type of ammunition to use. The FDC selects different ammunition for different types of targets. The observer should be brief but accurate. The description should contain the following: What the target is (e.g., troops, equipment, supply depot, trucks). What the target is doing (e.g., digging in, in an assembly area). The number of elements in the target (e.g., squad, platoon, three trucks, six tanks).


Li ne

Lateral Shift (RIGHT)

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The degree of protection (e.g., in the open, in foxholes, in bunkers with overhead protection). The target size and shape if these are significant. If the target is rectangular, the length and width (in meters) and the attitude (azimuth of the long axis, 0000-3199 mils) to the nearest 100 mils should be given, for example, 400 BY 300, ATTITUDE 2800. If the target is circular, the radius should be given, for example, RADIUS 200. Linear targets may be described by length, width, and attitude. METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT 6-26. The observer may indicate how he wants to attack the target. This element consists of the type of adjustment, DANGER CLOSE, MARK, trajectory, ammunition, and distribution. Type of Adjustment 6-27. Two type of adjustment may be employed - area and precision. Area fire is standard without request. 6-28. Area Fire. Area fire is used to attack an area target. Since many area targets are mobile, the adjustment should be as quick as possible, consistent with accuracy, to keep the target from escaping. A well-defined point at or near the center of the area to be attacked should be selected and used as an aiming point. This point is called the adjusting point during adjust fire missions. To achieve surprise, fire may be adjusted on an auxiliary point, and after adjustment is completed, the FFE shifted to the target. Normally, adjustment on an area target is conducted with one adjusting weapon. 6-29. Precision Fire. Precision fire is conducted with one weapon on a point target. It is used to either obtain registration corrections or to destroy a target. When the mission is a registration, it is initiated by the FDC with a message to observer (MTO). If the target is to be destroyed, the observer announces DESTRUCTION (see Chapter 7, Section III). Danger Close 6-30. DANGER CLOSE is included in the method of engagement when the target is (rounds will impact) within 600 meters of any friendly troops for mortars and artillery, 750 meters for 5-inch naval guns. Mark 6-31. MARK is included in the method of engagement to indicate that the observer is going to call for rounds for either of the following reasons: To orient himself in his zone of observation. To indicate targets to ground troops, aircraft, or other observers. Trajectory 6-32. Low Angle. Standard without request. 6-33. High Angle. If high angle is desired, it is requested immediately after type of engagement. If the firing unit determines that high angle must be


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used to attack a target, the FDC must inform the observer in the MTO that high angle will be used. Mortars fire only high angle. Ammunition 6-34. The observer may request any type of ammunition during the adjustment or the FFE phase of his mission. Shell HE with fuze quick is normally used in adjustment. If that is what the observer desires, he need not request it in his call for fire. If the observer does not request a shell-fuze in effect, the FDO determines the shell-fuze combination. Unit SOP may designate a standard shell-fuze combination. Note: Ammunition standards may vary from unit to unit. The observer must learn these standards upon assignment to a unit. 6-35. If the observer does desire other than standard shell/fuze combinations the shell/fuze "in adjust" is announced first, then the shell/fuze "in effect". For FFE missions, it is not necessary to announce "in effect" after the shell/fuze request. 6-36. Followed By. This is part of a term used to indicate a change in the rate of fire, in the type of ammunition, or in another order for FFE, for example WP FOLLOWED BY HE. 6-37. Projectile. Examples of requests for other than HE projectile are ILLUMINATION, DPICM, and SMOKE. 6-38. Fuze. Most missions are fired with fuze quick during the adjustment phase. If fuze quick is desired or if a projectile that has only one fuze is requested, fuze is not indicated. Illuminating, ICM, and smoke projectiles are fuzed with time fuzes; therefore, when the observer requests ILLUMINATION, ICM, or SMOKE, he does not announce TIME. 6-39. Volume of Fire. The volume of fire desired in FFE is stated in rounds per howitzer. Distribution 6-40. The observer may control the pattern of bursts in the target area. This pattern of bursts is called a sheaf. Unless otherwise requested, the battery computer system (BCS) assumes a circular target with a 100 meter radius. The BCS determines individual weapon aiming points to distribute the bursts for best coverage of this type of target. A converged sheaf places all rounds on a specific point and is used for small, hard targets. An open sheaf separates the bursts by the maximum effective burst width of the shell fired. Special sheafs (linear, rectangular, circular, or irregular) of any length and width may be requested. If target length, or length and width are given, attitude also must be given. If target length is greater than or equal to five times the target width, the BCS assumes a linear target. The mortar ballistic computer assumes the target is linear and fires a parallel sheaf unless a special sheaf is requested. The parallel sheaf distributes the bursts of all pieces similar to the distribution of weapons on the gun line due to firing the same data with each piece.


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METHOD OF FIRE AND CONTROL 6-41. The method of fire and control element indicates the desired manner of attacking the target, whether the observer wants to control the time or delivery of fire, and whether he can observe the target. The observer announces methods of fire and control as discussed below. Method of Fire 6-42. In area fire, the adjustment normally is conducted with one howitzer or with the center gun of a mortar platoon or section. If the observer determines that more than one gun is necessary for adjustment, he can request 2 GUNS IN ADJUST or PLATOON/BATTERY RIGHT (LEFT). (Adjusting at extreme distances may be easier with two guns firing.) The normal interval fired by a platoon or battery right (left) is 5 seconds. If the observer wants some other interval, he may so specify. Method of Control 6-43. Fire When Ready. This method is standard without request. 6-44. At My Command. If the observer wishes to control the time of delivery of fire, he includes AT MY COMMAND in the method of control. When the pieces are ready to fire, the FDC announces PLATOON (or BATTERY or BATTALION) IS READY, OVER. (Call signs are used.) The observer announces FIRE when he is ready for the pieces to fire. This only applies to adjusting rounds and the first volley of a FFE. AT MY COMMAND remains in effect throughout the mission until the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND, OVER. 6-45. At my command can be further specified. BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND controls every round in adjustment and every volley in the FFE phase. 6-46. Cannot Observe. CANNOT OBSERVE indicates the observer cannot see the target (because of vegetation, terrain, weather, or smoke); however, he has reason to believe a target exists at the given location and that it is important enough to justify firing on it without adjustment. 6-47. Time on Target (TOT). The observer may tell the FDC when he wants the rounds to impact by requesting TIME ON TARGET, 0859, OVER. The observer must ensure his time and the FDC's time are synchronized prior to the mission. 6-48. Time to Target (TTT). The observer may tell the FDC when he wants the rounds to impact by requesting TIME TO TARGET (so many) MINUTES AND SECONDS, OVER, STANDBY, HACK, OVER. Time to target is the time in minutes and seconds after the "hack" statement is delivered when rounds are expected to hit the target. 6-49. Continuous Illumination. In this method of control, illumination projectiles are fired at specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or specified area. The observer may specify the time interval (in seconds). If the observer does not provide a time interval, the


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FDC determines the interval by the burning time of the illumination ammunition in use. If any other interval is required, it is indicated in seconds. 6-50. Coordinated Illumination. The observer may order the interval between illumination and HE projectiles, in seconds, to achieve a time of impact of the HE coincident with optimum illumination; or he may use normal AT MY COMMAND procedures. The command ILLUMINATION MARK is used to tell the FDC when the illumination round is providing optimal visibility on the target (see Chapter 8). 6-51. Cease Loading. The command CEASE LOADING is used during the firing of two or more rounds to indicate the suspension of loading rounds into the gun(s). The gun sections may fire any rounds that have already been loaded. 6-52. Check Firing. CHECK FIRING is used to cause an immediate halt in firing. Use this command only when necessary to immediately stop firing (e.g., for safety reasons) as it may result in cannons being out of action until any rammed/loaded rounds can be fired or cleared from the tubes. 6-53. Continuous Fire. In FA, mortars and NGF, continuous fire means loading and firing as rapidly as possible, consistent with accuracy, within the prescribed rate of fire for the equipment. Firing will continue until suspended by the command CEASE LOADING or CHECK FIRING. 6-54. Repeat. REPEAT can be given during adjustment or FFE missions. During Adjustment REPEAT means firing another round(s) with the last data and adjust for any change in ammunition if necessary. REPEAT is not sent in the initial call for fire. 6-55. During FFE, REPEAT means fire the same number of rounds using the same method of FFE as last fired. Changes in the number of guns, the previous corrections, the interval, or the ammunition may be requested. 6-56. Request Splash. SPLASH can be sent at the observer's request. The FDC announces SPLASH to the observer 5 seconds prior to round impact. SPLASH must be sent to aerial observers and during high-angle fire missions. 6-57. Do Not Load. DO NOT LOAD allows the section to prepare ammunition and lay on the target without loading a projectile. When the command CANCEL DO NOT LOAD is given the section automatically loads and fires the weapon (except for an at my command mission). 6-58. Duration. DURATION is usually used for suppression missions. DURATION will tell the FDC the total time a target needs to be engaged.

6-59. Errors are sometimes made in transmitting data or by the FDC personnel in reading back the data. If the observer realizes that he has made


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an error in his transmission or that the FDC has made an error in the read back, he announces CORRECTION and transmits the correct data.

The observer transmitted SHIFT KNOWN POINT 2, OVER, DIRECTION 4680. He immediately realizes that he should have sent DIRECTION 5680. He announces CORRECTION, DIRECTION 5680. After receiving the correct read back, he may continue to send the rest of the call for fire (CFF). 6-60. When an error has been made in a subelement and the correction of that subelement will affect other transmitted data, CORRECTION is announced. Then the correct subelement and all affected data are transmitted in the proper sequence.

The observer transmitted LEFT 200, ADD 400, UP 40, OVER. He then realizes that he should have sent DROP 400. To correct this element, he sends CORRECTION LEFT 200, DROP 400, UP 40, OVER. The observer must read back the entire subelement, because the LEFT 200 and UP 40 will be canceled if they are not included in the corrected transmission.

6-61.After the FDC receives the call for fire, it determines if and how the target will be attacked. That decision is announced to the observer in the form of a MTO. The observer will acknowledge the MTO by reading back in entirety, and if conducting a grid mission will include, BREAK, DIRECTION (OT direction) at the end. The MTO consists of the four items discussed below. UNIT(S) TO FIRE 6-62. The battery (or batteries) that will fire the mission is (are) announced. If the battalion is firing in effect with one battery adjusting, the FDC designates the FFE unit (battalion) and the adjusting unit by using the last letter of the call sign.

The battalion call sign is A8T36. Battery A is R6G36. Battery A will adjust, and battalion will FFE. The MTO would begin T, G. CHANGES TO CALL FOR FIRE 6-63. Any change to what the observer requested in the call for fire is announced.


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The observer requested ICM in effect and the FDO decides to fire variable time (VT) fuze in effect. The MTO begins T, G, VT IN EFFECT. NUMBER OF ROUNDS 6-64. The number of rounds per tube in FFE is announced; for example, T, G, VT IN EFFECT, 4 ROUNDS. TARGET NUMBER 6-65. A target number is assigned to each mission to facilitate processing of subsequent corrections; for example, T, G, VT IN EFFECT, 4 ROUNDS, AA7732, OVER. Note: MTOs for registrations are shown in FM 6-40.

6-66. The additional information shown below can be transmitted separately or along with the MTO. PROBABLE ERROR IN RANGE 6-67. If probable error in range (PER) is 38 meters or greater during a normal mission, the FDC informs the observer. If PER is 25 meters or greater in a precision registration, the FDC informs the observer. ANGLE T 6-68. Angle T is sent to the observer when it is 500 mils or greater or when requested. PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY (PRF) CODE 6-69. The PRF code is used during Copperhead missions to ensure laser designators have the same PRF code set as the munition (see Chapter 8). TIME OF FLIGHT 6-70. Time of flight is sent to an observer during a moving target mission, during an aerial observer mission, during a high-angle mission, and for shell HE in a coordinated illumination mission when using BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND, or when requested.

6-71. Although improvements in communication security have allowed us to operate without authentication codes, the following procedures could still be applied during degraded communication security situations. The two methods of authentication authorized for use are challenge and reply and transmission authentication. The operational distinction between the two is that challenge and reply requires two-way communications, whereas transmission authentication does not. For instructions on authentication procedures refer to the communications-electronics operating instructions.


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CHALLENGE AND REPLY 6-72. When nonsecure communications are used and excluding unique fire support operations (use as suppressive fires posture), challenge and reply authentication is considered a normal element of initial requests for indirect fire. The FDC inserts the challenge in the last read back of the fire request. The observer transmits the correct authentication reply to the FDC immediately following the challenge. Authentication replies exceeding 20 seconds are automatically suspect and a basis for rechallenge. Subsequent adjustment of fire or immediate engagement of additional targets by the observer originating the initial fire request normally would not require continued challenge by the FDC. TRANSMISSION AUTHENTICATION 6-73. Transmission authentication is used if authentication is required and it is not possible or desirable for the receiving station to reply; for example, imposed radio silence, FPF, and immediate suppression.

Transmission authentication for an FPF is FIRE THE FPF. AUTHENTICATION IS WHISKEY HOTEL, OVER. Transmission authentication for immediate suppression is T23 THIS IS T44, IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION, GRID NK124321, AUTHENTICATION IS TANGO GOLF, OVER.

SHOT 6-74. The term SHOT is transmitted by the FDC after each round fired in adjustment and after the initial round in the FFE phase. The observer acknowledges with SHOT, OUT. SPLASH 6-75. The term SPLASH is transmitted by the FDC to inform the observer when his round is five seconds from detonation. The observer responds with SPLASH, OUT. ROUNDS COMPLETE 6-76. The term ROUNDS COMPLETE is used to signify the number of rounds specified in the FFE have been fired.

6-77. The following are sample calls for fire for various type missions.


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EXAMPLES (Continued)



Chapter 7

Adjustment of Fire
7-01. An observer's primary mission is the placement of timely and accurate fires on targets. If an observer can locate the target accurately, he will request FIRE FOR EFFECT in his call for fire. Failure to locate the target accurately may result from poor visibility, deceptive terrain, poor maps, or the observer's difficulty in pinpointing the target. If the observer cannot locate the target accurately enough to warrant FFE, he may conduct an adjustment. Even with an accurate target location, if current firing data corrections are not available, the FDO may direct that an adjustment be conducted. Normally, one gun is used in adjustment. Special situations in which more than one gun is used are so noted throughout this discussion. Note: Some helpful notes for the observer are at the end of this chapter.

7-02. When it is necessary for the observer to adjust fire, he must select an adjusting point. In area missions, he must select a well-defined point near the center of the target area in which to adjust the fire. The point selected is called an adjusting point (Figure 7-1). The location of this point is included in the target location element of the call for fire in an area fire mission. In the conduct of a registration or destruction mission (precision fire), the adjusting point is the target itself.

Figure 7-1. Adjusting Point in an Area Fire Mission


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7-03. A spotting is the observer's determination of the location of the burst (or the mean point of impact [MPI] of a group of bursts) with respect to the adjusting point as observed along the OT line. The observer should consider the most difficult spottings first. The sequence of spottings is height of burst (HOB) (air or graze), range (over or short), and deviation (left or right). Spottings are made for the following: When fuze time is fired, the HOB (the number of mils the burst is above the target). Range (whether the burst occurred beyond or short of the target). Deviation (the number of mils right or left of the OT line). 7-04. The observer makes spottings the instant the bursts occur except when the spottings are delayed deliberately to take advantage of drifting smoke or dust. The observer is usually required to announce his spottings during his early training; experienced observers make spottings mentally. HEIGHT OF BURST SPOTTING 7-05. The HOB spottings may be any one of the following: AIR- a round or group of rounds that bursts in the air. The number of mils also is given. For example, a burst of 10 mils above the ground would be spotted as AIR 10. GRAZE- a round or group of rounds that detonates on impact. MIXED- a group of rounds that results in an equal number of airbursts and graze bursts. MIXED AIR- a group of rounds that results in both airbursts and graze bursts when most of the bursts are airbursts. MIXED GRAZE- a group of rounds that results in both airbursts and graze bursts when most of the bursts are graze bursts. RANGE SPOTTING 7-06. Definite range spottings are required to make a proper range adjustment. Normally a round which impacts on or near the OT line results in a definite range spotting. Figure 7-2 shows the approximate areas for various range spottings. Any range spotting other than DOUBTFUL, LOST, or UNOBSERVED is definite. An observer may make a definite range spotting when the burst is not on or near the OT line by using his knowledge of the terrain, drifting smoke, shadows, and wind. However, even experienced observers must use caution and good judgement when making such spottings. Possible range spottings are as follows: OVER - a round that impacts beyond the adjusting point. SHORT - a round that impacts between the observer and the adjusting point. TARGET - a round that impacts on the target. This spotting is used only in precision fire (registration or destruction missions). RANGE CORRECT- a round that impacts at the correct range. DOUBTFUL - a round that can be observed but cannot be spotted as OVER, SHORT, TARGET, or RANGE CORRECT.


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LOST - a round whose location cannot be determined by sight or sound. UNOBSERVED - a round not observed but known to have impacted (usually heard). Note: For safety considerations regarding lost and unobserved rounds, refer to AR 385-63, Policies and Procedures for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target Practice, and Combat. UNOBSERVED OVER or SHORT- a round not observed but known to have impacted over or short.









Figure 7-2. Range Spottings DEVIATION SPOTTING 7-07. A deviation spotting is the angular measurement from the adjusting point to the burst as seen from the observer's position. During a fire mission, the observer measures the deviation in mils, with his binoculars (or other angle-measuring instrument). Deviation spottings are visually interpolated to the nearest 1 mil. Possible deviation spottings are as follows: LINE - a round that impacts on line (LN) with the adjusting point as seen by the observer (on the OT line). LEFT - a round that impacts left (L) of the adjusting point in relation to the OT line. RIGHT - a round that impacts right (R) of the adjusting point in relation to the OT line.


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An observer spots a round to the right of the OT line. He measures the angular deviation as 40 mils. His deviation spotting is 40 RIGHT. 7-08. Deviation spottings are taken from the center of a single burst or, in the case of platoon or battery fire, from the center of the group of bursts. Deviation spottings should be made as accurately as possible to help in obtaining definite range spottings.

If the adjusting point is at the center of the binocular reticle pattern, the observer would spot the round in Figure 7-3A as 30 LEFT. The observer would spot the round in Figure 7-3B as LINE.

5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5



Figure 7-3. Deviation Spottings UNOBSERVED SPOTTING 7-09. At times, the observer may be able to make a spotting even though he is unable to see the round impact.

The observer hears but does not see the round impact, and the only possible place the round could have impacted and not been visible to the observer is in a ravine beyond the adjusting point. He assumes the burst is beyond the adjusting point and spots it as UNOBSERVED, OVER.


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LOST SPOTTING 7-10. If the observer is unable to locate the round (either visually or by sound), the round is spotted LOST. A round may be lost for various reasons: It may be a dud (nonfunctioning fuze), resulting in no visual or audible identification. The terrain or weather may prevent the observer from spotting the round or its smoke. Enemy fire may prevent the observer from hearing or seeing the round. The FO simply may have failed to spot the round. Errors by the FDC or the firing piece may cause the round to be lost. 7-11. When dealing with a lost round, the observer must consider his own experience, the level of FDC and or gun section training, and the location of friendly elements with respect to the target. The observer should take corrective action based on his confidence in the target location, the accuracy of fire on previous missions; whether the lost round is an initial round or a subsequent round, and the urgency of the mission. 7-12. When a round is lost, positive action must be taken. The observer can start a number of corrective procedures such as one or more of the following: Begin a data check throughout the system, starting with his target location data and his call for fire. Request a WP round, a smoke round, or a 200-meter airburst with HE on the next round. Repeat. End the mission and start a new mission. Make a bold shift. The observer should be very careful in making bold range or deviation corrections when the target plots in the vicinity of friendly troops.

7-13. After a spotting has been made, the observer must send corrections to the FDC to move the burst onto the adjusting point. The corrections are sent, in meters, in reverse of the order used in making spottings; that is, deviation, range, and HOB. DEVIATION CORRECTION 7-14. The distance, in meters, the burst is to be moved (right or left) is determined by multiplying the observer's deviation spotting in mils by the OT distance in thousands of meters (the OT factor). Deviation corrections are expressed to the nearest 10 meters. A deviation correction of less than 30 meters is a minor deviation correction. It should not be sent to the FDC except as refinement data or in conduct of a destruction mission. 7-15. To determine the OT factor when the OT range is greater than 1,000 meters, the range from the observer to the target (OT distance) is expressed to the nearest thousand and then expressed in thousands.


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OT range = 4,200 meters OT distance (expressed to nearest thousand) = 4,000 OT factor (expressed in thousands) = 4 7-16. For an OT range less than 1,000 meters, the distance is expressed to the nearest 100 meters and expressed in thousands.

OT range = 800 meters OT factor = .8 7-17. The computed deviation correction is announced to the FDC as LEFT (or RIGHT) (so much). The correction is opposite the spotting. 7-18. Determination of deviation corrections is shown in Table 7-1. Note: Table 7-1 expresses 1,500 and 2,500 meters to the nearest even OT factor. For an explanation of artillery expressions, see FM 3-09.40 (FM 6-40), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Manual Cannon Gunnery. For example, express to the nearest even significant digit. Table 7-1. Determination of Deviation Corrections OT RANGE (METERS) 4,000 2,500 3,400 1,500 700 OT FACTOR 4 2 3 2 0.7 SPOTTING 45R 100L 55L 20R 45L DEVIATION CORRECTION LEFT 180 RIGHT 200 RIGHT 160 LEFT 40 RIGHT 30

7-19. If angle T is 500 mils or greater, the FDC should tell the observer this. If the observer is told that angle T is 500 mils or greater, at first he continues to use his OT factor to make his deviation corrections. If he sees that he is getting more of a correction than he asked for, he should consider cutting his corrections to better adjust rounds onto the target. RANGE CORRECTION 7-20. When making a range correction, the observer attempt to "add" or "drop" the adjusting round, along the OT line, from a previous burst to the target. If his spotting was SHORT, he will add; if his spotting was OVER, he will drop. The observer must be aggressive in the adjustment phase of an adjust fire mission. He must use every opportunity to shorten that phase. He should make every effort to correct the initial round onto the target and enter FFE as soon as possible. Successive bracketing procedures should be used only when time is not critical. When conducting an adjustment onto a target,


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the observer may choose to establish a range bracket. Different types of range adjustments are discussed in Section II. HEIGHT OF BURST CORRECTION (See Figure 7-4) 7-21. One gun is used in adjusting fuze time. The observer adjusts HOB (after a 100-meter range bracket has been established by using fuze quick) to obtain a 20-meter HOB in FFE. He does this by announcing a correction of UP or DOWN (so many meters). 7-22. If the spotting of the initial round is GRAZE, an automatic correction of UP 40 is sent. If the round is an airburst, the HOB of the round (in meters) is computed (HOB spotting in mils above the adjusting point multiplied by the OT factor). The appropriate HOB correction is given (to the nearest 5 meters) to obtain the desired 20-meter HOB. 7-23. FFE is entered only when a correct HOB is reasonably assured. Therefore, FFE is never begun when either the last round observed was spotted as a graze burst or the HOB correction is greater than 40 meters. If the initial rounds in FFE are spotted as MIXED, the subsequent surveillance report normally includes the correction UP 20.


Figure 7-4. Height of Burst Corrections


7-24. After the initial round(s) impact(s) the observer transmits subsequent corrections until the mission is complete. These corrections include appropriate changes in elements previously transmitted and the necessary corrections for deviation, range, and HOB. Elements that may require correcting and the order in which they are announced are as follows: Direction. Danger close/cancel danger close. Trajectory. Method of fire. Distribution. Projectile. Fuze.


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Volume. Deviation. Range. Height of burst. Target Description. Mission type/method of control. Splash. Repeat.

7-25. Any element for which a change or correction is not desired is omitted. Guidelines for subsequent corrections are discussed below. DIRECTION 7-26. In the sequence of corrections, the OT direction is the first item sent to the FDC. It is sent if it has not been sent previously or if the OT direction changes by more than 100 mils from the previously announced direction. (Direction is normally sent to the nearest 10 mils but it can be sent to the nearest 1 mil depending on the accuracy of the observer's equipment.

An observer began an adjustment on several self-propelled guns. He used a tree at direction 5620 as the adjusting point. During the adjustment the guns moved to a new position an appreciable distance from the initial adjusting point. The observer selects a new adjusting point and measures a direction of 5840 to the new point. Since the difference between the directions to the old and new adjusting points exceeds 100 mils, the first element in the observer's next correction is DIRECTION 5840. DANGER CLOSE / CANCEL DANGER CLOSE 7-27. If the adjustment of fires brings impacting rounds within danger close distance during the conduct of the mission, the observer must announce DANGER CLOSE to the FDC. The observer make corrections from the round impacting closest to friendly troops using the creeping fire technique discussed in Section II. If the adjustment of fires moves the round outside the danger close distance, the observer transmits CANCEL DANGER CLOSE. TRAJECTORY 7-28. The observer requests a change in the type of trajectory if it becomes apparent that high-angle fire is necessary during a low-angle adjustment or that high-angle fire is no longer necessary during a high-angle adjustment. For example, if during the conduct of the mission a target moves into a defilade position, the observer may change trajectory by transmitting the correction HIGH ANGLE. Conversely, if a target moves out of defilade into open terrain and high-angle fire is no longer necessary, the observer requests CANCEL HIGH ANGLE.


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METHOD OF FIRE 7-29. The observer transmits any correction he wants to make in the method of fire. For example, if the observer wants to change from one gun to a platoon firing in order from left to right, he transmits the correction PLATOON LEFT. If he wants to change a platoon firing in order from right to left, he transmits the correction PLATOON RIGHT. DISTRIBUTION 7-30. If an observer wants to change the distribution of fire from a BCS sheaf (circular with a 100-meter radius) to another type of sheaf, he transmits the sheaf desired (i.e., CONVERGE, OPEN, or LINEAR or the target length, width, and attitude). Conversely, if the observer wants to change from a specific sheaf to a BCS sheaf, he transmits the correction CANCEL, followed by the type of sheaf being used (for example, CANCEL CONVERGE [or OPEN] SHEAF). PROJECTILE 7-31. If the observer wants to change the type of projectile, he announces the desired change (for example, SMOKE or WP). FUZE 7-32. If the observer wants to change the type of fuze or fuze action, he announces the desired change (for example, TIME, DELAY, or VT). VOLUME 7-33. If the observer wants to change the volume of fire, he announces the desired change (for example, 2 ROUNDS or 3 ROUNDS). Volume refers to the number of rounds in the FFE phase. DEVIATION 7-34. If the round impacts to the right or left of the OT line, the observer determines the correction required, to the nearest 10 meters to bring the round onto the OT line. To make the correction, the observer transmits RIGHT (or LEFT) (so many meters). Deviation corrections less than 30 meters are not sent to the FDC except when conducting a destruction mission or as refinement data. RANGE 7-35. If the round impacts beyond the target on the OT line, the observer's correction is DROP (so many meters). If the round impacts between the observer and the target, the range correction is ADD (so many meters). HEIGHT OF BURST 7-36. The observer transmits HOB corrections to the nearest 5 meters with the correction UP (or DOWN). In firing fuze time in an area mission, HOB corrections are made after the deviation and range have been corrected to within 50 meters of the target by using fuze quick in adjustment.


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TARGET DESCRIPTION 7-37. Target description is sent before a control correction during immediate suppression missions and when a new target is being attacked without sending a new call for fire. MISSION TYPE / METHOD OF CONTROL 7-38. If the observer wants to change the mission and or method of control, he transmits the desired method of control (for example, ADJUST FIRE, FIRE FOR EFFECT, or AT MY COMMAND). If the method of control being used includes AT MY COMMAND, his correction is CANCEL AT MY COMMAND. SPLASH 7-39. An observer may have difficulty identifying or observing his rounds. This may be because he has to stay down in a concealed position much of the time or because of other fire missions being conducted in the area. In any case, he may request assistance from the FDC by requesting SPLASH. The FDC informs the observer that his round is about to impact by announcing SPLASH 5 seconds before the round impacts. The observer may end splash by announcing CANCEL SPLASH. REPEAT 7-40. REPEAT is used (in the adjustment phase) if the observer wants a subsequent round or group of rounds fired with no corrections to deviation, range, or HOB (for example, TIME, REPEAT). REPEAT is also used by the observer to indicate that he wants FFE repeated with or without changes or corrections to any of the elements (for example, ADD 50, REPEAT).


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7-41. Four techniques can be used to conduct area adjustment fires: Successive bracketing. Hasty bracketing. One-round adjustment. Creeping fire. 7-42. Successive bracketing is best when observers are inexperienced or when precise adjustment is required, such as precision registrations and destruction missions. It mathematically ensures FFE rounds will be within 50 meters of the target. Hasty bracketing is best when responsive fires are required and the observer is experienced in the adjustment of fire. One round adjustment provides the most responsive fires but generally requires either an experienced observer or an observer equipped with a laser range finder. Creeping fire is used in danger close missions. Upon completion of each mission refinement data and surveillance are required. From this surveillance the FDC can determine the effectiveness of fires. SUCCESSIVE BRACKETING 7-43. After the first definite range spotting is determined, the observer should send a range correction to the FDC to establish a range bracket of known distance (one round over and one round short). Once the bracket has been established, the observer successively splits the bracket until he is assured the rounds will be within 50 meters of the adjusting point when he fires for effect. Normally, range changes of 100, 200, 400, or 800 meters are used to make splitting the bracket easier. The observer enters FFE when he is sure of rounds impacting within 50 meters of the adjusting point.

The first round (1) impacts over the adjusting point (see Figure 7-5). The observer should send a drop correction enough to place the next round short of the adjusting point. The observer sent DROP 400 (-400) after observing his first round. The next round (2) impacted short of the adjusting point. The observer has now established a range bracket. He has one round over and one round short of the adjusting point, separated by 400 meters. Using the successive bracketing technique, the observer sends ADD 200 (+200). The third round (3) impacts over the adjusting point. The observer has a 200- meter bracket because round 2 impacted short of the adjusting point and the distance between the two rounds was 200 meters. Splitting the bracket, the observer sends DROP 100 (-100). The fourth round (4) impacts short. The observer has established a 100-meter bracket. He now sends ADD 50, FIRE FOR EFFECT, The center of impact of the FFE rounds is now mathematically certain of being within 50 meters of the adjusting point.


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4 2

Figure 7-5. Successive Bracketing Technique HASTY BRACKETING 7-44. Experience has shown that effectiveness on the target decreases as the number of rounds used in adjustment increases. An alternative to successive bracketing is the hasty bracketing technique. Successive bracketing mathematically ensures the observer that the FFE rounds will impact within 50 meters of the adjusting point; however, it is a slow and unresponsive technique. Therefore is the nature of the target dictates that effective fires are required in less time than the successive bracketing technique would take, the hasty bracketing technique should be used. The success of hasty bracketing adjustment depends on a thorough terrain analysis that gives the observer an accurate initial target location. The observer gets a bracket on his first correction much as in the successive bracketing technique. He uses this initial bracket as a yardstick to determine his subsequent correction. He sends the FDC the correction to move the rounds to the target and FIRE FOR EFFECT.

The first round (1) impacts approximately 35 mils right and 100 meters short of the adjusting point (Figure 7-6). The observer spots it as SHORT, 35 RIGHT. With an OT factor of 4, the observer sends LEFT 140, ADD 200. The next round (2) impacts approximately 10 mils left and 50 meters over the adjusting point. The observer spots it as OVER, 10 LEFT. He looks at the round and the adjusting point and decides that he needs to go right 40 meters (10 X OT factor of 4) and drop 50. He will then be on his adjusting point. Therefore, he sends RIGHT 40, DROP 50, FIRE FOR EFFECT.


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2 1



Figure 7-6. Hasty Bracketing Technique ONE ROUND ADJUSTMENT 7-45. Unlike the preceding two adjustment techniques, this method does not require the establishment of a bracket. The observer spots the location of the first round, calculates and transmits to the FDC the corrections necessary to move the burst of the round to the adjusting point and fires for effect. This technique requires an experienced observer or one with accurate distance measuring equipment such as a laser range finder. All missions conducted by using a laser range finder-designator should be FFE or one-round adjustments. CREEPING FIRE (DANGER CLOSE) 7-46. The creeping method of adjustment is used during danger close missions. The observer should make range changes by creeping the rounds to the target, using corrections of 100 meters or less, rather than making large range corrections.


7-47. The purpose of area fire is to cover the target area with dense fire so that the greatest possible effects on the target can be achieved. The type and amount of ammunition requested by the observer depend on the type of target, its posture, and its activity. FFE is entered during an adjust fire mission when a satisfactory adjustment has been obtained; that is, when deviation, range, and HOB (if firing time fuze) have been corrected to provide effects on target. 7-48. Normally, the observer using successive bracketing requests FFE when he splits a 100-meter bracket. Under certain conditions when the PER of the weapon is 38 meters or larger, an observer is justified in calling for FFE when a 200-meter bracket is split. (In this situation, the FDC notifies the observer that the PER is greater than 38 meters). 7-49. If fuze time is used, the observer requests FUZE TIME after range and deviation have been corrected but before announcing FIRE FOR EFFECT.


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With fuze time, FFE is not requested until the HOB is correct or until the observer can compute the correction that should result in the correct HOB. Rules for adjusting fuze time are as discussed below. 7-50. In splitting the 100-meter bracket, the correction is TIME, ADD (or DROP) 50, OVER. If range and HOB are correct (20 meters above the ground), the observer sends FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. 7-51. After FUZE TIME is requested, no more range or deviation corrections are sent to the FDC. 7-52. If a round with fuze time is spotted as a graze burst and there have been no previous airbursts, the correction is UP 40, OVER. 7-53. If a round with fuze time is spotted as a graze burst and the observer has spotted a previous airburst, the correction is UP 20, OVER. 7-54. If the observer spots an airburst, he should send the correction to achieve a 20-meter HOB and FFE. For example, if the HOB of the last round is 40 meters, the correction is DOWN 20, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. 7-55. Do not FFE: From a graze burst. If the correction is greater than DOWN 40.


7-56. The observer should observe the results of the FFE and then take whatever action is necessary to complete the mission. Table 7-2 shows the observer's actions and example transmissions after the FFE rounds have been observed.


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Table 7-2. Refinement and Surveillance RESULTS OF FFE Accurate and sufficient Accurate and sufficient; replot desired Inaccurate and sufficient Inaccurate, sufficient, target replot desired Inaccurate and insufficient Accurate and insufficient OBSERVER'S ACTIONS End mission and surveillance Request replot, end mission and surveillance Refinement, end mission and surveillance Refinement, request replot, end mission and surveillance Correction and repeat Repeat OBSERVER'S TRANSMISSION END OF MISSION, RPG SILENCED, OVER. RECORD AS TARGET, END OF MISSION, BMP NEUTRALIZED, OVER. RIGHT 20, ADD 20, END OF MISSION, RPG SILENCED, OVER. RIGHT 30, RECORD AS TARGET, END OF MISSION, BMP NEUTRALIZED, OVER. RIGHT 30, ADD 50, REPEAT or RIGHT 30, ADD 100, ADJUST FIRE, OVER. REPEAT, OVER


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7-57. Precision fire procedures place a great deal of responsibility on the observer. The two types of precision missions are precision registration and destruction. In precision fire, the adjusting point must be accurately located. An eight-digit grid should be sent for precision missions unless the observer is equipped with a laser range finder, which ensures accurate target location. Note: Precision missions, by their nature, require high ammunition expenditure and make the firing unit vulnerable to enemy TA.

7-58. A registration is conducted with a single piece. Normally, the FDO directs the observer to conduct the registration on a designated point; however, the observer may be directed to select the registration point. The registration point should be accurately located (within 10 meters), near the center of the zone of fire, semipermanent, located on fairly level terrain if possible, and on common survey with the firing unit. INITIATION 7-59. The precision registration is initiated with a message to observer as shown in the following examples.

FDC to FO: THIS IS H44, REGISTER ON KNOWN POINT 2, QUICK AND TIME1, OVER. (Read back by FO) FO to FDC: DIRECTION 6400, OVER.2 (Read back by FDC) FDC to FO: SHOT, OVER. (Read back by FO)


FDC to FO: H18 THIS IS H44, SELECT REGISTRATION POINT VICINITY GRID NK6138, QUICK AND TIME, OVER.2 (Read back by FDC) FO to FDC: GRID NK612438433, DIRECTION 6310, OVER.2 (Read back by FDC) FDC to FO: SHOT, OVER. (Read back by FO) The announcement of quick and time alerts the observer that impact and time portions will be conducted. 2 The FO's response to the message to observer indicates that he is ready to observe. 3 The FO sends eight-digit grid coordinates for the registration IMPACT REGISTRATION 7-60. The objective of a registration is to get spottings of four rounds (two overs and two shorts) along the OT line from rounds fire with the same data or from rounds fired with data 25 meters apart (50 meters apart when PER is


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greater than or equal to 25 meters). Normally this requires the spottings from four separate rounds. However, a target hit or a round spotted as range correct provides spottings for both over and short. Thus, the objective could be achieved with two consecutive target hits or range correct spottings. Applicable rules and procedures are discussed below. 7-61. The observer spots the rounds for deviation to the nearest 1 mil and brings the rounds onto the OT line before splitting a 200-meter bracket. As a rule of thumb, no deviation corrections should be made after a 200-meter bracket has been established. Once the observer brings the rounds onto the OT line, he measures and records deviation but makes no correction. If a doubtful range spotting is obtained, the observer corrects for deviation only. If a deviation correction is made after a 200-meter bracket is established, the last round fired and all previous rounds cannot be considered as usable rounds for determining range and deviation refinement data. 7-62. When the 50-meter range bracket has been established, two rounds are fired with data 25 meters in the direction opposite that of the last range spotting. If both rounds result in spottings of short (or over), an add (or a drop) of 25 meters with a change in volume to one round is sent. Then firing is continued until another definite range spotting is obtained at the opposite end of the 25-meter range bracket. 7-63. When the requirement of two overs and two shorts with the same data or data fired 25 meters apart has been met, the impact registration is ended with necessary refinement data. Refinement data may include either a deviation correction or a range correction, or both, to the nearest 10 meters. 7-64. In determining refinement data for range, the location of the registration point is determined with respect to the two sets of spottings. Then refinement data are determined and announced. The criteria for determining range refinement data are discussed below. 7-65. If the registration point is nearer the last round(s) fired, no range refinement is necessary to move the impact toward the registration point (Figure 7-7). 7-66. If the registration point is equidistant between the two sets of rounds, the observer determines the range refinement to be ADD 10 or DROP 10 from the last data fired (Figure 7-8).


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6 7

Figure 7-7. No Range Refinement Necessary

Figure 7-8. Drop 10

7-67. If the registration point is nearer the pair of rounds at the opposite end of the bracket, the observer determines the range refinement to be ADD 20 or DROP 20 (Figure 7-9)


REG PT 6 7

Figure 7-9. Drop 20 7-68. The observer must keep track of the rounds and how they are spotted in relation to the registration point. Consider drawing a picture and numbering the rounds on DA Form 5429-R (Figure 7-10).


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LEGEND: EOM = end of mission rec = record reg = register reg pt = registration point

Figure 7-10. Example Registration Diagram 7-69. Deviation refinement is determined by adding the deviation spottings of the rounds establishing the two overs and two shorts (this may include two, three, or four deviation spottings). Then divide the total of the deviation spottings by the number of rounds (two, three, or four) to get an average deviation, which is then expressed to the nearest mil. The average deviation multiplied by the OT factor equals the correction, which is expressed to the nearest 10 meters. 7-70. After the impact phase of a registration, the observer transmits refinement data to the FDC (for example, LEFT 20, DROP 10). Normally he commands RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT. However, since BCS uses only known points, the observer may be required to transmit RECORD AS KNOWN POINT. In either case, the FDC must send an MTO assigning a known point number to the registration point.


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OBSERVER DIRECTED TO CONDUCT AN IMPACT REGISTRATION Note: Refinement data for impact portion were determined by using rounds 4, 5, 6, and 7. Round Spotting 1 +6R 2 -8R 3 -5R 4 +7R Sum of deviations is 6R + 8R + 5R + 7R = 26R. Average deviation is 26R 4 rounds = 6.5R 6R. OT factor is 3. MPI is 3 X 6R = 18 meters R 20 meters R. Correction is LEFT 20, DROP 10, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER. Note: Deviation spottings are expressed to the nearest whole number and deviation refinement corrections are expressed to the nearest 10 meters. IMPACT REGISTRATION Round Spotting 1 Target 2 +7R 3 -3L Sum of deviations is 0 + 7R + 3L = 4R. Average deviation is 4R 3 rounds = 1.33R 1R. OT factor is 2. MPI is 2 X 1R = 2 meters R 0 (no deviation correction). Correction is ADD 10, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT. MORTAR REGISTRATION 7-71. Precision registration procedures for mortars are identical to the impact registration procedures for artillery. The exception is that once a 100-meter range bracket has been split and the last round fired is within 50 meters of the target, refinement corrections are sent to the FDC and the mission is ended. Range corrections are made to the nearest 25 meters. Only one round over and one round short are required. An example of the last two transmissions to the FDC is shown in Figure 7-11.


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Figure 7-11. Mortar Registration Adjusting the Sheaf for Mortars 7-72. One additional step that is not done for artillery but may be required for mortars is adjusting the sheaf. This may be done anytime during a fire mission but may be directed by the FDC after a registration. If so, the FDC will send PREPARE TO ADJUST THE SHEAF, OVER. The purpose of adjusting the sheaf is to get all mortars firing parallel. The mortars will be positioned with tubes numbered (i.e., 1 through 4 for an 81-mm platoon) from right to left as seen from behind the tubes. If a mortar platoon has six tubes, the tubes will be numbered 1 through 6 when employed as a platoon or 1 through 3 when employed by sections. 7-73. To start adjustment of the sheaf, the observer requests SECTION RIGHT (or LEFT) REPEAT, OVER. The entire section will then fire, in order, starting at the right (or left), with 10-second intervals between rounds. The mortar that was used to register will not fire. If the observer requests SECTION RIGHT, REPEAT, OVER for a 120-mm section, numbers 1 and 3 will fire (in that order). (Number 2 conducted the registration.) 7-74. To adjust the sheaf, all rounds must be adjusted on line at approximately the same range (within 50 meters) and with 40 meters lateral spread between rounds. In adjusting the sheaf, range corrections for rounds impacting within 50 meters of the sheaf are ignored. The sheaf is adjusted perpendicular to the gun-target (GT) line. (If angle T is greater than 500 mils, each piece is adjusted onto the registration point and the FDC computes data for the sheaf.) Lateral refinement corrections are made to the nearest 10 meters, but corrections less than 50 meters are not fired. Once refinement corrections for all mortars have been determined, the sheaf is adjusted. An adjusted sheaf for an 81-mm section is shown in Figure 7-12.


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Figure 7-12. Adjusted Mortar Sheaf

The sheaf of an 81-mm section is being adjusted. Number 2 conducted the registration. The observer has requested SECTION RIGHT, REPEAT, OVER. The rounds fired impact as shown in Figure 7-13. All rounds are within 50 meters of the correct range. Only number 3 is more than 50 meters out in lateral adjustment, so the adjustment for number 3 is sent first. Then the refinement data for numbers 1 and 4 are sent as follows: NUMBER 3, RIGHT 60, REPEAT; NUMBER 1, RIGHT 30, NUMBER 1 IS ADJUSTED; NUMBER 4, LEFT 20, NUMBER 4 IS ADJUSTED OVER. Number 3 is now fired and the round impacts 10 meters right of the desired burst location as indicated in Figure 7-14. The observer then sends NUMBER 3, LEFT 10, NUMBER 3 IS ADJUSTED, SHEAF IS ADJUSTED, END OF MISSION, OVER.


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3 4 3 2


4 1


Figure 7-13. Section Right, Repeat


3 3




Figure 7-14. Number Three is Adjusted Mortar Registration Point Location Considerations Facilitate future operations. Maximum range the mortar is anticipated to fire.


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Transfer limits of the mortar. According to FM 23-91, Mortar Gunnery, registration corrections can be applied 1,500 meters beyond and short of the registration point and 400 mils left and right of the weapon location. In most cases the preferred registration point location can be determined by subtracting 1,500 meters from the maximum range of the mortar or the maximum range the weapon is expected to fire. Registration point location is clear of personnel, is semi permanent, on fairly level terrain and easily identifiable. Also consider whether the area will support an OP to conduct the registration The registration point is accurately located (nearest 10 meters). TIME REGISTRATION 7-75. If a time registration is required after the impact registration has been completed, the observer determines and announces refinement data and commands the time registration to be fired; for example, RIGHT 10, ADD 10, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, TIME, REPEAT, OVER. Note: Mortars do not conduct time registration. 7-76. The objective of the time portion of the precision registration is to correct the mean HOB of four rounds fired with the same data to 20 meters above the registration point. If the first round is a graze burst, a correction of UP 40 is given. Once a measurable airburst has been obtained, the command is 3 ROUNDS REPEAT. When four rounds have been fired with the same data, the registration is ended with the appropriate correction to achieve a 20-meter HOB. 7-77. When four airbursts are spotted, the HOB is corrected to 20 meters. The mean HOB is determined by adding the four spottings (in mils), dividing by 4, expressing the sum to the nearest mil, and then multiplying by the OT factor. (This is the same technique used in determining deviation corrections.) The sum is then expressed to the nearest 5 meters and the appropriate correction is determined to achieve the desired 20-meter HOB; for example, UP 10, RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER. 7-78. When three airbursts and one graze burst are spotted, the HOB is correct. No correction is required. 7-79. With two airbursts and two graze bursts, the HOB correction sent is UP 10. 7-80. With one airburst and three graze bursts, the HOB correction sent is UP 20. 7-81. Check rounds may be fired to verify the validity of the time registration; however, they are not necessary. If the first airburst is extremely high, the observer may make a down correction and fire one round. If that round is at a measurable HOB, he can then fire the additional three rounds. Quick and time registration examples are as follows:


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QUICK AND TIME REGISTRATION (Figure 7-15) Refinement data for the impact portion were determined by using rounds 5, 6, 7, and 8. Sum of deviation spottings is 6R + 0 + 4R + 2R = 12R. Average deviation is 12R 4 = 3R. OT factor is 3. MPI is 3 X 3R = 9 meters R 10 meters R. The registration point is nearer the pair of rounds at the opposite end of the bracket form the last round fired. Correction is LEFT 10, DROP 20, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, TIME REPEAT, OVER. Refinement data for the time portion were determined by using rounds 9, 10, 11, and 12. Sum of HOB spottings is as follows: AIR 5 + AIR 6 + AIR 3 + AIR 5 = AIR 19. Average HOB is AIR 19 4 = AIR 4.75 AIR 5. OT factor is 3. Mean HOB is 3 X AIR 5 = AIR 15 meters. Correction is UP 5, RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER.


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LEGEND: A = air rpt = repeat ti = time

Figure 7-15. Quick and Time Registration

QUICK AND TIME REGISTRATION - RANGE CORRECT SPOTTING (Figure 7-16) Refinement data for the impact portion were determined by using rounds 4, 5, and 6. Sum of deviation spottings is 1R + 3L + 2L = 4L. Average deviation is 4L 3 = 1.33L 1L. OT factor is 3. MPI is 3 X 1L = 3 meters L 0 meters. The registration point is nearer the last round fired. Correction is RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, TIME REPEAT, OVER. Refinement data for the time portion were determined by using rounds 7, 8, 9, and 10. The time portion spottings were 3 AIR and 1 GRAZE. Correction is RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER.


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Figure 7-16. Quick and Time Registration - Range Correct Spotting

QUICK AND TIME REGISTRATION DURING ADJUSTMENT (Figure 7-17) Refinement data for the impact portion were determined by using rounds 4, 6, 7, and 8. Sum of deviation spottings is 4R + 1L + 5R + 1R = 9R. Average deviation is 9R 4 = 2.25R 2R. OT factor is 4. MPI is 4 X 2R = 3 meters L 8 meters R 10 meters R. The registration point is equidistant between the two pairs of rounds. Correction is LEFT 10, ADD 10, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, TIME REPEAT, OVER. Refinement data for the time portion were determined by using rounds 9, 10, 11, and 12. The spottings were 2 AIR and 2 GRAZE. Correction is UP 10, RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER.


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Figure 7-17. Quick and Time Registration During Adjustment SECOND-LOT REGISTRATIONS 7-82. Second-lot registrations are conducted in much the same manner as are first-lot (single) registrations. After the first-lot impact registration has been completed, a time registration is conducted, if required. The FDC must announce to the observer OBSERVE SECOND-LOT REGISTRATION. The observer must reestablish the appropriate range bracket and complete the second-lot registration by using the same procedures as for the first lot. The time portion of the registration is not fired with the second lot.



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ABBREVIATED PRECISION REGISTRATION 7-83. At times the tactical situation or ammunition constraints may prohibit conduct of a full-scale precision registration. Although not as accurate, an abbreviated precision registration (Figure 7-18) can provide adequate corrections for the effects of nonstandard conditions. The decision to conduct an abbreviated registration rests with the FDO. For this type of registration, the observer merely shortens the standard procedures. 7-84. Normal adjust fire procedures are followed until a 100-meter bracket is split. 7-85. The correction then sent is ADD (or DROP) 50 METERS. 7-86. The burst which is a result of this correction is spotted, and minor corrections for both deviation and range are sent to the FDC in the following format: For both impact and time portion registrations: LEFT 10, DROP 40, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, TIME, REPEAT, OVER. For an impact only registration: RIGHT 30, DROP 10, RECORD AS REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER. 7-87. Normal adjust fire, time adjustment procedures are followed in the time portion: An airburst is obtained and then corrected to a 20-meter HOB. Instead of firing additional rounds, refinement is sent to the FDC in the following format: UP 10, RECORD AS TIME REGISTRATION POINT, END OF MISSION, OVER. 7-88. Abbreviated registrations are much more accurate and therefore more feasible if the observer is equipped with a laser rangefinder.

Figure 7-18. Abbreviated Precision Registration


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7-89. In a destruction mission, one weapon is fired to destroy a point target. It is similar to a registration in that the observer continues adjustments to establish a 25-meter bracket. Once it is established, the observer splits the 25-meter bracket by adding or dropping 10 meters and continues to fire additional rounds. After every third round, an additional refinement is made, and firing is continued until the target is destroyed or the mission is ended. (The observer may make corrections after each round.) For example, the observer makes his refinement as shown in Figure 7- 19. 7-90. Because of the amount of time and ammunition required, destruction missions should be avoided. Only a target that is critical to an operation should be engaged in this manner, and only if no other means exists to destroy the target.

Target (Bunker) OT FACTOR = 2




1 2

Preponderance was 4R + 5R + 4R = 13R 3 = 4.3R 4R X 2 (OT Factor) = 8R 10R. Correction is L10. Mission ended because target was destroyed.

Figure 7-19. Destruction Mission


7-91. The opportunities for a precision registration are limited, since it requires visual observation on a clearly defined, accurately located registration point in the target area. At night, visual adjustment of fire on a registration point is impossible without some type of illumination or night observation device. In desert, jungle or arctic operations, clearly defined registration points in the target area are not usually available. Special procedures, including observation techniques have been developed to provide for registration under these conditions. Two such procedures are the highburst (HB) and MPI registration.


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7-92. For the HB registration, two observers (referred to as O1 and O2) simultaneously observe time fire aimed at a point in the air above the target. The FDC selects the point at which the fire is to be aimed. It does this by selecting a point on the ground in the area where the registration is desired and projecting this point into the air with a prescribed height of burst. The FDC controls the firing of the HB registration. A single weapon is used to fire the registration. All rounds are fired with the same data. Each observer, using an aiming circle, a G/VLLD or modular universal laser equipment (MULE), reports the direction from his position to the bursts. One observer reports the vertical angle after each round. An MPI registration is the same except the rounds are fired with fuze quick. LOCATION AND INTIAL ORIENTATION OF THE OBSERVING INSTRUMENTS 7-93. In an HB registration, the accurate location of each OP and the proper orientation of each observing instrument are very important. Each OP location is surveyed and a line of known direction is established on the ground so that the observer can orient his instrument for direction. If possible the observer should establish his OP and orient his instrument for direction during daylight. However, the exact location of the instrument and the line of known direction should be marked so that they can be identified during darkness. These precautions allow the observer to position and orient his instrument during darkness if necessary. To establish the OP, the observer sets his instrument over the position marker, makes sure that the instrument is level, and then orients the instrument on the line of known direction. The observer sets the azimuth of the line of known direction on the azimuth scales of the instrument by using the upper recording motion. Then, using the lower motion, he aligns the vertical crossline in the reticle on the marker or the point that identifies the known direction. If using a laser, the observer places the vertical crossline on the known direction marker and uses the azimuth knob to put the known direction on the display. Once this is done, the instrument is oriented for direction. ORIENTATION OF THE OBSERVING INSTRUMENTS ON THE ORIENTING POINT 7-94. The FDC tells each observer the direction and vertical angle from his position to the orienting point. The example below is a typical message from the FDC to the observers.

OBSERVE HIGH-BURST REGISTRATION, O1 DIRECTION 1164, VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 12, MEASURE THE VERTICAL ANGLE. O2 DIRECTION 0718, VERTICAL ANGLE MINUS 3. REPORT WHEN READY TO OBSERVE. 7-95. Each observer using the upper motion, sets the direction given him on the azimuth scales of his instrument. The horizontal line of sight of the instrument now coincides with the horizontal line of sight from the observer's position to the orienting point. Each observer also sets the vertical angle given him on the elevation scales of his instrument to orient the instrument


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for height of burst. The manner in which the observer sets the vertical angle on the scales of his instrument depends on the type of instrument he is using. 7-96. The elevation scales on the M2 aiming circle are graduated so that a 0 reading on the scales corresponds to a vertical angle of 0. The scales are graduated and numbered in each direction from 0. The graduations and numbers in one direction from 0 are printed in black; those in the other direction are printed in red. Black numbers indicate positive (plus) vertical angles and red numbers indicate negative (minus) vertical angles. The elevation scales on the aiming circles are operated with the elevation micrometer knob. If the vertical angle given the observer is a negative (minus) angle, he sets its value on the elevation scales in the direction represented by the red numbers. This action places the center of the crosslines in the reticle of the instrument in line with the point in the air selected as the orienting point. MEASURING AND REPORTING THE FIRST ROUND 7-97. When the observers report READY TO OBSERVE, the FDC directs the firing of the rounds one at a time. The FDC reports SHOT and SPLASH after each round is fired. When the burst of the first round appears, each observer determines the direction to the round by spotting the horizontal deviation from the vertical crossline in the reticle of the instrument and then combines this value with the reading on the azimuth scales. If the deviation is to the left of the vertical crossline, he subtracts the value from the reading on the azimuth scales. If it is to the right of the vertical crossline he adds the value to the reading on the reading on the instrument.

A round bursts 20 mils right of the vertical crossline and the reading on the azimuth scales is 0480. The azimuth to the burst is 0500 (0480 + 20 = 0500). 7-98. The vertical angle to the burst is determined as discussed below. 7-99. If using an aiming circle the observer spots the number of mils the burst appears above or below the horizontal crossline in the reticle of the instrument and combines this reading with the reading on the elevation scales.

The burst appears 10 mils above the horizontal crossline and the reading on the elevation scales is +20. The vertical angle to the burst is +30 (20 + 10 = 30) 7-100. The observers report in turn.


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O1 DIRECTION 0500, VERTICAL ANGLE +30, OVER. O2 DIRECTION 0167, OVER. 7-101. If the observer does not observe the initial round within the field of view of his instrument, he should report this and the approximate direction and vertical angle to where the round burst to the FDC.

O2 ROUND UNOBSERVED, TOO FAR LEFT, DIRECTION 0300, VERTICAL ANGLE +25, OVER. REORIENTING ON THE FIRST ROUND 7-102. Once the observer reports his direction (and vertical angle, if applicable) to the first round, he reorients his instrument (Figure 7- 20) on the direction and vertical angle to where that initial round burst. This allows for smaller deviation measurements for subsequent rounds.



Figure 7-20. Reorientation After the First Round MEASURING AND REPORTING SUBSEQUENT ROUNDS 7-103. The procedures for measuring and reporting direction and vertical angle for subsequent rounds are the same as those for the first round. However, the observer does not reorient his instrument after subsequent rounds. OBSERVER PROCEDURES IN A HIGH-BURST REGISTRATION 7-104. The following example illustrates the observer procedures in the conduct of a high-burst registration. Only observer O1 is discussed.


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Observer O1 arrives at his position and locates the survey stake that marks the exact location of his instrument. The tag on the survey stake indicates that the azimuth of the known direction is 1,860 mils and that the direction is identified on the ground as the left edge of a red building approximately 1,500 meters to the right flank, O1 places his aiming circle over the marking stake. With the upper recording motion, he sets off an azimuth of 1,860 mils on the azimuth scales. Using the lower motion, he aligns the crosslines in the reticle of the instrument on the left edge of the red building. He reports to the FDC that he is in position. O1 receives the following message from the FDC: OBSERVE HIGH-BURST REGISTRATION, O1 DIRECTION 0430, VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 15, MEASURE THE VERTICAL ANGLE. With the upper motion, O1 turns the azimuth scales to 0430 and sets off +15 on the elevation scales. O1 reports the following to the FDC: O1 READY TO OBSERVE. The FDC sends commands to the weapon to fire the first round. When the round is fired, the FDC reports to O1: SHOT, OVER, SPLASH, OVER. When the first round bursts, O1 observes the burst 40 mils left of the vertical crossline and 5 mils below the horizontal crossline. Since the deviation is to the left of the vertical crossline, O1 subtracts 40 from the setting on the azimuth scales (0430) and obtains a direction of 0390. Since the burst appeared 5 mils below the horizontal crossline, 01 subtracts 5 from the setting on the elevation scales (+15) and obtains a vertical angle of +10. O1 reports the instrument readings for the first round as follows: O1 DIRECTION 0390, VERTICAL ANGLE PLUS 10, OVER. O1 reorients his aiming circle on a direction of 0390 and a vertical angle of +10. He then prepares to measure the deviation of subsequent rounds. The FDC directs the weapon to fire. When the second round is fired, the FDC reports to O1: SHOT, OVER, SPLASH, OVER. The procedures for measuring and reporting subsequent rounds are the same as those for the first round, except that measurement is read from the reoriented direction and vertical angle. When the FDC has enough instrument readings to compute the registration data, it terminates the registration by telling O1 END of MISSION. MEAN POINT OF IMPACT REGISTRATION 7-105. In an MPI registration, the FDC selects a ground location as the orienting point and uses impact fuzes in the registration. The establishment of the OPs and the procedures followed by the observers are the same as those in a high-burst registration. Vertical angle is still measured and reported, as this determines a more accurate altitude than is available from a just map spot.


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7-106. Observers must be proficient at engaging moving targets of opportunity and in planning and executing planned fires against targets that will be moving at a future time of attack. In either case, the observer must estimate the direction and speed of the enemy, determine intercept and trigger points, and time the firing so that the rounds and vehicle(s) arrive at the desired location at the same time. This section provides an overview of the general procedures to moving targets planned and targets of opportunity. For engagement of moving targets with Copperhead, see Chapter 8, Section V.

7-107. A target of opportunity is a target that appears during combat and against which no attack has been prearranged. Often, the observer must quickly initiate the fire mission to alert the firing unit, while simultaneously estimating the intercept and trigger points. Training, practice, and experience are critical in the execution of fires against moving targets of opportunity as there is little time to complete the task and the pressure is usually intense. Observers should receive regular training in the attack of moving targets of opportunity, in a variety of scenarios and conditions, in order to maintain their skill in this task.

7-108. A planned target is a target upon which fires are prearranged. The degree of prearrangement varies, but some prior coordination or action is done to facilitate engagement. Planned targets may be further subdivided into scheduled, on-call, and priority targets. 7-109. The procedure for calculating the intercept and trigger points for planned moving targets is basically the same as for engaging targets of opportunity. However, the observer has the opportunity to better select intercept and trigger points better suited to the anticipated situation. And in addition to the intercept and trigger points (described below) the observer should determine the points at which he can expect to become aware of or receive notification of the moving target, and at which point he will be able to observe it under various conditions (day, night, fog). Understanding the timedistance relationships of these various points is critical to the successful planning of fires against moving targets. 7-110. Because the enemys movement cannot always be accurately predicted, the observer may need to plan multiple intercept and trigger points for a planned moving target. To prevent confusion the observer can plan the mission based on a primary intercept point, and then determine and record the shift data necessary to shift the mission from the primary to an alternate intercept point. 7-111. Additionally, the observer should be prepared to execute the mission as a target of opportunity mission, quickly determining new intercept and


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trigger points if the enemy moves differently than what the observer had planned for. 7-112. Another advantage of planned targets is that the observer may have the opportunity to mark trigger or even intercept points so that they are more visible and identifiable under a variety of battlefield conditions. Marking is discussed later in this section.


7-113. The following paragraphs outline the basic procedures for calculating the points and data needed to execute fires against moving targets. The procedures described are for attack against a moving target of opportunity, but the same basic methodology is used also for planned moving targets. DETERMINE TARGET DIRECTION AND SPEED 7-114. After acquiring the target, the observer tracks it until he is sure of the direction in which it is moving. As the target moves from point A to point B (Figure 7-21), the observer can use one of three methods to determine its speed. 7-115. Estimation Method. First the observer can estimate the speed as follows: Slow-3 meters per second (7 miles per hour [mph]. Medium-5 meters per second (11 mph). Fast-8 meters per second (18 mph). 7-116. Lasing Method. The observer can use a lasing device to measure the distance the target moves during a certain time interval. As the target moves the observer lases it and converts the polar data to grid locations for points A and B. Then he determines how far the target moved by measuring the distance between points A and B and rounding to the nearest 1 meter. He divides the distance traveled by the time interval between points A and B to determine the target speed in meters per second. 7-117. Reticle Pattern Method. The observer can use the reticle pattern in the standard binoculars or the AN/GVS-5 laser rangefinder to measure the distance the target moves during a certain time interval. As the target moves across the reticle pattern, the observer measures the number of mils traveled to the nearest 5 mils. He multiplies that number by the OT factor to convert the distance traveled by the target to meters. He divides the distance traveled by the time interval to determine the target speed, in meters per second and then rounds to the nearest 1 meter. 7-118. Note: The observe can also designate, by using a lasing device or binoculars, a distance on the ground; for example, 100 meters. He then times how long the target takes to travel that distance and divides that distance by the time interval


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PREDICT THE INTERCEPT POINT 7-119. Once the observer determines the speed and direction of the target, he must predict the intercept point - the point or grid at which he wants to engage the moving target. To do this, he first gathers and adds the following information: Total processing time (observer, FSE, FDC and gun times). Time of flight. 7-120. He then multiplies that sum by the target speed. The product is the minimum distance to plot the intercept point in front of the moving target in the direction it is traveling. So the target will not pass the intercept point before the round impacts, the observer must plot the intercept point distance well ahead of the moving target to allow himself enough time to get the grid and prepare his call for fire. Experience dictates how far ahead of the target to plot the intercept point. An inexperienced observer should add to the intercept distance half the distance determined to allow enough time. To simplify plotting the observer can round up the intercept distance to the nearest 100 meters. 7-121. Note: If through experience the observer knows how long it will take the firing unit to be ready to fire the mission, he should use that time. If not, he should use 200 seconds as the time from the initiation of the call for fire to round impact. He converts this time to distance in meters, and applies the distance in the direction of movement to determine an intercept point as explained above.

The distance measured between points A and B by using a G/VLLD is 50 meters. The time interval between A and B is 10 seconds. Speed of the target is 50 meters in 10 seconds, or 5 meters per second. Total processing time is 3 minutes (180 seconds). Time of flight is 20 seconds. The distance at which to plot the intercept point is 5 meters per second X 200 seconds, or 1,000 meters (See Figure 7-21.) Note: Minutes must be converted to seconds for this to work.


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1,000 METERS


Figure 7-21. Determining the Intercept Point 7-122. Given the above example, the intercept point must be at least 1,000 meters in front of the target along the intended path of the target. The method of control should be observer control (at my command). The intercept point grid is then used in the call for fire as the target location. DETERMINE THE TRIGGER POINT 7-123. Once the intercept point is determined and the mission is sent to the firing unit, the observer must determine a point at which to "pull the trigger." This point is determined to ensure the rounds and target arrive at the intercept point at the same time. When the target passes over or near the trigger point, the observer commands the guns to fire. 7-124. In determining the trigger point, the observer must consider the intended path of the target, target speed, time of flight, and call for fire transmission time. If it is a Copperhead mission, the size and shape of the footprint are also considered. 7-125. The first step is to determine the distance from the planned target location or intercept point to the trigger point. The observer adds the transmission time (an average of 5 seconds) to the time of flight received in the MTO and multiplies this sum by the speed of the target.

Transmission time is 5 seconds. Time of flight is 20 seconds. Target speed is 5 meters per second. Distance to trigger point = (transmission time + time of flight) X target speed, or (5 seconds + 20 seconds) X 5 meters per second = 125 meters.


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7-126. The trigger point is then plotted by measuring the distance determined above from the planned target location or intercept point along the intended path toward the moving target (Figure 7-22).




Figure 7-22. Determining the Trigger Point 7-127. If the target passes the trigger point before the battery reports READY, the observer should make a bold shift to a new target location by using the same trigger point and intercept distances. A grid for the new location should be sent to the FDC immediately. 7-128. If the observer does not intend to request AT MY COMMAND or BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND, the trigger point becomes the point at which he initiates his call for fire. In this case, mission reaction time must be included in determining the distance to the trigger point. This allows time for the mission to be processed and the firing unit to shift onto the target. Normal mission reaction times are as follows: Priority targets-30 to 60 seconds (plus time of flight). On-call targets-90 to 120 seconds (plus time of flight). Targets of opportunity-150 to 180 seconds (plus time of flight). 7-129. NOTE: These are ideal averages that will not be applicable to all situations. For targets of opportunity during high tempo operations, the observer or fire planner may need to allow as much as seven minutes in reaction time (from end of mission of a previous mission to ready "at my command" on the moving target mission). The battlefield situation, training and combat status of the observer and firing unit, and other factors will affect reaction times. This may require the observer to identify two trigger points for planned missions: one to initiate the AT MY COMMAND or BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND mission, and one to send the FIRE command.


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7-130. Ideally the trigger and intercept points will be an easily identifiable point, terrain feature, or object. This is often difficult to accomplish for targets of opportunity, but for planned targets the observer frequently has more flexibility in selecting points that will facilitate his execution of the fires. 7-131. However, the observer will often be unable to plan the intercept and/or trigger point for a planned moving target on easily identifiable objects or terrain features. In these cases he should identify the appropriate point on the ground and determine and record the direction, distance, and vertical azimuth to the point. This should be done from the point at which the target will be observed during the battle to ensure accuracy. Laser devices are extremely useful for this purpose. Trigger points established in this manner are often referred to as laser triggers, as opposed to physical trigger. TRIGGER POINT MARKING 7-132. If time and conditions permit, the observer may want to mark his trigger points so that they are more visible under various battlefield conditions. While this is especially useful for laser triggers (a marked laser trigger basically becomes a physical trigger when marked), it may also be beneficial when the object or terrain feature of a physical trigger may not be easily identifiable under conditions of limited visibility. Trigger point marking can often be accomplished jointly with target area survey/refinement. 7-133. In some instances, the observer may also want to mark the intercept point, especially if the target will be jointly attacked by direct fire weapons or air assets or if these fires are planned as backup attack means. The marking of the intercept point allows these systems and other observers to also orient on the location and record the data for future use. 7-134. As much as possible, trigger markers should be observable by multiple observers or from multiple locations (in case the observer must move). They should also blend in with the terrain or be placed so that they are not obvious to the enemy. Trigger markers should also be coordinated with the maneuver units direct fire TRPs. All types of trigger markers have limitations that the observer must understand. 7-135. A trigger marker may be visual or thermal. A visual trigger marker, such as a VS-17 panel or chemlight, is clearly visible to normal eyesight (binoculars may be required) under ideal conditions but is affected by night, fog, and other adverse conditions. A thermal trigger (e.g., burning charcoal or reverse polarity tape) is visible day or night, but may be impacted by dense smoke or fires (burning equipment, munitions or vegetation) and will only be visible as long as they produce the thermal signature. Markers that have limited visibility or short durations (and require replacement or replenishment) should usually be used for marking triggers closer to the observers location. 7-136. Reverse polarity tape is difficult to observe beyond 5 kilometers. It is visible through a thermal sight during both day and night, and is usually not


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severely impacted by adverse weather. A 5-gallon antifreeze can containing sand and diesel will rarely emit a thermal signature beyond 6 hours. Plywood panels are difficult to conceal from enemy observation. Chemlights are usually too small to be seen from greater distances and may be visible to the enemy. Laser triggers minimize the limitations of physical triggers as they are virtually undetectable to the enemy and require little time to emplace. However, they require a mounted or dismounted observer with a laser device to maintain a stationary location. If the observer moves, then the established trigger is no longer valid. A combination of laser and physical triggers is the most effective method of establishing trigger points. 7-137. The placement and lighting/initiation of trigger markers such as chemlights or thermals should be planned based on their durations, effects and other applicable considerations. Responsibilities should be assigned and planned as timeline events. Emplacement can be centralized, with one person, such as the TF fire support NCO emplacing all trigger markers. Or it may be decentralized, with each observer or platoon responsible for emplacing their assigned trigger markers. There are several methods for emplacing/initiating trigger markers: The observer, another member of the fire support team, or a member of the supported maneuver unit can go forward at an appropriate time and emplace or light/initiate the trigger marker(s). He should have communications and confirm that the marker is visible and properly emplaced. This can be done in conjunction with TRP markers to reduce movement and save time. This is the preferred method. A member of any forward security forces can emplace or initiate/light the trigger markers as they pull back from their forward locations. Usually this should be a fire support soldier familiar with the trigger marker plan. The risks with this method include designated soldiers being unable to perform the task due to death, injury, or change in movement, or misplacement of a marker due to lack of familiarity with the trigger plan. 7-138. Fire support leaders should develop a trigger marker employment plan that best addresses METT-TC, supports the maneuver commanders plans, and ensure that both primary and alternate observers can observe the trigger points. Ensure force protection measures are addressed to prevent enemy attack or fratricide during trigger marking. RECORDING DATA 7-139. For planned targets, the observer should record the distance, direction, and vertical azimuth from the observation point to all trigger and intercept points (use laser device if available) as well as a brief description of the points. This allows the observer, or other members, to quickly orient on the points, which is especially helpful when visibility is limited. It also facilitates battle hand off if observers change. The observer can also record any of the other factors, such as firing unit and time of flight, that are essential to his time-distance and execution calculations.


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1. Often, initial rounds can be located more quickly with the naked eye than with field glasses. The spotting should be instantaneous and the correction sent immediately to the FDC. 2. For observers who wear glasses, the protective plastic lens cap on the binoculars can be removed to increase the field of vision. Masking tape can be used on the metal retaining ring to prevent scratching the glasses. 3. The diopter adjustment ring can be taped in the correct position so that the observer does not have to adjust the diopter setting every time he uses his binoculars. 4. For adjust fire missions, angular deviations measured with the binoculars are measured to the nearest 5 mils for deviation and 1 mil for HOB. 5. The observer should memorize the width (in mils) of his fingers and hand. Then, when shifts of 100 mils or more are required, he can use his hand instead of binoculars for determining shifts to place fires in the vicinity of the adjusting point as quickly as possible. 6. The OT factor must be applied to obtain corrections for HOB as well as for deviation. 7. A good terrain sketch provides an observer direction and a means for making a good terrain-map association. 8. An observer can use the direction and flash-to-bang time of an impacting round to determine its approximate grid location. 9. The observer must take immediate action if communications equipment is not working properly. 10. The importance of accurate initial fires (FFE) cannot be overemphasized, The enemy will change posture (dig in or move) is he knows that he is being fired upon. 11. A sketch is a must in determining usable rounds on a precision registration. 12. The OP is not the place to learn procedures for conduct of fire. All procedures should be learned before going to the OP.


Chapter 8

Special Munitions
This chapter provides an overview of the characteristics and planning considerations for special munitions. Section I addresses ICM, Section II covers FA delivered SCATMINE, Section III is on illumination, Section IV discusses Smoke, and Section V covers Copperhead.


8-01. ICM are HE base ejection projectiles with a mechanical time fuze and a body assembly containing a number of submunitions (grenades). Centrifugal force dispenses the grenades radially from the projectile line of flight. The size and shape of the submunition dispersion patterns are not constant and change over range. Also the concentration of submunitions is not uniform over the entire surface area. There is a noticeable decrease of submunitions in the center of the dispersion pattern. There are two types of ICM rounds: the antipersonnel (AP) round and the dual-purpose (DP) round. Table 8-1 shows the number of grenades in each ICM round. Table 8-1 Improved Conventional Munitions Weapon Projectile Number of Grenades 18 60 42 88 72 644 M77 518 XM85 400+ XM85

Antipersonnel ICM 105mm (Figure 8-1A) M444 155mm (Figure 8-1B) M449 family 105mm M915/6 Dual-purpose ICM 155mm (Figure 8-2) M483A1 155mm M864 MLRS M26 Rocket MLRS ER MLRS MLRS GMLRS ANTIPERSONNEL ROUND

8-02. The APICM is most effective against unwarned, exposed personnel. When the fuze functions, an expelling charge forces the grenades out through the base of the projectile. Small vanes on each grenade flip upward, arming the grenade and stabilizing it in flight. When the striker plate on the base of the grenade contacts the ground, the grenade is hurled upward four to six feet and detonates. M449 APICM dispersion pattern is generally elliptical in


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shape. The dispersion pattern covers approximately 100 meters by 60 meters. APICM is no longer manufactured but is still held in war reserve.



Figure 8-1 APICM Grenades DUAL-PURPOSE ROUND 8-03. The DPICM is most effective against lightly armored or thin-skinned vehicles. After the grenade is ejected, a ribbon streamer arms and stabilizes it. On impact, a shaped charge that can pierce light armor is detonated. The surrounding steel case fragments are very effective against personnel as well. 8-04. M438A1 DPICM dispersion generally changes shape from elliptical at minimum ranges and lower charges to almost circular at maximum ranges. At minimum ranges, the dimensions are approximately 50 meters by 100 meters. At maximum ranges, they are approximately 100 meters by 120 meters.

Figure 8-2. 155-mm DPICM Grenade BASE BURN ROUND 8-05. The M864 base burn (BB) DPICM has a larger dispersion pattern than that of DPICM despite having fewer grenades. However, because it is designed for employment at longer ranges, which produces a steep angle of fall, the dispersion pattern is typically circular. At its designed ranges, the dispersion pattern covers approximately 150 meters by 150 meters.


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8-06. The ICM call for fire is the same as any call for fire. The observer identifies the type of ICM he wants to be fired in effect by referring to APICM as APICM and DPICM as ICM. BB DPICM is employed at ranges beyond DPICM, as determined by the FDC. Normal corrections for HE in adjustment apply; however, the FFE phase is entered once a 50-meter bracket is split. Procedures for the adjustment of ICM follow. RANGE AND DEVIATION 8-07. Because of the size of the effects pattern, deviation shifts of less than 50 meters and range corrections of less than 100 meters should not be made. Normal range and deviation corrections are used when adjusting DPICM in the self-registering (SR) mode. HOB 8-08. Because of the reliability of the round, no adjustment for HOB is required before firing for effect. If a repeat of FFE is required, HOB may then be adjusted. HOB is adjusted in increments of 50 meters. 8-09. If a large number of duds are observed or the effects pattern is too small, the observer should give an UP correction. This correction should not exceed 100 meters. 8-10. An HOB that is too high is not critical. Normally, attempts to adjust the HOB should not be made. DANGER CLOSE 8-11. When adjusting close-in fires with ICM, the observer must start the adjustment at least 600 meters from friendly troops, depending on the relative locations of weapons, target, and friendly troops. Special consideration must be given to the direction and speed of the wind in the target area. The adjustment should be made with the entire battery. Corrections should be made from the near edge of the effects pattern.




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8-12. Anytime ICM rounds are fired, between 2 and 3 percent of the submunitions fail to arm or detonate. This rate can be higher if correct employment procedures are not followed or if ICM are delivered into a target area where the terrain is not suited for ICM employment. 8-13. Dud submunitions can pose significant risks to friendly personnel and equipment. FSOs must advise commanders and their staffs on the risks associated with ICM employment. This risk assessment must be compared to the effectiveness of using ICM in meeting the commander's guidance for fire support. 8-14. Planning for ICM attack of targets should incorporate the following employment and safety considerations. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS Restrict ICM employment in forests, mountainous areas (slope greater than 60 percent), rocky uneven terrain, soft marshy areas, or into target areas covered with deep snow or water. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Ensure personnel are trained to identify various submunitions and are aware of their hazards. Establish and follow procedures for disseminating information concerning areas where dud ICM submunitions pose a hazard to friendly operations.


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8-15. There are two types of FA-delivered SCATMINEs: remote antiarmor mine system (RAAMS) and area denial artillery munitions (ADAM). RAAMS PROJECTILES 8-16. RAAMS projectiles are used to delay or disrupt enemy formations and maneuver or to reinforce existing obstacles. A 155-mm howitzer fires the RAAMS projectile and nine antiarmor mines (Figure 8-3) are base ejected over the target area. After a short delay to allow for mine freefall, impact, and roll, the magnetically fuzed mines arm themselves. Any metallic object such as a tank or self-propelled vehicle passing over the mines will cause the mines to detonate. Random mines have antidisturbance features that cause the mines to detonate if they are moved or picked up. If the RAAMS mines are not detonated, they will begin to self-destruct (SD) after 80 percent of the factory-set SD time elapses. The probability of a live mine existing past its stated SD time is 0.001. Upon arming FA delivered SCATMINEs perform a self-test. All mines that fail the self test SD immediately. The M718 and M718A1 projectiles have a long SD time (48 hours). The M741 and M741A1 projectiles have a short SD time (4 hours). 8-17. Note: Most RAAMS (and ADAM) mines arm in two minutes. Product improved mines (type designated A1 arm in 45 seconds.

Figure 8-3. RAAMS Mine ADAM PROJECTILES 8-18. ADAM mines are used against personnel. They can be used against dismounted personnel in an armored attack or on existing antitank obstacles to hinder dismounted breaching. When employed against an enemy that has a dismounted breaching capability, ADAM mines are delivered directly on top of a RAAMS minefield. ADAM rounds are always the last rounds fired when


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used in conjunction with RAAMS or other munitions. This prevents activation or destruction of the ADAM munitions by other means. 8-19. A 155-mm howitzer fires the ADAM projectile and 36 antipersonnel mines (Figure 8-4) are base-ejected over the target area. When an ADAM mine comes to rest on the ground, several tripwire sensors are deployed out to a maximum distance of 20 feet. When a sensor is disturbed or tripped, a small ball-like munition is propelled two to eight feet upward. The munition detonates and scatters approximately 600 1.5-grain steel fragments in all directions. If the ADAM mines are not detonated, they will begin to SD after 80 percent of the factory-set SD time elapses. The M692 projectile has a long SD time (48 hours). The M731 projectile has a short SD time (4 hours).

Figure 8-4. ADAM Mine

8-20. Three types of RAAMS/ADAM minefields may be used to support the commander's scheme of maneuver and to provide maximum troop safety. The three types are planned minefields, target of opportunity minefields, and minefields used with other munitions. PLANNED MINEFIELDS 8-21. These minefields are initiated as a result of a target list. They require extensive coordination between maneuver, engineer and fire support coordinators. They are scheduled or on-call targets to support barrier/obstacle plans. They consist of long or short SD mines. Safety zones are computed before firing. TARGET OF OPPORTUNITY MINEFIELDS 8-22. These minefields are initiated as a result of a call for fire and support the maneuver commander with an immediate minefield. They consist of only short SD mines. The standard minefield module is 400 meters by 400 meters. The minefield may consist of a combination of 24 RAAMS and 6 ADAM projectiles (these numbers may change depending on the threat, commander's guidance, and the unit TSOP). The safety zone is based on a single aimpoint and is computed immediately after the minefield is fired.


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MINEFIELDS USED WITH OTHER MUNITIONS 8-23. Minefields established in conjunction with an attack using other munitions are initiated as a result of a target list or a call for fire. They support operations by harassing enemy targets within constraints set by the supported commander. These minefields are sized according to the method of attack and use RAAMS, ADAM, or a combination fired in the last volley. They consist of only short SD mines. The safety zone is computed immediately after firing.


8-24. Selection of minefield density is based on the purpose of the minefield. Table 8-2 shows density selections available for RAAMS and ADAM Table 8-2. Minefield Density for RAAMS and ADAM Purpose of Minefield Harassment Minefield covered by heavy direct fire Minefield covered by light direct fire Density Designator for Minefield Planning Sheet RAAMS Low Medium High ADAM Used with RAAMS or other antitank Low 0.0005 obstacles or for harassment Minefield covered by heavy direct Medium 0.001 fire Minefield covered by light direct fire High 0.002 Note: A density of 0.001 gives an average on one mine in every 1,000 square meters of minefield or one mine in every 32 X 32-meter square. Density of Mines Per Square Meter 0.001 0.002 0.004

8-25. The selection of the SD time is based on several considerations: Scheme of maneuver (current as well as future operations). Type of minefield (planned or standard target of opportunity). Minefield location. Tactical situation (offense or defense). Nature of enemy forces. Availability of projectiles. Time frame involved. Command authority to emplace SCATMINEs.


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MOVING TARGET AIMPOINT 8-26. The aimpoint for a moving target is placed directly in front of the enemy axis of advance 1,000 meters in front of the enemy target for every 10 kilometers per hour of speed as shown in Figure 8-5. This allows enough time for mine delivery and arming before an enemy encounter.



1,000 m x kmph = X 10 X Figure 8-5. Aimpoint Location for Moving Targets STATIONARY TARGET AIMPOINT 8-27. The aimpoint for a stationary target is placed directly over the target center as shown in Figure 8-6. Aimpoints are located to an accuracy of 100 meters (adjust fire) and 10 meters (FFE). If adjustment is necessary, it will be conducted with shell M483A1, DPICM in the SR mode.

Figure 8-6. Aimpoint Location for Stationary Targets


8-28. Generally, the call for fire is transmitted and processed the same as other requests for target of opportunity fire missions. Unless the observer requests ammunitions for adjustment, he will receive DPCIM, SR in adjustment and the standard minefield in effect (24 RAAMS and 6 ADAM).


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8-29. Targets of opportunity are either FFE or adjust fire missions. FFE missions will not be requested if the center of the minefield is less than 700 meters from the nearest friendly position. Adjust fire missions will not be requested if the center of the minefield is less than 425 meters from the nearest friendly position. 8-30. Adjustment procedures for FA delivered SCATMINEs are identical to those described for ICM.





8-31. The FSO provides technical expertise to engineer concerning the employment of FA-delivered SCATMINEs. Information with which the FSO should be familiar is as follows: Number, size, density and type of minefields that supporting artillery can provide. Firing unit locations, trajectory, and number of aimpoints for each minefield. Size or location of the safety zone associated with each minefield as well as other troop safety considerations. Planning ranges for firing FA SCATMINEs. Information necessary for completing scatterable minefield reports (see FM 3-09.40). SD times for FA SCATMINEs. PLANNING FACTORS 8-32. Although minefields can be emplaced against targets of opportunity, FA SCATMINE is normally most effective if employment is preplanned. Preplanned use allows the FSO to consider the unique capabilities and limitations of FA SCATMINE, coordinate planning and employment


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requirements, and recommend optimum employment options. When employing FA SCATMINE as an obstacle, the FSO should always consider the basic principles of minefield emplacement: Use SCATMINE to augment or reinforce natural or existing obstacles in accordance with the commander's guidance for fires. Keep the minefield under observation and cover with direct or indirect fires. Plan to cover gaps and lanes in the minefield, to re-emplace the minefield, and to defeat breaching efforts. 8-33. The FSO should develop planning factors that show the number of minefields supporting artillery can provide. Planning modules which are standardized in the TSOP with respect to size, density, and the number of munitions per aimpoint are a good technique. Typical preplanned minefield modules are shown in Table 8-3. Table 8-3. FA Delivered SCATMINE Planning Low-Angle Fire Number of Rounds by Density High Medium Low 24 RAAMS 12 RAAMS 6 RAAMS 12 ADAM 6 ADAM 3 ADAM High-Angle Fire Number of Rounds by Density High Medium Low 96 RAAMS, 12 ADAM 48 RAAMS, 12 ADAM 24 RAAMS, 3 ADAM

Size 200 X 200 meters 400 X 400 meters

Size 400 X 400 meters

8-34. The FSO should be prepared to advise the maneuver commander and his staff on employment times for firing in SCATMINEs and the risks associated with minefield emplacement. The unit shooting the minefield normally is unavailable for other fire missions. Also, the firing unit may have to disperse upon completion of a minefield mission. 8-35. Minefield safety zones must be established on completion of all SCATMINE missions. Depending on range and employment techniques, these safety zones may impose considerable risks on friendly operations. Note: For further information on FA delivered SCATMINEs refer to FM 3-09.4 and FM 3-09.40.


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8-36. Battlefield illumination gives friendly forces enough light to aid them in ground operations at night. It facilitates operations for both the observer and the maneuver unit. The use of illuminating projectiles must be coordinated with other operations to avoid compromise of or interference with other friendly units. 8-37. The illumination shell is a base-ejection projectile containing a flare attached to a parachute. It is used to: Illuminate areas of suspected enemy activity. Provide illumination for night adjustment. Harass enemy positions. Furnish direction to friendly troops for attacks or patrol activities. Mark targets (by air and ground bursts) for attack by CAS. "Wash out" enemy passive night-sight systems when used at ground level.

8-38. The amount of illumination required for a particular mission depends on the OT distance; the conditions of visibility; and the size, width, and depth of the area to be illuminated. By selecting the proper illuminating pattern and controlling the rate of fire, the observer can light an area effectively with a minimum expenditure of ammunition. See Table 8-4 for the rates of fire for continuous illumination and other information on the employment of illuminating shells. Table 8-4. Employment Factors for Illuminating Shells
Howitzer or Mortar 105 mm 105 mm 155 mm 155 mm 155 mm 120mm 120mm 81 mm 81 mm 81 mm 60mm 60 mm Initial HOB (meters) 750 750 750 600 700 500 500 600 Distance Burning Rate of Continuous Between Bursts Time Illumination (rounds (Spread) (seconds) per minute) (meters 800 60 2 800 70 to 75 2 800 60 2 1000 120 1 500 60 2 1500 50 2 1500 50 2 500 60 2 500 500 Rate of Descent (meters per second) 10 10 10 5 10 8-10 8-10 6

Projectile M314A2 M314A3 M118 M485A2 M335 XM 930 XM 983 (IR) M301A3 M853A1 M816 (IR) M721 XM767 (IR)

Note: The 60mm illuminating round M83A3 has a maximum range of 950 meters and a minimum range of 725 meters. One round will provide moderate light over a square kilometer for about 25 seconds. The small size and limited burn time of the 60-mm illuminating round makes it more suitable for point illumination than for area illumination. The 60-mm illuminating round normally can be used without degrading night vision devices of adjacent units. The 120-mm illuminating round has not been fielded.


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ILLUMINATION PATTERNS One-Gun Illumination 8-39. The one-gun illumination pattern is used when effective illumination can be accomplished by firing one round at a time. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION as the type of adjustment and type of projectile. Two-Gun Illumination 8-40. The two-gun illumination pattern is used when an area requires more illumination than can be furnished by one-gun illumination. In this pattern two rounds are caused to burst simultaneously in the target area. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION TWO GUNS. Two-Gun Illumination Range Spread 8-41. This pattern (Figure 8-7) is used when the area to be illuminated has greater depth than width as seen along the OT line. Spread illumination causes fewer shadows than illumination that is concentrated in one place. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION RANGE SPREAD. The FDC centers the spread over the point indicated by the observer. See Table 8-4 for distances between bursts.



Figure 8-7. Illumination Range Spread Two-Gun Illumination Lateral Spread 8-42. This pattern (Figure 8-8) is used when the area to be illuminated has greater width than depth. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION LATERAL SPREAD. The FDC centers the spread over the point indicated by the observer and orients the spread perpendicular to the OT line. Distances between bursts are the same as those for range spread (Table 8-4).





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Figure 8-8. Illumination Lateral Spread Four-Gun Illumination Pattern 8-43. This pattern is used to illuminate a large area (Figure 8-9). Four rounds are caused to burst simultaneously in a diamond pattern. This pattern illuminates an area with practically no shadows or dark spots. To obtain this pattern, the observer calls for ILLUMINATION RANGE AND LATERAL SPREAD. The pattern of the bursts is the combination of a range spread and a lateral spread.






Figure 8-9. Illumination Range and Lateral Spread


8-44. In the call for fire, ILLUMINATION is given as the type projectile and the appropriate range or lateral spread is given as the distribution. Procedures for adjusting illumination are discussed





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RANGE AND DEVIATION 8-45. Range and deviation are adjusted by use of standard observed fire procedures. The adjustment of the illumination to within 200 meters of the adjusting point is considered adequate because of the size of the area illuminated by the flare. Range and deviation correction of less than 200 meters should not be made. POSITION OF FLARE 8-46. The best position of a flare in relation to the area to be illuminated depends on terrain and wind. Generally, place the flare to one flank of the area and at about the same range. In a strong wind, the point of burst must be some distance upwind from the area to be illuminated, because the flare will drift. If the area is on a forward slope, the flare should be on a flank, at a slightly shorter range. For illuminating a very prominent object, visibility is better if the flare is placed beyond the object so the object is silhouetted. HEIGHT OF BURST 8-47. The proper HOB allows the flare to strike the ground just as it stops burning. The HOB corrections are made in multiples of 50 meters. Variations in time of burning between individual flares make any finer adjustment of the HOB impractical. 8-48. Note: When using a night observation device, the observer should ensure that the flare burns out appreciably (100 mils) above his adjusting point so as not to cause the device to wash out. 8-49. When burnout occurs during descent, the HOB correction is estimated from the height of the flare when it burned out. When visibility permits, the spotting (height of the burnout above the ground) may be measured with binoculars. The HOB spotting (in mils) is multiplied by the OT factor to determine the height of burnout (in meters). The height is expressed to the nearest 50 meters and is sent as a DOWN correction.

The flare burns out 20 mils above the ground. The OT factor if 3; 20 mils X 3 = 60 meters 50 meters. The correction is DOWN 50. 8-50. When the flare continues to burn after it strikes the ground, a correction is required to raise the HOB. The length of time, in seconds, that the flare burns on the ground is counted and multiplied by the rate of descent (see Table 8-4). The product is expressed to the nearest 50 meters and sent as an UP correction.

The flare burned 23 seconds on the ground; 23 X 5 (rate of descent for M485A2) = 115 meters. The correction is UP 100 (expressed to the nearest 50 meters).


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8-51. When the observer has located a target suitable for HE or other fire, he initiates a call for fire in the normal manner. If no better means of designating the location of the target is possible, the burst center of the illumination can be used as a reference point. 8-52. If the observer decides to adjust the illuminating fire and the HE fire concurrently, he prefaces corrections pertaining to illumination with the word ILLUMINATION and those pertaining to HE with the letters HE; for example, ILLUMINATION, ADD 200; HE, RIGHT 60, ADD 200. 8-53. Once the observer has adjusted the illuminating shell to the desired location, he should control the rate of fire and number of pieces firing. This reduces ammunition expended to the minimum necessary for the required observation. COORDINATED ILLUMINATION 8-54. The observer allows the FDC to control the firing of both illumination and HE by announcing COORDINATED ILLUMINATION in his call for fire. When the illumination has been adjusted to yield the best light on the target, the observer announces ILLUMINATION MARK to tell the FDC the exact time the target is best illuminated. The FDC times the interval between the actual firing of the illuminating round and the receipt of the observers ILLUMINATION MARK. By comparing this time interval with the time of flight of the HE, the FDC can control the firing of the HE rounds, so that they arrive at the target during maximum illumination. 8-55. As an alternate method, the observer may request COORDINATED ILLUMINATION and announce the method of control as BY ROUND, AT MY COMMAND. This indicates that both HE and illumination will be fired only at the observers command. As soon as the FDC reports that the illuminating and HE fires are ready, the observer commands the firing of illumination. Then he gives the command to fire the HE so that it impacts during the period of maximum illumination of the target. The observer can request the HE time of flight to better coordinate the firing of each round. The observer may want to change the method of control to let the FDC fire illumination when ready while he controls the firing of the HE shell. If so, he announces ILLUMINATION, CANCEL AT MY COMMAND. An experienced observer may be able to adjust more than one HE round under each round of illumination. CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION 8-56. Because of the amount of ammunition expended, the least desirable method is for the observer to request CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION. In this technique, the FDC fires illumination continuously (intervals between firing depend on the type of projectile) while the observer adjusts HE.


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The observer hears a number of heavy vehicles at an azimuth estimated at 5800. He cannot detect any lights and the entire area is in complete darkness. Judging from the sounds and a study of his map, the observer estimates the source of the noises as grid NB616376. This location is about 2,000 meters from his observation post. He sends the following CFF to a 155-mm battery using M485A2. P53 THIS IS P67, ADJUST FIRE, OVER. GRID NB616376, OVER VEHICLE NOISES, SUSPECTED TANKS, ILLUMINATION, OVER. The first illuminating round bursts about 100 mils left of the suspected area and burns out 40 mils too high (measured with binoculars) (Figure 8-10). Using an OT factor of 2, the observer transmits the following: DIRECTION 5800, RIGHT 200, DOWN 100, OVER. (Deviation = 100 mils X 2 = 200 meters. HOB = 40 mils X 2 = 80 meters 100 meters.) The second round bursts short near the OT line but is too low. It burns 6 seconds on the ground. The observer requests ADD 400, UP 50, OVER ( 6 X 5 = 30 50). The third round bursts at the appropriate height over the suspected area. The observer identifies the target and waits until the target is best illuminated and then transmits ILLUMINATION MARK, OVER. The observer then proceeds into the coordinated illumination phase of the mission. His call is as follows: COORDINATED ILLUMINATION, OVER. ADJUST FIRE, GRID NB621382, OVER. 2 TANKS AND A PLATOON OF INFANTRY, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER. The observer may also have sent his target location by polar plot (ADJUST FIRE, POLAR, OVER) or by shifting from the center of the illumination (ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT, ILLUMINATION, OVER). Note: For any illuminating round that in the observer's judgment provides maximum or enough illumination for the mission, the observer may transmit ILLUMINATION MARK. A separate marking round is a waste of ammunition.


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Figure 8-10. Initial Illuminating Round


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8-57. When used correctly smoke can significantly reduce the enemy's effectiveness both in daytime and at night. Smoke, as a combat multiplier, may be used to reduce the ability of the enemy to deliver effective fires, to hamper hostile operations, and to deny the enemy information on friendly positions and maneuvers. Smoke reduces the effectiveness of laser beams and inhibits electro-optical systems. Smoke is used for obscuration, screening, deception, and signaling. Obscuring smoke-Obscuring smoke is placed on or near the enemy to suppress enemy observers and to minimize their vision (Figure 8-11). Screening smoke- A smoke curtain used on the battlefield between enemy observation points and friendly units to mask friendly forces, positions, and activities (Figure 8-12). Deception smoke- A smoke curtain used to deceive and confuse the enemy as to the nature of friendly operations. Signaling smoke-Smoke used to establish a reference for friendly forces.

Figure 8-11. Obscuring Smoke 8-58. Obscuring smoke is used as follows: To defeat flash ranging and restrict the enemy's counterfire program. To obscure enemy OPs and reduce their ability to provide accurate target location for enemy fire support assets. To obscure enemy direct fire weapons and lasers. To instill apprehension and increase enemy patrolling. To slow enemy vehicles to blackout speeds. To increase command and control problems by preventing effective visual signals and increasing radio traffic. To defeat night observation devices and reduce the capability of most infrared (IR) devices.


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Figure 8-12. Screening Smoke 8-59. Screening smoke is used as discussed below. Deceptive Screens. Smoke draws fire. Deceptive screens cause the enemy to disperse his fires and expend his ammunition. Flank Screens. Smoke may be used to screen exposed flanks. Areas Forward of the Objective. Smoke helps the maneuver units consolidate on the objective unhindered by enemy ground observers. River Crossing Operations. Screening the primary crossing site denies the enemy information. Deceptive screens deceive the enemy as to the exact location of the main crossing. Obstacle Breaching. The enemy is denied the ability to observe breaching unit activities.

MORTARS 8-60. Mortar smoke includes WP and red phosphorus (RP) rounds. Shell White Phosphorus 8-61. WP is available from 60 mm, 81 mm, and 120 mm mortars. Mortar WP produces rapid smoke buildup, but its effects are of limited duration. Shell Red Phosphorus 8-62. RP is a time fuzed round that contains RP smoke pellets. At a preset time along the round's trajectory, the fuze functions to expel and ignite the RP pellets at an approximate HOB of 175 meters. The burning pellets produce a cloud of dense smoke after hitting the ground. A three-round volley is required to develop the basic smoke screen. RP smoke is available from 81mm mortars only. ARTILLERY 8-63. Cannon artillery smoke includes WP, hexachloroethane (HC), and M825 improved smoke (felt wedge WP).


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Shell White Phosphorus 8-64. WP has four uses: incendiary, marking, obscuring, and screening. It can be used to destroy the enemy's equipment or to limit his vision. It builds quickly but has little sustainment. It is used against the following: Vehicles. POL and ammunition storage areas. Enemy observers. 8-65. WP can be used as an aid in target location and navigation. It is either PD or time fuzed. Shell Hexachloroethane 8-66. HC is time fuzed and functions at an HOB of approximately 50 meters. The HC smoke canisters are expelled from the projectile and disperse in the target area. It is slow building but more effective than WP as a screening agent, because it last longer and has less tendency to pillar. Shell M825 Improved Smoke 8-67. M825 is a canister filled with WP-impregnated felt wedges that are expelled from the base of the projectile. It is time fuzed and functions at a predetermined HOB that varies with the propellant and charge fired. The wedges build rapidly into an effective screen with lasting duration. 8-68. Table 8-5 provides smoke planning data for artillery and mortars. Table 8-5. Smoke Planning Data
Delivery System 155 mm 105 mm 120 mm Type Round WP HC M825 WP HC WP Time to Build Effective Smoke (minutes) 1/2 1 to 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 to 1 1/2 1/2 Average Burning Time (minutes) 1 to 1 1/2 4 5 to 10 1 to 1 1/2 3 2 1/2 Average Obscuration Length (meters) Per Round Wind Direction Cross Head or Tail 150 50 350 75 350 100 to 200 75 50 250 50 100 60

WP 1/2 1 100 40 RP 1/2 2 1/2 100 40 60 mm WP 1/2 1 75 40 Note: All rounds are fired as standard missions with parallel sheafs under favorable conditions.

81 mm

8-69. Factors to consider when employing smoke are weather, terrain, means available, ammunition, the enemy, and command and control. WEATHER 8-70. Atmospheric stability, wind direction, and wind speed are the major factors influencing the effectiveness of smoke.


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Atmospheric Stability 8-71. The weather conditions, the time of day, and wind speed all affect atmospheric stability. The effects of atmospheric stability can determine whether smoke is effective or not and if effective, how much ammunition is needed. (See Figure 8-13 for temperature gradient effects on smoke.) Time of Day and Weather Conditions Night--until 1 hour after sunrise. Wind speed is less than 9 kmph (5 knots). Cloud cover is less than 30%. Day--most often between 1 and 2 hours before and after sunrise. Wind speed is 9 kmph (5 knots) or more. Cloud cover is 30% or more. Day--beginning 2 hours after sunrise. Wind speed is less than 9 kmph (5 knots). Cloud cover is less than 30%. Smoke Conditions (Temperature Gradient) IDEAL (stable or inversion) Smoke Behavior (Wind Direction )

FAVORABLE (neutral)

MARGINAL (unstable or lapse)

Note: Ideal, favorable, and marginal are smoke conditions. Stable, inversion, neutral, and lapse are temperature gradients. Figure 8-13. Temperature Gradient Effects on Smoke 8-72. Temperature gradients are determined by comparing air temperatures at 0.5 meters and 4 meters. Stable, neutral, and unstable are the three general temperature gradients used. 8-73. Stable (or inversion) conditions exist when the air temperature increases with an increase in altitude. This condition greatly limits vertical air currents. Smoke produced during stable conditions lies low to the ground. 8-74. Neutral conditions exist when an increase in altitude is accompanied by little or no change in air temperature. Limited vertical air currents also cause neutral conditions when the wind speed is greater than 5 knots. 8-75. Unstable (or lapse) conditions exist when the air temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. Vertical air currents and turbulence characterize an unstable condition. 8-76. Under unstable conditions, HC and WP rounds are almost ineffective. The smoke does not spread but often climbs straight up and quickly dissipates. 8-77. Under moderately unstable conditions, base-ejecting smoke rounds are more effective than bursting WP rounds.


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8-78. The higher the humidity, the better the screening effects of WP, RP, and HC rounds. Table 8-7 compares the effectiveness of HC and WP to the relative humidity. Table 8-7. HC and WP Smoke Effectiveness Based on Relative Humidity Relative Humidity % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Wind Speed 8-79. The movement of smoke depends on the speed and direction of the wind. Wind speeds ranging from 4 to 14 knots are best for the production of smoke screens. Optimum speeds vary with the type of smoke used. (See Figure 8-14.) 8-80. To determine an approximate wind speed, the observer can use either the equivalent wind scale table (Table 8-8) or the grass-drop (expedient) method. With the grass-drop method, extend your arm downward and drop grass from your hand. Point your extended arm at the dropped grass on the ground. Divide the angle (in degrees) between your arm and your body by 4 to determine the approximate wind velocity in knots. HC Effectiveness (percentage) 100 146 152 159 173 189 211 240 325 572 WP Effectiveness (percentage) 100 353 372 391 411 434 465 510 588 785








Figure 8-14. Optimum Wind Speed Chart


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Table 8-8. Equivalent Wind Scale for Estimating Wind Speed Knots 1 Observation Smoke, vapor from breath, or dust raised by vehicles or personnel rises vertically. No leaf movement. 1 to 3 Direction of wind slightly shown by smoke, vapor from breath, or dust raised by vehicles or personnel. Slight intermittent movement of leaves. 4 to 6 Wind slightly felt on face. Leaves rustle. 7 to 10 Leaves and twigs in constant motion. 11 to 16 Wind raises dust from ground. Loose paper and small branches move. 17 to 21 Small trees with leaves sway. Coastal wavelets form on inland waters. 22 to 27 Large branches on trees in motion. Whistle heard in telephone or fence wires. 28 to 33 Whole trees in motion. Inconvenience felt walking against wind. Note: A knot equals 1.15 miles per hour Wind Direction 8-81. Wind direction influences the desired location of smoke in the target area. To determine wind direction in the target area, observe drifting of smoke or dust, bending of grass or trees, and ripples on water. See Figure 8-15 for classification of wind directions.




Figure 8-15. Classification of Wind Directions Maneuver-Target Line (MTL) 8-82. Determine the wind direction (right/left cross, tail, or head) in relation to the MTL (Figure 8-16). The MTL is an imaginary line drawn from the maneuver units most vulnerable point along its route of march to the enemy units observation point.




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Figure 8-16. Maneuver-Target Line TERRAIN 8-83. Winds follow the contours of terrain. The type of terrain over which smoke travels has a tremendous effect on how the smoke will cover a specific area. Flat, unbroken terrain creates effective smoke further downwind. Trees and small buildings tend to break up smoke, which may then reform to cover a larger area and create effective smoke at the source. Steep hills or mountains create volatile winds, usually resulting in gaps and uneven smoke. Slopes and valleys create thermal slope winds at different times. Heating effects during the day cause up-slope winds. Cooling effects at night cause down-slope winds. 8-84. If the ground in the target area is rain-soaked or snow covered, burning smoke rounds may not be effective. During very cold and dry conditions or over snow, up to four times the number of smoke rounds may be needed to create an effective screen 8-85. Shallow water can reduce the smoke produced by base-ejecting rounds by as much as 50 percent. Bursting WP rounds are not affected as much by terrain in the target area, however, deep snow and cold temperatures can reduce the smoke cloud by 25 percent. 8-86. Table 8-9 summarizes atmospheric and terrain effects on smoke operations.


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Table 8-9. Conditions for Smoke Employment Factor Wind Atmospheric Stability Category Humidity Precipitation Cloud Cover Terrain Marginal More than 10 knots Unstable or lapse Favorable 5 to 10 knots Neutral Ideal Less than 5 knots Stable or inversion

Low None None Even Sparse or none Vegetation (desert) Late morning through Time of Day late afternoon Legend: BMNT = before morning nautical twilight MEANS AVAILABLE

Moderate High Light rain Mist or fog Scattered Overcast, low ceiling Gently rolling Complex topography Sparse to medium Medium to heavily dense dense 1 to 2 hours before 1 hour before EENT to and after sunrise 1 hour before BMNT EENT = ending evening nautical twilight

8-87. Before requesting a smoke mission the observer and FSO must consider the means available. The company FSO recommends to the maneuver company team commander whether mortars or artillery should be used. The FSO provides tactical information that could affect the fire support available. AMMUNITION 8-88. The amount of smoke ammunition in basic loads is limited. Expenditures of smoke ammunition vary considerably with each specific mission. All observers must know the amount of ammunition available and how much smoke it will provide. Large requirements for smoke may require redistribution of the basic loads of several units or an issue of additional smoke ammunition for a specific operation. Combat experience has shown that smoke ammunition will not be available to support all smoke requests. ENEMY 8-89. When considering smoke employment, the enemy's electro-optical capability should be known and likely positions for his weapons systems and observers that may threaten friendly forces should be anticipated. On the basis of the commander's plan, observers and FSOs should determine when smoke employment would enhance friendly operations and hinder enemy operations. Some rules are as follows: Fire smoke on enemy artillery OPs and gunners to greatly reduce their effectiveness. Fire smoke and HE on the enemy when he deploys from column to line formation. The HE will keep him buttoned up. The smoke will cause maximum confusion. Fire smoke and HE on minefield to cause maximum confusion. (Avoid concealing enemy breaching operations.) Understand the effects of smoke on friendly positions. Smoke used without enough thought and planning reduces the users effectiveness more than that of the enemy.


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COMMAND AND CONTROL 8-90. The maneuver commander for whom the smoke is planned must approve its use. When he issues his plans and concept for an operation, he should state the guidelines on the amount of smoke that can be used and any restriction on its use. To ensure that smoke is responsive, the company team FSO, battalion task force FSO, and/or FSCOORD must request this smoke planning guidance if it has not been stated. The maneuver commander responsible for the operation must coordinate smoke operations with all units participating in or potentially affected by the operation. The operations officer is responsible for integrating smoke into the maneuver plan. The FSO and FSCOORD must keep the maneuver commander advised on the availability of munitions and delivery systems. Combat arms troops must be well trained in smoke operations, and comprehensive TSOPs must be available to and known by all. This shortens reaction time.


8-91. Smoke normally is employed by use of immediate smoke and quick smoke techniques. The objective of immediate smoke is to obscure the enemy's vision. Suppression of a small location can be achieved by use of immediate smoke. The objective of quick smoke is to obscure the enemy's vision or to screen maneuver elements. Obscuring the enemy is required, but the urgency of the situation does not dictate immediate smoke procedures. The two delivery techniques are outlined in Table 8-6 and are discussed in detail in paragraphs 8-91 through 8-106. 8-92. Note: The use of immediate and quick smoke techniques does not preclude the use of smoke on other occasions or for different objectives.


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Table 8-6. Smoke Delivery Techniques

Delivery Technique Immediate 1 smoke (point or suppression) Type of Target Point or small area 150 meters or less Number of Weapons 1 platoon2 (3 guns) Type of Ammunition First rounds WP or smoke; second rounds smoke 2 rounds (each) WP Sheaf BCS Obscuration Time (minutes) 1/2 to 5 Command and Control By TSOP and/or maneuver commander' s approval By TSOP and/or maneuver commander' s approval Approval of maneuver commander Approval of maneuver commander

2-4 mortars


1 to 3

Quick smoke (small area or suppression)

Small area 150 to 600 meters3

1,2, or 3 platoons2

Smoke or WP


4 to 15

WP Parallel or 4 to 15 2-mrtrs (60 mm open and or depending on section) special (as ammunition 4-mrtrs (81 mm required) availability or 120 mm platoon) 1 The immediate smoke technique can be used in an immediate suppression mission on a target of opportunity. By unit TSOP, a mix of WP and smoke normally will follow the initial suppression rounds when immediate smoke is requested. 2 Responsivness dictates that both immediate and quick smoke missions be fired by platoon. 3 For larger areas, consider multiple aiming points and the use of the quick smoke technique.

DESCRIPTION 8-93. Immediate smoke is used to obscure the enemy's vision. It can be planned, as other planned suppressive fires, or it can be used after immediate suppressive fire. When immediate smoke is planned, the immediate smoke target is sent as part of the target list. Weather conditions must be considered in planning immediate smoke, since a change in wind direction could make the planned smoke ineffective. If immediate suppressive fire is ineffective because of inaccurate target location, the observer has the option of giving a bold shift and requesting that the smoke be fired.

H18 THIS IS H24, IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION, GRID NK439892, OVER. (Suppression was ineffective and the observer wishes to use smoke instead.) IMMEDIATE SMOKE, DIRECTION 5300, LEFT 300, DROP 200, OVER EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS 8-94. Before firing immediate smoke, the observer must realize that suppression by smoke will not be as immediate as suppression by HE, since it


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takes time for the smoke to build up. Inaccurately placed smoke may still provide obscuration, whereas inaccurately placed HE may not give the desired results. Although immediate smoke will provide suppression (by obscuration) for a longer period of time than will HE, it is effective only against a pinpoint target or a small area target less than 150 meters in diameter. 8-95. The type of ammunition to be fired should be dictated by TSOP. A suggested mix is firing WP (for initial quick buildup) and firing smoke (for duration). Once the smoke has built up, all subsequent volleys should be shell smoke. 8-96. Immediate smoke normally is used on a planned suppressive target or when shifting after immediate suppression with HE has been found to be ineffective because of positioning. Therefore, corrections for deviation, range, and height of burst must be made. The minimum corrections are 50 meters for deviation and 100 meters for range. The height of burst of shell smoke (M116A1) can be adjusted as follows: Ground burst: UP 100. Canisters bouncing excessively UP 50. Canisters too spread out: DOWN 50. 8-97. When a mixture of smoke and WP is fired, it can be expected that the smoke will be effective 30 seconds after the rounds impact and that it will last about 4 to 5 minutes. If the smoke is required for a longer period, additional volleys of smoke should be requested. The adjusting point on which the smoke is placed is the target itself.

DESCRIPTION 8-98. Quick smoke is used to obscure the enemy's vision or to screen maneuver elements. The mission is begun by adjusting with HE, changing to smoke when within 100 meters of the adjusting point to verify smoke placement conditions, and then firing for effect with desired smoke. EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS 8-99. The quick smoke mission is used to obscure areas from 150 meters up to 600 meters wide. For areas larger than 600 meters, the observer can fire multiple quick smoke missions. Smoke may be effective up to 1,500 meters downwind. 8-100. When preparing a quick smoke mission, the observer first determines the nature of the target and the location of the adjusting point. Then he determines the size of the area and the wind direction in relation to the MTL (Figure 8-16). 8-101. The FDC must be informed of the target length and attitude, the wind direction, the length of time the smoke is required and the MTL. This information is sent to the FDC as early as possible (usually in the third transmission of the call for fire as part of the method of engagement but


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before FIRE FOR EFFECT). The observer also has the option of extending the time of effective smoke by requesting subsequent volleys. 8-102. If the smoke must be effective beginning at a specific time, the observer requests AT MY COMMAND and the time of flight. To determine when to order the smoke fired, the observer adds the time of flight to the average buildup time of 30 seconds for WP and 60 seconds for smoke. 8-103. If the smoke is ineffective, the observer must decide whether to shift the smoke or to fire HE. If the decision is to shift, there may be a break in the screen while new data are being computed. ADJUSTMENT Shell Smoke (HC) 8-104. High explosive will be used in adjustment until a 200-meter bracket is split. The observer will then request shell smoke. One smoke round is fired, and any necessary corrections are made. Then FFE is requested. Shell WP 8-105. This adjustment is conducted like an adjust fire (AF) mission with WP in effect. Improved Smoke (M825) 8-106. This is the predominant 155-mm smoke round. It is adjusted the same as shell smoke, however does not require HOB adjustment, only verification of smoke placement and conditions.

8-107. The examples below portray various types of smoke missions.

IMMEDIATE SMOKE AS A CONTINUATION OF AN IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION MISSION IMMEDIATE SMOKE, DIRECTION 5600, RIGHT 200, ADD 400, REPEAT OVER Note: Direction is given if it was not sent previously in an immediate suppression mission.



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QUICK SMOKE, MULTIPLE AIMING POINTS The observer fires a quick smoke mission, observes effects, and announces to the FDC SECOND AIMING POINT, RIGHT 500, DROP 200, REPEAT, OVER. Note: Had the observer simply wanted to move the quick smoke to another point, he would have made a normal subsequent correction and said RIGHT 500, DROP 200, REPEAT, OVER. SECOND AIMING POINT tells the FDC that the observer wants to fire on a second point at this time and that the battery should be prepared to replenish smoke on either point. By observing how long the smoke remains effective near either aiming point, the observer can determine a time interval at which to replenish his smoke should he want to do so. Interval = effective screen time - build-up time. He can pass this information to the FDC by sending CONTINUE SMOKE AT 3MINUTE INTERVALS FOR 15 MINUTES, OVER.



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8-108. Quick smoke procedures for mortars are the same as for the artillery with the exceptions discussed below. 8-109. If the smoke rounds do not impact on or near the selected point, the observer makes corrections as necessary. Deviation corrections for individual guns may be sent back to the FDC. 8-110. When using 81-mm smoke, the observer may select a second aiming point halfway between the target and the first aiming point. The second aiming point may be used to supplement firing on the first aiming point or to shift fires quickly after smoke is fired for effect and is ineffective. 8-111. Corrections for rate of fire or deviation can be made for individual mortars or for the entire section after FFE.


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8-112. Copperhead is a 155-mm cannon-launched guided projectile with a shaped charge warhead and a laser seeker. When fired at moving or stationary hard point targets, Copperhead homes in on laser energy reflected from the target during the final portion of its trajectory. A remote laser designator, such as the G/VLLD or the MULE provides laser energy.

8-113. The optimum use of Copperhead is against multiple targets in large target arrays outside the range of maneuver direct fire weapon systems (approximately 3,000 meters). Single targets or very few, widely separated targets may be engaged by Copperhead if they are judged to be HPTs such as an enemy commanders vehicle. Targets appearing within the range of maneuver direct fire weapon systems should be engaged by Copperhead only when the direct fire systems are unable to engage them or when the maneuver commander directs. ENGAGEMENT RANGES 8-114. Fire planning for observer positions should consider the engagement ranges of the G/VLLD. Moving targets can be engaged at 3 kilometers (and, depending on the skill of the observer, out to 4 kilometers (day sight only). Stationary targets can be engaged out to 5 kilometers. Targets should be planned so that engagement is within these maximum ranges. TARGET TYPES 8-115. Copperhead targets can be engaged as either planned targets or targets of opportunity. Planned targets are the preferred method because the firing battery requires less reaction time. Normally, the target of opportunity technique is used only during mobile operations and before planned targets are developed. Copperhead planned targets normally are not fired as part of a schedule. They fall into two categories: priority targets and on-call targets. Priority Targets 8-116. For priority Copperhead targets, data are precomputed and sent to the guns, and the Copperhead round is laid on the loading tray. The Copperhead round should impact about 30 seconds plus time of flight after receipt of the call for fire when AT MY COMMAND is not specified. No more than three planned priority Copperhead targets are assigned a six-gun battery. On-Call Targets 8-117. On-call targets are processed the same as priority targets, except the guns are not laid on firing data until after receipt of the mission.


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MINIMUM VISIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 8-118. Laser designation requires an uninterrupted line of sight between the designator and the target. Anything that obstructs or weakens the laser signal will cause a significant decrease in the performance of the Copperhead round. On the battlefield, the terrain, vegetation, fog, smoke, dust, cloud height, and general battlefield turbulence all obstruct visibility of the target. The minimum visibility for effective Copperhead use is 5,000 meters. Soon after occupying a position, the observer should sight through the G/VLLD, range the farthest visible terrain feature, and determine its distance. If the distance measured by the G/VLLD is 5,000 meters or greater, the minimum visibility requirement for Copperhead is met, Minimum visibility should be rechecked periodically. LASER ENGAGEMENT PROBABILITIES 8-119. On the downward leg of the Copperhead flight, the round acquires the laser energy reflected from the target and begins maneuvering toward it. However, the ground surface area in which the round can successfully engage is limited. The optimum limit of engagement of the Copperhead round is called a footprint. Footprints are roughly oval in shape and form around the target location sent in by the observer, Although a round can maneuver to the outside limits of the footprint, the greatest chance of hitting the target is when it is at or near the target location sent to the FDC. The greater the target location error, the lower the probability the round will hit the target. The outer boundary of the footprint represents a 50 percent probability of hit; the location sent to the FDC has a hit probability substantially higher than 50 percent. The target cloud height, the GT range, visibility, and the angle of fire (high or low) affect the size and shape of the footprint. FOOTPRINT TEMPLATE 8-120. Trajectory templates (to 1:50,000 scale) have been developed to accurately portray the engagement area of each adjusting point. The template packet consists of two cover cards and 12 templates, labeled A through L. 8-121. The cover cards give instructions for using the templates and a cloud height table. Each template depicts the shape of the footprint. 8-122. The template cards are clear plastic graphic devices, (1:50,000 scale). Each card has the shape of the footprint (to scale based on the GT range and the cloud height) partially cut into the card. In addition each card is marked with the footprint letter code (A through L), a centerline, a target location pinhole, and an Angle T scale (Figure 8-17).


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Figure 8-17. Copperhead Template Card SELECTING THE FOOTPRINT 8-123. The observer or FSO selects the template according to the visibility of the target area, the weapon system, the cloud height ceiling, and the GT range. The instructions are printed on the cover cards. The instructions for footprint selection are shown in Table 8-9. Table 8-9. Footprint Selection Weapons All M198, M109A5/A6 Cloud Height 150 meters or less More than 150 meters GT Range All ranges Less than 8.8 kilometers 8.8 to 11 kilometers More than 11 kilometers Less than 8.8 kilometers All cloud heights 8.8 to 11 kilometers More than 11 kilometers Visibility 0.3 (2,000 to 3,999 meters) All All cloud heights Less than 7.7 kilometers More than 7.7 kilometers All ranges H I L Template A B C D E F G Visibility 1.0 (More than 7,500 meters)

Visibility 0.5 (4,00 to 7,499 meters) M198, M109A5/A6

High-Angle Ballistic All All cloud heights


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ORIENTING THE TEMPLATE CARD 8-124. To orient the template card, center the pinhole in the footprint over the planned target location. Align the centerline with the OT line. Using the OT line as an index, set off the angle T by using the angle T scale. The centerline should now be aligned with the GT line. For the Copperhead seeker to get the best view of the laser spot, angle T should not exceed 800 mils left or right. If the observer does not have the battery location to determine angle Ts, he should contact the battery FDC and request one of the following: The battery location. The angle T and guns left or right of his G/VLLD location for a target in the center of his area of responsibility. 8-125. The angle T and gun orientation to be considered when actually engaging a given target and the actual footprint to be used will be reported to the observer by the FDC. As already mentioned, the observer may reorient and redraw the footprint or he may visually interpolate the change. DRAWING THE FOOTPRINT 8-126. After the template card has been properly oriented insert a pencil or other marking device in the openings on the card and draw the footprint. Remove the card and connect the broken lines to complete the drawing. Visualizing the Footprint 8-127. The observer uses his G/VLLD to help him visualize the footprints on the ground. Once he has drawn the footprints on his map, he selects several points around the edges of the footprints and determines the direction and distance to each of them. He then locates these points on the ground by using the G/VLLD. By visually connecting the points, he can determine the shape of the footprints on the ground. The ability of the observer to visualize Copperhead footprints on existing terrain is essential to effective Copperhead target planning. Use of the Copperhead footprint template and the ability to construct a visibility diagram for the areas of likely enemy activity greatly help the observer in fire planning.

8-128. As explained in Chapter 7, Section IV, targets of opportunity are expected to be more prevalent in highly mobile situations. To request Copperhead against a moving target, the observer must determine an intercept point and a trigger point. The determination of intercept and trigger points is detailed in Chapter 7. 8-129. Ideally, the battery will be prepared to fire before the target reaches the trigger point. However, if the target passes the trigger point before the battery reports READY but will still be within the footprint when the round arrives, the observer should fire the round immediately. If the target passes through the footprint before the battery reports READY or will pass through by the time the round arrives, the observer should make a bold shift to a new target location with the same trigger point and intercept distances. A grid for the new location should be sent to the FDC immediately.


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8-130. Visualization of the Copperhead footprint is as important to the successful engagement of targets of opportunity as it is for planned targets. However, good footprint visualization for targets of opportunity is more difficult. Since there will probably not be enough time to draw a footprint on the map, neither the battalion nor the battery FDC will tell the observer which footprint template card to use. Instead, the observer estimates the dimensions of the footprint on the basis of the size of the planned target footprints in the general vicinity of the target of opportunity. If planned target footprints have not been established, the observer estimates footprint dimensions. He selects an average footprint from the footprint template on the basis of the GT range or time of flight and visualizes it on the ground.

8-131. Basically, planned moving targets are engaged the same as targets of opportunity. However, a moving target may change its direction of travel and not travel over the initially planned intercept point. In this case, the observer should select his trigger point so that the target will be as near as possible to the planned target location when the Copperhead round arrives (Figures 8-18 and 8-19).





Figure 8-18. Trigger Point for Planned Target


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Figure 8-19. Trigger Points for Target Not in Center of Footprint 8-132. The planned target location will be the intercept point. As soon as the observer sees the vehicles to be engaged, he must verify their direction and speed of travel and confirm his intercept and trigger point distances by using the procedures in Chapter 7. If the planned intercept point and trigger point do not allow enough time for total processing time plus time of flight, the observer must determine a new intercept point and a new trigger point and engage the target as a target of opportunity.


8-133. When a Copperhead target is acquired, the request for fire is sent over an established fire net to a battery FDC. Often, the same battery that fires other close support FA missions for an observer will also fire Copperhead against targets of opportunity and planned targets. However, the DS FA battalion commander may designate specific units to fire all Copperhead missions. PLANNED TARGETS 8-134. Once the observer identifies the target (or target array), he estimates its speed and direction to determine which planned target location should be used for engagement. A call for fire can then be sent. The following are elements in the call for fire (voice or digital) for planned targets: Observer identification: THIS IS A71. Warning order: FIRE TARGET AY4781, OVER. Target description: 4 TANKS. Method of engagement: 4 ROUNDS. Method of control: AT MY COMMAND, OVER. 8-135. Unless otherwise specified on the Copperhead target list, the battery FDC will plan to fire two Copperhead rounds on each planned target. Two rounds are not automatically fired unless requested. If more than two rounds


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are required at the time of engagement, they must be requested in the call for fire. Table 8-10 gives criteria for determining the number of Copperhead rounds per target to be fired. Table 8-10. Rounds Per Target Targets 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of Rounds 2 2 3 4 5 6

8-136. When the observer requests AT MY COMMAND, the battery fires the Copperhead rounds at intervals of 30 seconds after the observer gives the command to fire. When BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND is requested, the observer controls the firing of each Copperhead round. 8-137. For immediate responsiveness in engaging priority targets, the observer can streamline his call for fire. He can omit the target description, method of engagement, and method of control. For example, THIS IS A71, FIRE TARGET AY4781, OVER. The first round will impact at time of flight plus radio transmission time. Subsequent rounds will arrive at intervals of at least 20 seconds thereafter. 8-138. Note: The streamlined planned target call for fire should be used only when more rounds than planned are required. TARGETS OF OPPORTUNITY 8-139. When planned target locations are not available, the observer engages the target as a target of opportunity. Calls for fire for Copperhead targets of opportunity follow the same format as the standard call for fire: Observer identification: Y5A57 THIS IS Y5A71. Warning order: FIRE FOR EFFECT, LASER POLAR, OVER. Location of target: DIRECTION 1800, RANGE 3450, VERTICAL ANGLE +5, OVER. Target description: 2 TANKS. Method of engagement: COPPERHEAD, 2 ROUNDS. Method of control: BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND, OVER. 8-140. Note: Normally, the observer uses AT MY COMMAND or BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND for targets of opportunity. MESSAGE TO OBSERVER 8-141. After the call for fire is received by the FDC and the mission processing is started, an MTO is sent as soon as possible. This applies to all Copperhead targets except priority targets. The MTOs are sent before firing. The MTO for the Copperhead mission includes the following elements:


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Unit firing: Q. Laser PRF code: CODE 241. Time of flight: TIME OF FLIGHT 25. LASER PRF CODE 8-142. The G/VLLD can emit laser pulses of different frequencies. The Copperhead projectile can sense these frequencies. These frequencies are set as a three-digit PRF code on the G/VLLD and on the Copperhead projectile. For a Copperhead mission to be successful, the observer must ensure that the PRF code on the Copperhead round matches the PRF code on the G/VLLD. The FDC has a list of all observer PRF codes matched with their call signs. On the basis of the observers identification in the call for fire, the FDC selects the proper PRF code and sends it to the guns, where it is placed on the Copperhead round. The FDC verifies this code in the MTO. If the FDC sends the observer a different code in the MTO than the one set on the G/VLLD, the observer immediately changes the code on the G/VLLD so that it matches the code sent by the FDC. Normally, however, an observer does not change his PRF code unless directed. Battalion/TF FSOs must ensure that their G/VLLD operators have the correct codes. One PRF code is indicated as primary for each operator to use for all his Copperhead missions. This code setting is changed only when absolutely necessary. COPPERHEAD ENGAGEMENT COMMANDS Shot 8-143. As soon as the first Copperhead round is fired in a mission, the observer receives SHOT from the FDC. If he specified AT MY COMMAND or omitted the method of control in the call for fire (battery fires when ready), he receives SHOT only once. The subsequent rounds are fired at intervals of at least 20 seconds without notification. (Consult unit TSOP for the exact interval.) If the observer specified BY ROUND AT MY COMMAND, he receives SHOT for each round fired. If an observer fails to acknowledge SHOT for a given round, it will not be retransmitted because the observers timing will be affected. Designate 8-144. The next and most critical engagement command is DESIGNATE. When the observer receives the command DESIGNATE from the FDC, he begins designating the target with the G/VLLD. This command is sent 20 seconds before impact. If the time of flight is 20 seconds or less, SHOT and DESIGNATE are sent in the same transmission. DESIGNATE is used when communicating digitally. If operating in the voice mode, the command is LASER ON. 8-145. It is mandatory that the observer designate the target during the last 13 seconds of time of flight. Once the observer has received SHOT, he should begin his own countdown using the time of flight received in the message to observer. If for some reason he has not received a DESIGNATE message, he should begin designation when 13 seconds are left in his countdown.


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8-146. If the battery is firing the Copperhead rounds automatically at 20second intervals, the command DESIGNATE is sent only for the first round fired. The observer continues designating for the subsequent rounds while moving the laser spot to the next target. 8-147. If SHOT is given for each round or if the firing interval is greater than 20 seconds, DESIGNATE is given for each round. Designate Now 8-148. If an observer fails to acknowledge the DESIGNATE command, the command DESIGNATE NOW is sent by the FDC until the observer acknowledges or the time of flight of the round elapses. If the observer fails to acknowledge the DESIGNATE NOW command, SHOT and DESIGNATE are sent on the next round fired, regardless of the method of control. Rounds Complete 8-149. The FDC reports ROUNDS COMPLETE after the engagement commands for the last round are transmitted and acknowledged. If the observer wants to terminate firing before the last round is fired, the subsequent commands will vary based who is controlling the subsequent fires and the result desired by the observer. 8-150. If the observer is controlling the firing of subsequent rounds, he simply sends END OF MISSION to terminate the mission. However, if the FDC is controlling the firing of subsequent rounds, the observer sends CHECK FIRING, CANCEL CHECK FIRING, END OF MISSION to immediately halt any additional rounds from being fired. This is the best method to use, especially in emergencies, to prevent fratricide, or if a shift to a new Copperhead mission is required. However, this may leave a howitzer with an unfired, but loaded, Copperhead round in the tube. If this occurs the observer may need to quickly find another Copperhead target to allow this round to be fired so it is not wasted. 8-151. To end a mission under FDC control while allowing the firing of a loaded projectile the observer can command CEASE LOADING, END OF MISSION. However, if the observer uses the CEASE LOADING command he should be prepared to designate an available target within the targeted area (and the Copperhead footprint) in case an additional round is fired. Requests for Additional Rounds 8-152. If additional rounds are required to engage the target array, the observer may request them by sending (so many) ROUNDS, REPEAT, OVER after the last Copperhead round is freed. The criteria in Table 8-10 will be followed in requesting additional rounds.


Chapter 9

Observer Special Missions

9-01. Aviation battalion FSOs and FSNCOs must understand that the pilots are the "eyes" and provide the observation capability for indirect fire for the battalion. This is because the FA tables of organization and equipment for the aviation battalion do not provide for company FISTs. Therefore, the FSEs responsibilities for employment of indirect fire include; training pilots in observed fire procedures, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) fire planning, coordination of fires for aircraft on-station, reporting battlefield information, and fire for the aviation assembly area as a force protection measure. 9-02. In order to properly train pilots in observed fire, the FSO must understand the capabilities and limitations of the aircraft laser systems. Aircraft lasers provide accurate target data through embedded GPS and give the pilot the capability to fire for effect without adjustment. See Chapter 10 for further information on Army aircraft laser capabilities. PILOT TRAINING 9-03. The FSO and FSNCO should be aware of the training status of the pilots and devise a training plan to ensure all pilots are proficient in OF procedures. The focus is on basic calls for fire using the standard methods of target location incorporating the capabilities of the aircraft. The FSO should also stress adjustment of fire and terminal control of CAS, since Army aviation will operate, in many instances, beyond the range of artillery assets. SEAD PLANNING 9-04. In many situations Army aircraft must cross the forward line of own troops (FLOT) to conduct their mission. The commander may want to use SEAD fires (lethal and/or non-lethal) to protect their ingress and egress. In such cases, the FSO should plan fires to facilitate the mission. To properly plan these fires the FSO must understand the threat situation and capabilities along the flight route. Also, he must know the friendly scheme of maneuver in order to properly time the fires. 9-05. The principle behind SEAD is to suppress the enemy ADA systems starting fires just prior to friendly aircraft entering the enemy range fan, and maintaining it until the aircraft are beyond that fan. The FSO must fully integrate into the aviation mission planning to fully synchronize fires for the aviation battalion. 9-06. Fire Planning Considerations for SEAD include:


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Obtain an enemy situation template and friendly graphics and place on the fire support situation map. Obtain a time-distance heading card or air mission planning card from the aviation operations officer. This provides the flight speed and direction information for the flight route. To convert air speed in knots to kilometers per hour (kmph) or kilometers per minute (kmpm) refer to Table 9-1. Plot enemy range fans for the ADA systems along the route. Determine friendly delivery assets available for providing SEAD. Based on assets available, flight speed, route and enemy range fans, plan suppressive fires on enemy ADA systems. Table 9-1. Air Speed Conversion Chart KNOTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 KMPH 1.85 3.70 5.56 7.41 9.26 11.10 12.96 14.82 16.57 18.52 37.04 55.56 KMPM 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.22 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.62 0.93 KNOTS 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 KMPH 74.08 92.60 111.12 129.64 148.16 166.68 185.20 203.72 222.24 240.76 259.28 277.80 KMPM 1.24 1.54 1.85 2.16 2.47 2.78 3.09 3.40 3.70 4.02 4.32 4.63

9-07. If assets are available the FSO may want to plan deception SEAD. This may prevent revealing the true flight route to the enemy. 9-08. SEAD execution is either event (on-call) or time driven. In either case the FSO must ensure the pilots understand the SEAD plan and what triggers its execution. Use of code words understood by all participants to initiate SEAD is a method of triggering SEAD fires. 9-09. Once the helicopters reach their objective area off the flight route, they will carry out the assigned mission. Attack helicopters will use either battle positions (BP) or attack by fire positions to position the aircraft and orient their fires into EAs. Fires to augment helicopter fires can run the gamut from CAS, NGF, EW, FA, and mortars. Bringing various assets together into a designated EA creates a JAAT. The FSO coordinates and facilitates bringing the assets together at the proper point and time on the battlefield. Once the FSO has all assets on-station, he can push command and control of them down to the pilots with eyes on the targets in the EA. The unit TSOP should specify how the attack helicopter battalion intends to command and control fires, both direct and indirect, in an EA to include a JAAT.


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COMMAND, CONTROL, AND COORDINATION OF FIRES 9-10. FSOs must consider communications in planning for aviation operations and observer control options. Communications for the aviation battalion is challenging because of the great distances that aircraft operate over and the limited assets of the battalion FSE. Aviation communications runs the full spectrum from FM to ultra-high frequency (UHF). However, the FSE is limited to FM radios only. Because of this, the FSO and FSNCO must split locations in order to act as relays for sending and executing calls for fire. For example, the FSNCO may remain at the aviation TOC while the FSO goes forward with the forward TOC, the tactical command post (TAC CP). The TAC CP can be either a ground element or air element in a command and control aircraft. 9-11. Normally, the battalion FSE will monitor the following FM radio nets. They are the aviation unit command net, brigade fire support coordination net, and the FA battalion fire direction net. Aviation units also have the capability of monitoring nets such as UHF, very-high frequency (VHF), and high frequency (HF). Aviation units will conduct command and control of the battalion on these nets at times. Therefore, the FSO must understand the battalion maneuver communications plan in order to properly synchronize fires for the fight. The FSO can monitor these other nets by locating his element in the TOC close to the operations cell in order to ensure he knows the situation. At the ground TAC CP he will collocate with the operations officer to monitor the situation on other nets. When in the air TAC CP, the FSO should set his intercom box in the aircraft to monitor the appropriate net while in flight. PILOT OBSERVER CONTROL OPTIONS 9-12. The battalion FSO has the same observer control options as a ground maneuver unit FSO. They are centralized, decentralized, and predesignated, and the same advantages and disadvantages apply as with ground observers. However, due to pilot observer training, the centralized option is the one most often used. This option does two things for the FSO. First, it allows the FSO to provide positive control for clearance of fires for all fire missions. Second, the FSO can clean up any improperly formatted missions or prompt the pilot for any required information left out of the call for fire. In the case of well-trained pilots, the FSO can place a pilot on a predesignated net to call for fire or allow them to call on any net by providing the radio frequencies to the asset. REPORTING BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION 9-13. A critical duty of the battalion FSO is reporting. The aviation battalion has excellent observation capability and can provide real time information needed to paint a picture of the battlefield. The aviation battalion FSO provides a link between what the pilots see and report and the FA battalion. Relaying pilot reports to the FSCOORD enables him, as a part of the brigade command team, to better understand how a fight is progressing. This in turn allows the brigade to make informed decisions in bringing combat power to bear.


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CLEARANCE OF FIRES 9-14. If the aviation battalion is operating in another units AO, it must clear fires through the ground unit responsible for the AO. Preclearance should be obtained whenever possible, as early as possible. FIRES FOR THE AVIATION ASSEMBLY AREA 9-15. The aviation assembly area is essentially a static defensive position. The FSE must plan fires to augment the direct fire defensive plan as he would any other maneuver battalion. As with any other unit, the brigade or higher headquarters will allocate targets to the aviation battalion. On rare occasions this may include an FPF or priority target for the assembly area. The FSO should simply apply the same defensive fire considerations as with any other position. COMMUNICATIONS 9-16. In the back of the UH-60 C2 aircraft there are usually four stations connected to a total of four radios (one station can listen to any of the four radios or all of them). Each radio is programmed with multiple nets (15 presets, but you can only listen to one, or scan single channel). Two radios are UHF and the other two are VHF/SINCGARS. There are also several external antennas that can have man-portable radios connected to them for additional nets (with the inherent disadvantages of man-portables). There is also a crew member who controls the radios and can input any changes to the radio presets.


PREFLIGHT BRIEFING 9-17. If possible the pilot should be given a detailed preflight briefing by the battalion FSO and the supported unit S3 or S2. The preflight briefing should cover the following: The tactical situation to include enemy locations and antiaircraft weapons, friendly locations and capabilities, front lines, zones of action of support troops, and all coordinating measures. The location of all indirect fire units, known points, targets, areas to be searched, and ordnance available. Flight instructions, time on and off the mission, obstacles, checkpoints, and equipment needed. Communications details such as frequencies, call signs, check-in time and prearranged signals. Any unit TSOP items regarding registrations, immediate suppressions, special munitions, and SEAD. 9-18. After verbally briefing the pilot, one technique for the FSO to consider is to provide the pilot with a knee board-sized copy of key fire support information as illustrated in Figure 9-1.


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Call for Fire FM Net Primary:_________________________ Alternate: ______________________________ FSE Call Sign: __________________________ FSCM: ________________________________ ______________________________________ Friendly Artillery Positions DS Artillery: _________Bn Mortars__________ DS Artillery: _________Bn Mortars__________ DS Artillery: _________Bn Mortars__________ GS Artillery: _________NGF_______________ CAS Available Type: _________________________________ Time: _________________________________ Call Sign: ______________________________ Frequency: _____________________________ IP:_________________Abort Code: _________ Laser Code: ____________________________ Legend: FSE = Fire Support Element FSCM = Fire Support Coordinating Measure CAS = Close Air Support DS = Direct Support GS = General Support IP = Initial Point NGF = Naval Gunfire Figure 9-1. Fire Support Information for Pilots SPOTTING LINE 9-19. The spotting line is the line along which the observer is going to adjust. The FDC personnel must know the spotting line and its direction. There are two primary methods used for spotting: OT line-based on aircraft heading indicator Cardinal direction (see Figure 5-2). GT Line 9-20. Knowledge of the firing unit location allows the observer to determine the GT line (Figure 9-2). This allows the pilot to offset the aircraft away from the GT line to prevent fratricide.


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Figure 9-2. OT Line and GT Line OT Line 9-21. The aircraft heading indicator can be used to determine the OT direction. Since the aircraft is normally in a head-on posture when the observer is looking at the target, the heading indicator will provide an accurate direction in most cases. When this technique is used, direction should be sent to the nearest 100 (for example, DIRECTION 70 DEGREES MAGNETIC or GRID). If the OT direction changes more than 100 during a mission, the new direction should be sent to the FDC (assuming that the next corrections are sent in relation to the new OT line). This is the preferred method, as it minimizes observer reorientation and exposure time while maximizing aircraft maneuverability. Cardinal Direction 9-22. The observer may use cardinal direction (see Figure 5-2) for sending his orientation. This is the least accurate method and therefore the least preferred. TARGET LOCATION 9-23. Without aircraft laser devices, obtaining accurate target location is difficult since targets are normally acquired with the naked eye. Use of binoculars is limited because of distortion caused by the windscreen and vibration of the aircraft. Hand measurements or estimations should be used to measure angular deviation. Target location is indicated by grid or by shift from a known point.


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9-24. Aircraft lasers provide pilots with the ability to obtain fast and accurate target locations (Figure 9-3). Lasers on the AH-64 Apache and OH-58 Kiowa Warrior, for example, enable pilots to determine an eight digit grid to a target. These laser systems have embedded GPS which reduces target location error (TLE). As a result, the most common call for fire originating from Army aircraft is a FFE grid mission.

Radar Altitude

Azim u Rang th and La se e to T arge r t

GPS Location of Aircraft

The onboard computer in the Apache and Kiowa Warrior will calculate target coordinates and target elevation with a polar plot, using the azimuth of the line of sight, laser range to the target, and the look down angle of the aircraft. The accuracy of the computed grid is directly related to the accuracy of the aircraft position. With the advent of embedded GPS in aircraft navigation systems, the computation of target location is very accurate.

Figure 9-3. Aircraft Target Location ADJUST FIRE TECHNIQUES 9-25. When adjusting fire, the observer will usually use either the stationary hover or the pop-up technique. In stationary hover, the pilot positions the aircraft behind trees or other terrain features that conceal the aircraft and still permit observation of the target. 9-26. In pop-up, the pilot "unmasks" the aircraft two to three seconds before impact of the round. The observer observes the burst and the pilot then returns the aircraft to the hide position or moves to another hide position. The observer sends his corrections as the pilot is "remasking" the aircraft. Time of flight is automatically sent to the observer. This allows the pilot to position the aircraft properly if "splash" time is not sufficient. Set patterns of movement must be avoided to enhance survivability. SAMPLE CALLS FOR FIRE 9-27. An example of a call for fire in which the observer uses grid coordinates as the means of locating the target follows.

H18 THIS IS H90, FIRE FOR EFFECT OVER. GRID NK42147913, OVER. INFANTRY PLATOON AND 10 TRUCKS IN THE OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER. 9-28. An example of an observer's initial call for fire in which the target location is based on a shift from a known point follows.


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H18 THIS IS H90, ADJUST FIRE, SHIFT KNOWN POINT 1, OVER. RIGHT 400, ADD 800, OVER. INFANTRY PLATOON AND 10 TRUCKS IN THE OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER. 9-29. After the fire mission is sent, the FDC will determine firing data to the target. They will send an MTO (see Chapter 6) to the pilot to inform him how the firing unit will attack the target. The MTO will include the time of flight for the rounds since the call for fire originates from an aerial observer. When the firing unit fires the initial round the FDC sends the pilot SHOT to announce that the unit fired. Then, based on time of flight of the rounds the FDC will send SPLASH to inform the pilot when the rounds impact. The FDC must send SPLASH to aerial observers since the sound in the aircraft precludes the pilot from hearing the impact.

9-30. Fire delivered at quadrant elevation greater than the quadrant elevation for maximum range is called high-angle fire (Figure 9-4). Highangle fire is often required when the weapons fire out of deep defilade, from within built-up areas, or over high terrain features near friendly troops. High-angle fire may also be required when the target is located on a reverse slope, in jungles, or in deep gullies or ravines and cannot be reached by lowangle fire.




Figure 9-4.High-Angle Fire 9-31. Generally, those weapons with a maximum elevation substantially in excess of 800 mils can fire high angle. All Army FA weapons are capable of both low-angle and high-angle fires. Mortars are capable of only high-angle


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fire. Naval guns are not suitable for high-angle fire. Because of their high muzzle velocity, they are primarily used for low-angle fire. 9-32. The observer procedure for the adjustment of high-angle fire is the same as that for the adjustment of low-angle fire. The observer must realize that small deviation corrections during adjustment may be unnecessary and time consuming because of the increased dispersion during high-angle fire. Since the time of flight is long in both adjustment and fire for effect, the FDC should announce SHOT and SPLASH. Fuze time is not used in high-angle fire. If an airburst is desired, fuze VT gives excellent results.


9-33. An FPF is an immediately available preplanned barrier of direct and indirect fire designed to provide close protection to friendly positions and installations by impeding enemy movement into defensive areas. Basically, it is an entire battery or mortar platoon firing so that the rounds are arranged on line. The size of the FPF depends on the number and type of weapons firing. 9-34. The supported maneuver commander designates the location of the FPF. The FPF is planned to support a defense and may be any distance from the friendly position. Normally, the FPF is within 200 to 400 meters (danger close) and is integrated into the final protective line of the maneuver unit. The importance of accurate defensive fires and the danger close situation require that each weapon firing the FPF be adjusted into place if at all possible. PROCEDURES 9-35. The FPF can either be adjusted or nonadjusted. Considerations include the tactical implications of adjusting the FPF (loss of surprise) versus the accuracy that is acquired for firing close to friendly troops. Manual FDC 9-36. When an FPF with a manual FDC is established, the call for fire is similar to the normal call for fire in an adjust fire mission with the following exceptions: If an adjustment is to be done, the initial target location sent is not the location of the center of the FPF but a grid that is a safe distance (400 to 600 meters) from friendly troops. Because this grid is part of a final defensive plan, it should be sent by secure means or encoded. Instead of a target description, FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRES is announced. ATTITUDE and DANGER CLOSE (if applicable) are announced in method of engagement. 9-37. Fuze delay should be used in adjustment to minimize the safety hazard to friendly units.


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9-38. The firing unit will fire a battery (mortar-platoon) 1 volley centered on the initial grid sent by the observer. Assume that the rounds impact as shown in Figure 9-5. The observer begins his adjustment with the flank piece impacting closest to the FPF line (in this case, number 1). (Creeping fire adjustment procedures must be used in danger close situations.) Corrections of 50 meters or less are not fired. Note: FDCs using muzzle velocity variations (MVVs) and special corrections adjust only the one piece.

6 5



Figure 9-5. Adjustment of the FPF Begins with the Round Nearest the FPF Line 9-39. Once the first gun is adjusted, the observer sends NUMBER 2, REPEAT and adjusts each weapon in succession.

The weapons firing are a 105-mm battery. The observer is shown the FPF line by the maneuver commander and sends the following call for fire: H12 THIS IS H18, ADJUST FIRE, OVER. GRID NK123456 FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRE, ATTITUDE 1900, DANGER CLOSE, DELAY, OVER. The unit fires a battery 1 round. The sheaf is shown in Figure 9-6. The observer notes that number 6 is closest to the FPF line. He begins the adjustment with it: DIRECTION 0810, NUMBER 6, LEFT 100, DROP 50, OVER. The round is fired and the observer believes that the round is within 50 meters. He sends a correction (the round is not fired) and calls for number 5 to fire: NUMBER 6, DROP 50, NUMBER 6 IS ADJUSTED. NUMBER 5, REPEAT, OVER. The other weapons are adjusted as discussed above.


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5 4




2 1

Figure 9-6. Adjustment of FPF Begins with Number 6 Automated FDC 9-40. If the FDC is automated (BCS or AFATDS, MVVs and special corrections), only the center weapon will be adjusted onto the center grid of the FPF and the adjustment will be ended.

Nonadjusted FPFs 9-41. In some instances, the tactical situation dictates against adjusting the FPF. In these cases the FPF will be called in. The grids of the two or the center grid and attitude will be given, If the FDC has BCS/AFATDS, then length, width, and attitude or a laser draw should be sent.

9-42. Contact with the enemy may be so intense that the observer must transmit two or more calls for fire and adjust all missions simultaneously. He should consult the maneuver unit commander, if possible, or use his own best judgment to determine which of several important targets should be engaged first. The observer should track multiple missions by target numbers. He may also record the corrections determined for each target to eliminate any confusion that may arise in the heat of battle. If other observers are using the same fire net, each observer should continue to use his call sign during the mission.


9-43. To achieve surprise, the observer may decide not to adjust directly on the target but to adjust on a nearby point. This nearby point, the auxiliary adjusting point (Figure 9-7) must be far enough from the target (500 meters) that the real purpose of the adjustment is obscured. At the same time, the auxiliary adjusting point must be selected so that an accurate (preferably lateral) shift to the target can be determined. When the adjustment on the auxiliary adjusting point is complete, the shift to the target is made.


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Figure 9-7. Auxiliary Adjusting Point


9-44. Poor visibility, unreliable maps, deceptive terrain, or rapid movement through unfamiliar terrain sometimes makes it difficult for the observer to orient himself. He may call for a marking round(s) to be fired on a known point, a previously fired target, or a prominent terrain feature (for example, MARK KNOWN POINT 1 or MARK HILL 37). As a last resort, the observer may call for a round(s) to be fired into the center of the target area (for example, MARK CENTER OF SECTOR). The observer usually requests a type of projectile that is easily identifiable (such as WP) or a high airburst or both. (The unit may have a TSOP for shell-fuze combination.) The FDC prepares data that will place the round at the point requested by the observer. If the observer fails to see the round, the FDC prepares data that will move the next round to a different point of impact or that will raise the burst higher in the air. This procedure is continued until the observer positively identifies the round. He then orders a shift from the point of impact (burst) of the identified round to a target or an object that is permanent or semi permanent in nature, such as a road junction or the ruins of a building. Once this point has been located by adjustment of fire and has been plotted at the FDC, the observer may use it as a known point form which shifts can be made to subsequent targets.


9-45. When calling for fire on an irregularly shaped target, the observer must request the appropriate sheaf or describe the target in sufficient detail to allow the FDO to decide how to best attack the target. Choices include circular, linear, rectangular and laser-drawn targets. For targets that warrant multiple batteries or battalions, the target is segmented so that batteries provide coverage for a portion of the target. CIRCULAR SHEAFS 9-46. Circular sheafs may provide the best coverage of an irregular target area. The circular sheaf is the default sheaf as discussed in Chapter 6.


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LINEAR AND RECTANGULAR TARGETS 9-47. Linear and rectangular targets require orientation in terms of direction. The observer sends the grid, size and attitude of the target. The grid is the location of the center of the target. The size is the length and width of the target. The target attitude is described as a clockwise angle, in mils, measured from grid north to a line passing through the long axis of the target (Figure 9-8). Attitude is sent to the nearest 100 mils and is always less than 3,200 mils.


20 0M



Figure 9-8 Target Attitude LASER DRAWN TARGETS 9-48. On an irregularly shaped target the observer may send polar data to multiple points "drawn" or traced on the target and identify these points to the FDC as a laser draw. A laser draw mission can also be used to create linear or rectangular targets by simply lasing two points and announcing the appropriate width.

9-49. If observer visibility is limited, fire may be adjusted by the use of sound. The target location may be reported to the observer by the supported unit or the observer may determine it. If the observer can hear noises at the enemy position (for example, weapons firing, vehicle or troop movement), he can estimate a direction and a distance from his position. The observer must alert the FDC when he is adjusting by sound.


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9-50. Upon hearing the burst of the adjusting round, the observer estimates the direction to the burst and compares it with the direction to the target. He converts the deviation to a lateral shift, in meters (using estimated range to the target). Distance to the adjusting point is difficult to judge; therefore, the observer may have to use a creeping technique to adjust onto the target. He can determine distance by measuring the time it takes for the sound of the burst to reach him and multiplying the time interval by the speed of sound (350 meters per second). To help the observer determine distance accurately, the FDC must announce the precise moment of impact. 9-51. The observer must use caution in very broken terrain. In hills and mountains, the sound may travel around a hill mass before it arrives at the observer's position and may produce a false direction to the burst.


9-52. In an emergency situation in which an FDC is not available, the observer may determine and send fire commands directly to the battery. Initial data are determined by use of the following steps. STEP ONE 9-53. Estimate the range from the battery to the target. STEP TWO 9-54. Determine the charge by using the following rules. 105-mm: Charge equals range in thousands plus 1 (for example, for range 4000 meters the charge is 5). 155-mm: Charge equals range in thousands (for example, for range 5000 meters, the charge is 5). 9-55. This system is valid only for charges 3, 4, and 5 of 105-mm and 155-mm howitzers. STEP THREE 9-56. Determine the deflection from the battery to the target by converting the azimuth to the target into deflection. You must know the battery azimuth of lay. Azimuth of lay equals deflection 3200. Using the LARS (left, add; right, subtract) rule, determine the deflection to fire by adding or subtracting the difference between the azimuth of lay and the azimuth to the target to or from 3200. STEP FOUR 9-57. Fire quadrant 240 mils. STEP FIVE 9-58. Subsequent corrections are made with respect to the GT line. Determine 100/R. 100/R equals 100 divided by the range in thousands to the nearest hundred; for example, range 4600, 100/R = 100 4.6 22.


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Determine correction in deflection. Correction in deflection, in mils, equals the change in meters (divided by 100) times 100/R (left, add; right, subtract); for example, correction R120 = 120 100 = 1.2 X 22 (100/R) = 26.4 26 mils. Determine the number of mils change to quadrant that will give a 100meter range change (C-factor). Use Table 9-2. Change in quadrant is expressed in mils (range change in hundreds times C-factor). Table 9-2. Observer Emergency Procedures Weapon 105-mm M102 105-mm M119A1 155-mm M109A5/A6 and M198 C-factor 12 minus charge 12 minus charge 11 minus charge

Determine the fuze setting by estimating time of flight. Adjust the HOB by using a factor of 2 divided by the initial fuze setting for each 10-meter change to HOB (up, subtract; down, add).

GIVEN Weapon: 155 mm M198 = C-factor 11 minus charge. Range: 5000 = charge 5, quadrant 240. Azimuth of lay: 3200. GT direction: 0600. Deflection: 2600 First round is spotted as 600 meters short, 100 meters right. SUBSEQUENT CORRECTION 100/R: For range 4400, 100/R = 100 4.4 23. Correction in deflection: Left 100 = 100 100 = 1.0 X 23 = 23 mils; deflection 2623. Correction to quadrant: 11 - 5 = 6 X 6 = 36 = quadrant 240 + 36 = 276.


Chapter 10

Close Air Support, Attack Helicopters, and Naval Gunfire

10-01. This section provides procedures for requesting and controlling CAS. Normally, FACs conduct the terminal control of CAS aircraft. The Air Force ALO or other tactical air control party (TACP) personnel (enlisted terminal attack controller [ETAC] if an ALO is unavailable) usually perform FAC duties. The TACP provides air liaison, advises on the use of air assets, and coordinates and controls CAS missions to support the ground maneuver commander. At battalion task force level the TACP normally consists of one ALO and two enlisted tactical air command and control specialists, at least one of whom is an ETAC. TACPs assigned to light battalions may have up to five controllers. In situations where the FAC is not available the company/team FSO directs the mission and functions as the terminal controller. The procedures for the terminal control of CAS included in this chapter conform to the methods and procedures in FM 90-20, J-Fire, Multiservice Procedures for the Joint Application of Firepower, Joint Pub 309.3, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Close Air Support (CAS), and Joint Pub 3-09.1, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Laser Designation Operations.

10-02. There are two types of CAS requests: preplanned and immediate. Preplanned CAS is an air strike on a target that can be anticipated sufficiently in advance to permit detailed mission coordination and planning. These missions are categorized as scheduled or on call. A scheduled mission is executed at a specific time. An on call mission involves aircraft placed in a ground/air alert status and preloaded with ordnance for a particular target or type of target. 10-03. Immediate CAS is an air strike on a target of opportunity that was not identified or requested sufficiently in advance to permit detailed mission coordination or planning. REQUEST PROCEDURES 10-04. Requests for preplanned CAS missions are submitted to the task force FSE. The commander, ALO, FSO, and S3/S3 (air) evaluate requests, consolidate them and, if approved, assign a priority and precedence. The S3/S3 (air) then forwards approved requests to brigade. The FSE of the highest maneuver echelon in the force approves and prioritizes all requests.


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10-05. The CAS aircraft assigned to attack preplanned targets may be diverted to higher priority targets. The FSO should plan for engagement of CAS targets by alternate fire support assets. 10-06. Immediate CAS requests below task force level are forwarded to the task force command post by the most expeditious means available. The commander, S3/S3 (air), ALO, and FSO consider each request. Approved requests are transmitted by the TACP to the air support operations center (ASOC). The ASOC coordinates with the senior ground HQ, which approves the request. The TACP at each intermediate HQ monitors the request and informs the S3/S3 (air), ALO, FSO/FSCOORD. Silence by an intermediate TACP indicates approval by the associated HQ. 10-07. The CAS requests may be initiated by any level and includes the following elements IAW the Joint Tactical Air Strike Request DD Form 1972 (see FM 90-20): Observer identification. Warning Order (immediate or preplanned request). Target type and quantity. Target location. Desired time on target. Results desired on target. Final control. Call signs. Frequencies. Contact Points. Remarks. Friendly locations. JAAT coordination measures. Laser codes. Digital communications requirements/information. Weather. Threats. 10-08. For immediate CAS requests the ALO at task force prepares a request in the format shown in Figure 10-1. (This format may also be used to request Air Force AC-130 gunship support.


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IMMEDIATE CLOSE AIR SUPPORT (CAS) REQUEST (This format is also used to request USMC close-in fire support and USAF AC-130 gunship support.) 1. TACP: "____________this is _____ _____with an immediate CAS request." (ASOC/DASC/AOC/SACC) (TACP's ID) Note: Await acknowledgement. 2. "Immediate" 3. Target Description: "____________________________________________________________" 4. Target Location: "__________________________" elevation "_____________________" feet (UTM Grid Coordinates) 5. Time on Target: "______________________________________________________________" 6. Desired Ordnance/Results: "__(not normally transmitted)_______________________________" Note: When identifying position coordinates for joint operations, include the map data that location coordinates are based on. 7. Final Control. "Call Sign: _____________________________________________________________________" "Frequency: ____________________________________________________________________" "Contact Point or Initial Point: ______________________________________________________" 8. Remarks, such as"Friendly Location: _______________________________________________________________" "Weather: ______________________________________________________________________" "Threats: ______________________________________________________________________" Legend: ASOC = air support operations center SACC = supporting arms control center ID = identification UTM = universal transverse mercator DASC = direct air support center TACC = tactical air control center TACP = tactical air control party AOC = air operations center

Figure 10-1. Example Immediate CAS Request Format

CLEARANCE TO DROP/FIRE 10-09. The responsibility for expenditure of ordnance maneuver force commander. The terminal controller has clear aircraft to release weapons after specific or general form the maneuver force commander. The two levels of authority are positive control and reasonable assurance. Positive Control 10-10. Use positive control whenever possible. The terminal controller or an observer in contact with the terminal controller must be in a position to see the attacking aircraft and target, and receive verbal confirmation that the objective/mark is in sight from the attacking pilot/aircrew prior to commanding CLEARED HOT. Aircrews must receive positive clearance from the terminal controller (cleared hot) before releasing any ordnance. The two methods of exercising positive control are direct and indirect control. rests with the the authority to release approval weapons release


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10-11. Direct Control. Direct control will be used whenever possible. It occurs when the terminal controller is able to observe and control the aircraft. The terminal controller transmits CLEARED HOT when he sees the aircraft is attacking the correct target. There may be times when the terminal controller may not be able to see the attacking aircraft (due to high altitude, standoff weapons, night, or poor visibility). In these cases, clearance to drop will only be given if the terminal controller can use other means to confirm that the aircraft is attacking the correct target and has friendly positions in sight. These means include, but are not limited to, confirming with a verbal description that the aircraft has friendly positions in sight, the mark in sight, and the target in sight, as appropriate. 10-12. Indirect Control. Indirect control is not the preferred method of positive control. It is used when the terminal controller cannot observe the attack, but is in contact with someone who can. The terminal controller can issue clearance or abort the attack based on information from the observer. The maneuver force commander must authorize this form of control. Reasonable Assurance 10-13. Aircrews normally operate under positive control and receive a CLEARED HOT before releasing any ordnance. During peacetime training/exercises, personnel involved in CAS missions must also follow local range regulations for release of ordnance. During combat operations battlefield conditions such as communications jamming or low altitude flight can prevent the terminal controller from being able to positively clear aircraft to deliver ordnance. Joint force commanders can establish guidelines that allow CAS aircrews to continue attacks on targets under such circumstances. Reasonable assurance is not a routine procedure but a set of specific guidelines. It is a risk assessment by the joint force commander (JFC) with concurrence by subordinate joint or component commanders who are either receiving or providing CAS. 10-14. When reasonable assurance is in effect attacks can continue if the maneuver force commander, terminal controller, and aircrew are confident the attack will achieve objectives without harming friendly forces. This applies if the CAS aircrew has already received initial targeting information. Careful consideration must be given to using reasonable assurance because of the increased possibility of fratricide. CONTROL MEASURES 10-15. The company team FSO should be familiar with the following airspace control measures for CAS: Contact Point 10-16. The contact point (CP) is the point at which the aircraft will make initial radio contact with the terminal controller (company team FSO). Normally, the contact point is outside the range of enemy surface to air weapons. A contact point allows coordination of final plans before heavily defended airspace is entered.


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Initial Point (IP) 10-17. The IP is a well-defined point easily distinguishable visually and/or electronically, used as a starting point for a bomb run to a target. Rotary-Wing Specific Control Measures 10-18. Holding Area. Holding areas are areas well forward in the battlespace that provide for helicopter dispersion as well as cover and concealment from enemy observation and fires. Rotary-wing CAS aircrews normally occupy holding areas while awaiting targets or missions. While in the holding area, aircrews receive the CAS briefing and perform final coordination. 10-19. Battle Position. BPs are maneuvering areas that also contain various firing points, both laterally and in depth. Helicopters maneuver in BPs while awaiting the TOT or TTT. BPs are coordinated and selected by the supported commander. Once the terminal controller clears rotary-wing CAS aircraft into a battle position, these aircraft should not exit until authorized. 10-20. Firing Point. A firing point is a specific point within a battle position that a single aircraft occupies while engaging targets. Terminal Controller Calls 10-21. The company team FSO must be familiar with the following radio transmissions for CAS missions: 10-22. Cleared To Depart The Initial Point. This transmission is be made when all preparations are complete for the attack and the terminal controller is a position to observe and control the attack. 10-23. Continue. Continue the pass, you are not yet cleared to release any ordnance. 10-24. Abort (Abort Code). Abort the pass. Do not release ordnance. The terminal controller must direct CAS aircraft to abort if they are not aligned with the correct target, it appears that friendly troops may be endangered, or for the safety of the CAS aircraft and crew. The CAS abort procedure uses the challenge-reply response. During the CAS check-in briefing (see below), the flight lead gives the terminal controller a two-letter challenge code for use with the flight only. The terminal controller refers to the authentication document, finds the reply, and notes but does not transmit the response. The reply "letter" becomes that flight's abort code. If no abort code was briefed, then the CAS attack is aborted by transmitting ABORT, ABORT, ABORT. 10-25. Cleared Hot. This transmission is made when the terminal controller is certain that it is safe for the aircraft to release ordnance without endangering friendly ground forces. It is given as soon as possible after the aircraft is pointed at the target area. 10-26. Continue Dry. You are cleared to proceed with the attack run but may not release any ordnance.


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10-27. Cleared for Reattack. This transmission is given if the pilot requests permission to reattack the target. Normally, permission to reattack the target is given if there are no planned fires scheduled for the target immediately after the first attempt to attack the target. PROCESSING 10-28. If the CAS request is approved the ALO or FSO obtains mission data (check-in briefing from the aircraft), prepares attack information (nine line brief), and transmits these data to the individual who directs the mission. Check-In Briefing (Lineup) 10-29. When the aircraft is within communications range it transmits a check-in briefing (fighter lineup) to the terminal controller. The format is shown in Figure 10-2. If not discussed, the terminal controller should ask the pilot about any additional items to aid the terminal controller in determining how to best employ the aircraft such as whether the aircraft is laser spot tracker (LST) capable, or if the pilot is flying on night vision goggles (NVGs). CAS CHECK-IN BRIEFING Aircraft Transmits to Controller Aircraft "___________________________ this is ______________________________________" (Controller Call Sign) (Aircraft Call Sign) Note: Authentication and appropriate response suggested here. The brief may be abbreviated for brevity or security ("as fragged" or "with exception"). Identification/Mission Number: "____________________________________________________" Number and Type of Aircraft: "_____________________________________________________" Position and Altitude: "___________________________________________________________" Ordnance: "____________________________________________________________________" Time on Station: "_______________________________________________________________" Abort Time: "___________________________________________________________________" *Remarks: "________________________________________(NVG, LST, Special Mission Items) _____________________________________________________________________________" *Optional Entry Legend: NVG = night vision goggles LST = laser spot tracker

Figure 10-2. Example Check-In Briefing Format J-Fire CAS Brief (9-Line Brief) 10-30. The CAS 9-line brief provides the aircrew with essential information for execution of the mission. The brief follows a numbered format sequence; therefore, reference to line numbers or elements is not required. The brief should be passed to the aircrew as early as possible. As a last resort, the aircrew can receive the brief at the contact point. 10-31. The ALO provides IP location and fighter run-in time from IP to target. The ALO determines who will have final control of the CAS mission. If the ALO is not available the company/team FSO will direct the aircraft. Attack coordination requirements to include communications and laser


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designation information must be considered. The J-Fire CAS (9-line) brief format is shown in Figure 10-3. CAS BRIEFING FORMAT (9-LINE) (Omit data not required, do not transmit line numbers. Units of measure are standard unless otherwise specified. * Denotes minimum essential in limited communications environment. Bold denotes readback items when requested.) Terminal Controller: "__________________________this is ___________________________" (Aircraft Call Sign) (Terminal Controller) *1. IP/BP: "__________________________________________________________________" *2. Heading: "______________________________________________" (Magnetic) (IP/BP to Target) Offset: "________________________________________________" (Left/Right) *3. Distance: "________________________________________________________________" (IP to Target in Nautical Miles/BP to Target in Meters) *4. Target Elevation: "__________________________________________________________" (In Feet Above or Below Mean Sea Level) *5. Target Description: "________________________________________________________" *6. Target Location: "_________________________________________________________" (Latitude/Longitude or Grid Coordinates or Offset or Visual) *7. Type Mark: "___________________________________" Code: "____________________" (WP, Laser, IR, Beacon) (Actual Code) Laser to target Line: "_______________________________Degrees" *8. Location of friendlies: "_____________________________________________________" Position Marked By: "_______________________________________________________" 9. Egress: "__________________________________________________________________" Remarks (as appropriate): "_____________________________________________________" (Threats, Restrictions, Danger Close, Attack Clearance, SEAD, Abort Codes, Hazards) Time on Target (TOT): "_____________________" or Time to Target (TTT): "Stand by______________________plus____________________, Hack." (Minutes) (Seconds) Note: When identifying position coordinates for joint operation, include the map datum data. Desert Storm Operations have shown that simple conversion to latitude/longitude is not sufficient. The location may be referenced on several different databases; for example, land-based versus sea-based data. 1 km = .54 NM, 1 NM = 1.852 km, 1 m = 3.28 ft, 1 ft = 0.3048 m f = feet, m = meters, Legend: IP = Initial Point, NM = nautical mile Figure 10-3. CAS Briefing Format (9-Line) 10-32. IP/BP. The IP is the starting point for the run-in to the target. For rotary-wing aircraft, the BP is where the attacks on the target are commenced. IPs should be 12-15 nautical miles from the target area if possible. If aircraft fly at 300 knots (approximately 5 nautical miles [nm] per BP = Battle Position, km = kilometer,


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minute [see Table 10-5 for conversion factors]) it will take approximately 3 minutes, depending on the flight profile, to move from the vicinity of the IP to the target area. Table 10-1 provides a reference for conversion of kilometers and nautical miles. Table 10-1. Kilometer/Nautical Mile Conversion Table
km 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 50 100 NM 0.54 1.08 1.62 2.16 2.70 3.24 3.78 4.32 4.86 5.40 5.94 6.48 7.02 7.56 8.10 8.64 9.18 9.72 10.26 10.80 13.50 27.00 54.00 NM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 50 100 km 1.85 3.70 5.56 7.41 9.26 11.11 12.96 14.82 16.67 18.52 20.37 22.22 24.08 25.93 27.78 29.63 31.48 33.34 35.19 37.04 46.30 92.60 185.20

10-33. Heading. The heading is given in degrees magnetic from the IP to the target and from the center of the BP to the target. Terminal controllers give an offset (offset left/right) if a restriction exists. The offset is the side of the IP to target line on which the aircraft can maneuver for the attack. 10-34. Distance. The distance is given from the IP/BP to the target. For fixedwing aircraft, the distance is given in nautical miles (nm) and should be accurate to a tenth of an nm. For attack helicopters, the distance is given in meters from the center of the BP and is accurate to the nearest 5 meters. 10-35. Target Elevation. The target elevation is given in feet above MSL. The following table (Table 10-2) is provided to convert target elevation in meters to feet for the 9-line briefing. (Distance meters to feet multiply by 3.28)


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Table 10-2. Distance Conversion Table

METERS 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 FEET 82 164 246 328 410 492 574 656 738 820 902 984 1066 1148 1230 1312 1394 1476 1558 1640 METERS 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 1000 FEET 1722 1804 1886 1968 2050 2132 2214 2296 2378 2460 2542 2624 2706 2788 2870 2952 3034 3116 3198 3280 METERS 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175 1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 1400 1425 1450 1475 1500 FEET 3362 3444 3526 3608 3690 3772 3852 3936 4018 4100 4182 4264 4346 4428 4510 4592 4674 4756 4838 4920

10-36. Target Description. The target description should be specific enough for the aircrew to recognize the target. 10-37. Target Location. The terminal controller can give the target location in several ways (e.g., grid coordinates, latitude and longitude, visual description from a conspicuous reference point). Because of the multiple coordinate systems available for use, the datum that will be used must always be specified in the JTAR. If using grid coordinates include the 100,000-m grid identifier, for example, AB127843. For an area target, give the location of the target's center of location of the greatest concentration. For a linear target, give the location of the ends of the target. 10-38. Mark Type. The type of mark the terminal controller will use (e.g., laser to include the laser code or indirect fire). 10-39. Friendlies. The distance of friendlies from the target is given in meters and is a cardinal heading from the target. If the friendly position is marked identify the type of mark. 10-40. Egress. These are instructions the aircrews use to exit the target area. Egress instructions can be given as a cardinal direction or by using control points. The word EGRESS is used before delivering the instructions. The terminal controller may indicate a left or right "pull" off the target and then the cardinal direction back to the next IP or CP such as LEFT PULL EGRESS SOUTH TO CHERRY.


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10-41. Remarks. The following information should be included if applicable: Laser to target line (in degrees magnetic) and laser codes. Ordnance delivery. Threat and location. Final attack heading (final attack cone heading). The final attack heading is the assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike. The final attack cone is a cone that the aircrew can use to maneuver the aircraft in order to achieve the best attack profile while facilitating the ground observer's guidance. The terminal controller assigns the magnetic headings for the left and right boundaries of the cone. Hazards to aviation. JAAT coordination instructions. Unique communications information, such as digital communications information critical to digital linkup. ACAs. Weather. Restrictions. Additional target information. SEAD and location. Laser, illumination, and night vision capability. Danger close. 10-42. TOT/TTT. A common reference time is essential to accomplish the high degree of coordination necessary for effective CAS. There are two methods TOT (preferred) and TTT. TOT is the synchronized clock time when ordnance is expected to hit the target. TOT is the timing standard for CAS missions. Using TOT eliminates the need for a time "hack" and eases coordination of targeting marking and SEAD. 10-43. TTT is the time in minutes and seconds, after the time "hack" statement is delivered when ordnance is expected to hit the target. The time "hack" statement indicates the moment when all participants start the timing countdown. TARGET MARKING 10-44. A laser, infrared, or munitions mark may be required to assist aircraft in identifying the target. The preferred method of marking a target is by laser if the aircraft has a laser seeker or airborne passive LST. LSTs are systems that allow visual acquisition of a coded laser designated target. LSTs must be set to the same code as the coded laser target designator for the user to see the target being lased. Laser Mark 10-45. A laser mark is the most effective means of improving accuracy of aircraft-delivered ordnance. The combination of a laser mark and laser guided weapons (LGWs) provides the best results. If the aircraft is equipped


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with a LST, the pilot can also employ a laser mark to visually locate the target and conduct an accurate attack with unguided ordnance. Laser Code Settings 10-46. If the laser mark method is used, the laser PRF codes of the G/VLLD or LLDR will normally be passed to the aircraft as part of the CAS brief. Laser designators and seekers are coded to work in harmony so that the seeker will only track the target designated. Laser codes are not entirely compatible however, across the spectrum of military laser equipment. Some devices and weapons use a three-digit code, while others use a four-digit code. For example, the Air Force Pave Penny LST on the A-10 uses a four-digit code. Upon receiving the three-digit switch setting of the ground designator (i.e. G/VLLD), the pilot converts it to the required four digits by inserting a 1 immediately before the three digits. 10-47. Air Force laser-guided bombs (LGBs) have laser code settings that cannot be changed in the air. When the observer lases for the delivery of these munitions, he must change his switch settings to match that of the Air Force ordnance. Laser Spot Tracker Employment Procedures 10-48. When employing LSTs with ground laser target designators and LGWs, the following procedures will be used. 10-49. Attack headings and laser-to-target lines are normally pre-coordinated between the terminal controller and LGW-employing aircrew (or their representative). During CAS operations, terminal controllers can recommend an attack cone and/or final attack heading or give the designator target line (DTL) and allow the aircrew to determine the correct geometry. The attack heading must allow the aircrew to acquire the reflected laser energy. Due to the possibility of false target indications, attack headings should avoid the target-to-laser designator safety zone, unless the tactical situation dictates otherwise. 10-50. The safety zone (to help minimize the backscatter problem) is defined as a cone (generally 20 degrees) whose apex is at the target and extends equidistant either side of the target-to-laser designator line (See Figure 10-4). This cone has a vertical limit of 20 degrees. Aircraft may engage targets from above the cone, as long as they remain above the 20 degrees. The minimum safe altitude for aircraft will obviously vary with the aircrafts distance from the target (See Table 10-3). The aircrew may have difficulty determining how high they need to fly to remain above the 20 degrees; aircraft should therefore remain well above these altitudes or remain outside the 20 degree safety zone altogether. Table 10-3. Minimum Safe Altitudes for Aircraft Above the 200 Safety Zone Distance from Target Minimum Safe Altitude 500 m 600 ft 1 km (.6 mile) 1200 ft 1.6 km (1 mile) 2000 ft 5 km (3 mile) 5800 ft 8 km (5 mile) 9700 ft 16 km (10 mile) 19,300 ft


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10-51. Note: Backscatter refers to a portion of the laser energy that is scattered back in the direction of the seeker by an obscurant.

Figure 10-4. Aircraft Delivery of Laser Guided Munitions 10-52. WARNING: The safety zone is not an absolute safety measure. In some situations, LSTs have acquired the atmospheric scatter in front of the laser designator even though the LSTs were outside the safety zone. 10-53. The optimal attack zone is inside a 120-degree cone whose apex is at the target and extends to 60 degrees on either side of the target-to-laser designator line and is outside the 20-degree safety zone. This leaves an ideal attack zone of 50 degrees on either side of the safety zone. See Figure 10-5 for a different perspective on the safety zone and attack zone.


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Figure 10-5. Example of Safety Zone and Optimal Attack Zones 10-54. Generally, LST-equipped aircraft can operate throughout the optimal attack zone without hazard to ground personnel operating laser target designators. Risk to the laser designator operator may be reduced by increasing the delivery aircraft altitude and/or offset angle or the designatorto-target distance. While increasing the delivery offset angle improves safety, it may degrade the LSTs ability to acquire the laser spot. The best attack area is therefore from 10 to 45 degrees on either side of the target-to-laser designator line. In some situations, LSTs have locked onto the laser source while operating in the 120-degree attack zone. 10-55. CAUTION: For this reason, aircrews should not use LSTs as the sole source for target verification. Aircrews should verify that they are attacking the correct target through additional means (such as visual description, terrain features, non-laser target marks). Whenever possible, planned attacks should avoid placing the designator in the field of view of the LST or LGW.


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Laser On Procedures 10-56. The laser designator may be turned on for target acquisition, target identification or employment of LGWs. The following communications sequence is employed (see Table 10-4): TEN SECONDS. LASER ON. SHIFT (if required). SPOT. TERMINATE. Table 10-4. Standard Laser Brevity Terms CALL TEN SECONDS LASER ON SHIFT SPOT TERMINATE MEANING Prepare to start laser designation in 10 seconds Designate the target with laser energy now Call to shift laser energy from the offset position next to the target onto the target Aircraft has acquired laser energy Cease laser designation 10-57. The 10 SECONDS call means the aircrew wants the laser designator on in 10 seconds. LASER ON requires the terminal controller to ensure the target is designated immediately. The terminal controller should acknowledge the LASER ON call. Normal laser designation time is 20 seconds although the pilot may request a longer time. If communications are unreliable, the terminal controller should begin designating at least 30 seconds before TOT or TTT. Some units have found that designating 40-45 seconds before TOT or TTT allows the aircraft to spot the target sooner in his approach, aids in verifying correct target recognition and allows more time for final coordination. 10-58. When the terminal controller turns on the laser, he alerts the pilot and, if the aircraft's wings are level and pointed in the right direction, clears the pilot to attack by saying CLEARED HOT (under positive control). The pilot confirms he sees the designated laser spot by transmitting SPOT and acknowledges the clearance by repeating CLEARED HOT. 10-59. Minimizing laser on time is important in a laser countermeasures environment and when employing battery-operated laser designators. The terminal controller will turn off the laser designator when: The pilot transmits TERMINATE. The weapon hits the target. After 20 seconds of laser designating (or longer if specifically requested or if communications are unreliable. 10-60. Offset designation procedures may be used in a laser countermeasures environment, and if required, will be indicated in the remarks section of the CAS briefing. At the LASER ON call the terminal controller will designate an offset position near the target to avoid alerting the target. The pilot will then


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transmit SHIFT to direct the terminal controller to shift laser energy from the offset position onto the target itself. The SHIFT call, when used, must be pre-briefed to replace the SPOT call. 10-61. For multiple aircraft in the same attack, SHIFT calls may be used after the lead aircraft calls spot to direct the terminal controller to shift the laser to the next aircraft's target. This call is usually used for target acquisition in conjunction with weapons not requiring terminal laser guidance. Marking by Indirect Fire 10-62. Alternate methods of marking a target for a CAS mission are with WP, ground burst illumination, or smoke. As a rule of thumb (ROT) WP marking rounds should impact 30 seconds before the established TOT/TTT; illumination marks (fuzed to burn on the ground) should impact 45 seconds before TOT/TTT; and smoke HC 40 seconds before TOT/TTT to allow for smoke build-up. This lead time ensures that the munition marking round is in position early enough and remains visible long enough for the terminal controller to provide final control instructions and for the pilot to acquire the target. 10-63. Note: If smoke is used to mark the target, ensure that the smoke is beyond or downwind of the target to prevent obscuring the target from the pilot's view. In describing the FSO provides the pilot a cardinal direction and distance (in meters) from the base of the smoke. 10-64. Indirect fire marking rounds are most effective when delivered within 100 meters of the CAS target, but those within 300 meters are generally considered effective enough to direct CAS aircraft. If the situation requires precise marks, the terminal controller can adjust rounds early to ensure accurate marks are delivered to meet the CAS schedule. This may, however, alert the enemy to an imminent attack. 10-65. Several methods are used to determine the time to fire indirect fire CAS marking rounds: IP to target. Time (IP to target) - (TOF + ROT) = time to fire (after aircraft departs IP) Time (IP to target) = distance (nautical miles [nm]) X seconds per nm Time (IP to target) = distance (km) X seconds per km TOT. TOT - (TOF + ROT) = time to fire TTT. TTT - (TOF + ROT) = time to fire (after hack)


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IP to target time for aircraft is 2 minutes 30 seconds. Time of flight (TOF) of round is 35 seconds. WP is being used (use 30 second rule of thumb [ROT]). TOF + ROT = 65 seconds. 2 minutes 30 seconds (IP to target time) - 65 seconds = 1 minute 25 seconds. Fire round 1 minute 25 seconds after aircraft departs the IP. 10-66. The following table (Table 10-5) can be used to figure the number of minutes/seconds that it will take an aircraft to go from the IP to the target based on the aircraft speed. Table 10-5. Speed and Time Conversion A/S (Knots) 300 360 420 450 480 510 540 NM/ MIN 5 6 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 8 NM 1:36 1:20 1:09 1:04 1:00 :57 :53 9 NM 1:48 1:30 1:17 1:12 1:08 1:04 1:00 10 NM 2:00 1:40 1:26 1:20 1:15 1:11 1:07 11 NM 2:12 1:50 1:34 1:28 1:23 1:18 1:13 12 NM 2:24 2:00 1:43 1:36 1:30 1:25 1:20 13 NM 2:36 2:10 1:51 1:44 1:38 1:32 1:27 14 NM 2:48 2:20 2:00 1:52 1:45 1:39 1:33 15 NM 3:00 2:30 2:09 2:00 1:53 1:46 1:40

CAS Aircraft Run-In Speeds Aircraft AC-130 H/U A-10 AV-8B F-16 F/A-18 Infrared Marking 10-67. Terminal controllers can use IR pointers and other IR devices to mark their position or targets at night for pilots who are using night vision devices (see JP 3-09.3 for detailed information). Airspeed (knots) 210-250 300-350 420-480 480-540 480-520


10-68. The company team FSO's control of the mission begins when the flight leader makes initial contact at the CP. Once communication is established, the FSO must ask the flight leader for his check-in briefing information. The FSO must then verify that the flight leader has the current attack information. The received mission data may differ from the mission data provided earlier by the ALO. If the pilot does not have the attack information


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or if some of the information has changed, the FSO transmits the information the necessary information to him in the format of the CAS brief. 10-69. Before the aircraft reaches the IP, the FSO must determine the desired back off time for firing a marking round if required. He should send his fire mission to the FDC as an AT MY COMMAND mission. 10-70. Once ready, the FSO clears the aircraft to depart the IP. He asks the flight leader to report his departure so that the FSO can determine the time to fire the marking round if required. The FSO should be prepared to fire the marking round at the desired time even if communication with the aircraft is interrupted. 10-71. The FSO must watch for the aircraft. As soon as it is in sight, he orients the flight leader to the marking round by using the clock method with the nose of the aircraft being 12 o'clock. Once the flight leader has identified the marking round, the FSO gives him a cardinal direction and distance in meters to the target from the marking round. Once the FSO is certain the flight leader has identified the target correctly and the aircraft is pointed at the target, he clears the aircraft to strike the target (CLEARED HOT) (under positive control). The FSO must be prepared at any time before actual ordnance delivery to call off the attack (ABORT) if the aircraft starts to attack the wrong target, it appears that friendly troops may be endangered, or for the safety of the CAS aircraft and crew. He must be ready to reattack the target if additional ordnance is required or if the pilot requests a reattack. 10-72. Note: As the terminal controller, it is the FSO's responsibility to ensure that the correct target is attacked and that friendly troops are not needlessly endangered. 10-73. Example CAS missions transmissions using a laser designator and a marking round follow.


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10-74. Table 10-6 shows characteristics of various aircraft that can be used to provide CAS. Table 10-7 describes various aircraft munitions.


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Table 10-6. Close Air Support Assets

TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AV-8B SERVICE USMC COMMUNICATION PACKAGE 2 UHF ORDNANCE NAVIGATION TACAN INS Radar ** GUNS 25 mm 300 rounds EXTERNAL Laser-guided bombs GP bombs CBUs, Napalm Aerial mines 2.75 & 5.0 rockets AGM-122 Sidearm AGM-65 Maverick Laser-guided bombs AGM-65 Maverick GP bombs, CBUs Aerial mines MAX LOAD 8,000 lbs. LASER CAPABILITY LST Yes (ARBS except AV-B II +) Yes (Pod) No LTD No



UHF VHF-AM VHF-FM 2 UHF Satellite communications (SATCOM) 3 VHF-AM/FM 2 HF 1 VHFAM/FM/UHF 1 UHF UHF


30 mm 1,100 rounds 105mm howitzer 20mm & 40mm cannon 20mm cannon 20 mm cannon 512 rounds 20 mm cannon 515 rounds 20 mm cannon 580 rounds

16,000 lbs.




YES Only code 1688




Laser-guided bombs GP bombs, CBUs Aerial mines Laser-guided bombs GP bombs CBUs Laser-guided bombs GP bombs CBUs AGM-65 Maverick Laser-guided bombs GP bombs, CBUs Aerial mines 2.75 & 5.0 rockets Napalm/FAE AGM-65 Maverick AGM-62 Walleye AGM-84 SLAM AGM-88 HARM Same as above

No 13,220 lbs. No

YES Yes ***



UHF * VHF-AM * VHF-FM * 2 UHF * 2 VHF-AM * 2 VHF-FM *

12,000 lbs.


Yes ***



13,700 lbs.

Yes (Pod)



TACAN 20 mm 13,500 Yes Yes ADF, INS cannon lbs. (Pod) Radar 515 FLIR rounds * Can only monitor two frequencies at a time. ** AV-8B "Plus" is equipped with radar. *** F-16C/D and F-15E can designate if equipped with a LANTIRN pod. HARM - high speed antiradiation missile TACAN - tactical air navigation system LEGEND: ILS - instrument landing system TOW - tube launched, optically tracked, ADF - automatic direction finder INS - inertial navigation system wire command link, guided AGM air to ground missile LST - laser Spot Tracker missile system ARBS - angle rate bombing system LATIRN - low-altitude navigation and UHF - ultra-high frequency CBU cluster bomb unit targeting infrared at night VHF - very-high frequency FAE - fuel air explosive LTD - laser target designator FLIR - forward looking infrared SLAM - standoff land attack missile GP - general purpose


2 UHF * 2 VHF-AM * 2 VHF-FM *


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Table 10-7. Munitions Description Type Munitions

General Purpose (GP) Bombs MK-82, LD, 500 lb.; MK-83, LD, 1000 lb.; MK84, LD, 2000 lb. MK-82 HDGP (SNAKE-EYE) MK-82 Air Inflatable Retarder HDGP (Ballute) MK-84 (AIR) HDGP MK-36 (Destructor) BLU- 109/B (I-2000) Penetrator Bomb M-1 17, 750 lb. GP Bomb M-1 17R M-1 17D (Destructor) M-118 3000 lb. Demolition Bomb Cluster Bombs CBU-24 CBU-30 CBU-38 CBU-49 CBU-52 CBU-55 CBU-58 CBU-71 CBU-87 (Combined Effects Munitions [CEM]) CBU-89 (GATOR) CBU-97/B (Sensor Fused Weapons) MK-20 (Rockeye) BL-755 GBU-55/72

All are similar in construction and vary only in size and weight. Streamlined cylindrical body with conical fins designed for low drag. Effects: Blast, fragmentation and deep cratering (with a delayed fuze). MK-82 with four MK-15 retarding fins. Selectable high drag (HD) or low drag (LD). Effects: Blast, fragmentation and deep cratering (with a delayed fuze). General purpose bomb with air inflatable retarder tail assembly. Uses a ballute as a retarding device. Selectable HD/LD. Effects: Blast and fragmentation. MK-82 snake-eye with a MK-75 arming kit that converts the bomb into a land or water mine. HD only. Timed self-destruct or magnetic fuzing. 2000 lb. improved GP bomb. Effects: cratering and hard target penetration. Effects: Blast, fragmentation and deep cratering (with a delayed fuze). Selectable HD/LD by means of a retarding tail assembly Equipped with a MK-75 arming kit for ground implant and shallow water mining. HD only. Effects: Blast, fragmentation and cratering. Not good for penetration.

SUU-30 loaded with 665 BLU-26 bomblets. The BLU-26 submunition is baseball sized, spins to arm and detonates on impact. Dispersion pattern is torus or donut shaped. SUU-13 with 40 canisters containing 32 CS (tear gas) bomblets each. Bomblets will start dispensing CS gas 5 to 6 seconds after release and will dispense for 10 to 15 seconds. Dispersion is linear. SUU-13 containing 40 BLU-49 antimaterial HE bomblets that will penetrate jungle canopies. Dispersion is linear. Same as CBU-24 except bomblets have delay timers to detonate at random times after impact. Dispersion pattern is torus or donut shaped. SUU-30 loaded with 220 BLU-61 softball sized bomblets with an incendiary lining and a scored steel casing for fragmentation. Dispersion pattern is torus or donut shaped. Slow sped fuel air explosive (FAE). Used against blast sensitive targets. Kills by overpressure. SUU-30 loaded with 650 BLU-63 baseball sized bomblets with incendiary pellets and scored casing for fragmentation. Dispersion pattern is torus or donut shaped. Same as CBU-58 except submunitions have delay fuzes that detonate at random times after impact. Dispersion pattern is torus or donut shaped. SUU-65 loaded with 202 BLU-97 bomblets. BLU-97 has a shaped charge for armor; steel scored liner for fragmentation and incendiary ring. Dispersion is rectangular. SUU-64 loaded with a mix of 72 BLU-91/B antiarmor and 22 BLU-92/B antipersonnel mines with present self-destruct time. Dispersion pattern varies from circular at high angles to linear at low angles. SUU-64 with an airbag dispensing system and 10 BLU-108/B submunitions designed to provide multiple kills per pass capability against tanks, armored vehicles, FA, APCs and support vehicles. MK-7 loaded with 247 MK-118 antiarmor submunitions with antipersonnel capabilities. Dispersion pattern varies from circular at high angles to linear at low angles. European munitions loaded with 147 antiarmor submunitions. Designed for low altitude low angle deliveries against armor but produces more fragmentation than the MK-20 Rockeye. Dispersion pattern is rectangular. High speed FAE. Used against blast sensitive targets. Kills by overpressure.


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Table 10-7. Munitions Description (continued) Type Munitions

Guided Bombs GBU-10/GBU-12 GBU-16 GBU-24/B LLLGB GBU-24A/B LLLGB GBU-15 Missiles AGM-65 (Maverick)

Laser guided, maneuverable, free-falling weapons. GBU-10 is a MK-84 and the GBU-12 is a MK-82. Effects: Blast, fragmentation and deep cratering (with a delayed fuze). Laser guided, maneuverable, free-falling weapons. Effects: Blast, fragmentation and deep cratering (with a delayed fuze). Low level, laser guided, maneuverable free-fall weapon. MK-84 body. Can be released at very low altitudes. Bomb bumps up approx. 450 ft above release altitude. Effects: Blast and fragmentation. Same as GBU-24/B but uses BL-109/B bomb body. Used for hard target penetration. TV or IR guided, automatically or manually by the WSO. MK-84 or MK-109 body. Effects: Blast, fragmentation, cratering and hard target penetration. A and B models are guided based o visual contrast. D and G models use IR guidance. The USMC E model is laser guided. Designed for standoff acquisition and destruction of point targets. Effects: Shaped charge produces a good penetration of hard targets such as tanks and bunkers. Rocket powered version of GBU-15. Standoff range out to 15 nautical miles (NM). Solid propellant laser/radar guided antiarmor missile. Max range in excess of 8000 meters.

AGM-130 AGM-114B (Hellfire) Guns 20mm 750 to 850 rounds per minute. AP, HE and incendiary. 20mm Gatling 2500 to 6000 rounds per minute. TP, HEI, API, TPI, HEIT. GAU-8, 30mm Gatling 42000 rounds per minute. 1.5 lb. projectile TP, HEI, API on the A/OA-10 only. API armor piercing incendiary HEI high explosive incendiary BLU bomb live unit HEIT high explosive incendiary tracer GAU gun aircraft unit TP target practice GBU guided bomb unit TV television WSO - weapon system officer


10-75. Risk estimate distances allow commanders to estimate the risk in terms of percent of friendly casualties that may result from an air attack against the enemy. Risk estimate distances are based on fragmentation patterns. Risk estimate distances are for combat use and are not minimum safe distances for peacetime training. CASUALTY CRITERION 10-76. The casualty criterion is the 5-minute assault criterion for a prone soldier in winter clothing and helmet. Physical incapacitation means that a soldier is physically unable to function in an assault within a 5-minute period after an attack. A PI value of less than 0.1 percent can be interpreted as being less than or equal to one chance in one thousand.

Risk estimate distances do not represent the maximum fragmentation envelopes of the weapons listed.


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TROOPS IN CONTACT 10-77. Unless the maneuver commander determines otherwise, the terminal controller should consider friendlies within 1 km of targets as a "troops in contact" situation and should advise the maneuver commander accordingly. However, friendlies outside of 1 km may still be subject to weapon effects. The maneuver commander accepts responsibility for the risk to friendly troops when targets are inside the 0.1 percent PI distance. Ordnance delivered inside 0.1 percent PI distances will be considered as "danger close". Table 10-8 provides risk estimate distances for aircraft delivered ordnance. Table 10-8. Risk Estimate Distances for Aircraft Delivered Ordnance Item
MK-82 LD MK-82 HD MK-82 LGB MK-83 HD/LD MK-83 LGB MK-84 HD/LD MK-84 LGB 2 MK-20 MK-77 2 CBU-55/77 2 CBU-52 2, 3 CBU-58/71 2 CBU-87 3 CBU-89/78 2.75" folding fin aircraft rocket (FFAR) 5" ZUNI SUU-11 M-4, M-12, SUU-23, M-61 GAU-12 GPU-5a, GAU-8 5 AGM-65 MK-1/MK-21 MK-5/MK-23 AC-130


Risk Estimate Distance (meters) 10% PI 0.1% PI

500 lb. bomb 250 425 500 lb. bomb (retarded) 100 375 1 1 500 lb. bomb (GBU-12) 250 425 1,000 lb. bomb 275 475 1 1 1,000 lb. bomb (GBU-16) 275 475 2,000 lb. bomb 325 500 1 1 2,000 lb. bomb (GBU-10/24) 225 500 Rockeye 150 225 500 lb. Napalm 100 150 1 1 Fuel-air explosive (FAE) CBU (all types) 275 450 CBU (all types) 350 525 CBU (all types) 175 275 CBU (all types) 175 275 Rocket with various warheads 160 200 Rocket with various warheads 150 200 1 1 7.62 mm minigun 20 mm Gatling gun 100 150 25 mm gun 100 150 30mm Gatling gun 100 150 Maverick (TV, IIR, laser-guided) 25 100 Walleye II (1,000 lb. TV-guided bomb) 275 500 1 1 Walleye II (2,400 lb. TV-guided bomb) 4 2 105 mm cannon 80 200 125 40-/25-/20 mm gun 35 1 Risk-estimate distances are to be determined. For LGBs, the values shown are for weapons that do not guide and that follow a ballistic trajectory similar to general purpose bombs. This does not apply to GBU-24 bombs, because GBU-24s do not follow a ballistic trajectory.
2 3

Not recommended for use near troops in contact.

CBU-71/CBU84 bombs contain time-delay fuzes, which detonate at random times after impact. CBU-89 bombs are antitank and antipersonnel mines and are not recommended for use near troops in contact. AC-130 estimates are based on worse case scenarios. The 105mm round described is the M-1 HE round with M-731 proximity fuze. Other fuzing would result in smaller distances. These figures are accurate throughout the firing orbit. The use of no-fire headings has no benefits for reducing risk-estimate distances and should not be used in contingency situations. The data listed applies only to AGM-65 A, B, C and D models. AGM-65 E and G models contain a larger warhead and risk-estimate distances are not currently available.
5 4


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10-78. Threat levels (low, medium, and high) determine CAS feasibility. Threat level determination is based heavily on enemy capabilities, but friendly capabilities are also weighed in meeting the threat and environmental conditions. Air defense systems that present a low or medium threat level for one type of aircraft may present a high threat level for another type of aircraft. A medium threat level during daylight hours may be a low threat level at night. As an example, on a clear day an ZSU-23-4 is a low threat to an F-16 since it can fly just over the ZSU envelope, however to an Apache helicopter the ZSU is a high threat. Should weather force the F-16 to fly lower (into the ZSU envelope) then the ZSU becomes a high threat. Low threat- operations proceed without prohibitive interference. Aircrews are capable of selecting tactics and weapon systems to ensure optimal effects achieved. Medium threat - acceptable exposure to enemy air defense assets. High threat - enemy integrated air defenses with fire control and EW. Aircraft are forced to fly within envelope. Hinders tactics. AIRCRAFT PROTECTION FROM SEAD FIRES 10-79. Because aircrews may rely largely on closely delivered indirect SEAD fires for protection against air defense threats, all details of SEAD missions must be closely coordinated between aircrews, terminal controllers/observers and fire support coordinators. Coordination should ensure that aircraft are protected not only from enemy fires, but also from friendly SEAD fires. Aircraft and indirect fire separation techniques provide protection from friendly SEAD fires. These techniques are discussed in the following ACA paragraphs.


10-80. Informal ACAs (see Chapter 1) can be established using separation plans and may be established by the task force commander. Aircraft and surface fires may be separated by distance (lateral, altitude, and combination of lateral and altitude) or by time. Distance separation requires less detailed coordination between aircraft and firing units, but can be the most restrictive for aircraft routing. Fire support personnel should select the separation technique that requires the least coordination without adversely affecting the aircrews ability to safely complete the mission. LATERAL SEPARATION 10-81. (See Figure 10-6.) Lateral separation is effective for coordinating fires against targets that are adequately separated from flight routes to ensure aircraft protection from the effects of friendly fires. This is an appropriate technique when CAS aircraft and ground firing units engage separate targets and aircraft will not cross GT lines. Lateral distances are based on probable errors associated with a particular delivery system (generally 600 meters for artillery and 750 meters for NGF). Terminal controllers must know the GT line so they can restrict aircraft from crossing trajectories. (For example, Stay west of grid line 62 or Remain west of the river.)


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Figure 10-6. Lateral Separation ALTITUDE SEPARATION 10-82. (See Figure 10-7.) Altitude separation is effective for coordinating fires when aircrews will remain above indirect fire trajectories and their effects. This technique is effective when aircrews and firing units engage the same or nearby targets. (For example, Remain above 3000 feet MSL in quadrant northwest of grid 7325 or Orbit above 5000 MSL at Possum Kingdom Lake.)


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Figure 10-7. Altitude Separation ALTITUDE AND LATERAL SEPARATION 10-83. (See Figure 10-8.) Altitude and lateral separation is the most restrictive technique for aircrews and may be required when aircraft must cross the firing units GT line. This is an appropriate technique when aircraft and firing units engage separate targets and the CAS target is along the GT line. This requires aircrews to remain below indirect fire trajectories. Aircraft maneuvering requirements may also dictate that firing units deliver fires by high angle or reduced charge. For example, Stay between north-south grid lines 58 and 62 and below 3000 feet MSL.


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Figure 10-8. Altitude and Lateral Separation TIME SEPARATION 10-84. Time separation requires the most detailed coordination and may be required when aircrews must fly near indirect fire trajectories or ordnance effects. The timing of surface fires must be coordinated with aircraft routing. This ensures that even though aircraft and surface fires may occupy the same space, they do not do so at the same time. All timing for surface fires will be based on the specific aircraft event time (TOT/TTT). This technique is appropriate when aircrews and firing units engage the same or nearby targets. Consider weapons fragmentation envelope and the likelihood of secondary explosions when deconflicting sorties. Figure 10-9 illustrates time separation.


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Figure 10-9. Time Separation


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10-85. Table 10-9 summarizes appropriate separation techniques for typical CAS scenarios. Table 10-9. Separation Techniques Altitude Attack Level High/Medium Altitude Attack Low/Very Low Altitude Attack CAS Target Same as/Near Surface Target Altitude Separation Time Separation CAS Target Distant from Surface Target Altitude Separation Altitude or Lateral Separation CAS Target Along GT Line Altitude and/or Lateral Separation Altitude and/or Lateral Separation


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10-86. The primary mission of an attack helicopter is to destroy armor and mechanized threat forces. Attack helicopters are used as maneuver forces in combined arms operations. This maximizes their weapon and aircraft system capabilities. They are ideally suited for situations in which rapid reaction time is important or terrain restricts ground forces.

10-87. Infrequently, on the basis of a commander's risk versus payoff assessment, attack helicopters may be tasked to provide fire support to close combat forces when no other assets are available. The attack helicopter, when tailored for this mission, may have a significantly reduced antiarmor capability, especially if most or all of its munitions must be configured for area suppression of infantry, motorized, or lightly armored forces. Thus, if the situation requires it, and assets permit, one or more antiarmor equipped helicopters may participate in a close support mission to ensure that the force has the flexibility and multi-function capability to react to changing circumstances. An FSO should always confirm the total capability of the responding attack helicopter force during fire support missions. Besides the attack capability, helicopter forces can often provide an observation capability as a secondary function (at the helicopter force commanders discretion).

10-88. Army aviation assets can be used to provide fire support as required. Capabilities of attack (and scout helicopters) are provided in Tables 10-10. Aviation munitions are described in Table 10-11.


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Table 10-10. Aviation Assets

Aircraft M/D/S




Laser Capability LST



Marking Capability

Other Systems

2 VHF-AM/FM 7.62 Machine gun .50 CAL Machine gun 2.75 Rockets



2 VHF-AM/FM BGM-71 TOW 2.75 Rockets 20MM Cannon



Rockets Laser





2 VHF-AM/FM BGM-71 TOW AGM-114 Hellfire FAE 2.75 & 5 Rockets 20mm Cannon LUU-2 flares AGM-122 Sidearm



Rockets Laser


AH-64 A




AGM-114 Hellfire 2.75 Rockets AGM-114 Hellfire 2.75 Rockets



Rockets Laser

FLIR 39.8x NVG DTV 127x FLIR 39.8x, NVG, GPS, DTV 127x, Improved data modem, Radar (air and ground target modes)

1 VHF-AM/FM 30mm Cannon AH-64 D (including Longbow)






Rockets Laser

1 VHF-AM/FM 30mm Cannon

OH-58 D (Kiowa Warrior)



AGM-114 Hellfire .50 Cal Machine gun



Rockets Laser

FLIR 66 2/3x TVS 50x NVG

1 VHF-AM/FM 2.75 Rockets

(1) The AH-64 helicopters cannot designate laser codes 1711 to 1788. (2) The AH-1W can designate codes 1111-1488, but has maximum effectiveness from 1111-1178.


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Table 10-11. Aviation Munitions Weapon

2.75RX, 10-lb 2.75RX, 17-lb 2.75 MK 66/M151 22.95-lb 7.62 mm mini-gun .50 Cal machine gun 20 mm cannon 30 mm cannon TOW Hellfire 5.00RX
(2) (2) (1) (1) (2)

Maximum Effective Range (m)

7,500 6,000 6,900 1,000 1,830 1,500 3,000 1,600 3750 8,000 7,200 NA

Maximum Load (rounds)

76 76 38 5,000 500 750 1,200 265 8 16 8 4

40 mm grenade launcher


* Reflects maximum rounds aircraft can carry however mission may dictate less ammunition being carried. (1) USA only. (2) USMC only.


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OBSERVER SHOT OUT. OBSERVER TARGET DESTROYED, END OF MISSION, OVER. AIRCRAFT END OF MISSION, OUT. CODEWORDS: LOBL = Lock-on before launch, Minimum distance = 800m, Maximum distance = 7,000m LOAL = Lock-on after launch, 1. Direct line of sight, Minimum distance = 1,700m, Maximum distance = 7,000m 2. Lo, Minimum distance = 2,000m, Maximum distance = 8,000m 3. Hi, Minimum distance = 3,500m, Maximum distance = 8,000m NO JOY = Not picking up G/VLLD spot BINGO = Low on fuel WINCHESTER = Out of ammunition


10-89. The JAAT is a combination of Army attack and scout helicopters and Air Force CAS. Normally, the team operates with ground maneuver forces, field artillery, mortars, and air defense weapon systems to attack HPTs. These systems complement and reinforce each other when used together. Fire support team members and FSOs from company team to brigade levels are involved in coordinating and supporting this joint effort. Target hand-over procedures are the method by which they help accomplish the mission of attack helicopters.

10-90. If attack helicopters are operating in the company team zone of action, the FIST or COLT can use its GVLLD to designate targets for these


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helicopters. This can be done in several different ways. When the attack helicopters are carrying TOWs, the FIST hands over the target to the aero scout, and the scout maneuvers the attack helicopter into position to engage. Or, the FIST can hand over directly to an attack helicopter. 10-91. If Hellfire is the weapon system used, other options are available. The attack helicopter, aero scout, or FIST can guide Hellfire. Hellfire has a lock on after launch (LOAL) local function. This means the helicopter does not have to unmask to fire its missile. 10-92. To prevent the Hellfire from locking onto the designator instead of the target, the angle T formed between the designator-target line and the missile-target line should be less than 1,065 mils (60 degrees). Before engaging the target, the observer, should relay his position to the helicopter so the pilot can position the aircraft properly for safety. To keep the missile from tracking laser backscatter energy, the designator should keep a clear, unobstructed line of sight to the target. Special care should be taken to avoid lasing through dust, trees, or other obstructions that could cause the Hellfire to impact near the designator. This is especially true in designating moving targets. See FM 90-20, J-Fire for additional information on Hellfire designator exclusion zones and surface danger zones.


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10-93. If a NGF spotter is not available (note: there is no longer an air and naval gunfire liaison company in the active force), the FIST is responsible to call for and adjust naval gunfire. The procedures, except for a few differences, are the same as already outlined. It is essential for the company team FSO to be aware of these differences in order to accomplish the mission in a timely manner. COMMUNICATIONS 10-94. The NGF spotter, if attached, conducts NGF missions over the NGF ground spot net with an HF radio. The lack of a HF radio may pose a problem if any observer other than a spotter is required to adjust NGF. To solve this problem, the observer should contact his higher headquarters and request that the appropriate agency act as a relay between him and the ship. FIRE UNIT STATUS 10-95. A ship is assigned a fire support area (FSA) or a fire support station (FSS) from which to fire. When a ship arrives in its assigned firing position and has completed its prefiring tasks, it will report ON STATION AND READY TO FIRE as part of the guns up ready to fire (GURF) report. The GURF report may include other pertinent information, for example, types and quantities of ammunition available for NGF support. The observer may request the GURF report.


10-96. The observer uses a standardized call for fire to communicate effectively with the ship. The call for fire is transmitted to the ship in two transmissions, consisting of six elements, with a read-back after each transmission. The sequence of these two transmissions is as follows: Spotter identification, warning order and target number. Target location, target description, method of engagement, and method of control. SPOTTER (OBSERVER) IDENTIFICATION 10-97. The spotter identification tells the ship who is calling for fire. The observer and the ship will use call signs. Once given, call signs are normally omitted from subsequent transmissions in the course of the mission. WARNING ORDER AND TARGET NUMBER 10-98. The warning order informs the ship that a call for fire is being transmitted. It clears the net and warns the ship that NGF support is desired. The warning order consists of the words FIRE MISSION. 10-99. The observer assigns a target number to each target on which he calls for fire. The target number consists of two letters followed by four numbers. For targets of opportunity the observer assigns each fire mission a number in


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numerical sequence from the block of target number allocated by the task force FSE, or the task force FSO may assign a target number. In the case of planned targets the observer uses the previously assigned target number from the fire plan. The assignment of target numbers to fire missions in the call for fire does not cause the targets to be recorded as targets. An example in the warning order and target number element of the call for fire is A1B THIS IS C2D, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AB2135, OVER. TARGET LOCATION 10-100. Target location provides the ship with the information needed to plot the target and determine firing data. Target location data are determined in the same manner as for artillery. The observer transmits target location data as described below: Grid 10-101. The observer announces GRID followed by the coordinates of the target; ALTITUDE followed by the altitude of the target (in meters, measured from mean sea level); and DIRECTION followed by the spotting line (OT direction) if the method of control is spotter (observer) adjust. Polar 10-102. The observer announces DIRECTION followed by the spotting line (OT direction), DISTANCE followed by the distance from the observer to the target (in meters) and a vertical shift (in meters). Shift From a Known Point 10-103. The observer identifies the known point (target number) in the warning order of the call for fire. He includes in the target location element DIRECTION (OT direction), followed by the lateral and/or range shift, and the vertical shift. TARGET DESCRIPTION 10-104. Target description gives a brief description of the target. The observer considers the type of target, size, and degree of protection when formulating target description. Type of Target 10-105. Type of target includes what the target is doing, for example, troops digging in or trucks in convoy. Size 10-106. Size includes number of elements in the target or physical dimensions, for example, 5 trucks, or 400 X 200, attitude 0700. Degree of Protection 10-107. Degree of protection indicates whether the target has protection, for example, in the open or in bunkers with overhead cover.


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METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT 10-108. Method of Engagement is the element that the observer uses to describe the attack of the target. The subelements of the method of engagement include: Danger close. Trajectory. Ammunition. Armament. Number of guns. Number of salvos. Special Instructions. Danger Close 10-109. The term DANGER CLOSE is included in the method of engagement when there are friendly troops or positions within a prescribed distance of the target. Danger close for unobserved or initial salvos (rounds) of 5-inch projectiles is 750 meters. 10-110. The observer reports DANGER CLOSE followed by a cardinal direction and distance from the target to the nearest friendly position. The observer also designates the place where the first salvo is to impact. The first salvo can be either offset or directed at the target. 10-111. The first salvo should be offset to impact on the side of the target opposite the location of the friendly forces. This is done by making a normal correction (left or right, add or drop) in relation to the OT direction or by giving a cardinal direction. The offset between the nearest friendly position and the first salvo can be any distance specified by the observer, but is normally at least 750 meters for 5-inch NGF.

DANGER CLOSE, SOUTH 350 (SOUTH 350 indicates friendly position in relation to the target.) FIRST SALVO AT NORTH 400 (The correction NORTH 400 positions the offset at least 750 meters from the friendly position [350 + 400 = 750]). 10-112. The first salvo may be directed at the target when the tactical situation does not permit an offset, for example, FIRST SALVO AT TARGET. 10-113. The creeping method of adjustment is always used in danger close missions. The observer makes corrections by moving each round toward the target in increments of 100 or 200 meters until effect is achieved. The combined effect of the correction should not exceed 200 meters toward friendly forces. If more than one gun is to fire for effect, the observer should check the mean point of impact of all guns to be used before entering fire for effect.


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10-114. In a danger close situation fires may be crept to within a minimum safety distance of the friendly position. Recommended minimum safety distances for adjusting salvos of a 5-inch gun are 200 meters when firing parallel to front lines and 350 meters when not firing parallel to front lines. The ship will normally advise the observer when the predicted fall of shot approaches the minimum safety distances. Trajectory 10-115. This sub element applies to ships that are capable of reduced charge or high angle firing. The normal trajectory is flat and fired at full charge propellant. The normal trajectory is standard; if this subelement is omitted in the call for fire, the ship will fire full charge. The observer or ship may specify a nonstandard trajectory when required. The nonstandard trajectories are reduced charge and high-angle. 10-116. Reduced Charge. This is required when intervening terrain prevents engagement of targets in defilade. The observer or ship raises the trajectory to increase the angle of fall by announcing REDUCED CHARGE. In addition, reduced charge lowers the initial velocity of the projectile. This prevents the ripping of illumination parachutes and increases accuracy at short ranges. Once REDUCED CHARGE has been initiated, it can be terminated by the command CANCEL REDUCED CHARGE. 10-117. High-Angle. High angle is fired with a full charge. It is used to engage targets in defilade when extended range or other considerations prevent the use of reduced charge. The observer or ship announces HIGH ANGLE. Once initiated, it can be terminated by the command CANCEL HIGH ANGLE. Ammunition 10-118. Several types of ammunition are available to the observer. If the type of ammunition is not specified in the call for fire, shell HE with fuze quick will be fired during the adjustment and FFE phases. If a different type of ammunition or fuze action is required during either the adjustment or the FFE phase, the observer must specify the type desired. As much warning as possible should be provided to the ship when a mission requires a nonstandard projectile such as WP. This allows time to ready the ammunition in the gun mount. 10-119. Projectile. The observer must specify all projectiles except HE; for example, SHELL WP. 10-120. Fuze. The observer must specify all fuzes except fuze quick; for example, FUZE DELAY. (When illumination is fired, the fuze is understood to be time.) Number of Guns 10-121. The observer may specify the number of guns for effect. If not specified, it is understood to be the same number as in adjustment. One gun


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is considered standard and need not be specified. An example command is TWO GUNS. Number of Salvos 10-122. The term salvo refers to the method of fire in which a weapon or number of weapons is fired at a target. It indicates the number of rounds to be fired from each gun. For example, 1 GUN 5 SALVOS means 5 rounds are to be fired, while 2 GUNS 5 SALVOS means 10 rounds are to be fired. 10-123. If the method of control is observer adjust, the number of salvos is omitted until the observer is ready to enter FFE (or it can be included if the observer wants to adjust with multiple salvos). If omitted, the ship fires only one salvo. Special Instructions 10-124. The observer uses special instructions in the call for fire when he desires the use of specific, nonstandard techniques to attack the target. 10-125. Interval. This is used to cause FFE rounds to be fired with a specific time interval between each salvo. The observer announces INTERVAL followed by a desired time interval (seconds understood); for example, 10 SALVOS, INTERVAL 30, FIRE FOR EFFECT. 10-126. Sustained Fire. If there is a requirement for fire for effect to be spread out over a specific period of time, the observer may specify SUSTAINED FIRE. The command includes the number of salvos and the period of time in which they are required to be fired; for example, 20 SALVOS, SUSTAINED FIRE, 5 MINUTES, FIRE FOR EFFECT. 10-127. Time on Target. The observer may require the initial salvos in fire for effect to impact on the target at a specified time. 10-128. Coordinated Illumination. The observer may inform the ship that the firing of illuminating and HE projectiles will be coordinated to illuminate the target and surrounding area only at the time required for spotting and adjusting the HE fires. He does this by announcing COORDINATED ILLUMINATION. 10-129. Continuous Illumination. The observer may require constant light on a target. He may specify a period of time the illumination is to be effective. The ship determines the interval to fire the subsequent illumination salvos based on the burning time of the projectile. The observer commands CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION. This command should be used with discretion to avoid excessive expenditure of ammunition. METHOD OF CONTROL 10-130. Method of control indicates the observer's desire or ability to control the delivery of fires. The standard method of control is observer adjust. The nonstandard methods of control are FFE and ship adjust. FFE can be


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modified by the command CANNOT OBSERVE. All methods of control can be modified by the command AT MY COMMAND. Spotter (Observer) Adjust 10-131. When the observer believes that an adjustment must be made, he adjusts the salvos until he is sure fire will take effect on the target. This method is understood to be standard if omitted from the call for fire. It may be used when the observer wishes to revert to adjustment anytime during the mission. Fire for Effect 10-132. The observer should strive for FFE with the first round or as soon as possible in the adjustment phase. When determining whether to fire for effect on the first round, the observer must consider the target location and how accurately the ship has been firing its initial rounds on previous missions. He must also consider the dispersion pattern of NGF. If the first salvo is believed to have effect on the target, the best results are normally achieved by surprise fire. When FFE is desired, the observer specifies the number of salvos (and guns if different from that used in adjustment) and announces FIRE FOR EFFECT; for example, 6 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT or 2 GUNS, 6 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT. 10-133. The command CANNOT OBSERVE is used when neither the observer nor the ship can see the target yet the target must be engaged. Normally, the location is received through intelligence sources. FIRE FOR EFFECT and the number of salvos are always transmitted with this method of control; for example 2 GUNS, 4 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, CANNOT OBSERVE. Ship Adjust 10-134. This method of control is used when the observer believes the ship has a better view of the target than he does. Since direct fire is faster and more accurate, this method is used whenever possible. After the observer positively identifies the target to the ship, he announces SHIP ADJUST. The ship then takes the target under fire. The observer may assist the ship by providing range spottings along the GT line, particularly when he is looking perpendicular to the GT line. At My Command 10-135. The command AT MY COMMAND is used as a modifier to the methods of control. If the observer needs to control when the ship fires each round, he includes AT MY COMMAND in the method of control. When the ship is prepared to fire each round, it transmits READY, OVER. The observer commands FIRE when he is ready for the ship to fire the round. At my command remains in effect throughout the mission or until the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND.


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PREFIRING REPORT 10-136. After the ship receives the call for fire and determines firing data, a report will be made to the observer before firing begins. The observer reads back this transmission to the ship and commands BREAKFIRE, OVER. Information the ship reports is discussed below. Gun-Target Line 10-137. The ship reports its firing direction using the same north reference and units used by the observer. The ship notifies the observer of subsequent changes to the GT line of 200 mils (10 degrees) or more. If the direction used for adjustment is the GT line, the ship will use mils in the call for fire if the direction in the call for fire was a cardinal direction, a GT line, arbitrary reference feature, or if direction was omitted. Line of Fire 10-138. If the ship is firing illumination, the firing direction may not pass over the target because of wind drift of the flare parachute. To indicate the illumination round trajectory, the ship will report LINE OF FIRE followed by the directional reference. The line of fire may be different from the GT line. Summit 10-139. If the observer is airborne, the ship routinely reports the highest altitude above mean sea level the projectile will reach on its flight path to the target. Ground observers may request summit. Summit is reported in feet to aerial observers and in meters to ground observers. First Salvo at (Point of Aim) 10-140. When the observer has reported a danger close situation, the ship confirms the first salvo aiming point identified previously by the observer; for example, FIRST SALVO AT ADD 300. Any Changes 10-141. If the ship must change any portion of the observer's fire request, it notifies him of the change. For instance, if the observer requests WP IN EFFECT and the ship has none remaining, the ship announces CANNOT COMPLY WITH WP, HE IN EFFECT. Ready and Time of Flight 10-142. When the ship is prepared to fire the first salvo, it reports READY followed by the TOF (in seconds). The observer reads back the entire prefiring report and commands BREAKFIRE, OVER. If the method of control included at my command, the ship also reports READY before firing each subsequent round. The ship informs the observer when there is a TOF change of more than five seconds. An example of a prefiring report follows.


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SHIP TRANSMISSION GUN-TARGET LINE 1680, READY 17, OVER. GUN-TARGET LINE 1680, READY 17, BREAKFIRE, OVER. FIRE, OUT. REPORT UPON FIRING 10-143. The ship will transmit SHOT and SPLASH after each salvo is fired in adjustment and after the initial salvo in the FFE phase. There is no requirement for the observer to acknowledge these transmissions. Shot 10-144. Shot is transmitted the moment the guns are fired. Splash 10-145. Splash is transmitted five seconds before the round is expected to detonate. Splash is not reported during FFE when two or more ships are conducting a massed-fire mission. In coordinated illumination missions, splash is reported for illumination (star) shells before the beginning of the HE adjustment phase and thereafter for the HE round only. CORRECTION OF ERRORS 10-146. Errors are sometimes made by the observer or by the ship when transmitting data. The following procedures should be used to correct the data. Correction 10-147. If the observer realizes he has made an error in transmission, he immediately transmits the word CORRECTION followed by the corrected data. If the correction affects other subelements, his correction includes a restatement of the entire data. Wrong 10-148. If an error is made during a read back, the word WRONG followed by the correct data is transmitted at the end of the transmission. The word WRONG is then read back, along with the corrected version. OBSERVER TRANSMISSION


10-149. The following paragraphs apply to adjustment procedures unique to NGF. The characteristic flat trajectory and high muzzle velocity of NGF make NGF adjustment somewhat difficult, particularly on flat terrain. The


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observer must use sound observed fire procedures discussed previously, such as accurate target location. He must also take the actions identified below. IDENTIFY THE GUN-TARGET LINE 10-150. When notified of the GT line in the prefiring report, the observer must visualize its position in relation to the target and his own position. This provides the basis for the observer to identify round-to-round dispersion in adjustment. BE AWARE OF THE DISPERSION PATTERN OF NAVAL GUNFIRE 10-151. The fall of shot of NGF can be described as a narrow, elongated pattern as seen along the GT line. The size of the pattern varies with range. For example, at 21,000 meters, the 5-inch gun mount causes a round-toround dispersion pattern that is approximately 150 meters long and 50 meters wide. Table 10-12 provides sample one standard deviation estimates in range of the effects of ballistic dispersion as a function of range. A one standard deviation value gives the distance on either side of the mean point of impact within which 68 percent of the rounds are expected to impact for a 5-inch, 54-caliber gun. Table 10-12. Sample Dispersion Versus Range Range (yards) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Estimate of Dispersion in Range (yards) 96 89 83 76 69 64 59 56 53 53 54 57 Range (yards) 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 Estimate of Dispersion in Range (yards) 62 67 72 77 83 87 92 96 100 105 110 114

PREDICT EACH FALL OF SHOT BEFORE IMPACT 10-152. While the ship is determining firing data for the next round, the observer should visualize the fall of shot based on his corrections. He compares the actual impact of the round with the predicted fall of shot. Differences that occur along the GT line may indicate round-to-round dispersion. IGNORE ERRORS TO THE FALL OF SHOT ATTRIBUTED TO ROUND-TO-ROUND DISPERSION 10-153. If a round impacts contrary to its predicted fall of shot as a result of dispersion, the observer makes a correction from its predicted point of impact


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instead of its actual impact. This should result in the next fall of shot impacting as predicted. This avoids the observer getting a "ping pong" effect in adjustment.

The observer visualizes the GT line. His first spotting is SHORT, 35 MILS RIGHT (OT factor = 2). He transmits a correction of LEFT 70, ADD 200. His predicted fall of shot is OVER, ON LINE. The second spotting is OVER, 25 MILS LEFT. (The apparent error is along the GT line.) The observer transmits a correction of DROP 100. The third spotting impacts as predicted (SHORT, ON LINE). The observer's final correction is ADD 50, 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT. CORRECT FROM THE MEAN POINT OF IMPACT 10-154. When consecutive rounds impact differently from their predicted fall of shot, the observer should make a correction from the average or MPI of the rounds.

The first spotting is SHORT, 35 MILS RIGHT (OT factor = 2). The first correction is LEFT 70, ADD 200. The predicted fall of shot is OVER, ON LINE. The second spotting is OVER, 25 MILS LEFT. (The apparent error is along the GT line.) The observer transmits a correction of DROP 100. The third spotting is SHORT, 30 MILS LEFT. The observer notes that two consecutive rounds have impacted left of their predicted point of impact. The final correction is RIGHT 50, ADD 50, 5 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT. The observer made his deviation correction from the MPI of the last two rounds (25 MILS LEFT and 30 MILS LEFT). USE MULTIPLE ROUNDS IN ADJUSTMENT 10-155. There may be times when the observer needs to adjust with multiple rounds, to fire multiple salvos from a single gun or to use multiple guns in adjustment. The multiple rounds in adjustment technique requires the observer to adjust from the MPI of all rounds fired. This technique is normally used when firing on a large-area target or when visualizing the GT line. Observers who are having difficulties with range dispersion during adjustment can also use it. USE ELEVATION OR HOB ADJUSTMENT OF IMPACT FIRES 10-156. On steep terrain, UP or DOWN corrections may be used to bring the fall of shot to the same elevation as the target. These corrections are reflected on the ground with reference to the GT line. 10-157. UP or DOWN corrections are transmitted in increments of 5 meters. Using the map helps to determine these corrections. 10-158. Avoid mixing ADD or DROP with UP or DOWN corrections for impact fires. Both of these corrections involve an elevation change on the


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gun, and the results will be unpredictable. Deviation and range adjustments along the OT line usually equate to elevation changes on the gun when transferred to GT line corrections. Use UP or DOWN corrections to bring the impacts to the same altitude as the target; then switch to deviation and/or range corrections. ADJUSTMENT OF AIRBURSTS 10-159. Time fires use special fuzes to achieve an air burst over the target. These fuzes include mechanical and electronic time fuzes that require a time setting before firing. Airbursts may also be delivered by proximity fuzes (VT and controlled variable time [CVT]) designed to explode at an optimal HOB (20 meters for 5-inch NGF) based on a radio-activated signal. Time fires using time or electronic time fuzes require adjustment to ensure detonation at an optimal HOB (20 meters) in FFE. Proximity fuzes do not require adjustment. Adjustment of Time Fires 10-160. The observer announces FUZE TIME IN EFFECT in the method of engagement element of his call for fire. He conducts adjustment with fuze quick in the same manner as discussed previously. He enters the time phase of the adjustment process when: Splitting a 200-meter bracket for an area target. Splitting a 100-meter bracket for a point target. An adjusting round has effect on a target. 10-161. The transmission to enter the time phase of adjustment is FUZE TIME followed by a correction (or REPEAT), for example, FUZE TIME, RIGHT 30, ADD 50, OVER or FUZE TIME, REPEAT, OVER. Height of Burst Corrections 10-162. If the initial time round is spotted as GRAZE, the correction is UP 40. A 40-meter HOB correction will be applied until a spotting of AIR is obtained. Consecutive GRAZE spottings may indicate an error in the altitude of the target reported in the call for fire or an error by the mechanical fuze setter on the gun. The observer must avoid making deviation and range corrections from a graze burst. Usually, a graze burst will be over the target on the GT line. 10-163. Once an initial AIR spotting is achieved, the observer measures the spotting (to the nearest mil) and computes a HOB correction by multiplying the spotting by the OT factor. The HOB correction is made to the nearest 5 meters to correct the HOB to 20 meters. If a correct HOB can reasonably be expected, the observer enters fire for effect. If the AIR spotting is excessively high (60 meters or greater), the observer should observe another salvo before entering fire for effect. Excessively high bursts will normally be short on the GT line and out of the target area because the fuze functioned prematurely in the projectile trajectory. 10-164. If a graze burst is obtained after an airburst, the correction is UP 20. FFE is never begun when the last burst observed resulted in a spotting of GRAZE.


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ILLUMINATION 10-165. The two methods of employing illumination are continuous and coordinated. Continuous Illumination 10-166. In some situations, an observer may need continuous light on the target area. This method of illumination can be used in surveillance and will be used automatically during the FFE phase of coordinated illumination missions. When firing continuous illumination, the ship fires one round about every 15 seconds. Thus, three fired rounds will result in one round bursting, one flare at midpoint of descent, and one flare near burnout. This technique should be used with discretion to avoid wasting the limited number of star shells (illuminating projectiles) available in the ship's magazine. Coordinated Illumination 10-167. This is the common technique used by NGF observers to adjust fire during darkness. The observer transmits a call for fire for a suspected target the location of which is not sufficiently accurate to fire for effect. The ship fires an illuminating round over the initial target location. The observer then moves the illumination by subsequent adjustments. When the flare is adjusted to provide good target location, the observer informs the ship of the moment of best illumination by transmitting the command STANDBY, MARK. The ship then computes gun data to fire the initial round for HE adjustment to impact directly under the point of illumination burst at the moment of best illumination. There will be a single salvo of HE fire for each adjustment. When fire for effect begins, the ship will fire enough continuous illumination to ensure the observer can see the target. Illumination Call for Fire 10-168. The observer uses the standard call for fire format. He announces either CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION or COORDINATED ILLUMINATION in the special instructions subelement of the call for fire. The number of guns is omitted since one gun is standard. The ammunition (illuminating projectile and fuze) is also omitted. To prevent ripped chutes, the mission may require reduced charge, particularly in firing at ranges of less than 7,000 meters. An example of a coordinated illumination call for fire is shown below.

A1B THIS IS C2D, FIRE MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AF1011, OVER. GRID MB344677, ALTITUDE 55, DIRECTION 2680, SUSPECTED ENEMY ACTIVITY, COORDINATED ILLUMINATION, OVER. Prefiring Report 10-169. To differentiate between the illumination trajectory and that to be used for subsequent HE, the ship announces LINE OF FIRE followed by READY and TIME OF FLIGHT for the illuminating projectile. The observer


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must consider the path of the empty canister and its probable impact along the line of fire. The observer reads back the prefiring report and commands FIRE. Illumination Adjustment Procedures 10-170. Spottings are made to determine the location of the flare at the midpoint of its descent and the height of burnout of the flare. The flare is normally corrected to position it over (behind) the target along the OT line to achieve a silhouette of the target. If the target is on a slope, the flare normally is positioned short of the target to allow the light to shine back onto the target. The direction and speed of the wind also affect the positioning of the flare. 10-171. Deviation and Range Corrections. These corrections are given in multiple of 100 meters with a minimum correction of 100 meters. Because the lighted area is large, bold corrections are used instead of bracketing. 10-172. Height of Burnout. The height of burnout should be between 0 (as it touches the ground) and 50 meters above the ground. Corrections are given in multiples of 50 meters with a minimum correction of 50 meters. 10-173. If the flare burns on the ground, the observer counts the number of seconds it burns on the ground, multiplies by the rate of descent, and rounds up to the nearest 50 meters. For the 5-inch illuminating projectile, the rate of descent is 10 meters per second. For example, a flare burns on the ground for 4 seconds. The correction is UP 50 (4 seconds X 10 meters per second = 40 meters [ 50 meters]). 10-174. If the flare burnout is in the air, the observer must determine the height of burnout. The observer can use binoculars (measure mils X OT factor) to determine burnout height. A second technique is to count the number of seconds that it takes the flickering ember from the flare to reach the ground and then multiply by the rate of descent. After rounding down to the nearest 50 meters, a correction is given to place the height of burnout between 0 and 50 meters. For example, a flare burns out in the air. The observer counts 7 seconds from the burnout until the ember touches the ground. The correction is DOWN 50 (7 seconds X 10 meters per second = 70 meters [ 50 meters]). Continuous Illumination Procedures 10-175. The observer adjusts the illumination as discussed above. Once the target has been properly lit, the observer can begin the FFE phase of the mission. In this phase, the ship fires illuminating projectiles at such a rate of fire that they keep the target area continuously lit. The observer may increase or decrease the rate of fire by ordering an interval or sustained fire. Examples of entering the FFE phase are shown below. 10-176. When the observer wants to terminate illumination early during the FFE phase, he should transmit CEASE ILLUMINATION. 10-177. The observer may acquire a target during a continuous illumination mission and want to change to coordinated illumination. He should transmit


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the command COORDINATED ILLUMINATION. This command should be followed by desired illumination corrections, target description, method of engagement, and method of control changes; for example, COORDINATED ILLUMINATION, LEFT 200, TROOPS IN THE OPEN, FUZE CVT IN EFFECT, OVER. The ship will fire one illuminating projectile and be prepared to mark. Coordinated illumination procedures are described below. Coordinated Illumination Procedures 10-178. The observer's request for coordinated illumination may result from acquiring a target during a continuous illumination mission, or it may be a part of the observer's method of engagement in the initial call for fire. This request alerts the ship that the observer will adjust the illumination and that he will subsequently request and adjust HE projectiles timed to impact at the moment of best illumination. During the illumination adjustment phase of the mission, the ship will time every illuminating projectile fired. It will be prepared to mark when commanded by the observer. 10-179. Illumination Adjustment. The observer adjusts the illumination on the target area by the procedures outlined previously. 10-180. Marking Procedure. Once the illuminating flare has been positioned to yield the optimum light on the target, the observer transmits STANDBYMARK, OVER. The MARK informs the ship of the optimum illumination. The ship responds MARK, OUT. The ship then times the firing of each HE projectile to impact at the optimum, or marked, time. 10-181. HE Adjustment. Immediately after receiving the read back of MARK, OUT, the observer begins the HE adjustment phase. He transmits any subsequent corrections to improve the accuracy of the initial HE salvo. If no HE correction is sent, the ship fires the initial HE projectile at the point of flare deployment. That point may be positioned off the target location (for silhouette or wind purposes). Example corrections are HE LEFT 200, DROP 200, OVER and HE REPEAT, OVER. 10-182. The ship transmits a new prefiring report for the HE projectile. The observer reads it back and commands FIRE. 10-183. The ship transmits SHOT for the illuminating projectile and SPLASH, OUT for the HE. 10-184. The observer must preface each command with the type of projectile to which the correction is to be applied. Examples are ILLUMINATION ADD 200, HE LEFT 200, OVER and HE ADD 50, 10 SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. 10-185. Mark Modification. During the mission, the observer many want to change the timing between the illuminating and HE projectiles. To modify this interval, the observer uses the term ADVANCE or RETARD. 10-186. If the observer wants the HE to fire and impact sooner, he commands HE ADVANCE (so many) (seconds are understood); for example, HE LEFT 200, ADVANCE 05, OVER.


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10-187. If the observer wants the HE to impact later, he commands HE RETARD (so many) (seconds are understood); for example, HE RETARD 03, OVER. 10-188. Fire for Effect. During the FFE phase, the ship automatically fires limited continuous illumination. This ensures that the observer has enough illumination for surveillance. The ship fires the last illuminating projectile immediately after the last impact round in FFE unless the observer commands CEASE ILLUMINATION sooner. Illuminating Projectile Malfunctions 10-189. Two types of malfunctions are unique to illuminating rounds. Special procedures for ships and observers to compensate for these malfunctions are discussed below. 10-190. Ripped Chutes. Because of high muzzle velocity at shorter ranges, flare chutes may rip or separate upon deployment. Should this occur, the observer reports to the ship RIPPED CHUTE, REPEAT or RIPPED CHUTE, REDUCED CHARGE, REPEAT. The procedure to use depends upon how often ripped chutes occur and whether the reduced charge can range the target area. The observer also may request that the ship increase the range. 10-191. Dark Star. A dark star is an illuminating round that fails to deploy at all or fails to ignite. Such malfunctions are due to either faulty ammunition or improper fuze settings. When a dark star occurs, report DARK STAR, REPEAT, OVER. The ship should immediately check its time fuze settings and note the time fuze lot being used. If further dark stars occur, there is probably an error in the time fuze lot. FRESH TARGET SHIFT 10-192. Anytime during a mission, before transmitting END OF MISSION, an observer may want to shift fire to a higher priority target. The advantage of this technique is that the ship can shift to the fresh target more quickly than if another call for fire with new target location data were introduced into the gunfire control computer. The fresh target shift lets the observer temporarily suspend the adjustment of fire for the original target, bring fire onto a higher priority target, and then resume fire on the original target if desired. Procedures are discussed below. Call for Fire 10-193. The observer sends an abbreviated CFF, applying corrections from the impact of the last salvo to the fresh target. If started before the impact of the first salvo, corrections are made from the target location data sent in the CFF. The abbreviated CFF is discussed below. 10-194. Observer identification is omitted. 10-195. Warning order and target number are transmitted as FRESH TARGET, TARGET NUMBER (next succeeding target number). There is no break in transmission.


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10-196. Target location is expressed as deviation, range, and/or altitude correction from the last salvo fired (at the original target) to the fresh target. The shift is based on the original OT direction. The direction to the fresh target is not transmitted until after the first salvo of the fresh target shift has been fired. Then it is sent only if it differs from the original direction by more than 100 mils or 5 degrees. 10-197. Target description must always be included. 10-198. Method of engagement is omitted unless a change from the initial call for fire is required. Since the essence of the fresh target shift is timeliness, changes that may cause a delay, such as changes in ammunition, should be avoided. The observer may consider using a less preferred shell-fuze combination to retain a timely response. 10-199. Method of control is omitted unless a change from the initial call for fire is desired. If the observer was in the FFE phase on the original target, that phase will continue unless the observer announces, SPOTTER (OBSERVER) ADJUST, OVER. Adjust Fire 10-200. Once the first salvo impacts for the fresh target shift, the observer transmits a new OT direction (if required) and conducts adjustment onto the fresh target. Complete Firing 10-201. The observer continues adjustment until he has achieved the desired effects on the fresh target. If he wants to resume firing on the original target, he again uses the fresh target shift technique to return to the original target. The target is referred to by its original target number. Record as Target 10-202. If the observer wants the ship to record a target for future firing, he must transmit RECORD AS TARGET, TARGET NUMBER (so-and-so) after fire for effect on that target is completed but before sending END OF MISSION. End of Mission 10-203. When he is satisfied with the effects on each of the targets (fresh and original targets), the mission is terminated in target number sequence. Each target must be referred to by target number in reporting the damage assessment. For example, END OF MISSION, TARGET NUMBER AB4007 (original target), 3 TRUCKS DESTROYED, TARGET NUMBER AB4008 (fresh target), SAGGER WEAPON SILENCED, OVER. NEW TARGET SHIFT 10-204. At any time during a fire mission, the observer may wish to attack another target that is not of a higher priority. If the ship has the capability to conduct multiple missions (multiple mounts and an MK-86 gunfire control system (GFCS), the observer can send an abbreviated call for fire without


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interrupting the original mission. He uses a shift from the last salvo, similar to the procedure described for fresh target shift. The observer then conducts adjustment on both targets. The difference between the fresh target shift and the new target shift is that for fresh target shift the observer conducts adjustment for one target at a time, while for new target he conducts adjustment on two targets concurrently. The CFF and adjustment procedures are the same as those described for fresh target shift, with the following exceptions: Warning order and target number are transmitted NEW TARGET, TARGET NUMBER (new target number). There is no break in transmission. The observer must preface each correction with the target number to which it is to be applied. If confusion will not result, the observer may use the last two digits of the target number. On completion of FFE for the first completed mission, the observer may record the target if desired. He completes the mission by reporting END OF MISSION. SIMULTANEOUS ENGAGEMENT OF TWO TARGETS 10-205. The procedures for the simultaneous engagement of two targets differ from those of the new target shift in that the target location is not sent by using the shift from the last salvo. If the ship can conduct multiple missions (MK-86 GFCS), the observer can adjust fire onto two targets simultaneously. 10-206. The call for fire for the second target in simultaneous engagement is the standard six-element NGF call for fire. 10-207. The observer must preface each correction with the target number to which it is to be applied. 10-208. The ship will not transmit SPLASH in order to provide more time for the observer to transmit corrections. FIRING ON A RECORDED TARGET 10-209. If fires are desired on a previously recorded target or a planning target, the observer sends an abbreviated call for fire as discussed below. 10-210. Observer identification is required. 10-211. Warning order and target number consist of the word FIRE followed by the target number; for example, FIRE TARGET NUMBER (so-and-so). There is no break in transmission. 10-212. Target location is omitted. It is already known by the ship. 10-213. Target description is omitted unless changed from the recorded description. 10-214. Method of control is transmitted as required. If firing a recorded target from the same ship in the same firing track as when the data were recorded, a first-salvo FFE may be feasible.


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DESTRUCTIVE FIRE 10-215. Destructive fire missions by NGF ships involve deliberate, accurate gunfire normally using a single gun or turret against each target. This can be expensive in ammunition and take a considerable amount of time to execute. During the mission, the gun or turret and ammunition lot are not changed. The ship should be positioned to allow for the best conditions and orientation with respect to the GT line and the terrain tin the target area. The GT range should be as short as possible in order to reduce the dispersion zone. Adjustment 10-216. Ship adjustment should be used if possible. If the observer conducts the adjustment, he does so in the normal manner described previously until the MPI is at the split of the 100-meter range bracket. Fire for Effect 10-217. Groups of rounds, usually five for a single gun, are fired and the averages for deviation and range spottings are noted. A correction based on the MPI of all the rounds is then sent. Five rounds are fired again. The correction is made as accurately as possible; for example, RIGHT 10, DROP 25, REPEAT, OVER or LEFT 5, REPEAT, OVER. MASSED FIRE 10-218. Two or more ships may be required to engage large or important targets simultaneously. If they have not already been given a direct support mission, gunfire request procedures must be started. 10-219. A collective call sign is used. All orders from the observer are read back by the senior ship. The other ships acknowledge the transmissions. The first ship to report READY is adjusted onto the target in the normal manner. The other ships are individually adjusted as they report READY. Usually, one or two bold corrections are used to bring the MPI into the required target area. To facilitate observer control, AT MY COMMAND may be used. At the completion of adjustment, the observer announces CANCEL AT MY COMMAND, ALL GUNS (required number) SALVOS, FIRE FOR EFFECT, OVER. SPECIAL NAVAL GUNFIRE COMMANDS AND REPORTS Safety Considerations 10-220. Check Firing. Anyone can command CHECK FIRING when an unsafe situation becomes apparent. This command causes the ship to instantly stop firing. 10-221. Cancel Check Firing. The originator of check firing must announce CANCEL CHECK FIRING for the fire mission to continue. From the Observer 10-222. Spreading Fires. This report is used after fire for effect has been delivered. It notifies the ship that the observer wants to distribute the fires


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over a large area. The words SPREADING FIRES are followed by a correction and the command REPEAT (pertaining to the volume of fire); for example, SPREADING FIRES, RIGHT 200, REPEAT, OVER. 10-223. Trend. A trend is the straying of the fall of shot from salvo to salvo. If the observer notices a trend, he announces TREND along with an indication of direction and distance (in meters). TREND is a correction to move the MPI back to the target. An example command is TREND, SOUTHWEST, 100 PER SALVO. 10-224. Straddle. A multigun salvo may bracket a target. Then the observer announces STRADDLE, followed by a correction, to place the MPI on the target. The term is normally used during a ship-adjust or massed-fire mission. 10-225. Check Solution. This order is transmitted if the observer suspects an error in the gunnery solution for a salvo. Before sending CHECK SOLUTION, the observer should check his target location data, particularly direction if the error is in a subsequent salvo. Another common cause for errors in adjustment is a change in the OT factor resulting from a target location error. The ship will respond with either SOLUTION CHECKS or NEGLECT. From the Ship 10-226. Neglect. This report is sent by the ship to indicate that the last salvo was fired with incorrect data. The ship corrects the settings and transmits READY, OVER when it is prepared to fire. 10-227. Delay. Delay is a report indicating that the ship is not ready to fire. The report is followed by an estimate of time in minutes, usually of short duration, that the ship will be unable to fire. When the ship is prepared to fire, it reports READY, OVER. 10-228. Will Not Fire. This report means that the ship will not continue the mission for a stated reason, for example, a gun mount malfunction (mount casualty), a higher priority mission, or a circumstance such as counter battery fire.

10-229. The types of ships capable of providing 5-inch/54 caliber NGF support include Ticonderoga Class guided missile cruisers (CG), Arleigh Burke Class and Kidd Class guided missile destroyers (DDG), and Spruance Class destroyers (DD). CAPABILITIES 10-230. Table 10-13 provides an overview of 5-inch NGF capabilities.


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Mobility 10-231. While working within the limits of hydrographic conditions, the ship can be positioned to provide the best support of ground forces. It can also be maneuvered to evade counter battery or other enemy attack. Fire Control Equipment 10-232. The computerized fire control equipment permits accurate fire while the ship is under way. Ships can fire more than one mission at a time if equipped with the MK-86 GFCS. Ammunition and Fuzes 10-233. A variety of ammunition can be delivered against targets to include HE, HC, illumination, WP and rocket assisted projectile (RAP). Fuzes available include quick, mechanical time (MT), delay, VT, or CVT. High Initial Velocity and Rates of Fire 10-234. High initial velocity allows penetration and destruction of some types of fortified targets, particularly those presenting a vertical face to the GT line. 5-inch/54 caliber 10-235. High rates of fire allow a large volume of fire to be delivered in a relatively short period of time. The maximum and sustained rates of fire for 5-inch/54caliber NGF is 20 rounds per minute per gun. Table 10-13. 5-inch/ 54 Caliber Naval Gunfire Maximum Range (meters) Full Charge 23,100 Rocket Assisted Projectile (RAP) 29,181 Maximum Range (meters) Reduced Charge 12,200

Rate of Fire per Tube (Maximum/Sustained)




HE, HC, Illumination, WP, RAP

Q, MT, VT, CVT, Delay

10-236. Risk estimate distances (see Section I) for NGF are indicated in Table 10-14. Table 10-14. NGF Risk Estimate Distances Risk Estimate Distances (Meters) 10% PI 0.1% PI 2/3 Max 1/3 2/3 range range range range 225 250 450 450

Type Mount MK-45

Description 5/54 gun

1/3 range 210

Max range 600


Appendix A

Munitions Effects and Capabilities

This appendix discusses the effects and characteristics of United States (US) mortar, cannon, rocket, and missile munitions/systems. For information on enemy weapon systems refer to ST 6-20-20, FSO Handbook.

A-01. As the eyes of the artillery and mortars, the observer has two major responsibilities regarding target analysis and munitions effects: He must properly describe the target. He may recommend the best method of attack.

A-02. The following is a brief description of considerations in describing a target properly to the FDC. TARGET CHARACTERISTICS A-03. Targets vary considerably in composition, degree of protection, shape, mobility, and recuperability. Therefore, the observer should describe the target as accurately as possible to the FDC. For AFATDS target categories and types see ST 6-3 ++ Appendix H. A-04. For personnel targets in particular, the posture of the target is extremely important. Target postures normally used for personnel targets are standing, prone, and dug in. Information in weapons effects manuals is based on the assumption that personnel are wearing helmets and winter uniforms and that those in foxholes are in a crouching position. When describing a given target's posture, consideration must be given to the protection afforded by the terrain. For example, an infantry platoon may be attacking in a standing posture; however, the irregularities of the terrain may provide protection equivalent to that provided by the prone position. Normally, personnel targets will seek a more protective posture during an engagement (for example, from a standing to a prone position). This change is called posture sequencing. This characteristic causes considerable degradation of effects as additional volleys are fired and is the reason for the emphasis on surprise or massed fires. A-05. A target must be analyzed to determine its weak points. The decision as to where the target is most vulnerable and what fires will best exploit its weaknesses is influenced by the degree of damage desired. Often there is a tendency to overkill the target when less combat power would suffice. On the basis of the commander's criteria, the observer must ascertain the degree of


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effects needed (destruction, neutralization, or suppression) to support the tactical plan. The acceptable degree of damage is that level that yields a significant military advantage. For example, fire from a heavily protected machine gun emplacement may be silenced by obscuration with FA smoke and subsequent engagement by direct fire rather than expending an excessive number of HE rounds for destruction. TARGET LOCATION A-06. The proximity of the target to friendly troops and civilians and the accuracy of the target location must be weighed. The importance of certain targets that are not accurately located may justify the fire of several units to ensure coverage. Close-in DS fire requirements may dictate the use of a specific type or caliber of weapon or a specific type of munition. TERRAIN A-07. The terrain in the target area has a direct effect on the vulnerability of a target. Rugged terrain affords considerable natural cover and makes target location difficult. Certain terrain provides a complete defile from some angles of fire but not from others. This influences the type of weapon and munition to be used. The nature of the vegetation and soil in the target area should be considered in recommending ammunition. Tall, dense tree forests and soft ground (sand, mud, snow, and water) can affect the function of projectiles. Rocky terrain and built-up areas can enhance the effects of projectiles by creating additional rock or concrete splinters. WEATHER A-08. Weather is of little consequence in evaluating a target to be attacked with HE/quick (Q) fuze. Precipitation and wind are of particular importance in evaluating a target to be attacked with ICM, smoke, SCATMINE, or illuminating projectiles. Low clouds, thick fog, surface water, and rain degrade the effectiveness of VT fuzes M513 and M514. Fuzes M728 and M732 are not affected.


A-09. Once an observer has decided to attack a target, he must select a weapon-ammunition combination that can achieve the desired effect with a minimum expenditure of available ammunition stocks. To do this, the observer must know the characteristics, capabilities, and vulnerabilities of all fire support assets. An example of some of the different target/munition suggestions for cannons and mortars are shown in Table A-1 in order of preference.


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Table A-1. Targets and Suggested Ammunition

TARGETS Personnel or light vehicles in the open Personnel or light vehicles in light overhead cover Personnel or light vehicles in trees Covered positions or heavy vehicles in the open Large bunker complexes CANNONS DPICM, HE/VT, or HE/TI DPICM, HE/TI, HE/PD, or HE/D MORTARS HE/MOF, HE/VT, HE/TI, or HE/PD HE/MOF, HE/TI, HE/PD, or HE/D

HE/TI or HE/D HE/MOF, HE/TI, HE/PD, or HE/D DPICM, HE/PD, or HE/D HE/MOF, HE/PD, or HE/D HE/CP, HE/D or HE/PD HE/MOF, HE/D, or HE/PD Copperhead, HE/CP, Small bunkers HE/MOF, HE/D, or HE/PD HE/PD, or HE/D Armored vehicles Copperhead, HE/PD, or HE/D HE/MOF, HE/D, or HE/PD CP = concrete piercing D = Delay HE = high explosive MOF = multi-option fuze PD = point detonating TI = time VT = variable time Note: The MOF has the following actions: Impact (IMP), Delay (DLY), Near Surface Burst (NSB), and Proximity (PRX)

AMMUNITION TYPE AND QUANTITY A-10. The nature of the target and its surroundings and the desired effects dictate the type and amount of ammunition to be used. The ammunition resupply system may sometimes rule out an optimum ammunition selection. For example, extensive smoke fires may be needed to screen maneuver movement but such fires would probably impose a considerable resupply problem on the parent organization. Some types of fires require greater ammunition expenditures than others. Suppression and neutralization fires usually consume less ammunition than destruction fires. TROOP SAFETY A-11. Troop safety is a major concern when considering the weapon and ammunition selection for firing close-in targets. The observer ensures that fires do not endanger friendly troops, equipment, and facilities. RESIDUAL EFFECTS IN TARGET AREA A-12. Residual effects from special ammunition influence the occupation of an area. Use of SCATMINE may change the direction of movement of supported elements. If supported troops are to occupy an area immediately following attack by certain munitions, conditions may be hazardous. Weather changes may alter choices of certain munitions; for example, smoke, illumination, and special ammunition. The incendiary effects of munitions may make areas untenable for supported forces. These effects also can deny the enemy use of selected terrain. EFFECTIVENESS A-13. When properly delivered against appropriate targets, artillery and mortar fire support can be the decisive factor in a battle. The observer must ensure that maximum effectiveness is attained from every mission. To match a munition to a target, the observer must know what damage a munition can produce and the damage required to defeat the target. The lethality of a munition must be matched to the specific vulnerability of the target. Thus, the observer must understand the damage potential of blast, cratering, fragmentation, incendiary, and penetration effects from specific munitions.


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A-14. The final step in target analysis is the selection of a method of attack. The observer must select a method of attack that ensures target area coverage and desired target effects. To determine an optimum method of attack, the FDO must consider aiming points and density and duration of fires. AIMING POINTS A-15. Normally, the size of the area to be attacked is determined by the size of the target or the size of the area in which the target is known or suspected to be located. A single aiming point located on the center of the target is used to attack small targets. In attacking large targets, multiple aiming points must be designated to distribute the fires and ensure adequate coverage. The BCS determines aiming points for each howitzer. DENSITY AND DURATION OF FIRES A-16. Intense fires of short duration generally produce the best target effect. However, the tactical situation may require fires to be continued over a long period of time. Some examples are screening smoke fires, continuous illumination, and suppressive fires supporting a maneuver final assault on an objective.

1 - Regardless of type, targets with an estimated target radius greater than 150 meters usually require massing for effective attack. 2 - The first objective in firing on moving vehicles is to stop the movement. For this purpose a bracket is established. Speed of adjustment is essential. If possible, the column should be stopped at a point where vehicles cannot change their route and where one stalled vehicle will cause others to stop. Vehicles moving on a road can be attacked by adjusting on a point on the road and then timing the rounds fired so that they arrive at that point when the vehicle is passing it. A firing unit or several units, if available, may fire at different points on the road simultaneously.

MORTARS A-17. Table A-2 provides information on lethal areas in square meters of mortar HE rounds against various targets.


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Table A-2. Lethal Areas of Mortar HE Rounds

60 mm mortar HE (M720) (1 round) 60 mm mortar HE (M720) (2 mortars, 1 round each) 81 mm mortar HE (M821) (1 round) 81 mm mortar HE (M821) (3 mortars, 1 round each) 120 mm mortar HE (M57) (1 round)

Standing enemy, open terrain Prone enemy, open terrain Crouching enemy, open position Standing enemy, open terrain Prone enemy, open terrain Crouching enemy, open position Standing enemy, open terrain Prone enemy, open terrain Crouching enemy, open position Standing enemy, open terrain Prone enemy, open terrain Crouching enemy, open position

250 100 1 450 200 5 700 300 5 1800 1000 10 900 350

Fuzes Proximity
600 200 1 25 10002 350 301 900 600 301 2400 1500 851 1100 600

Standing enemy, open terrain Prone enemy, open terrain Crouching enemy, open position Standing enemy, open terrain 3500 4000 120 mm mortar HE (M57) Prone enemy, open terrain 1400 2400 (4 mortars/ 1 round each) Crouching enemy, open position 1 Against personnel in open positions, use the lowest angle of fall possible. It gives twice the coverage of the steepest angle of fall. 2 The M49A1 HE round standard B ammunition for the M224 mortar is only 25 percent as effective as the newer M720 round.

A-18. Table A-3 provides an overview of mortar characteristics. Table A-3. Mortar Characteristics
Ammunition Weapon Model M720/M888 M722 M721 M302A1 M83A3 M49A4 M821/M889 M374A3 M819 M375A2 M853A1 M301A3 M933 M934 M929 M930 Type HE WP Illum WP Illum HE HE HE RP WP Illum Illum HE (PD) HE (MOF) WP Illum Minimum Range 70 70 200 35 725 45 80 73 300 73 300 100 170 170 170 170 Meters Maximum Range 1 3,489 1 3, 489 1 3, 489 1,830 950 1,830 5,800 4,790 4,800 4,595 5,060 3,950 Diameter of Illum Rates of Fire/ Notes M270 - 30 rounds per minute (RPM) 2 for 4 minutes , then 20 RPM, sustained M49A4 18 RPM for 4 minutes, 8 RPM sustained

60 mm M224

500 300

81 mm M252

18 RPM for 2 minutes, then 15 RPM sustained 650

120 mm M120

Legend: HE = high explosive Illum = illumination MOF = multi-option fuze PD = point detonating

RP = red phosphorous TI = time VT = variable time WP = white phosphorous

7,200 7,200 16 RPM for 1 minute, then 4 RPM sustained 7,200 7,200 1,500 1 Bipod-mounted, charge 4 (maximum range handheld is 1,300 meters) 2 Charge 2 and over, 30 rounds per minute can be sustained with charge 0 or 1 3 Fuse options include PD, VT, TI, and delay


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CANNONS A-19. Table A4 is a guide for cannon attack of typical targets. Table A-4. Guide for Cannon Attack of Typical Targets
Target Type Observation Weapon Projectile HE Fuze
Proximity, Time Proximity, Time Quick, Proximity, Time

Results Desired


Massing is required. TOT missions are most effective. Massing is required except for small Neutralization HE targets. In open or in foxhole Response time is critical against without Observed All Suppression active targets. Proximity fuze is overhead preferred. cover Massing is required on large targets. Destruction TOT missions are most effective. DPICM NA Cannon battery volleys are Neutralization sufficient. Massing is required. TOT missions Quick, are most effective. Consider use of Neutralization Delay WP to drive personnel out of foxholes. HE In foxhole Proximity, Response time is critical against with Time, active targets. Proximity fuze is Observed All Suppression overhead Delay, preferred. Consider use of smoke cover Quick for obscuration. Massing is required. TOT missions Neutralization are most effective. DPICM NA Consider use of ICM on intermittent Suppression basis for increased effectiveness. Use direct fire or assault fire All, Delay, In dugouts Neutralization techniques. Fire HE quick at Observed 155 mm HE Quick, or caves or destruction intervals to clear away camouflage, preferred CP earth cover, and rubble. Attacking 105 mm Beehive Set fuze to detonate on the battery Observed Time Destruction ascending branch of the trajectory position All HE, APICM for close-in defense of battery area 1 Targets, regardless of type, with an estimated radius of greater than 250 meters usually require massing for effective attack.


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Table A-4. Guide for Cannon Attack of Typical Targets (Continued)

Target Type Observation Weapon Projectile HE Fuze Results Desired Remarks
Fire projectile HE to force tanks to button up and personnel outside to take cover or disperse. WP may blind vehicle drivers, and fires may be started from incendiary effect on outside fuel tanks. WP or HE fires may obscure adjustment. Massing effective. DPICM is preferred. Both antitank and antipersonnel projectiles should be used.


All Observed Tanks


Proximity, Time



NA NA NA NA Proximity, Time NA NA NA NA Proximity, Time NA

Suppression NA Destruction Destruction Suppression Neutralization

Direct Fire

105 mm All

Armored personnel carriers


Force vehicles to button up and personnel outside to take cover or disperse. Massing is effective. Both antitank and antipersonnel projectiles should be used.

Destruction Destruction Destruction Destruction ICM is preferred munition.

Direct Fire Trucks


105 mm All 155 mm


The first objective of firing on moving vehicles is to stop the movement. For this purpose, a deep bracket is established so that the target will not move out of the initial bracket during adjustment. Speed of adjustment is essential. If possible, the column should be stopped at a point where vehicles cannot change their route and where one stalled vehicle will cause others to stop. Vehicles moving on a road can be attacked by adjusting on a point on the road and then timing the rounds fired so that they arrive at that point when a vehicle is passing it. A firing unit or units, if available, may fire at different points on the road simultaneously.


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Table A-4. Guide for Cannon Attack of Typical Targets (Continued)

Target Type Observation Weapon Projectile HE Fuze Results Desired Remarks
Response time is critical. Intermittent fire may be required. Change to fuze proximity or DPICM for materiel damage if antitank guided missile platform on vehicle is raised. Smoke may also be used to obscure gunner's line of sight to friendly aircraft. ICM is preferred munition. Consider converged sheaf if weapon is point target and accurately located. Response time is critical. Intermittent fire may be required. WP is used to ignite materiel. See personnel targets for results desired. See personnel targets section for results desired. TOT missions are most effective. Massing is usually required. Use ADAM projectile in conjunction with HE or ICM for sustained effects. WP is used to ignite materiel. ICM is preferred munition. Use ADAM projectile in conjunction with HE or ICM for sustained effects. Used converged sheaf if time and target location accuracy permit. TLE in excess of 250 meters requires massing of fires. ICM is preferred munition. Same as above.

Antitank missile






All Air Defense: Tracked Observed 155 mm


Proximity, Time NA



Firepower Kill

Air Defense: Wheeled


All All


Quick Proximity, Time

Neutralization, Firepower kill Firepower Kill

Towed FA, Mortars, Multiple Rocket Launchers

Unobserved when located by radar





155 mm All Self-propelled FA battery Unobserved 155 mm


NA Proximity, Time NA NA

NA Suppression Neutralization NA

Surface-toSurface Missile


155 mm


Proximity, Time

Firepower Kill



Firepower Kill


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Table A-4. Guide for Cannon Attack of Typical Targets (Continued)

Target Type Observation Weapon Projectile HE Fuze Results Desired Remarks
Direction of fire is preferably with long axis of bridge. Destruction of permanent bridges is best accomplished by knocking out bridge support. Fuze quick is used for wooden or pontoon bridges. Preferred munition. Use highest practical charge in assault and direct fire. Preferred munition. Used converged sheaf if time and target location accuracy permit. TLE in excess of 250 meters requires massing of fires. ICM is preferred munition. Same as above. Intermittent fire may be required. HE is preferred munition when response time is critical. When target contains personnel and light materiel targets. DPICM is preferred munition. See above. Large TLEs require massing to ensure target coverage. Attack as moving personnel target.


All bridges


All (preferably 155 mm)


Quick, CP, Delay


155 mm All (preferably 155 mm) 155 mm


NA CP, Delay, Quick NA


All fortifications Observed HE Copperhead Destruction Destruction

All HE Quick, Time, Proximity NA Quick, Time, Proximity NA Proximity, Time, Quick NA Quick Time, Proximity Firepower Kill



155 mm Artillery Command and Observation Posts All Observed 155 mm All Unobserved 155 mm Supply Installation Boats Unobserved Observed All All


Firepower Kill Suppression Neutralization or Destruction Suppression Neutralization or Destruction Neutralization or Destruction Suppression

Command Post

Legend: TLE = target location error HEAT = high-explosive antitank CP = concrete piercing

HEP = high-explosive plastic HEP-T = high explosive plastic-tracer NA = not applicable


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A-20. Table A-5 provides an overview of 155 mm cannon projectile ranges. Table A-5. 155 mm Projectile Maximum Ranges (meters)
Charge/ Projectile Green Bag White Bag M119 M203 Charge/ Projectile Green Bag White Bag M119 M203 XM989 SADARM 9,093 14,388 17,823 22,133 M692/M731 ADAM 9,167 14,650 17,603 NA M107 HE 9,800 14,800 18,100 NA M718/M741 RAAM 9,167 14,650 17,603 NA M110A2 Smoke, WP 9,800 14,800 18,100 NA M795 M110E3 HC 9,874 14,751 18,274 NA M116A1 HC 9,874 14,853 18,274 NA M825A1 Smoke, WP 9,330 14,650 17,740 22,240 M483A1 DPICM 9,093 14,388 17,823 NA M864 DPICM BB N/A 17,031 21,831 27,745 M485A2 Illum 9,291 14,232 18,100 NA M712 Copperhead 5,800 11,000 16,000 NA M549A1 HE RAP NA 19,469 23,493 30,893 M449/ M449A1 ICM 9,800 14,600 14,600 NA

8,933 14,360 17,771 22,250

A-21. Table A-6 provides an overview of 155 mm cannon projectile ranges. Table A-6. 105 mm Projectile Maximum Ranges (meters)
Projectile Range M1 HE 11,500 M760 HE 14,000 M913 RAP 19,500 M44 APICM 11,500 M546 Beehive 12,400 M60 Smoke, WP 11,500 M314A3 Illum 11,500 M84 HC 11,500

Sense and Destroy Armor A-22. The sense and destroy armor (SADARM) projectile is a 155mm fire and forget, top attack munition. The system utilizes millimeter wave radar and infrared sensors to locate targets and provide countermeasure resistance. The warhead is an explosively formed penetrator designed for top attack penetration of self-propelled howitzers and lightly armored combat vehicles. The maximum associated range is approximately 22.1 km with the M109A6 and M198howitzers. Mnemonics A-23. The FDCs use mnemonics for brevity in fire commands. Fire support personnel should understand these so that they can better communicate with the FDCs during fire missions. The following table provides a summary of some of the more common mnemonics used.


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Table A-7. Mnemonics SHELL High Explosive Training Round Anti-Personnel, Improved Conventional Munitions Dual-Purpose, Improved Conventional Munitions Rocket Assisted Projectile (RAP) Copperhead SCATMINE (Anti-Personnel, short duration) SCATMINE (Anti-Personnel, long duration) SCATMINE (Anti-Armor, short duration) SCATMINE (Anti-Armor, long duration) SADARM White Phosphorous HC Chemical Smoke Improved WP Smoke Illumination MULTIPLE LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM Rockets A-24. M26 Tactical Rocket. This is the basic rocket currently fielded for MLRS. The M26 can attack targets at ranges between 10 to 32 kilometers. It is used against personnel, soft and lightly armored targets normally with a TLE of 150 meters or less. Each rocket dispenses 644 M77 DPICM submunitions over the target area. The armed M77 submunitions detonate on impact. The antimateriel capability is provided through a shaped charge with a built-in standoff. The M77 can penetrate up to four inches of armor. The M77 steel case fragments and produces antipersonnel effects with a radius of four meters. A-25. ER MLRS. The extended range (ER) rocket is an evolution of the basic M26 rocket that extends the range to 45 kilometers. The effectiveness of the M26 rocket is maintained in the ER rocket even though the submunition payload has been decreased. This is due to the improved center core burster and a reduction in the dud rate, made possible by an improved drag ribbon design. Each of the 518 M85 submunitions is equipped with a self-destruct fuze (less than 10 minutes) to reduce hazardous duds for improved maneuver force safety. A-26. Table A-8 provides MLRS rocket characteristics of fielded munitions. Table A-8. MLRS Rocket Characteristics Variant M26 ER MLRS Range (kilometers) 10 - 32.5 13 - 45 Payload 644 M77 DPICM 518 M85 Improved DPICM Targets Personnel, Light Armor and Soft Vehicles/Materiel Personnel, Light Armor and Soft Vehicles/Materiel NOMENCLATURE M107 M795 M449 M483A1 M549 M712 M731 M692 M741 M718 M898 M110 M116 M825 M485 MNEMONIC HEA HEL HEC, D, E HEF HER CPH APS APL AMS AML SAD SMA SMB SMC ILA


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Missiles A-27. The Army tactical missile system (ATACMS) munitions are designed to carry a variety of submunitions, including "smart" munitions and lethal mechanisms to provide a wide range of future capabilities. Currently, the Army has the M39 ATACMS Block I and M39A1 Block IA missiles. The ATACMS Block II fielding is anticipated in 2001. A-28. Block I. The Block I warhead is used against personnel and soft stationary targets normally with a TLE of 150 meters or less. Each missile dispenses a cargo of approximately 950 antipersonnel and antimateriel (APAM) M74 grenades. The missile has three programmable dispense patterns (small, medium, and large) and has off-axis launch capability. The M39 block I missile has a minimum range of 25 kilometers and a maximum range of 165 kilometers. A-29. The M74 grenade is filled with composition B explosive filler and is covered by a steel shell. Upon impact and detonation, each grenade breaks up into a large number of high-velocity steel fragments that are effective against targets such as truck tires, missile rounds, thin-skinned vehicles, and radar antennas. The M74 grenade also contains incendiary material and has an antipersonnel radius of 15 meters. A-30. Block IA. The Block IA missile is a conventional semi-ballistic missile which deploys 300 APAM (M74) submunitions against soft stationary targets at ranges from 70 to 300 kilometers. The Block IA is fired from the M270A1 launcher or modified M270 launcher. The missile has three programmable dispense patterns (small, medium, and large) and has off-axis launch capability. The method of dispense is identical to the Block I missile. A-31. Block II. Block II employs the brilliant antiarmor technology submunition (BAT). The Block II missile ranges targets from 35 km to 140 km. The Block II payload consists of thirteen pre-product planned improvement BAT submunitions which are equipped with both acoustic and infrared sensors that give each submunition the capability of acquiring and attacking moving armor targets. After the payload is dispensed from the main warhead, each unpowered BAT submunition autonomously seeks an individual target within a moving armor column with its acoustic sensor. Once each submunition is close enough to its selected target vehicle, the infrared seeker is activated and provides guidance during the terminal trajectory. The BAT submunition has a tandem shaped charge warhead designed to defeat all known reactive armor. The Block II requires either the M270A1 launcher or a modified M270 launcher. A-32. Table A-9 provides characteristics of ATACMS munitions.


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Table A-9 ATACMS Characteristics Variant Block I Block IA Block II BAT Range (kilometers) 25 - 165 70 - 300 35 - 140 Payload 950 M74 APAM 300 M74 APAM 13 BAT Targets Personnel, and/or Light Materiel (Stationary) Personnel, and/or Light Materiel (Stationary) Moving Armored Combat Vehicles


Appendix B

Briefings, Reports, and Checklists

B-01. Information concerning the status of fire support resources must be provided to the supported commander. An outline of an example briefing format is shown in Figure B-1.
-Artillery organization for combat -Artillery and mortar locations and status: --Organic and attached --DS and R --TA assets --FIST vehicles, COLT, and Striker --Proposed locations -Personnel and equipment status of FSOs and FISTs: --Losses --Replacements -Artillery and mortar fires: --Missions fired, BDA --Ammunition expended -Artillery and mortar ammunition status: --Controlled supply rate --Required supply rate --Ammunition on hand -Counterfire information -Naval gunfire: --Number and type of ships --FSAs and/or FSSs --Missions fired, BDA --Ammunition status -CAS: --Strikes, BDA --Number of CAS sorties available --Type aircraft and/or ordnance available --Coordination instructions -Special Munitions: --Missions fired and/or on call --SCATMINE munitions available (expressed as number and size of minefields) --Smoke available (express as number of minutes and size of area for smoke) --Copperhead available --Ammunition status --Status of other special munitions -Miscellaneous: --Other fire support asset available --Special communications

Figure B-1. Fire Support Status Brief

B-02. Observers report critical information as shown in the example FIST report (Figure B-2).
-Observer identification -Date-time group (DTG) -Location and altitude (encode) -Visibility and cloud height -G/VLLD code (encode) -FPF (grids) (encode) -Current status

Figure B-2. Example FIST Report


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B-03. The information submitted in a shelling report (SHELREP), bombing report (BOMBREP), mortaring report (MORTREP), or rocketing report (ROCKREP) is shown in Figure B-3. The information included is in compliance with STANAG 2934 AArty P-1 Artillery Procedures, Chapter 13. of origin (encode) -Position of observer (encode) -Direction (flash, sound, or groove) and angle of descent -Time from -Time to -Area bombed, shelled, rocketed, or mortared -Number and nature of guns, mortars, rocket launchers, aircraft, or other methods of delivery -Nature of fire -Number, type, and caliber -Flash to bang time -Damage (encode) -Remarks Figure B-3. Shelling Report

B-04. Combat information must be reported in a timely and accurate manner. Forward observers and FISTs are a primary source of combat information. An example of a report for preparing and forwarding combat information is shown in Figure B-4. The size of the enemy force observed. -ACTIVITY: What the enemy was doing. -LOCATION: Where the enemy was located. -UNIT: The unit to which the enemy belongs --vehicle markings, distinctive features on uniforms or special equipment which may identify the type enemy unit. -TIME: When the enemy was observed. -EQUIPMENT: The equipment the enemy wore, carried, or used. Figure B-4. SALUTE Report


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B-05. A sample checklist for setting up an OP following the SLoCTOP method referenced in Chapter 3 (Figure B-5) is shown in Tables B-1 for a light force dismounted OP and Table B-2 for a heavy force mounted OP.

-LOCATION -COMMUNICATION -TARGETING -OBSERVATION -POSITION IMPROVEMENT Figure B-5. SLoCTOP Table B-1. Light Force Dismounted OP Light Force OP Security (Clearing Observation Post) Security sweep conducted of the tentative OP. OP selection positioned where it best supports accomplishment of EFSTs and provides cover and concealment. Location OP location identified to within 100 meters or less. Location sent to the appropriate agencies (i.e., FSE, artillery/mortar FDC, supported maneuver organization). FO orients to terrain and conducts a terrain sketch. Situation map updated Communication Establish communications with the appropriate agencies. Additional antenna erected in defensive operations. Wire communications established between FO or FIST teams (per unit TSOP) Targeting (Dismounted G/VLLD) G/VLLD and TAS-4 installed correctly and collimated. Equipment available to allow G/VLLD to HTU interface. Observation Observer maintains target area observation. Observer uses proper scanning techniques. Targets verified with G/VLLD (compute distance, azimuth, and trigger point) and refinements sent to higher HQs. Position Improvement Terrain sketches updated. 24-hour operations plan initiated. Verify alternate OP location provides cover/concealment and adequate target area observation.


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Table B-2. Heavy Force Mounted OP Heavy Force Mounted OP Security Vehicle commander directs driver to a position to support accomplishment of EFSTs and ensure the vehicle is not silhouetted. Dismounts conduct security sweep of the tentative OP while vehicle commander provides overwatch with M-60 machine gun. Vehicle is in position where only the targeting head is visible to the target area. Location OP location identified to within 100 meters or less. Location sent to the appropriate agencies (i.e., FSE, artillery/mortar FDC, supported maneuver organization). Observer orients to terrain and conducts a terrain sketch. Situation map updated. Communication Establish communications with the appropriate agencies. Move vehicle or erect OE-254 antenna if communications can not be established Targeting (Targeting Head) Ensure targeting head is free from obstruction. Ensure target area is visible. Laser resection with G/VLLD. Observation Vehicle commander scans target area with 3X sight. Targets verified with G/VLLD (compute distance, azimuth, and trigger point) and refinements sent to higher HQs. Terrain sketch verified. Position Improvement OE-254 antenna erected and camouflage employed. Terrain sketches updated. 24-hour operations plan initiated. Coordinate with battalion FSO for survey/GPS support for the vehicle. NSG initialized with updated survey information. Coordinate with battalion FSO or company commander for engineer support to dig in vehicle in defensive operations. G/VLLD and TAS-4 boresighted. NSG realigned every two hours.


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Table B-3. Planning for the Immediate Battle Battalion Task Force FSE/Company Team FIST Action Receive/review warning orders, OPORDs and fire support plans as appropriate (Supported force and 1-2 levels up). Determine whether or not the operation involves distinct phases or major events, and if so how are the phasing issues relevant from a fire support perspective? Identify EFSTs for each phase of the operation. Battalion Task Force: What are the HPTs? What asset is tasked to find each of the HPTs? What asset is tasked to assess effects when an HPT is attacked? Company Team: Where are the HPTs in the company team sector? What asset will find each HPT? What asset will assess effects when an HPT is attacked? Identify what fire support assets are available to support the battalion task force /company team (FA, mortars, attack aviation, CAS, NGF). Prepare a fire support asset matrix listing all artillery and other systems, ranges of each, ammunition available, time available, and controlling HQ. Commander states his fire support guidance, defines areas where indirect fires are to be planned, engagement areas where fires must support maneuver and any critical areas that require support. Commander states his attack guidance by defining how, when, and with what restrictions he wants to attack different targets and in what priority. Identify areas with civilian populations, the densities involved, and reactions expected from the populace. Also ensure all personnel are aware of ROE (especially as it relates to fire support assets) and protected/restricted locations, buildings, and fire support operations. War-game; identify key terrain and engagement areas, obstacle requirements, and additional target requirements. Determine HPTs and means for locating and attacking them. Develop target overlay. Determine how much ammunition by shell/fuze type is needed to accomplish all scheduled or preplanned fires. How much is available for emergency missions? Pay particular attention to low density ammunition (i.e., SCATMINE, Copperhead, Smoke, Illumination) and to unique missions (i.e., large smoke missions, preparations, reduction/destruction fires). Determine if enough fire support assets are available to attack all HPTs and provide on-call fire support during each phase of the mission. Coordinate for additional assets or changes to the fire support plan with the Bde FSE, DS Bn TOC and/or other Bn fire support representatives. Identify general priority of fire requirements (primary/secondary), FPFs and priority targets, and triggers for shifting priorities for each phase. Identify positioning requirements for all Bn or company fire support personnel (to include mortar representatives, air, navy, and other 3 Responsibility Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief

Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief

Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief Battalion Task Force Commander Battalion Task Force Commander, FSO Battalion Task Force Commander, S2, & FSO Battalion Task Force Commander, S3, S2, FSO, Engineer, ALO

Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief

Battalion Task Force FSO Battalion Task Force FSO Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief


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personnel). Assign primary and back up observers for each target and supervise the following actions during each phase of the operation: 1) Each observer knows target responsibilities and trigger points. 2) Position each observer to observe targets and trigger points he is responsible for. 3) Observer verifies trigger point on the ground and confirms timing for the trigger point based on enemy anticipated rate of movement. 4) Each observer knows weapon system to be used to attack target and how to call for fire for target attack. 5) Targets are adjusted in as required (as a minimum FPFs, priority targets, and SCATMINE minefield locations-for observer adjusted). 6) Observer knows exact location on the ground of all maneuver and FSCMs. Ensure target refinement is conducted by primary observers and disseminated to company team FSOs, brigade FSE, the DS battalion FDC, mortar FDC as necessary. Develop a radio plan to defeat range and compatibility problems between fire support personnel and FA units or other assets during each phase. Ensure all SCATMINE safety boxes are disseminated to subordinate elements. Battalion Task Force: Develop and disseminate products (fires paragraph, fire support execution matrix, target list, target synchronization matrix) to subordinate FSOs, battalion task force mortars, DS FA battalion S3, and other supporting fire support elements. Participate in combined arms rehearsals and fire support/FA rehearsals directed by senior FSEs and FA units. Conduct other rehearsals and battle and crew drills as necessary as early in the planning stage as possible. If time permits, retrain/rehearse on weaknesses identified. Table B-4. Execution Planning - All FSEs Action FSO positions himself where he can best execute the fire support plan (not always with the maneuver commander). Communicate with: 1) Supported commander. 2) Subordinate/higher FSE. 3) FA battalion FDC, Mortar FDC, other fire support assets (TACP, aviation liaison officer (LNO). Call for fire on assigned targets, render battle damage assessment. 3

Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief

Battalion Task Force FSO Battalion Task Force FSO Battalion Task Force FSO, Engineer Battalion Task Force FSO

Battalion Task Force FSO/FIST Chief

Responsibility FSO/Platoon FO

FSO/Platoon FO



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Table B-5. Battle Tracking Action Platoon FOs should know the location of all their maneuver elements to fire team level (and their future plans for movement); the location of fire support assets to include as a minimum supporting 60 mm and 81 mm mortar locations and the ammunition status of these assets; their company team and battalion task force FSO locations; and the current and proposed FSCMs. Company team FSOs should know the location of all their maneuver elements to squad level (and their future plans for movement); the location of fire support assets to include as a minimum supporting 60 mm and 81 mm mortar locations (light), 120 mm mortar locations (heavy) and the ammunition status of these assets; the assigned targets and primary/secondary observers within their responsibility; their battalion task force FSO location; and the location of all current and proposed FSCMs. Battalion task force FSOs should know the location of all their maneuver elements to platoon level (and their future plans for movement); the location of fire support assets to include as a minimum supporting 60 mm and 81 mm mortar locations (light units), 120 mm mortar locations (heavy units), DS FA battalion locations and the ammunition status of these assets; the assigned targets and primary/secondary observers within their responsibility; their subordinate FO and FSO locations; the location of the brigade FSO; and the location of all current and proposed FSCMs. Clear fires rapidly, positively, and safely within their maneuver commander's area of operation. Ensure maneuver commander approves clearance. Execute fires in accordance with the next higher-level FSEM. FSEMs are produced at company team level and above. Change priority targets to support the maneuver commander's scheme of maneuver throughout the operation. 3 Responsibility Platoon FO

Company Team FSO

Battalion Task Force FSO

FSO/ Platoon FO FSO/ Platoon FO FSO/ Platoon FO

B-06. The mission flow for a battalion task force conducting MOUT generally includes moving some distance from a line of departure (LD) to an urban area. This mission includes breaching obstacles to enter the urban area, gaining a foothold, defeating enemy forces and seizing a designated area, and conducting a follow-on mission. B-07. Fire support planning for missions involving a deliberate attack on urban terrain objectives must include synchronization of fires during the fight from the LD to the breach site. Using battle calculus is a way to determine ammunition requirements for sustained fires while units suppress, obscure, secure and reduce obstacles. During combat in the city, fire support planning must address the unique challenges created by urban terrain, buildings and structures of varying heights, rules of engagement restricting use of indirect fires, and observer inability to locate and observe enemy targets.


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B-08. A technique for planners to use to address considerations of urban terrain combat missions is to organize their planning efforts and coordination as follows: Preparation- MDMP and battle calculus. The fight from the LD to the breach site. The breaching operation. The fight in the city. The follow-on mission. B-09. The following checklists (Table B-6) provide urban planning considerations for battalion task force and company team FSOs.


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Table B-6. Battalion Task Force and Company Team FSO Considerations for MOUT Planning Considerations What is the mission flow for the operation - air assault, movement to contact, breaching operations, and deliberate attack into city? Ask for FA/mortar FDC assistance in identifying areas where high angle fire will be required or fires may not be available. Work with accompanying or higher HQ FSE Air Force/Navy personnel to identify potential limitations on their support. Determine if HPTs change from one phase of the MOUT operation to another. Determine if TA/intelligence assets and observers will have trouble locating and tracking HPTs and assessing BDA. Identify requirements for multiple observers, handoff during tracking, and triggering responsibilities under MOUT conditions. Identify unique ammunition requirements due to MOUT conditions and coordinate with FSEs and supporting fire support agencies as necessary to ensure adequate munitions are available. Identify special equipment needs, especially for breaching operations and the fight in the city COLT/Striker or other laser designator, climbing rope, wire gloves, axes or sledge hammers, kneepads, goggles. Determine what types of maps fire support personnel will use. (During the fight in the city fire support personnel must be able to locate targets by 8-digit grid coordinates.) Fight from LD to Breach Site Plan targets on known and suspected enemy positions and obstacles along the route (SEAD if conducting an air assault mission). Battalion Task Force: Ensure all reconnaissance elements are well versed in the fire plan, and all primary and alternate fire support battle drills are thoroughly understood. Identify enemy positions that may be bypassed and may require fixing, blocking, or reduction fires. Identify potential fire requirements to protect flanks, rear, and LOCs as the unit moves forward. Identify if/where unit becomes vulnerable to being cut off and anticipate hasty fire planning requirements for defensive or breakout fires. Identify enemys possible reaction as unit approaches breaching site and ensure fires counter enemy reaction early. Monitor movement of friendly units on the flanks. Will FA or mortars need to displace near the end of this phase? What is the trigger? Breaching Operations Disseminate the battalion task force/company team scheme of maneuver and EFSTs for this phase to fire support and FA leaders. Is the battalion task force mission inside (breach, clear, and secure in city) or outside (isolate) the objective city. What type of breaching operation is being conducted? Time required? Closely monitor initiation and control of SOSRA fires. Direct actions/changes as required. Closely monitor expenditure of ammunition for SOSRA fires? Quickly identify and request changes as required. Anticipate fire support plan adjustments if additional support is not available. Quickly notify FSE/FA elements of fires not required also so assets can be reallocated. Closely monitor execution of the air ground observer plan to adjust obscurants. Obtain periodic updates from breaching forces and unit and higher reconnaissance, TA, and intelligence assets monitoring enemy reactions to the breaching operation and adjust fire plan as needed. Is the control of any fire support asset being handed over from one observer to another? What is the trigger to initiate the hand over?


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The Urban Fight Disseminate the battalion task force/company team scheme of maneuver and EFSTs for this phase to fire support and FA leaders. Determine who controls each fire support asset. Develop observer plan. Identify any special requirements (laser designator positions, observer positions to overwatch trigger points, observer positions in tall buildings). Exchange fire plan and observation plan with adjacent battalion task forces/company teams. Battalion Task Force: Determine battalion task force mortar locations; submit to brigade FSE. Company Team: Determine how company team mortars will be employed, mortar firing points and azimuths of fire. Pass to battalion task force FSE for consideration during development of radar deployment order. Identify uses of obscurants in city. Determine where the use of obscurants will favor friendly and enemy forces. Identify how to combine fires and MOUT conditions to block & destroy counterattack forces. Plan/monitor requirements for observers and triggers under MOUT conditions. How will early warning of a counterattack be obtained (unit observers, intelligence/TA/reconnaissance assets)? Identify secondary explosion risks (e.g., location of underground fuel and industrial storage tanks, gas distribution lines, and gas lines above ground). Determine how the enemy is reinforcing buildings (e.g., sandbagging rooftops and upper floors, adding internal bracing/structural supports, sandbagging walls). What maps are battalion task force/company team fire support personnel using? How is the maneuver building numbering system going to be translated into 8-digit grid coordinates for building locations? Identify the general construction or composition of buildings, road surfaces, and barrier obstacles that require breaching. Identify buildings that have basements. Identify buildings or structures requiring large-caliber weapon/howitzer direct fire before assaulting. Will an escalating response matrix be used? Locate dead space areas where tall building masking prevents indirect fire from engaging targets. Locate "urban canyon" areas where aircraft cannot engage targets between tall buildings. Identify buildings providing the best OPs for friendly and enemy observers. Identify buildings providing vantage points for employment of laser designators. Locate firing points for battalion task force/company team mortars and supporting howitzers. Which positions provide 6400 mil firing capability? Identify areas of the city most likely to be affected by the incendiary effects of detonating artillery and mortar rounds. Identify routes/roads in the objective city that permit/do not permit artillery convoy (prime mover, howitzer, ammunition carrier) travel. Identify buildings/structures capable of hiding artillery prime movers, howitzers, and ammunition carriers. Do enemy forces in the city use or have access to laser designators, pointer, spot light, or other light sources that may be used to incapacitate observation devices and night vision goggles? Where are radio communications dead spaces? Is a communications visibility plot available? Determine where building masking, overhead power lines, structures, or towers will degrade GPS accuracy. Will electrical lines in the objective city be "hot"? Will dense/congested structures containing metal and electrical lines affect compasses and gyro-based directional equipment?


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Determine weather effects in and around the objective city - low industrial fog and smoke; updrafting winds caused by tall, congested buildings; temperature increase caused by buildings/pavement/industrial activity. Determine likely enemy azimuths of fire for indirect systems and brief the unit commander on where the unit will be most vulnerable and where structure/terrain may offer protection. (Mvr Bde/Bn & DS Bn S2s can provide information needed.) Will friendly local or US/allied personnel with in-depth knowledge of the objective city layout be available to accompany/assist fire support personnel? If required, could observers conduct howitzer/mortar registrations? What is the sniper threat against fire support personnel? What is the mine/booby trap threat? Will buildings or structures require fire support personnel to carry/use equipment not normally carried - field expedient antennas, climbing rope, wire gloves, axes or sledge hammers, kneepads, goggles? Will enemy forces attempt to limit friendly use of indirect fires by using civilians as "human shields"? What issues are there concerning civilians and local police, militia or other para/non-military elements inside the city? Interpreter requirements? How will the unit quickly obtain an update on the civilian personnel and infrastructure situation to better facilitate fires after it enters the city? Are there civilian liaison officer (LNO)/communications requirements? The Follow-on Mission Review the battalion task force/company team scheme of maneuver and EFSTs for changes to the follow-on mission (or sustained combat and occupation in the objective city) or implementation of other branches or sequels. Coordinate and disseminate fire support changes as needed. Review fire support asset and ammunition requirements for follow-on missions. Obtain an update on fire support assets available and quickly coordinate fire support plan changes as necessary.


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Table B-7. Defensive Fire Planning at the Battalion TF Level Plan Fires Forward of the MBA Action Counter-Recon fires planned to deny the enemy information about friendly forces (Disrupt/Neutralize). Consider augmenting scouts with observers, to include laser designators if available. Fires executed on reconnaissance and intelligence gathering elements. Plan fires to support scouts according to the commanders guidance and to help them move out and disengage as they fall back. Plan to obscure enemy observation of friendly movements. Plan trigger points for possible moving targets. Plan fires to force the enemy commander to employ his forces early. Engage enemy at maximum ranges of available fire support systems. Position observers forward to overwatch templated enemy avenues of approach. Plan fires on key choke points. Place an observer on key terrain where he can provide early warning, target location, laser designation, and/or overwatch of the battle. Plan a counter-preparation executed at the commanders discretion. Plan CAS on known, likely, or suspected enemy locations. Plan SCATMINE and smoke to separate lead elements from follow-on forces. Plan Fires Throughout the Main Battle Area (MBA) Action Use fire support to force the enemy to deploy early. Mass to disrupt, delay, limit, or destroy the enemy. Plan supporting fires, smoke, suppression fires, and priority targets along withdrawal routes to assist maneuver during retrograde operations. Plan fires to help maneuver move and disengage from enemy forces as they fall back through the MBA. Plan Fires in Support of EAs Action Use fires to canalize the enemy into choke points and/or EAs. Plan groups for simultaneous engagement of targets and target sets in EAs. Plan series to preclude enemy movement out of EAs and to keep him moving under continuous fire. Determine where in the EA to focus indirect fires. Ensure planned targets can also be engaged by direct fire weapon systems. Mass fires in EAs to inflict maximum casualties. Plan for JAATs in EAs, if directed by brigade. Consider the use of illumination in EAs. Consider the use of attack helicopters in EAs. Estimate the length of time the enemy can be engaged with indirect fire. Anticipate enemy battle drills in reaction to indirect fire or obstacles. 3 Responsibility FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO 3 Responsibility FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO 3 Responsibility FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO FSO/FSNCO


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Table B-8. Defensive Fire Planning at the Battalion TF Level (Continued) Plan Fires in Support of the Obstacle Plan Action Know the engineer obstacle plan and type of obstacles. Match the commanders intent for fires with his obstacle plan. Use multiple observers at obstacles and assign backup responsibilities. Devise an observation plan that provides for continuous observation (to include periods of limited visibility) from multiple vantage points. Designate a primary and alternate means of communication. Consider the terrain when targeting obstacles. Fires placed incorrectly may allow the enemy to take an alternate COA and still accomplish his mission. Consider using smoke in front of the obstacle to obscure it from the enemy. Consider using smoke on top of and to the sides of the obstacle to hinder breaching or bypassing efforts but ensure the use of smoke does not hinder friendly fires and observation unintendedly. Plan fires far forward of obstacles to disrupt enemy formations, to separate attacking echelons, and to force the enemy to deploy into forward EAs. Mass fires and use priority targets to maximize casualties if congestion occurs at or near the obstacle. Consider the use of laser-guided munitions to destroy armored breaching vehicles, preferably before they reach the breach. Ensure all fire support assets used are complementary and coordinated. Plan fires behind the obstacle to destroy the enemy as he passes through cleared lanes, to block the enemy and protect friendlies (FPFs), to support withdrawals, and to force the enemy into another EA. Plan Fires to Support Defensive Positions Action Integrate indirect fire support into direct fire defensive plans. Suppress enemy indirect and direct fire weapons. Assign priority targets & FPFs to battle positions, strongpoints, or perimeter defense positions to preclude the enemys breaching of defenses. Make contingency plans to reallocate fire support assets to strengthen vulnerable areas. Designate on order POF. Plan CAS (when available) to support contingencies. Plan Fires to Support Counterattack(s) Action Plan continuously to support a potential counterattack. Use quick fire planning techniques. Request CFLs close to defensive positions to facilitate rapid engagements. Evaluate requirements for RFLs or other restrictive FSCMs, recognition signals, passwords and other aspects of converging or passing forces. 3 Responsibility FSO/FO FSO FSO FSO FSO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO/FO

Responsibility FSO/FO FO FSO FSO FSO FSO

Responsibility FSO/FO FSO/FO FSO FSO


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Table B-8. Defensive Fire Planning at the Battalion TF Level (Continued) Preparation for the Defense Action Use PLGR to mark location of planned obstacles, if possible, and to locate targets. Submit refinements to battalion. Use PLGR and laser range finders to verify trigger points. Check crew-served weapons Range Cards for Dead Space, and evaluate implications for indirect fire. Register FA & mortars as necessary, and adjust in priority targets and FPFs if possible. Get time of flight to targets and FPFs from FA and mortar FDCs. Calculate time-distance relationships critical to the fire plan. Establish trigger points, and responsibilities, and submit them to battalion (on call or as TRPs or phase lines). Use easily identifiable terrain features, chemlights, VS17 panels, or other forms of marking to identify trigger points. Position observers where they can best observe triggers and targets and evaluate requirements for overhead cover or other protective measures for OPs. Draw terrain sketches and position OF fans on maps. Rehearse observer plan and engagement criteria. Conduct radio rehearsal. 3 Responsibility FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO Co FSNCO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO FIST Chief/FO All All

Table B-9. Offensive Fire Planning at the Battalion TF Level Plan Fires Short of the LD/Line of Contact (LC) Action Defensive fires (FPFs or priority targets) planned for assembly areas and trains. Fires planned enroute to the LD/LC. Fires planned to support a hasty defense if attack fails. Fires planned to impede enemy efforts at counter reconnaissance. 3 Responsibility FSO FSO FSO FSO


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Table B-9. Offensive Fire Planning at the Battalion TF Level (Continued) Plan Fires from the LD/LC to the Objective Action Assign priority of fires based on commander guidance and concept of the operation; often lead elements of main effort, then other lead or trail elements, dependent on availability of fire support assets. Consider fires to suppress enemy direct and indirect fire weapons. Consider use of smoke to restrict enemy observation, to screen friendly movements, and to support breaching of obstacles. Consider planning fires to protect exposed flanks or disrupt counterattacks. Consider task organization of FOs to ensure all critical targets are observed. Consider preparatory fires. Ensure they are tied to maneuver events (not just time). Weigh advantages (massed destructive fires on unwarned troops, disruption of defense) versus disadvantages (loss of surprise for maneuver forces, potential obstacles from cratering or danger from unexploded ordnance). Determine if enemy will have time to recover from the preparation before friendly forces can overwhelm the defenses. Plan the use of forward reconnaissance to improve accuracy of known and suspected targets and procedures to rapidly pass updated targeting information to FSEs/FDCs. Evaluate timing requirements for the lifting and shifting of all fires in concert with the movement of forces (phase lines, predetermined times/events, on call, etc). Evaluate responsibilities (primary/alternate) and communications. Plan Fires on the Objective Action Consider fires to block enemy reinforcements and resupply. Consider fires to suppress enemy direct and indirect fire weapons. Consider the use of smoke to screen friendly forces of obscure enemy observation during consolidation. Ensure all fire support and maneuver personnel understand triggers, signals, and responsibilities for shifting fires. Plan fires in support of a hasty defense upon completion of a successful attack. Plan Fires Beyond the Objective Action Plan fires to disrupt, delay, limit, fix, or destroy enemy reinforcements and counterattacking forces. Plan fires to block or destroy retreating enemy forces. Evaluate the need for deep fires that facilitate rapid exploitation of successes or transition to the next operation/phase. 3 Responsibility FSO FSO FSO FSO FSO




Responsibility FSO FSO FSO FSO FSO

Responsibility FSO FSO FSO


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Appendix C

Fire Support Vehicles

This appendix presents a general description of the M981 fire support team vehicle (FISTV), the BFIST, and the Striker. Operating procedures and additional technical information may be found in the appropriate technical manuals.


C-01. The M981 FISTV is built on a M113A2 chassis, which includes an upgraded suspension and electrical system. Its hydraulically erected missile launcher is modified to house the targeting station. Subsystems of the targeting station include the G/VLLD, HTU, and communications equipment. They can be used as a part of the vehicle or removed from the vehicle and used in dismounted applications. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION C-02. The following are the functions of the FISTV: Perform systems test. It tests its internal functioning, the functioning of the laser designator/rangefinder (LD/R) and north-seeking gyrocompass (NSG), and all associated circuitry. Provide controls for LD/R and NSG power, systems initialization, erection and stowage of the targeting head, lamp and LD/R reticle brightness, lamps test, and remote setting of PRF codes of the LD/R. Store vehicle and target-known point location. Compute target coordinates based on vehicle location and data determined by the LD/R (slant distance) and NSG (direction and vertical angle). Compute vehicle coordinates based on known point location and data provided by the LD/R (slant distance) and NSG (direction and vertical angle). Store and send polar data to the HTU. Provide direction and vertical angle data to the LD/R eyepiece display. Display vehicle heading or targeting head direction and vertical angle. FISTV OPERATIONS STATIONS C-03. The operations stations of the communications, and observation stations. Targeting Station C-04. The targeting station consists of three major components: the turret, the erection arm assembly, and the targeting head. The targeting station can FISTV are the targeting,


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rotate 6,400 mils in either direction in azimuth. The turret houses the targeting station operator's controls and indicators. These include the targeting station control display (TSCD), the hand controls, the night-sight controls, and the hydraulic components that supply the motive power for the entire targeting station. The erection arm assembly erects the targeting head for target location or designation and stows the head for travel. The targeting head houses the LD/R component of the G/VLLD, the night sight, the wide field of view (3X) sight, and the NSG. It can be elevated to +657 mils (+37 degrees) and depressed to -408 mils (23 degrees). The targeting head must be erect for target location and designation equipment to be used. C-05. North-Seeking Gyrocompass. The NSG determines true north and converts the azimuth to a grid direction based on the vehicle position. The NSG module also measures the vertical angle to the target (based on the horizontal plane). This is used by the TSCD to convert the G/VLLD slant range to a horizontal distance when computing vehicle or target location. C-06. Tank Periscope. The tank periscope assembly allows the targeting station operator to select one of three sights: The wide field of view sight (3X channel) provides a wide (2.8 x 25) field of view. This sight is not intended for use in adjustment of fire; therefore, it does not have a mil reticle. The night-sight channel provides either a wide (4 x 6.6) or a narrow (12 x 2.2) field of view. The sight LD/R (13X channel) with a 12 x 4 field of view has the same eyepiece display as the G/VLLD. Communications Station C-07. The communications station includes the HTU and radios. It allows digital communications with current systems such as Initial Fire Support Automated System (IFSAS), AFATDS, BCS, and the mortar ballistic computer (MBC). C-08. The HTU and components of the radio sets are man-portable and can be operated away from the vehicle. C-09. The communications system in the FISTV provides all four personnel both internal and external communications capabilities as follows: The FISTV has four-frequency FM capability for external communications. The FISTV also has an internal intercom system. This allows the crew to converse during operations. C-10. Each crewmember has a combat vehicle crewman (CVC) helmet. The CVC helmet has a headset, a microphone, and a keying switch. The helmet hooks into an intercommunications control unit. This unit allows each crewman to talk within the communications system. Each individual can monitor from one to four radio frequencies and the intercom. Also, each member can communicate over any one of these nets by properly positioning the TALK switch on his control unit.


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Observation Station C-11. This station contains a four-power, 7 (125 mils) field of view periscope for use in target detection and vehicle defense. The optical system includes a mil reticle pattern as an aid for the adjustment of conventional fires. The reticle also contains an azimuth position indicator, which provides direction relative to the front of the vehicle. No leveling capability is provided.


C-12. The BFIST is the successor system to the FISTV. Deficiencies in the FISTVs mobility, reliability, and targeting capabilities were clearly noted during Operation Desert Storm (ODS). The FISTV also presents a unique signature to the enemy and provides less protection to the crew than the vehicles of the supported maneuver units. The BFIST has the mobility, survivability, maneuverability, speed and comparable physical signature equivalent to that of the mechanized infantry, armor, and cavalry units it supports. The BFIST automotive commonality with maneuver vehicles allows ready support and sustainment of a higher operational tempo. This and improved mission capabilities allow the BFIST to optimize fire support lethality and enhance performance. C-13. The primary purpose of the FIST is to provide fire support to the company. The BFIST is the vehicle that allows the FIST to keep up with his maneuver counterparts and to be in the best position to support his unit with indirect fires. The BFIST is most effectively employed when it is requesting and adjusting indirect fires for the other elements of the company. Although armed with 25mm cannon and 7.62mm machine gun, infantry leaders must not employ the BFIST as extra Bradley fighting vehicle. These armaments are provided for the immediate self-defense of the crew or emergency actions in extreme cases. If the BFIST crew is assigned typical Bradley fighting vehicle duties they cannot perform their unique and specific duty of coordinating and controlling friendly fire support. C-14. There currently are two models of the BFIST. The XM7 retrofits the Bradley A2 ODS chassis with FIST mission equipment package (MEP) and it is the first production model (M7). The M7A1 incorporates technological advances in maintenance, support and other areas into a Bradley A3 chassis. C-15. The MEP includes the following fire support unique items: HTU, LCU, and the forward observer software. The LCU and HTU are the primary terminals for conducting fire support planning and execution functions. Both devices use data from the BFIST sensors and external sources. The on-board computing system has an open architecture to allow continuous software upgrades. C-16. The BFIST has key capabilities the M981 does not; an ISU with an embedded ELRF, drivers viewer enhanced (DVE) infrared thermal imaging system, and the vehicular intercommunications system (VIS). The Bradley A2 ODS model has a PLGR, an INS, a battlefield combat identification system (BCIS), a drivers thermal viewer, and a missile countermeasure device. The Bradley A3 model adds to the A2 ODS model a core electronic architecture to process messages on the digitized battlefield. The A3 model also comes with two second-generation forward-looking infrared (FLIR)


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sights, one for the gunner and an independent sight for the commander. Both BFIST variants retain the G/VLLD for dismounted operations. INTEGRATED SIGHT UNIT C-17. The ISU consists of a day sight, a night sight, and the ELRF. The ELRF provides a range to target accurate to +/- 10 meters for distances of 200 to 9,990 meters. Note: The BFIST can conduct laser range finding operations while moving provided the ISU reticle is kept centered on the target. C-18. The ELRF is also used to automatically super-elevate either the main 25 mm cannon or the coaxially mounted 7.62 mm machine gun based on ranging information. VEHICLE INTERCOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM C-19. The VIS provides communication on each of the four combat radio nets from all crew positions. It supports the following capabilities: Intercom voice communications between all crewmembers. Inter-digital communications between the LCU and HTU. External secure voice and digital communications. NAVIGATION SYSTEM C-20. The M7 BFIST has an INS, which consists of an inertial navigation unit (INU), vehicle motion sensor (VMS), and PLGR. The INS provides the M7 with navigational capability based on a blended inertial/GPS solution. The INU incorporates a ring laser gyroscope to determine positional data. The vehicle path information is displayed on the driver and commanders display units. The INS then determines which positioning data is more accurate based on PLGR and VMS data. With the M7s position defined, the mission processor unit (MPU) then incorporates range data from the ELRF to determine target location. OPTICAL SENSOR PACKAGE C-21. The M7 BFIST MEP consists of the AN/TAS-4 thermal sight, the G/VLLD, and the ISU. The ISU is the primary targeting apparatus for the M7. It provides high (12x) and low (4x) magnification of the visual image. The dual polarity thermal sight converts IR emissions into a visual image. The ELRF and gun reticules can be used with either the clear or thermal sights. The sight is selected using the gunners ISU control panel and reticule is chosen with the weapons control box. The G/VLLD and the AN/TAS-4 are used only in the dismounted mode.

C-22. The Striker fire support vehicle integrates the same BFIST MEP into a high-mobility, multi-wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) chassis. The Striker has the capability to self-locate; to determine range, azimuth, and vertical angle to a target; to target designate; and to enhance day/night observation. The Striker operates with three combat net radios. The Striker is scheduled for fielding in approximately FY 02.


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C-23. The following information provides detailed information on the capabilities and characteristics of M981 and BFIST vehicles. Table C-1. BFIST Vehicle Technological Improvements
Class I Laser safe: Totally eye safe for all training, demonstration and battlefield scenarios. Range Capability: 200 - 9990 meters Range Accuracy: 10 meters Target discrimination: 20 meters Automatic super elevation and gun director requiring reranging. Reprogrammable at Direct Support for ammunition table updates or feature upgrades. Range output for external display or signal processing.


Infrared thermal imaging system. Plug and Play, installs directly in drivers vision block opening. Provides unrestricted vehicle mobility in total darkness, all weather and degraded visibility conditions. Provides improved surveillance capability during silent watch. Highly reliable, greater than 1,080 hours mean time between failure (MTBF). Combat field-tested, fielded during Desert Storm & Operation Restore Hope.


Eliminates friendly casualties. Low cost millimeter wave technology design Compact/rugged narrow beam antenna. Tactical: Covert frequency hopped and directional sequence spread spectrum waveforms. All weather interrogate/transponder identification system 99.9% certainty of friend identification under all weather conditions. Identification sequence occurs in less than one second.


High performance, hand-portable receiver. Single-band operation, logical controls/displays Highly reliable, greater than 13,000 hours MTBF. Standard Government batteries, no tools required. Fully compliant interfaces. Enhanced Anti-Spoofing capability. Precise position in 3-Dimension. Full SA/A-S capability with certified PPS-SM and AOC.


Permit greater tactical mobility at ranges greater than threat main gun range. Defeats variety of currently fielded anti-tank guided missiles. Low maintenance requirements. Adaptable to a wide variety of platforms. Requires minimal training.


Targeting Station Control Panel Inertial Navigation System Handheld Terminal Unit Lightweight Computer Unit Mission Processing Unit

Table C-2. BFIST Comparison and Characteristics

CHARACTERISTIC Weight (lbs) Fuel Capacity Cruising Range Gross Horsepower Speed on Land Speed in Water Personnel Capacity Main Armament Secondary Armament Firing Ports M981 26,900 95 gal 300mi/483km 210 40mph/64kph 3.6mph/5.8kph 4 7.62mm MG NA NA BFIST 66,000 175 gal 250mi/400km 600 38 mph/61 kph 5 mph/8 kph 4 25mm cannon 7.62 coaxial machine gun 2


Appendix D

Laser Range Finders and Designators and Weapons Systems

D-01. Precision weapons play a significant role in battlefield success by providing commander's with greatly improved weapon accuracy. This improved accuracy yields higher probability of achieving the desired end state while lowering the probability of collateral damage. The light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is the enabling technology of many of these weapons. Laser systems enable joint forces to engage a wider range of targets with more accuracy and fewer munitions than previously possible. D-02. Laser technology on the battlefield has developed in three primary areas: Laser target ranging and designation systems. Laser acquisition devices. LGWs. LASER TARGET RANGING AND DESIGNATION SYSTEMS D-03. These systems can provide accurate range, azimuth, and elevation information to locate enemy targets. These systems may vary from handheld to aircraft-mounted devices and perform similar functions with varying degrees of accuracy. In combination with GPS, lasers can provide accurate enemy target locations. Once a target has been selected and accurately located, the laser designation capability is used to identify the specific target for LGWs. LASER ACQUISITION DEVICES D-04. Of the two types of laser acquisition devices, the first, the LST is used to aid visual acquisition of the target to be attacked by another weapon. This type of device is normally mounted on fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. The second type of device is a seeker and guidance kit mounted on LGWs, which guide on coded laser energy. LASER GUIDED WEAPONS D-05. LGWs home in on reflected laser energy to strike a target. Some LGWs require laser target illumination before launch or release and/or during the entire time of flight; some require illumination only during the terminal portion of flight. Unique laser-guided munitions capabilities can be fully exploited only with careful planning based on a thorough knowledge of each weapon system.


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REQUIREMENTS D-06. Six basic requirements are needed to effectively employ laser designators with LSTs or LGWs. Atmospheric conditions must be suitable for laser operations. Smoke, haze, clouds, and precipitation can significantly attenuate and scatter laser energy and degrade delivery accuracy. A line of sight must exist between the designator and the target and between the target and the LST and/or LGW. For LGWs, this line of sight must exist prior to launch or after launch depending on the weapon's capabilities. The direction of attack must allow the LST or LGW to sense sufficient laser energy reflecting from the designated target, minimize false target indications, and preclude the LGW from guiding on the LTD. The laser designator must designate the target at the correct time and for the proper duration. The PRF code of the LTD and LST or LGW must be compatible. The Army uses a 3-digit PRF code for its LGWs and the GVLLD. The Air force uses a 4-digit PRF code. When the Army designates for the Air force, it drops the first digit of the code (example: USAF 1234 is USA 234). The delivery system must release the weapon within the specific weapon's delivery envelope. D-07. Note: This appendix provides information on the use of the Army's primary laser systems and a brief description of those of other services. For additional information on laser target designators, laser acquisition devices, and LGWs see JP 3-09.1. See Chapter 10 for details on ground designation for air dropped munitions.


DESCRIPTION D-08. The G/VLLD is the Army's long-range designator for precision guided semiactive laser weapons. It is two-man portable for short distances and can be mounted on the M981 FISTV or dismounted from the BFIST. The G/VLLD gives the observer accurate OT distance, VA, and azimuth data. Accurate azimuth information depends on initial orientation of the G/VLLD. All three items of information are shown in the eyepiece display. D-09. The laser designator can reliably place coded laser energy on stationary targets up to 5000 meters and moving targets up to 3000 meters. Reflected coded laser energy provides guidance information for terminal homing munitions such as Hellfire and Copperhead. The code transmitted by the designator is manually set on the G/VLLD PRF code switches by the observer. This same code is also set on the laser-guided projectiles to be fired for that observer. Coded laser energy allows for multiple designators to operate in the same target area without mutual interference. The G/VLLD is equipped with an AN/TAS-4 night sight. This night sight significantly increases the observer's ability to detect and engage targets during periods of reduced visibility caused by darkness or battlefield obscuration.


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D-10. Detailed procedures for the technical operation of the G/VLLD are in TM 9-1260-477-12. This manual discusses those operational aspects of using the G/VLLD not covered in the technical manual. D-11. Note: The division FSE is the overall manager of PRF codes for the division area. Blocks of codes are assigned to division artillery, to maneuver brigades or battalions, and to the division. The lowest level for management of PRF codes is the brigade FSE. The brigade FSE provides positive coordination of the codes for both the designator and the artillery FDC as a part of fire mission processing. For information on Air Force PRF codes, see Chapter 10, Section I. BORESIGHTING THE G/VLLD D-12. The manufacturers tolerance on the G/VLLD LD/R is enough to ensure that the laser line of sight and the day optics remain in boresight under normal conditions. However, unusually rough handling of the G/VLLD may cause a boresighting problem. If the observer suspects the laser and optical alignment, he should turn in the G/VLLD to DS maintenance. The night sight of the G/VLLD also requires boresighting. The observer should be familiar with these procedures. The night-vision sight is boresighted at the time of mounting. A field boresight check is performed on the G/VLLD. INITIAL ORIENTATION OF THE G/VLLD D-13. Since target locations are determined by the polar plot technique, target location accuracy depends on the accuracy of the observers location as reported to the FDC and of his initial orienting azimuth. Upon occupation of a position, the observer should ensure that accurate orienting information is placed on the G/VLLD and that his accurate location is encoded and sent to the FDC. As a minimum, he should do the following as soon as possible after occupying an observation post: Using an M2 compass, measure the grid azimuth to a reference point that is easily identifiable on the ground. Orient the G/VLLD on the reference point, and set the grid azimuth reading in the azimuth display of the G/VLLD eyepiece. With the G/VLLD thus oriented for direction, determine the azimuth, distance, and vertical angle to any point that he can observe with the G/VLLD and can identify on his map. Determine his location through GPS or resection and terrain analysis and report his grid coordinates to the FDC. If the observer is accurately located and is properly oriented, resulting target locations will be accurate enough for first round FFE missions OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT D-14. In addition to reporting his location to the FDC, the observer must report observer cloud height (height of clouds above the observer) to support Copperhead missions. The cloud height over the target (target cloud height) significantly affects the performance of the Copperhead round. Cloud ceilings that are too low will not allow the Copperhead round enough time to lock on and maneuver to the designated target. The FDC uses the reported observer cloud height to compute target cloud heights.


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D-15. The observer must use his judgment in evaluating the potential effects of clouds over the target area on Copperhead performance. On cloudy and partly cloudy days, observer cloud height must be determined. The observer should not hesitate to report separate observer cloud heights for target areas having significantly different cloud coverage. The procedures below are used to determine observer cloud heights: The observer elevates the G/VLLD to a VA of +350 mils toward his area of responsibility, selects RNG 1 mode, and measures the slant range to the cloud base. Slant range is then expressed to the nearest 100 meters. If the slant range is greater than 6,300 meters, the observer reports OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT GREATER THAN 2,120 METERS. If the slant range is less than or equal to 6,300 meters, the observer enters the cloud height table (Table D-1) and determines the cloud height. Entry values for the table are row and column headings that total the slant range measured. Table D-1. Observer Cloud Height Range 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 0 510 670 840 1010 1180 1350 1520 1680 1850 2020 100 540 710 880 1040 1210 1380 1550 1720 1890 2060 200 570 740 910 1080 1250 1420 1580 1750 1920 2090 300 610 780 940 1110 1280 1450 1620 1790 1950 2120 400 640 810 980 1140 1310 1480 1650 1820 1990

Notes: 1. Angle of measurement is +350 mils. 2. Enter with slant range to the nearest 100 meters.

Slant range at vertical angle of +350 mils = 2570 meters (expressed to 2,600 meters). Enter with 2500 (left side) and 100 (top) (2500 + 100 = 2600). Read an observer cloud height of 880 meters and report OBSERVER CLOUD HEIGHT 880 METERS.


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1. A table similar to Table D-1 is on the cover card of the Copperhead footprint template set. The observer should report observer cloud height as soon as possible after occupying a position. He then reports changes only when the change in observer cloud height exceeds 100 meters. 2. An increase or decrease of 300 meters in measured slant range corresponds to an approximate 100-meter increase or decrease in observer cloud height. TARGET RANGING AND DESIGNATING WITH THE NIGHT SIGHT D-16. The night-vision sight can be used in both day and night operations. It has an effective range of 3,000 meters. An observer can effectively detect and ultimately bring fires on targets that would otherwise be obscured because of smoke, dust, haze, fog, or darkness. The night-vision sight, however, lets an observer see a target through smoke and other battlefield obscurants that would attenuate and weaken laser energy. To verify that the laser energy will penetrate these obscurants for successful designation, he should range the target several times in the RNG 2 mode. If he is sure he is receiving consistent and accurate ranging data, he can expect the target to be successfully engaged with Copperhead. Any field-expedient technique that can be used to verify that the range readings in the G/VLLD are accurate is acceptable. D-17. If the target is near a known point, the observer should compare the range read to the target with the distance to the known point. If they are about equal, it is a good indication that the laser energy penetrated the obscurant. D-18. Another technique is to range the target several (four to six) times. Determine if the variation of the range readings is consistent with the target motions. If so, locate and range to a terrain feature at a much greater distance from (greater than 500 meters, if possible) but along or very close to the line of sight to the intended target. If the return remains essentially the same as was observed in ranging the intended target, the laser energy is probably not penetrating the obscurant. If a reasonable range is observed, this is a good indication that laser energy is penetrating the obscurant. NIGHT SIGHT TRAINING D-19. All observers must be thoroughly proficient in the use of the AN/TAS-4 night sight with the AN TVQ-2 G/VLLD. Procedures for training with the night sight for target detection, identification, and tracking are as follows: Set the field of view control to wide field of view (WFOV). Sight through the night sight eyepiece, and scan a sector of your area of responsibility until you detect a target. Place the night sight reticle on the center of the identified target, and set the field of view to narrow field of view (NFOV). Turn the RANGE FOCUS knob to focus the target image. Adjust the brightness (BRT) and contrast (CTRS) controls to give the best target image detail.


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Determine whether the target image is a wheeled or tracked vehicle. Then identify it as friendly or enemy. Analyze the image seen in the night sight and place the cross hairs at the best aiming point. Maintain smooth tracking and follow the target image.

To track and designate for precision guided weapons, such as Copperhead, using the night sight, it is recommended that engagements be restricted to targets within the optimum operating range of the night sight (0 to 300 meters).


D-20. The AN/GVS-5 is a lightweight, hand-held, laser rangefinder that can accurately determine the range to a target within 1 second after the FIRE button has been pressed. The device emits a laser burst and detects its return when the burst is reflected from a distant object. The time lapse between emission of the beam and its return is converted to meters and displayed in the eyepiece on the range-to-target display. The entire AN/GVS-5 package, including battery, weighs 5 pounds. The AN/GV-5 provides a range to the target that is accurate to within +/- 10 meters for distances of 200 to 9,990 meters. D-21. To use the AN/GVS-5, an observer simply aims the device by superimposing the circle at the center of the reticle pattern over the target and presses the FIRE button. The range is displayed in the range-to-target window and remains there as long as the FIRE button is pressed. The observer should not automatically consider the displayed range to be the correct range to the target. On the contrary, clutter in front of or behind the target may, at times, produce false ranges. The observer must continually associate the displayed range with a terrain-map analysis and his own range estimate to decide whether the reading is accurate. If, in the observer's opinion, all of these figures do not correlate, he should consider the information below MULTIPLE FIRINGS D-22. To ensure that the observer is aiming at the correct target, he should take a series of readings at the same target. Three consistent readings generally indicate that the observer has aimed in the same place each time. MINIMUM RANGE SET D-23. Although the emitted laser beam is relatively narrow, it is wide enough to reflect from more than one target or object. The AN/GVS-5 has a multiple target warning light inside the eyepiece that lights when more than one return signal is received. When multiple target readings are indicated, the range displayed is the range to the first object from which the beam is reflected. To prevent obtaining a false reading from an intermediate object between the observer and the target, the AN/GVS-5 is equipped with a minimum range set (MIN RG SET). Ranges to the nearest 10 meters and up to 5,000 meters may be set on the MIN RG SET by using the variable control.


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The MIN RG SET indicates the minimum range at which the AN/GVS-5 will register a return, thereby eliminating false readings from intermediate objects. The observer can continue a trial-and-error process of eliminating false ranges by adjusting the MIN RG SET until the range read in the display correlates with the observer's own range estimate based on map and terrain analysis. The observer can save time in this process by establishing on the MIN RG SET the range beyond which he is certain the target lies before he begins ranging a target. Upon completion of a mission, the MIN RG SET should always be set back to zero. SELF-LOCATION D-24. The AN/GVS-5 can help the observer locate himself by giving him accurate distances to two known points. The observer can report these distances to his FDC, which in turn, will calculate his location. Self-location may be obtained by giving the FDC distances to two burst locations of rounds that have been fired after the unit has completed registration. A combination of one round and one known point may also be used for self-location. The two points or bursts should be separated by at least 300 mils. ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE D-25. Lateral and vertical shifts in the adjustment of fire are computed by using the mil relation in the same way as adjustment of fire by using binoculars. Taking the difference in range between the target and the burst and making the correction in the appropriate direction make range adjustments. TARGET LOCATION D-26. The distance provided by the AN/GVS-5 should always be used with the most accurate direction to the target available and a quick, but thorough, map analysis. The observer should remember that the AN/GVS-5 is designed to help him refine distance. The distances determined by the device should always be correlated with known information before a target location is produced.


D-27. The AN/PVS-6 MELIOS is lightweight (6.5 pounds), individually operated, hand-held or tripod mounted laser rangefinder. It is capable of determining ranges from 50 to 9995 meters in 5-meter increments and displaying the range in the eyepiece. The C/VAM allows for azimuth and vertical angle measurements (+/- 10 mil accuracy). The target azimuth is displayed 0 to 6395 mils in the upper portion of the eyepiece display. VA is displayed from +/- 530 mils. The C/VAM can operate independently or at the same time as the range finder. The AN/PVS-6 is capable of being used with the AN/UAS-11 Night Observation Device, Long Range. D-28. The MELIOS laser range finder (MLRF) mode switch has four settings: OFF - Power is not applied to the MLRF.


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FIRST RTN - Power is applied and the first return signal from the target determines the range to be displayed. When multiple targets are ranged, the range to the closest target is displayed. The multiple target indicator is illuminated if more than one return signal is received. LAST RTN - Power is applied and the last return signal from multiple targets is selected to determine range. The range to the farthest target is displayed. The multiple target indicator is illuminated if more than one return signal is received. TEST - Pressing the CHARGE switch while in the TEST position will display four "8s" in the range display, the C/VAM will show four "dashes", and the ready and multiple target indicators will illuminate. D-29. The CHARGE switch applies power to the charging circuit. When charging is complete the ready indicator displays in the eyepiece indicating the laser is ready to fire. The unit will shut down if the FIRE switch is not pressed within 8 seconds after the CHARGE switch is pressed. D-30. When the FIRE switch is pressed, the laser fires and starts the timing circuit. Timing stops when a return signal is received (either the first return signal or the last return signal). The timing value is converted to a range in meters. The range value is displayed in the eyepiece until the FIRE switch is released. D-31. The MELIOS laser range finder CHARGE and FIRE switches also control the C/VAM operation. The C/VAM mode switch has four settings: OFF - Power is not applied to the C/VAM. C/VAM - Power is applied and the C/VAM is in the standby mode. In this mode the C/VAM alternately displays target azimuth and VA information in the upper eyepiece display when the FIRE switch is pressed. ZERO - Power is applied and the C/VAM is ready for zeroing procedures (see TM 11-5860-202-10) to increase compass accuracy. DEC - Power is applied and the C/VAM is ready for setting correct magnetic declination angle and C/VAM display for mils or degrees.


D-32. The lightweight laser designator rangefinder (LLDR) is a manportable, modular target location and designation system whose major components are the target locator module, laser designator module, battery, and tripod. The target locator module contains a charge coupled device camera, thermal imager, eyesafe laser rangefinder, digital magnetic compass, GPS, and digital export capability. The device determines range (up to 20 kilometers), azimuth and VA. The laser designator module can designate targets up to five kilometers. The system weighs approximately 32 pounds.


D-33. The target acquisition and designation sight (TADS) gives the AH-64 a day, night, and adverse weather target acquisition and designating capability.


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D-34. Target acquisition is provided by means of the multiple fields of view TADS sensors, the direct view optics, day television, and FLIR. D-35. The TADS laser can designate targets for its own or remotely fired laser guided missiles (LGMs); it gives the AH-64 precision laser ranging. D-36. The TADS LST facilitates target handoffs from other laser designators. Once acquired, the targets can be manually or automatically tracked. D-37. The AH-64 is a day, night, adverse weather aircraft that has a maximum laser guided munition load of 16 Hellfire missiles. The crew can launch the missiles either singly or in multiples by using a LOBL or a LOAL mode against stationary or moving targets. Three launch methods are used: autonomous, using the TADS designator; indirectly, in coordination with a ground designator; or in cooperation with another airborne designation system. In the indirect and cooperative modes, the crew may use Hellfire as a fire-and-forget missile. D-38