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A single bay portal frame made of rolled profiles is designed according to EN 1993-1-1. This worked example includes the elastic analysis of the frame using first order theory, and all the verifications of the members under ULS combinations.

5,988 7,30

,0 72 0

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0 7,2

[m] 30,00

1 Basic data

Total length : Spacing: Bay width : Height (max): Roof slope:

3,00 3,00

3,00 3,00 3,00

1 : Torsional restraints

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2 Loads

2.1 Permanent loads

self-weight of the beam roofing with purlins for an internal frame: G = 0,30 kN/m2 G = 0,30 7,20 = 2,16 kN/ml EN 1991-1-1

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Characteristic values for snow loading on the roof in [kN/m] S = 0,8 1,0 1,0 0,772 = 0,618 kN/m for an internal frame: S = 0,618 7,20 = 4,45 kN/m

s = 4,45 kN/m

EN 1991-1-3

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Characteristic values for wind loading in kN/m for an internal frame

wind direction Zone G: w = 9,18 Zone D: w = 4,59 Zone E: w = 3,28 Zone H: w = 5,25 Zone J: w = 5,25 Zone I: w = 5,25

EN 1991-1-4

e/10 = 1,46

1,46 30,00

3 Load combinations

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

EN 1990

(permanent loads) (permanent loads) (variable loads) (snow) (wind) EN 1990 Table A1.1

Combination 101 : Combination 102 : Combination 103 : Combination 104 : Combination 105 : Combination 106 :

EN 1990

EN 1990

Combinations and limits should be specified for each project or by National Annex.

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4 Sections

4.1 Column

Try IPE 600 Steel grade S275 Depth Web Depth h = 600 mm hw = 562 mm dw = 514 mm Width Web thickness Flange thickness Fillet

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tf

tw y hw y

Depth of straight portion of the web b = 220 mm tw = 12 mm tf = 19 mm r = 24 mm 122,4 kg/m A = 156 cm2

z b

Second moment of area /yy Iy = 92080 cm4 Second moment of area /zz Iz = 3386cm4 Torsion constant Warping constant Elastic modulus /yy Plastic modulus /yy Elastic modulus /zz Plastic modulus /zz It = 165,4 cm4 Iw = 2845500 cm6 Wel,y = 3069 cm3 Wpl,y = 3512 cm3 Wel,z = 307,80 cm3 Wpl,z = 485,60 cm3

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4.2 Rafter

Try IPE 500 Steel grade S275 Depth Web Depth h = 500 mm hw = 468 mm dw = 426 mm Width Web thickness Flange thickness Fillet Mass

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Depth of straight portion of the web b = 200 mm tw = 10,2 mm tf = 16 mm r = 21 mm 90,7 kg/m A = 115,50 cm2

Section area

Second moment of area /yy Iy = 48200 cm4 Second moment of area /zz Iz = 2141 cm4 Torsion constant Warping constant Elastic modulus /yy Plastic modulus /yy Elastic modulus /zz Plastic modulus /zz It = 89,29 cm4 Iw = 1249400 cm6 Wel,y = 1928 cm3 Wpl,y = 2194 cm3 Wel,z = 214,1 cm3 Wpl,z = 335,90 cm3

5 Global analysis

The joints are assumed to be: pinned for column bases rigid for beam to column.

EN 1993-1-1 5.2

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EN 1993-1-1 5.2.1 In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the frame to 2 order effects, a buckling analysis is performed to calculate the buckling amplification factor cr for the load combination giving the highest vertical load: max G + Q QS (combination 101).

nd

For this combination, the amplification factor is: cr = 14,57 The first buckling mode is shown hereafter.

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

So :

cr = 14,57 > 10

The global initial sway imperfection may be determined from

= 0 h m =

where

0 = 1/200 h =

2 2 = = 0,740 h 7,30

m = 0,5(1 +

1 ) = 0,866 m

Sway imperfections may be disregarded where HEd 0,15 VEd. The effects of initial sway imperfection may be replaced by equivalent horizontal forces: Heq = VEd in the combination where HEd < 0,15 VEd

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Left column 1 ULS Comb. HEd,1 kN 101 102 103 104 105

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Right column 2 HEd,2 Kn 125,5 -24,47 89,48 77,01 26,72 14,25 VEd,2 kN -172,4 58,19 -105,3 -86,56 -10,57 8,17 HEd kN 0 70,69 42,42 42,42 70,69 70,69

Total VEd kN -344,70 138,9 -197,1 -159,6 1,40 38,88 51,70 20,83 29,56 23,93 0,21 5,83

0,15 VEd

106

The sway imperfection has only to be taken into for the combination 101: VEd kN 172,4 Heq = .VEd kN 0,552

5.3.1 Serviceability limit states

Combinations and limits should be specified for each project or in National Annex. For this example, the deflections obtained by modeling are as follows: Vertical deflections: G + Snow: Snow only: Dy = 124 mm = L/241 Dy = 73 mm = L/408 EN 1993-1-1 7 and EN 1990

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Moment diagram in kNm Combination 101:

Combination 102:

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Combination 103:

Combination 104:

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Combination 105:

Combination 106:

6 Column verification

Profile IPE 600 - S275 ( = 0,92) The verification of the member is carried out for the combination 101 : NEd = VEd = MEd = 161,5 kN (assumed to be constant along the column) 122,4 kN (assumed to be constant along the column) 755 kNm (at the top of the column)

Web: The web slenderness is c / tw = 42,83

dN =

EN 1993-1-1 5.5

396 0,92 = 59,49 13 0,548 1

The limit for Class 1 is : 396 / (13 1) = Then : c / tw = 42,83 < 59,49

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Flange:

The limit for Class 1 is : 9 = 9 0,92 = 8,28 Then : c / tf = 4,74 < 8,28

So the section is Class 1. The verification of the member will be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section.

Verification for shear force Shear area : Av = A - 2btf + (tw+2r)tf > .hw.tw EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (3)

Av = 15600 2 220 19 + (12 + 2 24) 19 = 8380 mm2 > .hw.tw = 6744 mm2

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VEd / Vpl,Rd = 122,40/1330 = 0,092 < 0,50 The effect of the shear force on the moment resistance may be neglected. Verification to axial force Npl,Rd = A fy / M0 = (15600 275/1,0).10-3 Npl,Rd = 4290 kN NEd = 161,5 kN < 0,25 Npl,Rd = 4290 x 0,25 = 1073 kN and NEd = 161,5 kN < EN 1993-1-1 6.2.4

0,5hw t w f y

M0

The effect of the axial force on the moment resistance may be neglected. Verification to bending moment Mpl,y,Rd = Wpl,y fy / M0 = (3512 275/1,0).10 Mpl,y,Rd = 965,8 kNm My,Ed = 755 kNm < Mpl,y,Rd = 965,8 kNm

-3

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5

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The buckling resistance of the column is sufficient if the following conditions EN 1993-1-1 are fulfilled (no bending about the weak axis, Mz,Ed = 0): 6.3.3

N Ed + k yy y N Rk

M1

N Ed + k zy y N Rk

LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

M1

M1

LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

M1

The kyy and kzy factors will be calculated using the Annex A of EN 1993-1-1. The frame is not sensitive to second order effects (cr = 14,57 > 10). Then the EN 1993-1-1 buckling length for in-plane buckling may be taken equal to the system length. 5.2.2 (7) Lcr,y = 5,99 m Note: For a single bay symmetrical frame that is not sensitive to second order effects, the check for in-plane buckling is generally not relevant. The verification of the cross-sectional resistance at the top of the column will be determinant for the design. Regarding the out-of-plane buckling, the member is laterally restrained at both ends only. Then : Lcr,z = 5,99 m for buckling about the weak axis Lcr,T = 5,99 m for torsional buckling and Lcr,LT = 5,99 m for lateral torsional buckling

Buckling about yy

Lcr,y = 5,99 m EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.2 (2) Table 6.1 EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.3 (1)

Buckling curve : a (y = 0,21) EI y 210000 92080 10000 =53190kN N cr, y = 2 2 = 2 Lcr, y 5990 2 1000

y =

Af y N cr, y

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6.3.1.2 (1)

y =

y + y

2

2 y

= 0,9813

Buckling about zz

Lcr,z = 5,99 m

N cr,z

Buckling curve : b (z = 0,34) EI 210000 3386 10000 =2 2 z =2 = 1956 kN Lcr,z 5990 2 1000

Af y N cr, z = 15600 275 = 1,481 1956.103

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.2 (2) Table 6.1 EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.3 (1) EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.2 (1)

z =

2

z =

z +

2 z

2 z

= 0,3495

M cr = C1

M cr = 1,77

2

2 EI Z

Lcr,LT

2

I W Lcr,LT GI t + IZ 2 EI Z

6 2 6

5990 10 3386.10

4

2

LT =

Wpl,y f y M cr

LT = 0,5 1 + LT LT LT,0 + LT

with LT,0 = 0,40 and =0,75

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LT =

LT +

kc =

2 LT

2 LT

( = 0)

= 0, 7352

f = 1 0,5 (1 0,7519) 1 2(0,8455 0,8) = 0,8765 < 1 0,7352 LT,mod = LT = = 0,8388 < 1 0,8765 f

2

f = 1 0,5 (1 k c ) 1 2 LT 0,8

)]

2

Table 6.6

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N Ed 161,5 1 N cr,z 1956 = = 0,9447 z = N Ed 161,5 1 0,3495 1 z 1956 N cr,z 1

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

wy = wz =

= =

3512 = 1,144 < 1,5 3069 485,6 = 1,578 > 1,5 307,8 wz = 1,5

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

N cr,T =

NCCI SN003

2 EI w A (GI t + ) I0 Lcr,T 2

2 2 I 0 = I y + I z + ( y 0 + z 0 ) A = 92080 + 3386 = 95466 cm4

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N cr,T =

15600 210000 2845500 .10 6 80770 165, 4.10 4 + 2 95466.10 4 1000 5990 2

Ncr,T = 4869 kN

M cr,0 = C1

2 EI Z

Lcr,LT

2

I W Lcr,LT GI t + IZ 2 EI Z

NCCI SN003

Mcr,0 is the critical moment for the calculation of 0 for uniform bending moment as specified in Annex A. C1 = 1

M cr,0 = 1

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

2 210000 3386.10 4

5990 2 10 6

M cr,o = 763,3kNm

0 =

Wpl,y f y M cr,o

N Ed N )(1 Ed ) N cr,z N cr,TF

(doubly

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

0 lim = 0,2 C1 4 (1

with Ncr,TF = Ncr,T

symmetrical section)

0 > 0 lim

C my = C my,0 + (1 C my,0 )

y a LT

1 + y a LT

with

y =

M y,Ed N Ed

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N Ed N cr, y

y =0

C my,0

Cmy = Cmy,0 + (1 Cmy,0 ) y aLT 1 + y aLT

23,76 0,9982 1 + 23,76 0,9982

= 0,9641

C my = 0,7896 + (1 0,7896)

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2 C mLT = C my

0,9982

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

C mLT = 0,96412

= 0,9843 < 1

CmLT = 1

Calculation of the factors Cyy and Czy :

Cyy = 1 + ( wy 1)[(2

npl =

W 1,6 2 1,6 2 2 Cmy max Cmy max )npl bLT ] el, y wy wy Wpl, y

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

max = z = 1,4810

Cyy = 1 + (1,144 1) [(2

1,6 1,6 0,96412 1,481 0,96412 1,4812 ) 0,03765] 1,144 1,144 W 3069 = 0,8739 Cyy = 0,9849 > el, y = Wpl, y 3512

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Czy = 1 + ( wy 1)[(2

14 0 ,9641 2 1, 481 2 ) 0 ,03765 ] = 0 ,9318 1,144 5

wy Wel,y wz Wpl,y

= 0,6

k yy = CmyCmLT y 1 N Ed C yy 1 N cr, y

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

k yy = 0,9641 1

k zy = CmyCmLT

z

1 N Ed N cr, y

wy 1 0,6 Czy wz

k zy = 0,96411

N Ed + k yy y N Rk

M1

LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.3

M1

161500 755.10 6 = 0,9534 <1 OK + 0,9818 15600 275 3512.10 3 275 0,9813 0,8388 1 1

N Ed + k zy z N Rk

M1

LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

M1

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161500 755.10 6 + 0,5138 = 0,5867 <1 OK 15600 275 3512.10 3 275 0,3495 0,8388 1 1

7 Rafter verification

7.1 Classification

Case with maximum compression in beam: (Combination 101)

Web:

NEd= 136 kN

dN = N Ed 136000 = = 48,5mm t w f y 10,2 275

c / tw = 41,76

=

c / tw = 41,76 <

EN 1993-1-1 5.5

class 1

Flanges b = 200 mm tf = 16 mm r = 21 mm c = 71 mm

c / tf = 4,44

part to compression

c / tf < 9 = 8,28

c / tf = 4,44

(S275 = 0,92 )

class 1

So the section is Class 1. The verification of the member will be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section.

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Verification with maximum moment along the member in cross-section of IPE 500: Combination 101 Maximum force in IPE 500 at the end of the haunch: NEd = 136,00 kN VEd = 118,50 kN My,Ed = 349,10 kNm

754,98 kNm 349,10 kNm

305,23 kNm

Shear

=1

Av > .hw.tw = 46810,2 = 4774mm2 Vpl,Rd = Av (fy /

its effect on the moment resistance may be neglected!

Compression

Npl,Rd = 11550 x 275/1000 = 3176 kN NEd = 136 kN < 0,25 Npl,Rd= 3176 0,25 = 794,1 kN

and

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.4

0,5 hw t w f y

M0

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Bending

Mpl,y,Rd = 2194 275/1000 = 603,4 kNm My,Ed = 349,10 kNm < Mpl,y,Rd = 603,4 kNm

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5

Uniform members in bending and axial compression

N Ed + k yy y N Rk M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.3

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

and

M1

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

LT

N Ed + k zy z N Rk

M1

M1

LT

M1

For the determination of the buckling length about yy, a buckling analysis is performed to calculate the buckling amplification factor cr for the load EN 1993-1-1 combination giving the highest vertical load, with a fictitious restraint at 6.3.1.2 (2) top of column: Table 6.1 Combination 101 cr = 37,37

y = 0,21

y =

Af y N cr, y

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y = 0,5 1 + y 0, 2 + y

y =

y + y

2

2 y

= 0,8011

For buckling about zz and for lateral torsional buckling, the buckling length is taken as the distance between torsional restraints: Lcr = 6,00m Note: the intermediate purlin is a lateral restraint of the upper flange only. Its influence could be taken into account but it is conservatively neglected in the following. Flexural buckling Lcr,z = 6,00 m EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.3

N cr,z = 2

EI z L2 z cr,

=2

NCCI SN003

N cr,T = A 2 EI w (GI t + ) 2 I0 Lcr,T

with yo = 0 and zo = 0

N cr,T =

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.1.3 (1)

z =

Af y N cr

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z =

z = 0,5 1 + z 0,2 + z

Table 6.1

z +

2 z

2 z

= 0,3063

Lcr,LT = 6,00 m

Buckling curve : c

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Moment diagram along the part of rafter between restraints: Combination 101 Calculation of the critical moment: NCCI SN003

qL2 = = - 0,123 8M

= - 0,487

q = - 9,56 kN/m

C1 = 2,75

M cr = C1

M cr = 2,75

2 EI Z

Lcr,LT

2

I W Lcr,LT GI t + IZ 2 EI Z

2141.10 4 + 6000 2 80770 89,29.10 4 2 210000 2141.10 4

NCCI

6000 2 10 6

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LT =

Wpl, y f y

LT = 0,5 1 + LT LT LT,0 + LT

with LT,0 = 0,40 and =0,75

M cr

LT = 0 , 5 1 + 0 , 49 (0 , 7215 0 , 4 ) + 0 , 75 0 , 7215 2

= 0 , 7740

LT =

LT +

2 LT

2 LT

= 0,8125

kc = 0,91

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2

f = 1 0,5 (1 k c ) 1 2 LT 0,8

)]

2

LT,mod =

LT

f

Combination 101

Section class1

N Ed + k yy y N Rk

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

My,Ed = 0 et Mz,Ed = 0

N Ed + k zy z N Rk M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.3

M1

LT

M1

M1

LT

M1

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N Ed 136 1 N cr,z 1233 z = = = 0,9208 N Ed 136 1 0,3063 1 z 1233 N cr,z 1

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

wy = wz =

= =

2194 = 1,138 < 1,50 1928 335,9 = 1,569 > 1,50 214,1

I W Lcr,LT GI t + IZ 2 EI Z

2

M cr,0 = C1

2 EI Z

Lcr,LT

2

NCCI SN003

Mcr,0 is the critical moment for the calculation of 0 for uniform bending moment as specified in Annex A. C1 = 1

M cr,0 = 1

2141.10 4

M cr,o

6000 2 10 6 = 421,5kNm

0 =

Wpl, y f y M cr,o

0 lim = 0,2 C1 4 (1

with Ncr,TF = Ncr,T

(doubly

symmetrical section)

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y aLT

1 + y aLT

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

with y = and

M y,Ed N Ed

89,29 It = 0,9981 = 1 48200 Iy

aLT = 1

Moment diagram along the rafter: My,Ed = maximum moment along the rafter = 755kNm 30m 2 EI y x N = 1+ 2 1 Ed L M y,Ed N cr, y

2 210000 48200 10 4 179 136 =0,9803 1 = 1+ 30000 2 755 106 5082

Cmy,0

Cmy,0

Cmy = Cmy,0 + (1 Cmy,0 )

y aLT

1 + y aLT

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2 CmLT = Cmy

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

CmLT = 0,996 2

C yy = 1 + ( wy 1)[(2

W 1,6 2 1,6 2 2 Cmy max Cmy max )npl bLT ] el, y wy wy Wpl,y

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

npl =

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C yy = 1 + (1,138 1)[( 2

max = z = 1,605

Cyy = 0,9774 Czy = 1 + ( wy 1)[(2 wy Wel,y 14 2 2 Cmy max )npl d LT ] 0,6 5 wy wz Wpl, y

EN 1993-1-1 Annex A

k yy = CmyCmLT

1 N Ed C yy 1 N cr, y

k yy = 0,996 1,072

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k zy = CmyCmLT

z

1 N Ed N cr, y

wy 1 0,6 Czy wz

k zy = 0,996 1,072

N Ed + k yy y N Rk

M1

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LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

M1

136000 349,1.10 6 + 1,116 = 0,8131 < 1 OK 11550 275 2194.10 3 275 0,8011 0,8503 1 1

N Ed + k zy z N Rk

M1

LT

M y,Ed 1 M y,Rk

(6.62)

M1

136000 349,1.10 6 + 0,5859 = 0,5385 < 1 OK 11550 275 2194.10 3 275 0,3063 0,8503 1 1

8 Haunch verification

For the verification of the haunch, the compression part of the cross-section is considered as alone with a length of buckling about the zz-axis equal to 3,00m (length between the top of column and the first restraint).

Maximum forces and moments in the haunch:

kN kN kNm

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The calculation of elastic section properties for this case is approximate, ignoring the middle flange. Section area Second moment of area /yy Second moment of area /zz Elastic modulus /yy Elastic modulus /zz

A = 160,80 cm2 Iy = 230520 cm4 Iz = 2141 cm4 Wel,y = 4610 cm3 Wel,z = 214 cm3

200 mm 1000 mm

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Section at the mid-length of the haunch including 1/6th of the web depth Section area Second moment of area /yy Second moment of area /zz iz =

A = 44 cm2 Iy = 554 cm

4

120 mm

Iz =1068 cm4

200 mm

1068 = 4,93cm 44

z =

= 0,76

2

curve d

z =

z + z2

2 z

= 0,640

CALCULATION SHEET

SX029a-EN-EU

Sheet

28

of

28

Date Date

N Ed,f = 139,24

4400 755000 1000 + 4400 = 760 kN 16080 4610.10 3 1000

N Ed, f

z N Rk

Quality Record

RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France 3. Sweden

Created on Tuesday, September 14, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

T2703

4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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