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Castellanos, He, Yao 1

Works Cited
Primary Sources
luyen, Una. 'How are Microorganisms ssociated with Your Work? Personal interview. 28
Nov. 2011.
In this personal interview, post-doctorate Iellow Una luyen explains the germs she
works with on a regular basis and how germ theory aIIects the ways she works with
them.
rulanandam, Bernard, PhD. 'pplications oI Germ Theory. Personal interview. 28 Nov. 2011.
In this personal interview, Dr. Bernard rulanandam is asked about some basic
background knowledge over germ theory and its development. Dr. rulanandam also
explains how germ theory is applied to his daily work. Short clips Irom this interview are
embedded into the website.
Boyle, Laura. "Developements in Childbirth in Regency and Victorian England." Jane Austen
Centre , Jane Austen Centre, Festival, Maga:ine, Tearoom, Bath UK England. The Jane
usten Center, 20 June 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.janeausten.co.uk/developements-in-childbirth-in-regency-and-victorian-
england/~.
sketch a woman birthing was taken Irom this website. The artist was sketching a real
event and was involved during it, thereIore, this is a primary source.
"Did Nostradamus Predict Louis Pasteur?: Nostradamus Predictions." Science Channel. Space,
Technology, Engineering, Earth Science. Science. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
http://science.discovery.com/top-ten/2009/nostradamus-predictions/nostradamus-
predictions-05.html~.
Castellanos, He, Yao 2

The picture oI Louis Pasteur was obtained Irom this site. The picture is Irom that the
liIetime oI Pasteur and is thereIore a primary source.
He, Weijing, MD. "EIIects oI Germ Theory on the Methods oI Modern-Day Laboratories."
Personal interview. 16 Oct. 2011.
In this personal interview, Dr. Weijing He explains the importance oI the constant
sterilization oI equipment in present-day laboratories and how the Germ Theory oI
Disease has contributed to the development oI these techniques.
"History oI the Germ Theory oI Disease." Biology at Clermont College - University of
Cincinnati. 9 July 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Iankhauser/Labs/Microbiology/HistoryMicro/GermTheory
HistoryTable.html~.
photograph oI Joseph Lister and how antiseptic surgery is being practiced in the
nineteenth century is Iound in this website. This photograph is used in the 'Resulting
Reaction and ReIorm oI Medical Society page oI the project website to provide Iurther
emphasis on one oI the ways the Medical Society reIormed aIter the development oI the
Germ Theory oI Disease.
"Jacob Henle." UB Heidelberg - Universittsbibliothek Heidelberg. University oI Heidelberg, 13
pr. 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. http://www.ub.uni-
heidelberg.de/Englisch/helios/digi/anatomie/henle.html~.
This source was used to obtain a drawing oI Jacob Henle. The drawing was done in the
time period where Jacob Henle was alive and was in direct relation to him and is
thereIore a primary source.
"Joseph Lister." San Jose State University - Powering Silicon Jalley. San Jose State University.
Web. 21 Oct. 2011. http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/Museum/lis.html~.
Castellanos, He, Yao 3

The picture oI Joseph Lister was obtained Irom this site. The picture is Irom that the
liIetime oI Lister and is thereIore a primary source.
"Joseph Lister and ntiseptic Surgery." Kickoff. Wordpress. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://Ix.damasgate.com/joseph-lister-and-antiseptic-surgery/~.
photograph oI one oI Louis Pasteur`s swan-necked Ilasks is contained in this website.
Using his experiment with this Ilask, Pasteur disproved the enduring belieI that microbes
arose spontaneously and demonstrated their invisible presence in the air. The photograph
is used in the 'Development oI Germ Theory: ssumptions and Experiments page oI the
project website to show the importance oI disproving the theory oI spontaneous
generation Ior the development oI the Germ Theory oI Disease.
Leeuwmicro. Photograph. UCMP Berkley. Berkley. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/leeuwen/leeuwmicro.giI~.
The drawing oI Leeuwenhoek's microscope is taken Irom the site and is Leeuwenhoek's
original drawing, thereIore this is a primary source.
Mummidi, Srinivas, PhD. "EIIects oI Germ Theory on Dr. Srinivas Mummidi's Research."
Personal interview. 28 Nov. 2011.
In this personal interview, Dr. Srinivas Mummidi explains how germ theory has aIIected
the methods with which he conducts his day-to-day work. Short clips Irom this interview
are embedded into the website.
"Pineland Farms, Inc. - Creamery and Cheese - Online Photo Tour - ward-winning Maine
Cheese." Pineland Farms Food Group. Pineland Farms Inc. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.pinelandIarms.org/cheese/tour.htm~.
Castellanos, He, Yao 4

This source was used to obtain a picture oI the pasteurization process. The photo was
taken oI an actual pasteurization tank and is thereIore a primary source.
Rogers, Patricia. "Penicillin: the First Miracle Drug." Utah State University. Intermountain
Herbarium. Utah State University, 8 Dec. 2006. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://herbarium.usu.edu/Iungi/IunIacts/penicillin.htm~.
This source was used to obtain a photo oI lexander Fleming with penicillin. Because
this is an actual photo oI him taken in direct relation to the topic, it is a primary source.
"Side EIIects oI Homeopathic Medicine." Current Health Articles, News and Health Tips. Hows
Health, 25 May 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. http://howshealth.com/side-eIIects-oI-
homeopathic-medicine/~.
This source was used to obtain a picture oI a homeopathic remedy. The remedy was
prepared by a specialist and is thereIore a primary source.
Silverman, Jacob. "How Can Light Kill Viruses?" HowStuffWorks.com. Discovery
Communications, LLC, 8 ug. 2007. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://health.howstuIIworks.com/medicine/modern-technology/light-virus.htm~.
n elaborate, embellished photograph oI a virus is contained in this website. The
photograph is used in the homepage oI the project website as an introduction to the Germ
Theory oI Disease.
Snowden, Frank. "Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600." Lecture. HIST 234 Course
Lecture. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Spring 2010.
FreeJideoLectures.com. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://Ireevideolectures.com/Course/2873/Epidemics-in-Western-Society-Since-
1600/14~.
Castellanos, He, Yao 5

Frank Snowden, the person giving the lecture, addresses the key points in the history oI
diseases and the prevention oI diseases Ior the last Iour centuries. The inIormation
throughout the lecture, Iound embedded in this website, was used all throughout the
project website, as the Germ Theory oI Disease was one oI its main topics discussed.
"Tuberculosis Elimination Program: Testing." Welcome to the Tennessee Department of Health.
Tennessee Government. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://health.state.tn.us/ceds/tb/guidelines.htm~.
photo oI the tuberculosis bacteria was taken Irom this site to add a visual to the
timeline. The photo was taken oI actual bacteria, thereIore it is a primary source.
"Volume 7, Number 2." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers Ior Disease
Control and Prevention, pr. 2001. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/7/2/contents.htm~.
The drawing oI Ignaz Semmelweis was Irom this site. It is a drawing oI him done in his
liIetime and is a primary source.
Waggoner, Ben. "Robert Hooke." Berkley. UCMP Berkley, 20 Jan. 2001. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/hooke.html~.
Robert Hooke's drawing oI cork cells was used Irom this website. The drawing was
Hooke's own drawing, thereIore making it a primary source.
Secondary Sources
"17th and 18th Century Medicine." Thinkquest. Oracle. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://library.thinkquest.org/15569/hist-8.html~.
This source was used to obtain inIormation about medical procedures prior to germ
theory in the 17th and 18th centuries. This source is a secondary source as it is compiled
Castellanos, He, Yao 6

together by other individuals who were not in the time Irame the article was written
about.
bedon, Stephon T. "Germ Theory oI Disease." Mansfield. MansIield, 28 Mar. 1998. Web. 20
Oct. 2011. http://mansIield.osu.edu/~sabedon/biol2007.htm#semmelweis~.
This outline oI Germ theory was used to strategize what and who would be important to
the Iinal product. This is the secondary source as the author was not alive at the time oI
the events described.
rkenburg. "Internet History Sourcebooks." FORDHAM.EDU. Fordham University. Web. 21
Oct. 2011. http://www.Iordham.edu/halsall/mod/1867lister.asp~.
Used to obtain inIormation on the liIe oI Joseph Lister. The source was written aIter his
liIetime and is a secondary source.
"BBC - History - Louis Pasteur." BBC - Homepage. BBC. Web. 21 Oct. 2011.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historicIigures/pasteurlouis.shtml~.
Used to obtain inIormation on Louis Pasteur's Iormulation oI germ theory. The article is
written aIter Pasteur's liIetime and is a secondary source.
Bellis, Mary. "Louis Pasteur: Germ Theory oI Disease." About.com. Inventors. Web. 16 Oct.
2011. http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventors/a/LouisPasteur.htm~.
This online article is a broad overview oI the liIe oI Louis Pasteur and his contributions
toward the Germ Theory oI Disease. Facts about Pasteur obtained Irom this source are
Iound in the 'Glossary oI Contributing Historical Figures page oI the project website.

Castellanos, He, Yao 7

Dobzhansky, Theodosius. "Research in Ecology - Evolution." University of Miami Department


of Biology. Web. 2 Nov. 2011.
http://www.bio.miami.edu/ecosummer/lectures/lecevolution.html~.
This website provides an excellent illustration oI the variables and controls oI Redi`s
Experiment in order Ior disproving the spontaneous generation theory. This illustration is
used in the website next the description oI Redi`s experiement.
Ehrlich, Steven D. "Homeopathy." University of Maryland Medical Center , Home. University oI
Maryland, 7 Sept. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/homeopathy-000352.htm~.
This source was used to obtain inIormation about the medical treatment oI homeopathy, a
treatment, still used today, that does not base itselI on germ theory. This source is a
secondary source as it is written using primary sources compiled together.
"Egyptian Medicine." Thinkquest. Oracle. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://library.thinkquest.org/15569/hist-8.html~.
This source was used to obtain inIormation about medical procedures prior to germ
theory in ancient Egypt. This source is a secondary source as it is compiled together by
other individuals who were not in the time Irame the article was written about.
"Germ Theory." Harvard University Library. Open Collections Program. Home. The President
and Fellows oI Harvard College. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/contagion/germtheory.html~.
This web article gives a general overview oI the Germ Theory oI Disease, some key Iacts
Ior background inIormation, and signiIicant historical timeline events pertaining to the
development oI the theory. This source was used all throughout the project website.
Castellanos, He, Yao 8

Lienhard, John H. "No. 622: Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis." University of Houston. Engines oI Our
Ingenuity. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi622.htm~.
Used to obtain inIormation on Ignaz Semmelweis. The article is written by someone aIter
Semmelweis's liIetime and is a secondary source.
Miller, Kenneth R., and Joseph S. Levine. "The Science oI Biology." Prentice Hall Biology.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004. 8-15. Print.
This high school biology textbook provided an excellent, broad overview oI the germ
theory oI disease. It also provided the illustration Ior Pasteur`s experiment with the long,
swan-necked Ilask Ior the portion oI the website dealing with spontaneous generation.
Nobel Pri:e. chemistry, literature, physics, and physiology or medicine, obverse side.
Photograph. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/18042/The-obverse-side-oI-the-Nobel-
Prize-medals-Ior-Physics~.
This source was used to obtain a photo oI a Nobel Prize Ior physics. The medal shown in
the picture does not belong to lexander Fleming so it is a secondary source.
Richmond, Phyllis llen. "merican ttitudes toward the Germ Theory oI Disease (1860
1880)." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences IX.4 (1954): 428-54.
Oxford Journals. OxIord University Press. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.
http://jhmas.oxIordjournals.org/content/52/1/17.Iull.pdI~.
This online scholarly journal article explains the reaction and reIorm oI the western
medical society to the development oI the Germ Theory oI Disease. SigniIicant historical
events obtained Irom the article are Iound in the 'Resulting Reaction and ReIorm oI
Medical Society pages oI the project website.
Castellanos, He, Yao 9

"Robert Koch - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 21 Oct 2011


http://www.nobelprize.org/nobelprizes/medicine/laureates/1905/koch-bio.html~.
Used to Iind inIormation on the liIe oI Robert Koch. The author was not alive at the time
oI the events described so the source is secondary. The photo oI Koch, which is a primary
source, is also Irom this source.
Sachs, Jessica Snyder. Good Germs, Bad Germs. Health and Survival in a Bacterial World.
New York: Hill and Wang, 2007. Print.
This nonIiction scientiIic analysis book explains all there is to know about unharmIul
microorganisms to disease-causing pathogens and how the Germ Theory oI Disease ties
into both. Historical events and Iacts obtained Irom this book were used all throughout
the project website.
Salzberg, Steven. "The nthrax Vaccine Boondoggle." Genomics, Evolution, and
Pseudoscience. 30 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://genome.IieldoIscience.com/2011/10/anthrax-vaccine-boondoggle.html~.
This source was used to obtain a photo oI an anthrax vaccine, developed by Pasteur. This
vaccine in the photo is a modern one and is not Irom Pasteur's time period so it is a
secondary source.
Sherman, Josepha. The War Against Germs. New York: Rosen Group, 2004. Print. Germs: The
Library oI Disease-Causing Organisms.
This nonIiction book provides a plethora oI Iacts about germs and germ-Iighting
throughout history. The inIormation Irom this book was used mainly in the 'BeIore Germ
Theory and the 'Resulting Reaction and ReIorm oI Medical Society pages oI the
project website.
Castellanos, He, Yao 10

"Sir lexander Fleming - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 21 Oct 2011


http://www.nobelprize.org/nobelprizes/medicine/laureates/1945/Ileming-bio.html~ .
This source was used to Iind inIormation on the liIe oI lexander Fleming. The author
was not alive at the time oI the events described so the source is secondary. The photo oI
Fleming, which is a primary source, is also Irom this source.
Starr, Douglass. "Bloodletting." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service. PBS. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodletting.html~.
This source was used to Iind inIormation about bloodletting, a common medical
procedure used beIore germ theory was developed. This source is a secondary source as it
is written by someone not present in the time in which the article describes.
Tobacco Mosaic Jirus. Schematic Structure. rt. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Web. 28
Nov. 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/696/Schematic-structure-oI-
the-tobacco-mosaic-virus~.
This source was used to obtain a graphic oI the tobacco mosaic virus to ad a visual to the
timeline. The graphic is not oI an actual tobacco mosaic virus and is made by an
individual not in direct involvement with the virus, making it a secondary source.
"Trephination, n ncient Surgery." University of Chicago. University oI Chicago. Web. 28
Nov.2011.http://www.uic.edu/classes/osci/osci590/13320Trephination20n20
ncient20Surgery.htm~.
This article was used to Iind inIormation about trephination, a medical procedure oIten
used beIore germ theory. This source is a secondary source as it is written by a person not
directly involved with the matter.
Waggoner, Ben. "ntony Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)." UCMP Berkley. Berkley, 16 ug.
1996. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/leeuwenhoek.html~.
Castellanos, He, Yao 11

This source was used to Iind inIormation oI the liIe oI ntony van Leeuwenhoek. The
author was not alive at the time oI the events described so the source is secondary. The
photo oI Leeuwenhoek, a primary source, is also Irom this source.