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OumaRlesi skolis mizani (istoria da Tanamedroveoba)


universiteti (Lat. Universitas - erToblioba), umaRlesi saswavlo-samecniero dawesebulebaa, romelic amzadebs specialistebs fundamentur mecnierebaTa dargebSi (qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, tomi X, 1976w). universitetis msoflio istoriuli tradicia yovelTvis eyrdnoboda maRal moralur da inteleqtualur faseulobebs. sauniversiteto ganaTlebis ideologiis programas ZiriTadad Seadgens zogadsakacobrio kulturis saukeTeso miRwevaTa memkvidreoba, erovnul TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswineba, nacionaluri sazRvrebis arqona, miswrafeba pirovnebis inteleqtualuri ganviTarebisaken, Ria dialogi da komunikacia kvlevebsa da swavlebaSi. terminiT Universitas (- Lat. erToblioba, sityvidan Universus wona, erTad aRebuli) Sua saukuneebSi iwodeboda sxvadasxva amxanagobebi, vaWarTa gildiebi, savaWrosamrewvelo centrebi da zogierTi sxva gaerTianeba. amis Sesabamisad im dros aRmocenebul `Tavisufal~ skolebs daerqvaT studentTa da maswavlebelTa korporacia (Universitas magistrum et scolarum). xolo Semdgom, TandaTanobiT, saswavlo dawesebulebebs universitetebi ewodaT. Tu miviRebT termins `prosauniversiteto ganaTleba~, maSin pirvel samecnierofilosofiur da eTikur-pilitikur TanamegobrobaTa organizaciebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT piTagoras kavSiri, platonis akademia, aristoteles likei, ptolemeis mier aleqsandriaSi daarsebuli muzeumi. universitetis istoria Sua saukuneebidan iwyeba da dasavleT evropaSi qalaquri ekonomikis da kulturis ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba. pirveli saero universitetebi iyo: boloniis (1158w, italia), kembrijis (1209w, inglisi) da oqsfordis (XII, inglisi), parizis (1215w, safrangeTi), salamankis (1218-26 ww. Soris, espaneTi), lisabonis (1290w, portugalia), praRis (1348w, CexeTi), krakovis (1364w, poloneTi), venis (1365w, avstria), haidelbergis (1386w, germania), ufralis (1477w, SvedeTi), kopenhagenis (1479w, dania). Sua saukuneebis universitetis SemadgenlobaSi oTxi fakulteti iyo: mosamzadebli, romelsac artistuli xelovnebis (Semdgom filosofiis) fakulteti ewodeboda, RvTismetyvelebis, samedicino da iuridiuli fakultetebi. studentebi da maswavleblebi cxovrobdnen saerTo sacxovrebelSi kolegiumebSi (Lat. Collegium SemdgomSi kolejebi, koleJebi). mecadineobebic, aseve kolegiumebSi tardeboda. mosamzadebel anu artistuli xelovnebis fakultetze iswavleboda `Svidi Tavisufali xelovneba~ - triviumi (gramatika, ritorika, dialeqtika) da kvadriumi (ariTmetika, geometria, astronomia, musika) (Septem artes liberals, trivium, quadrium). igi saSualo skolis rols asrulebda. am fakultetze swavla 6-7 wels grZeldeboda. triviumis damTavrebis Semdeg studentebs xelovnebaTa bakalavris xarisxi, xolo kvadriumis damTavrebis Semdeg xelovnebaTa magistris xarisxi eniWebodaT. magistris xarisxis mflobelebs erT-erT specialur fakultetze Sesvlis neba eZleodaT, sadac swavla 5-6 wels mimdinareobda. universitetis kursdamTavrebuli Rebulobda doqtoris, e.i. mecnieris wodebas. universitetebSi swavlebis xangrZlivoba da studentTa asaki dadgenili ar iyo. praqtikulad swavleba universitetebSi 12-14 wliani iyo. swavleba laTinur enaze leqciis an diskusiis saxiT mimdinareobda. profesori wignidan wakiTxul teqsts komentars ukeTebda, ewyoboda disputebi. sadisputo moxsenebis Tezisebs Cveulebrivad winaswar adgendnen. universitetebs administraciuli avtonomia da sakuTari iurisdiqcia hqondaT. saero universitetis sawinaaRmdegod, religiuri wris warmomadgenlebma, mecnierebasa da mosamzadebel (sasuliero, iuristTa, eqimTa) kadrebze Zalauflebis SenarCunebis mizniT, XII saukuneSi parizSi gaxsnes universiteti. mas xelmZRvanelobda

episkoposis warmomadgeneli kancleri. universitetis avtonomia Zalian SezRuduli iyo. Tanamdebobis pirTa arCevaSi studentebi ar monawileobdnen, profesorebi iniSnebodnen da finansdebodnen eklesiis mier. parizis universitetis msgavsi universitetebi gaixsna safrangeTis sxva qalaqebSi, germaniaSi, inglisSi oqsfordisa da kembrijis universitetebi. Tavdapirvelad TiTqosda damoukidebeli kulturuli centrebi, adreul Sua saukuneebSi, sul ufro da ufro Teologiur orientacias Rebulobdnen. magram mecniereba Zalas ikrefda da igi cxadia, ver Caeteoda religiur CarCoebSi, ramac aRorZinebis epoqaSi, sxva socialur institutebs samecniero akademiebs Cauyara safuZveli. germaniaSi situacia radikalurad icvleba XVIII_XIX saukuneebis mijnaze. vilhelm humboltis mier Camoyalibebuli iqna klasikuri universitetis principulad axali idea, romelic SemdegSi mdgomareobda: a) kvlevis orientaciisa da swavlebis Sexameba; b) saxelmwifos mxridan moswavlisa da maswavleblis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa. am droidan moyolebuli saxelmwifos pirvelxarisxovan amocanad iqca mecnierebis winsvla, swavlebisa da kvlevis axali formebis danergva. warmodgenili modelis ganxorcieleba srulad moxerxda 1810 wels berlinis universitetis gaxsniT. am universitetis ideis sabazo principebi SemdegSi mdgomareobda: universitets unda hqondes SedarebiTi avtonomia; kvleva da swavleba ganaTlebis arsia; universiteti imedovnebs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi aqtiur CarTvas, mis RirebulebaTa aRorZinebas, aseve codnisa da ganswavlulobis Rirsebis eTikur dasabuTebas. SemdgomSi, universitetis yvela evoluciuri cvlileba, dasavleT evropasa da amerikaSi, humboltis saxelTan dakavSirebul universitetis modelTan SedarebiT ganixileboda. sauniversiteto ganaTlebis Tanamedrove meTodologTa poziciebi sakmarisad sxvadasxvagvaria, magram Tu vecdebiT maT erT safuZvelze dayvanas, miviRebT Tanamedrove universitetis ganzogadebul models. rogorc wesi, maT naazrevSi fiqsirdeba umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis wamyvani miznebi, funqciebi da Rirebuli orientaciebi, romlebic msjelobis sagans warmoadgenen. magram miuxedavad amisa, naTelia, rom xelSeuxebeli rCeba universitetis funqciebi da RirebulebaTa fundamenturi sistema. universitetis tradiciuli misiis (swavlebisa da kvlevis erTianoba, avtonomiuroba) SenarCunebis Tviseba ganixileba rogorc unikaluri. universitetis mizani da amocanebi sazogadoebrivi dakveTis mixedviT icvleba droSi. arsebobs ara erTi gansxvavebuli mosazreba imis Taobaze, Tu rogori unda iyos universiteti da ra mizans unda emsaxurebodes igi. gTavazobT ramdenime maTgans: jon henri niumeni, irlandiis kaTolikuri universitetis pirveli reqtori iyo. am universitetis Seqmnis idea XIX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi gaCnda. universitetis ideaSi seriozuli uzustobebis gamo igi 7 weliwadSi (1851-1858 ww.) daixura. niumenis azriT: `universiteti _ adgilia, sadac iswavleba universaluri codna. naTqvamidan gamomdinare, universitetis mizani, erTis mxriv inteleqtualuria, xolo meores mxriv dakavSirebulia codnis gavrcelebasTan da ara axali codnis miRebasTan. Tu universitetis miznad miviRebT samecniero da filosofiur aRmoCenebs, maSin CemTvis gaugebaria, ratom unda iyos masSi studenti, xolo Tu mizani _ religiuria, ratom unda iyos warmodgenili literatura da mecniereba?.

... miuxedavad imisa, ra dasaxelebas gamoviyenebT, vfiqrob, es istoriis faqtia, _ universitetis amocana imaSi mdgomareobs, rom inteleqtualuri kultura gaxdes saqmianobis sfero, misi amocana _ inteleqtis formirebaa ... ... Tavad universitetis ideas, manam mas, rogorc eklesiis instruments ganvixilavT, sakuTari mizani da misia gaaCnia. universitetis daniSnuleba inteleqtualuri kulturaa. swored masze unda iqnes orientirebuli mecnierTa yuradReba, swored es gansazRvravs misi saqmianobis Sinaarss, orientirebuls inteleqtis yovelmxriv ganviTarebaze, Semecnebaze da WeSmaritebis dadgenaze... ~ rogorc citatidan Cans henri niumeni Tavad modis winaaRmdegobaSi ideasTan unviersitetis Sesaxeb. ramac rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT gamoiwvia misi daxurva. Oortega-i-gaseTi madridis universitetis filosofiis profesori iyo. amavdroulad, igi politikiTac iyo dakavebuli. 1930 wels madridSi mis mier wakiTxul iqna leqciaTa kursi `universitetTa misia~ (Mision de la Universidad). ai ras wers igi: pirvel rigSi ra unda iyos universiteti? 1. universiteti pirvel rigSi, upiratesobiT aRniSnavs umaRles ganaTlebas, romelic unda miiRos Cveulebrivma adamianma. 2. es Cveulebrivi adamiani Tavdapirvelad unda gavxadoT kulturuli e.i. igi, drois moTxovnaTa simaRleze unda davayenoT. aqedan, universitetis pirveladi funqcia gamomdinareobs _ kulturis TvalsazrisiT fundamentalur disciplinaTa (fizika, biologia, istoria, socioligia, filosofia) flobaSi. 3. Cveulebrivi adamiani unda gaxdes kargi profesionali. universitetma, muSaobis yvelaze racionaluri da efeqturi meTodebis gamoyenebiT, adamians saSualeba unda misces gaxdes kargi eqimi, kargi mosamarTle, kargi maTematikisa, Tu istoriis maswavlebeli. 4. aranairi dasabuTebuli safuZveli ar arsebobs imisa, rom Cveulebrivi adamiani aucileblad mecnieri gaxdeba. aqedan, bevrisaTvis gamaocebeli daskvna gamomdinareobs: mecniereba Tavisi SinaarsiT, e.i. samecniero kvleva, nebismieri formiT, ar figurirebs universitetis ZiriTad funqciaTa ricxvSi. garda amisa, gaseti Tvlis, rom universitetSi profesorTa SerCeva unda xorcieldebodes pedagogiuri saqmianobisa da mecnieruli kvlevis unarebis sinTezis gaTvaliswinebiT da ara imiT, Tu raoden kargi mkvlevaria aRniSnuli pirovneba. karl iaspersma omis Semdeg dawera da 1949 wels gamoaqveyna Sroma `universitetis idea~ (`Die Idee der Universitt~). Tavis wignSi is xazs usvams germanul universitetSi kvlevis tradicias im saxiT, rogorc es jer kidev humboltma gansazRvra. universiteti _ gansakuTrebuli saxis skolaa. igi ara mxolod momzadebis adgilia. mis kedlebSi studentebi aqtiurad monawileoben kvlevebSi. amgvari samuSao gamocdilebis dagroveba ayalibebs xarisxs dakavSirebuls inteleqtualur disciplinasTan. igi Rebulobs ganaTlebas, romelic mTeli cxovrebis manZilze masTan darCeba. ... korporaciuli formiT, universiteti axorcielebs adamianis ZiriTad moTxovnilebas codnas. misi uSualo daniSnuleba mdgomareobs imis aRmoCenaSi, Tu risi codnaa saWiro da ra gamomdinareobs amgvari codnidan adamianebisaTvis. amrigad, universiteti aerTianebs kvlevisadmi profesiulad Tavdadebul adamianebs, romlebmac sinamdvile mecnierebisaTvis misaRebi formiT unda mogvawodon. radgan sinamdvilis aRmoCena sistematuri kvleviTaa SesaZlebeli, universitetis upirveles amocanas kvleva warmoadgens. meore amocana dakavSirebuli swavlebasTan, radganac codna WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb gadacemul unda iqnas.

... Tavis mxriv universiteti wyvets samecniero da saswavlo amocanebs, kvleva da swavleba uzrunvelyofs inteleqtualuri kulturis ganviTarebas, romelSic WeSmariteba iRebs Tavis mniSvnelobas da sicxades. amrigad, universitetis amocanas _ kvleva da codnis gadacema (ganaTleba) warmoadgens. TiToeuli cal-calke ganisazRvreba, magram ar SeiZleba erTmaneTisagan gamoyofil iqnas. alfred nots uaitxedi _ filosofosi, maTematikosi, pedagogi. igi aswavlida kembrijSi (inglisi), SemdgomSi harvardis profesori. mis mier wakiTxul leqciaTa kursi sxvadasxva Temebze, gamocemul iqna saerTo saTauriT `ganaTlebis miznebi da sxva eseebi~ (`The Aims of Education and Other Essays~) 1929 wels. misi azriT: `universiteti ganaTlebisa da kvlevis skolaa. misi aRmocenebis namdvili mizezi, dakavSirebuli araa arc studentebisaTvis codnis gadacemasTan da arc fakultetebze samecniero kvlevebis CatarebasTan. am ori amocanis gadawyveta gacilebiT iafad da damoukidebladac SeiZleboda [20]. rogorc zemoT moyvanil avtorTa naazrevidan Cans, universitetis daarsebis aucilebloba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi inarCunebs kavSirs codnasa da cxovrebis arss Soris. aerTianebs sxvadasxva Taobas swavlebis procesSi. universiteti gadascems TvalsaCino informacias. yovel SemTxvevaSi es is funqciaa, romelic universitetma sazogadoebisaTvis unda Seasrulos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mas arsebobis ufleba ar eqneba. dReisaTvis, universitetad iwodeba mravalprofiliani umaRlesi saswavlosamecniero dawesebuleba, romelic amzadebs sxvadasxva dargis maRalkvalificiur specialistebs. universiteti uzrunvelyofs kursdamTavrebulTa Rrma Teoriul da praqtikul momzadebas, rogorc samecniero, ise pedagogiur sferoebSi. 1960-1970-ian wlebSi bevr evropul qveyanaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemam saxe icvala. am periodSi aRmocenebulma da gavrcelebulma sistemebma Caanacvla omamdel periodSi Camoyalibebuli universitetebi. evropis Tanamedrove umaRlesi ganaTlebis daxasiaTebis da aRweris uamravi gza arsebobs. erT-erTi maTgania, daaxasiaTo gansxvavebuli struqturebi RirebulebaTa sistemis mixedviT. magaliTad, evropuli universitetis institutis (European University Institute) profesori klaudius galerti gamoyofs evropuli universitetebis tradiciebis sam ZiriTad mimarTulebas: pirveli, istoriuli identificireba germaniasTan, codnis taZris Seqmna da SenarCuneba universitetis mTavari misiaa; moxseniebuli universiteti samecniero dawesebulebaa. meore, safrangeTSi realizebuli Grandes coles1, romlebic gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas maRali donis dargobrivi unarebis SeZenaze amaxvileben; aq universiteti gamoiyureba rogorc profesiuli dawesebuleba; mesame, anglo-saqsonuri (an ufro zustad oqsfordis da kembrijis) modeli, romelic koncentrirebulia profesionalizmis ganviTarebaze; universiteti aq pirvel rigSi saswavlo, ufro farTod kulturuli dawesebulebaa. dReisaTvis, umaRlesi ganaTleba moicavs gansxvavebul tradiciebs, bevrad ufro mets vidre es profesorma gelertma aRniSna teqnikuri da teqnologiuri ganaTleba, zrdasrulTa ganaTleba da a.S.
Grandes coles - grandzekol - amgvari dawesebulebebi teqnikuri xasiaTis umaRlesi saswavleblebia da principSi universitetis sistemis gareT iricxeba
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umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebis gansxvavebuli tipebis ganxilva mas Semdeg daiwyo, rac mimdinareobs saubari umaRles ganaTlebaze, rogorc `seqtorze~ an (qve-) `sistemaze~. meore msoflio omamde, multidisciplinaruli universitetebi evropis umetes qveyanaSi, sistemis mwvervalis saxiT iyvnen warmodgenilni. metic, monodisciplinaruli dawesebulebebi Tavdapirvelad maTTan Tanasworuflebian pirobebSi arc ki ganixilebodnen. pirveli ori Tu sami dekadis Semdeg, es gansxvaveba TandaTanobiT Camoirecxa. samedicino kolejebi, teqnikuri kolejebi da bevri sxva koleji miRebul iqna rogorc universitetTan Tanasworuflebiani, bevrma - magram ara yvelam teqnikuri universitetis saxeli dairqva da a.S. gansxvavebulma mcdelobebma evropaSi 1960 wlidan umaRlesi ganaTlebis meoradi seqtori warmoSva. SerCeul iqna sxvadasxva termini: umaRlesi ganaTlebis `mokle wre~ `arasauniversiteto~ umaRlesi ganaTleba umaRlesi ganaTlebis alternatiuli seqtori profesiuli umaRlesi ganaTleba profesionaluri umaRlesi ganaTleba `axali~ umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebi an programebi `kolejis seqtori~ nacionaluri tipebis CamonaTvalis seqtori mag. `Instituts Universitaires de Technologie, `Fachhochschulen da a.S. Tumca, konsensusi metad misaReb terminze miRweuli ar iqna. iseT asociacias, rogoricaa EURASHE2 (misi survilic iyo am seqtoris wardgena da mxardaWera), terminisaTvis propaganda ar gauwevia. saerTo terminis ararseboba siurprizi ar yofila, umetesoba am terminTagani seqtors Tavis `did Zma~, e.i. universitetTan damokidebulebaSi gansazRvravs. umaRlesi ganaTlebis `axal~ seqtors aRiarebis mopoveba ki universitetis Crdilis gareTac surs. safrangeTSi universitetebis reorganizaciam, 1968 wlis Semdgom mimdinare movlenebma, gamoamJRavna universitetTa cota ar iyos moZvelebuli struqtura. igi mecxramete saukunis Semdeg umniSvnelod iyo Secvlili. xuTi wliT adre britaneTSi gafarTovda evropaSi yvelaze arCevadi sauniversiteto sistema; samociani wlebis bolos, rogorc umaRlesi ganaTlebis alternatiuli forma, daarsda politeqnikuri saswavleblebi. germaniaSic msgavsi movlenebi ganviTarda. universitetebi gafarTovdnen da mravalmimarTulebianni gaxdnen, gaZlierdnen dargobrivi umaRlesi skolebi (Fachhochschuhlen). SvedeTSi, dekadiT gvian, universitetTa da kolejTa unificirebuli sistema Camoyalibda. msgavsi procesebi evropis gareTac mimdinareobda. yvelaze pirveli da aRsaniSnavi kaliforniis umaRlesi ganaTlebis `mTavari (generaluri) gegma~ (`master plan) ganviTarebis mkafio magaliTia, romlis farglebSic Camoyalibda umaRlesi ganaTlebis samsafexuriani sistema (Condron 1988; OECD 1989; Rothblatt 1992). mopovebuli masalis analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom reformis procesis orientirebi evropaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirTa raodenobriv zrdaze iyo mimarTuli. reforma ori mimarTulebiT ganxorcielda: pirveli - arsebuli universitetebis gafarToeba da axali universitetebis Camoyalibeba. evropis reqtorTa konferenciis (Conference of European Rectors - CRE) wevr universitetTagan mesamedze meti 1960 wlis Semdeg Camoyalibebuli universitetia. 1960-1970 wlebi SesaZloa daxasiaTdes, rogorc evropuli univesitetebis ganviTarebis dinamiuri safexuri. meore sxva tipis (ara universitetis) umaRles saswavlebelTa modernizacia da gafarToeba.
EURASHE European Association of Institutions in Higher Education umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebaTa evropuli asociacia
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reformis moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad sxvadasxva strategia iqna SemoTavazebuli. zogierT qveyanaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis axali formebis Camoyalibeba dakavSirebuli iyo universitetTa gafarToebisa da gardaqmnis kursTan. magaliTad, safrangeTSi universitetTan arsebuli teqnologiuri institutebi (IUT - Instituts Universitaires de Technologie) sazogadoebisaTvis dargobrivi kursebis SeTavazebaze iyvnen orientirebuli. Tumca, rogorc dasaxelebidan Cans, institutebi organulad dakavSirebulni iyvnen tradiciuli universitetebis fakultetebTan. SvedeTSi, metad radikaluri mimarTuleba iqna arCeuli. 1977 wlidan, saeqTno da maswavlebelTa momzadebis kolejebi, romlebic manamade calkeuli dawesebulebebi iyvnen, universitetebs SeuerTdnen. sxva qveynebSi, calsaxad ormagi - `binaruli mimarTuleba Camoyalibda. saukeTeso magaliTi britaneTia, sadac politeqnikuri saswavleblebi universitetebis alternativas warmoadgendnen. am or seqtors Soris intensiuri konkurencia warmoiSva, Tumca isini erTmaneTis Semavsebel da ara konkurentunarian seqtorebad ganixilebodnen. universitetebis upiratesoba damtkicebul iqna, magram Zalisxmeva mainc teqnikuri umaRlesi skolebisa da msgavsi dawesebulebebis ganviTarebisaken iyo mimarTuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom modernizaciis gansxvavebuli strategiebis mkacri gamijvna marTebuli araa. formalurad unificirebul sistemaSic SeiniSneba binaruli (Binary) maxasiaTeblebi. magaliTad, SvedeTSi gafarToebuli universitetebis Serwyma arsebul tradiciul fakultetebsa da axlaxan aRmocenebul kolejebs Soris, rogoricaa Zveli upsala (Uppsala) da axali umea (Umea). msgavsad amisa binaruli sistema srulad ar SeiZleba iyos Tanmimdevruli da logikuri. britaneTSi universitetis seqtoris gareT, ormocdaaTian wlebSi Camoyalibda maRali teqnologiebis kolejebi. aRniSnuli dawesebulebebi teqnologiur universitetebad mxolod alternatiuli dawesebulebebis (`politeqnikumebis~) warmoSobis Semdeg gardaiqmnen. germaniaSi da niderlandebSi, araformaruli binaruli sistema aRmocenda ara rogorc universitetebTan konkurirebadi alternatiuli dawesebulebebis warmoqmnis Sedegi, aramed rogorc etapobrivad cvladi saSualosSemdgomi (Post-secondary)3 ganaTlebis dawesebulebebis ganviTarebuli saxe. mTavari cvlileba dakavSirebuli iyo ara umaRlesi ganaTlebis, universitetebis tolZalovani dawesebulebebis CamoyalibebasTan, aramed saSualosSemdgomi ganaTlebis gadaxalisebasTan [49, 50]. umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemuri organizaciis modelebi, sxvadasxva avtoris mier sxvadasxvagvarad xasiaTdeba, SerCeulia gansxvavebuli dasaxelebebi da klasifikaciis kriteriumebi. Cven SevCerdebiT e.w. skotis4 tipologiaze. mis mier SemoTavazebul sistemebis modificirebul variants araerTi avtori gvTavazobs. piter skotis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis organizaciis modelebi Semdegnairia [45]: pirveli modeli _ dualuri sistema (Dual system). universitetebi da qveyanaSi moqmedi sxva tipis saSualosSemdgomi saswavleblebi arseboben erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad, anu zustad ise, rogorc moiazrebda Zveli ganaTlebis sistema. meore modeli _ binaruli sistema (Binary system). am sistemis pirobebSi arsebobs universiteti da alternatiuli umaRlesi saswavlebeli, romelic droisa da sazogadoebis dakveTis Sesabamisad SeiZleba SeuerTdes universitets an iyos mis daqvemdebarebaSi myofi calke erTeuli. am sistemaSi es rgoli SeiZleba
saSualosSemdgomi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi Post-secondary education institutions saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaTa rgoli umaRles da saSualo ganaTlebis dawesebulebebs Soris 4 Peter Scott School of Education, University of Leeds, Leeds,UK
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ganixilos, rogorc gardamavali Semadgeneli nawili dualursa da binarul sistemas Soris. mesame modeli _ unificirebuli sistema (Unified system). qveyanaSi arsebuli yvela umaRlesi saswavlebeli ekuTvnis erTian sistemas da formalurad ar diferencirdeba. saukeTeso magaliTia SvedeTi. 1992 wlidan britaneTSic Camoyalibda umaRlesi ganaTlebis unificirebuli sistema an ufro zustad, gansxvavebuli unificirebuli sistemebi inglissa, uelssa da SotlandiaSi. meoTxe modeli _ stratificirebuli sistema (Stratifies system). qveyanaSi umaRlesi saswavleblebi erTian sistemas warmoadgenen da klasificirebuli arian romelime prioritetuli niSnis mixedviT. klasikuri SemTxvevis magaliTia kaliforniis `mTavari gegma~. (am principiT qveyndeba saukeTeso universitetTa CamonaTvali). miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnuli klasificirebisa, mkacri gamijvna am oTx models Soris ar SeiZleba gakeTdes. gansxvaveba pirvel da meore models Soris, rogorc wesi, ama Tu im konkretul SemTxvevaSi TiTqmis gaugebaria. dualuri sistemebi, rogorc aRvniSneT, SedarebiT stabiluria, xolo binaruli SedarebiT arastabiluri. praqtikulad mudmivad mimdinareobs maTi erTmaneTSi gadasvlis procesebi. binaruli sistemis gaZliereba da ganviTareba Tavis mxriv xels uwyobs konkurentunariani garemos Seqmnas. es cxadadaa asaxuli holandiisa magaliTze da nawilobriv Seesabameba germaniis sistemas. igive daskvnis gamotana SeuZlebelia safrangeTis magaliTis moyvanisas, sadac arasauniversiteto seqtorma moipova sruluflebiani da konkurentunariani statusi. sakmaod prestiJuli ` grandzekol (grandes coles), Seqmnili iyo momavali `mmarTveli klasis~ aRsazrdelad. aq ar aris aucilebeli umaRlesi ganaTlebis tipis saswavleblebi eqvemdebarebodnen universitets. ufro metic, am saswavleblebs SeuZliaT ar aRiaron sxva saswavleblis bakalavris xarisxi e.i. damoukideblobas inarCuneben. aseve, wmindad unificirebulni ar arian arc SvedeTis (1977 wlidan) da arc britaneTis (1992 wlidan) sistemebi. SvedeTSi 13 universiteti calkeul privilegirebul jgufad darCa. isini uwyvetad sargebloben kvlevisaTvis gankuTvnili yvela privilegiiT. britaneTSic msgavsi situacia aRiniSneba. miuxedavad imisa, ra statusis matarebelia umaRlesi skola, yvela maTganSi moqmedebs erTiani mizani da principi, kerZod, kvleviTi fondebiT unda dafinansdes is sferoebi, romlebzec didia sazogadoebis (sabazro) dakveTa. kaliforniis msgavsi umaRlesi skolebis stratificirebuli sistemis magaliTi evropaSi ar moipoveba. Tumca misi elementebi bevr qveyanaSi gvxvdeba. gansxvaveba universitetebsa da universitetis tipis kolejebs Soris SvedeTSi ukve aRiniSna. evropaSi universitetTa umetesobas doqtoranturis programebis monopolia aqvT mopovebuli. Tumca, arc erTi maTgani kaliforniis modelis stratificirebas ar Seefereba. amrigad, es oTxi modeli erT-erTi SesaZlo magaliTia imisa, rom davaxasiaToT evropis rTuli umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema. Tumca, damokidebuleba am oTx models Soris kvlav bundovania. arian isini damoukidebelni, erTmaneTis alternatiulni an mimdevrobiTni, gaurkvevelia. TiToeul qveyanas umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebis sakuTari gza aqvs. evropuli umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebis etapebi Semdegi saxiT SeiZleba warmovidginoT:

sistema, romelSic dominirebs universiteti (University-dominated system)5: sistema, romelSic universitetisagan gansxvavebuli yvela sxva dawesebuleba warmodgenilia, rogorc saSualo an umetes SemTxvevaSi teqnikuri ganaTlebis seqtori. universitetebi da arasrulyofili saSualosSemdgomi dawesebulebebi ganixileba rogorc calkeuli seqtorebi. dualuri sistema (Dual system): sistema, romelSic universitetisagan gansxvavebuli saswavlo dawesebulebebi aRiarebulia, rogorc saSualosSemdgomi ganaTlebis rgoli da universitetebis mxridan maTi koordinirebis sakiTxi oficialuradaa miRebuli. bolo dros isini ganixilebian rogorc konkurirebadi erTeulebi. binaruli sistema (Binary system): sistema, romelSic viTardeba ori paraleluri umaRlesi ganaTlebis rgoli, erTi _ tradiciuli universitetebi, xolo meore _ `alternatiuli~ dawesebulebebi. (am ori calkeuli rgolis urTierTTanamSromlobis tendencia maTi damatebiT konkurenciis saxiT arsebobs). unificirebuli sistema (Unified system): sistema, romelic moicavs rogorc tradiciul aseve sxva tipis umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebs. aseve mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom gaerTianebisas ara aqvs mniSvneloba dawesebulebis reputaciasa da statuss. stratificirebuli sistema (Stratified system)6: sistema, romelSic SenarCunebulia gansxvavebul saswavlebelTa erTiani sistema, Tumca gansxvaveba fiqsirdeba rogorc Sinagan, aseve garegan maxasiaTeblebSi (gansxvaveba aisaxeba politikuri dakveTisa an sabazro saqmianobis mixedviT). aRniSnuli sqema ar miuTiTebs TiToeul qveyanaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis ganviTarebis etapebs, aseve ar igulisxmeba, rom erTi sistema meores gadafaravs an aucileblad mimdevrobiTi saxisaa. qveynebis mixedviT umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebis etapebi moyvanilia Semdeg sqemaze. dualuri binaruli unificirebuli stratificirebuli 1977 SvedeTi holandia germania britaneTi safrangeTi avstralia
5

1992
(amJamadac gardaqmnis procesSia)

1965 1969?

1992
(araordinaluri da rTuli sistema)

?1969

1988

University-dominated system sistema, romelSic dominirebs universiteti avtors (piter skoti) mis Semdgomi wlis SromaSi [31] moxseniebuli aqvs rogorc divided system - calkeuli, dayofili sistema. 6 Stratified system - stratificirebuli sistema avtoris (piter skoti) momdevmo SromaSi [31] market system `sabazro sistemis~ saxeliT, xolo svein kivinis statiaSi [16] - ganfenilis saxeliT moixsenieba

kalifornia

1960

aRsaniSnavia, rom etapebis diferenciacia pirobiTi xasiaTisaa, metadre individualuri damokidebulebis sakiTxia. radgan calkeuli qveynis erTmniSvnelovnad, romelime sistemaze mikuTvneba SeuZlebelia, avtorTa mier gamoTqmul azrTa mravalferovnebaSi sxvadasxva Sexeduleba ikveTeba. vinaidan, qveynebis mixedviT sauniversiteto da arasauniversiteto rgolis sistemuri gansxvavebebis dafiqsireba calsaxad SeuZlebelia, gadavwyviteT umaRlesi ganaTlebis seqtoris Tanamedrove tendenciebi TiToeuli qveynisaTvis cal-calke gangvexila. dainteresebuli mkiTxveli detalur informacias danarTSi SeiZleba gaecnos. magaliTisaTvis SesaZloa mxolod germaniis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema ganvixiloT. wyaroebSi igi, rogorc wmindad binaruli, dualuri an maTi kombinaciis saxeliT aris moxseniebuli.

umaRlesi ganaTleba germaniaSi7

rogorc aRvniSneT, Tanamedrove umaRlesi ganaTlebis seqtori, struqturulad sxvadasxvagvar modelebadaa dayofili. ganmartebaTa mravalferovnebaSi, germaniis magaliTisaTvis ori - dualuri (Dual system) da binaruli (Bynary system) sistemis tipis gamoyofaa SesaZlebeli. dualuri sistema (Dual System) sistema, romelSic sxvadasxva dawesebulebebi aRiarebulia, rogorc saSualosSemdgomi (Postsecondary) seqtori. garda amisa, daSvebulia koordinacia universitetebsa da `axlebur~ dawesebulebebs Soris, aseve ganixileba kategoriuli daqvemdebarebis sakiTxebic. binaruli sistema (Bynary system) sistema, romelSic arasauniversiteto dawesebulebebi ganixileba, rogorc umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis calkeuli nawili. sistema dayofilia or calkeul seqtorad tradiciuli universitetebi da `alternatiuli~ dawesebulebebi. praqtikaSi, gansxvaveba dualur da binarul sistemas Soris xSirad gaugebaria. arsebobs dualuri sistemisaTvis stabiluri tendencia, romelSic dawesebulebebis gansxvavebuli tipebi moipoveben calkeul da zogadad damatebiT rols, raTa ganviTardes SedarebiT arastabiluri binaruli sistema. binaruli sistemis gaZliereba da ganviTareba Tavis mxriv xels uwyobs konkurentunariani garemos Seqmnas. dReisaTvis germaniis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema warmodgenilia tradiciuli sauniversiteto seqtorisa da umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebaTa SedarebiT axali seqtorisagan. `axali seqtori~ sxvadasxvagvarad, `arasauniversiteto seqtoris~ an e.w. `axali tipis universitetebis~ saxeliT moixsenieba. germaniis arsebuli umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebi sami tipis universitetebad SeiZleba davyoT: pirveli tipi klasikuri `uZvelesi~ universitetebi, romelTa istoriuli fesvebi Sua saukuneebidan iwyeba. germaniis uZvelesi haidelbergis universiteti (1386w), vilhelm fon humboltis mier daarsebuli berlinis universiteti (1810w), universiteti fraiburgSi, tiubingenSi da sxva. meore tipi universitetebi, romlebmac TavianTi statusi teqnikuri da sxva dargobrivi saswavleblebis universitetebas gardqmniT moipoves. magaliTad hanoveris,
warmodgenili masala eyrdnoba umaRlesi ganaTlebis politikis Semswavleli centris (CHEPS - Center for Higher Education Policy Sudies) yovelwliur saxelmwifo angariSs [26].
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umaRlesma teqnikurma skolam 1968 wels teqnikuri universitetis statusi miiRo, xolo Semdgom 1978 wels universitetad gardaiqmna. am jgufs teqnikuri universitetebi (Technische Universitaeten) da maTTan gaTanabrebuli teqnikuri umaRlesi skolebi (Technische Hochschulen) miekuTvneba (aaxeni, darmStati). sazRvari teqnikur universitetsa da ubralod universitets Soris xSirad pirobiTia. universitetSi teqnikuri fakultetia da teqnikur universitetSi humanitaruli ganyofileba arsebobs. mesame tipi umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebi, romlebic ukanaskneli 30-40 wlis ganmavlobaSi, germaniaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebisaken miswrafebis pikze warmoiSven (universitetebi rurSi, boxumSi). momzadebis mimarTulebaTa mravalferovnebaSi arc erT maTgans, ar SeuZliaT klasikur universitetebTan konkurireba. samagierod aq kvlevis Tanamedrove meTodTa danergvis eqsperimentebi tardeba uxvad. amgvari formulirebis garda, umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebis kategoriebad dayofis ramdenime varianti arsebobs. Tumca yvelaze xSirad Semdeg tipebs ganasxvaveben: - umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebi (Fachhochschule) administraciul-profesiuli (Verwaltungsfachhochschule) saswavleblebis CaTvliT. - universitetebi, teqnikuri universitetebi, universiteti-erToblivi umaRlesi saswavleblebi (Universitaeten-Gesamthochschulen), pedagogiuri umaRlesi saswavleblebi, Teologiuri umaRlesi skolebi. - xelovnebis umaRlesi saswavlebeli da samusiko umaRlesi saswavleblebi. aRniSnuli tipebis garda, arsebobs specialuri umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebi, romlebic mxolod garkveuli jgufebis mieraa aRiarebuli (magaliTad federaluri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebi). aseve, calkeul administraciul erTeulebze (miwebze) organizebuli profesiuli akademiebi (Berufsakademien) tertiaruli seqtoris (tertiary sector)8 oficialuri nawilia. dawesebulebaTa udidesi nawili saxelmwifo seqtors miekuTvneba, aseve arsebobs `kerZo~ dawesebulebebic. am SemTxvevaSi kerZo ar unda iqnas aRqmuli sityva-sityviT, am dawesebulebebisaTvis arsebobs igivenairi moTxovnebi rac saxelmwifo dawesebulebebisaTvis. am TvalsazrisiT, termini `saxelmwifos mier aRiarebuli~ (80 dawesebuleba) ufro metad Sesaferisia. 2002 wlisaTvis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sul arsebuli 345 dawesebulebis garda, arsebobs 70-mde `realurad~ kerZo dawesebuleba. rogorc wesi, patara da konkretuli disciplinebisaTvis gankuTvnil dawesebulebebSi daaxloebiT 20 000 studenti iricxeba.

umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebi


struqtura umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebi (Fachhochschulen) germaniSi, rogorc umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis axali tipi, 1970 wlidan daarsda. umaRles profesiul saswavleblebSi swavleba mkacrad mimarTulia profesiuli saqmianobis moTxovnebsa da saWiroebebze. rogorc wesi umaRlesi profesiuli saswavlebebSi profesiaTa limitirebuli raodenoba iswavleba. swavlebasTan erTad umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi damatebiT, gamoyenebiTi kvleva da daskvnebis gamotana moiTxoveba. 1992 wlidan, mniSvnelovani gaxda programa `gamoyenebiTi kvleva da ganviTareba umaRles profesiul saswavleblebSi~ (Applied Research and Development at Fachhochschulen). es programa, damoukidebeli dawesebulebis gamoyenebiTi kvlevis da proeqtebis dasafinanseblad iqna Seqmnili. umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis amocana teqnologiebisa da codnis gadacemis regionalur rolTanacaa dakavSirebuli.
8

tertiary - mesameuli, mikuTvnebukli mesame rangs, seqtors, klass; tertiary education - oficialuri, arasavaldebulo ganaTlebaa, romelic saSualo ganaTlebas Semdgomi safexuria

10

umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas raodenonebriv sakiTxebs aqceven: studentebis raodenobas, saswavlo kursebis raodenobas. zogierT umaRles profesiul saswavlebels specifiuri regionaluri maxasiaTeblebidan gamomdinare, specializaciaTa calkeuli CamonaTvali aqvT. dawesebulebebs Soris didi gansxvaveba aseve miwebis mixedviTac aRiniSneba. dReisaTvis, umaRlesi ganaTlebis studentTa TiTqmis 25% umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis programebSia Cawerili. umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis raodenoba 90-ian wlebSi SedarebiT gaizarda. 2002 wels saxelmwifosa da samecniero sabWos (Wissenschaftsrat) miznebidan gamomdinare ki mcired daiklo. umaRles profesiul saswavlebelTa garkveuli raodenoba (31) saxelmwifo administirebis saqmeSi (Verwaltungsfachhochschulen) specialur rols TamaSobs. aRniSnuli saswavleblebi saxelmwifo moxeleebs e.w. maRali donis saxelmwifo saqmianobisaTvis amzadeben. isini sxvadasxva federaluri da miwebis saministroebis mier finansdebian. miReba mxolod saxelmwifo moxeleebisTvisaa daSvebuli. arsebobs mimarTulebaTa CamonaTvali, romlebic umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi, saerTo jamSi 50 saswavlo kursiT Semoifargleba: 1. inJineria 2. ekonomika 3. administrireba da samarTlis administireba 4. socialuri saqmianoba 5. janmrTeloba da Terapia 6. religiuri ganaTleba 7. maTematika 8. kompiuteruli mecnierebebi 9. informaciisa da komunikaciis swavleba 10. dieturi da saojaxo mecnierebebi 11. xelovneba, dizaini da restavracia am kursebis garda, romlebic rogorc, wesi xarisxis pirvel doneze (first degree) tardeba, arsebobs Semdgomi swavlebis (further study), damatebiTi da damamTavrebeli kursebi (posrgraduale Studiengaenge). aRniSnuli kursebi Sedian pirveli xarisxebis SemadgenlobaSi da aviTareben profesiul unarebs, aZliereben da amaRleben specializaciis dones an swavlebis sxva kursebis paralelurad tardebian. uwyveti ganaTlebisagan gansxvavebiT, am formalur xarisxisSemdgom kursebs (formal postgraduate courses), rogorc wesi, pirveli saswavlo wlis Semdeg mimdevrobiT an parlelurad irCeven. igi umaRlesi ganaTlebis xarisxis mopovebas uwyobs xels. umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis daaxloebiT erTi mesamedi, internacionaluri xarisxis programebs (International degree Programmes) sTavazobs studentebs. amgvari programebis garkveuli nawili sazRvargareTis dawesebulebasa Tu kompaniebSi mimdinareobs. zogierTi aseTi programa, umaRlesi skolis reqtorebis konferenciis (HRK) da germanuli akademiuri gacvliTi samsaxuris (DAAD) mxardaWeriT mimdinareobs. programebis Sinaarsi germaniis universitetebSi swavlebis da gamocdebis procesis organizebis saxelmwifo wesi, umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebzec vrceldeba. samecniero kvlevisa da akademiuri swavlebis, aseve akademiuri xarisxebis Sesatyvisi standartebis uzrunvelsayofis mizniT, administraciuli miwebis ganaTlebisa da kulturis ministrebis regularuli konferenciis mier, umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebisaTvis gamoqveynebuli iyo dadgenileba `zogadi dadgenilebebi sadiplomo gamocdebis regulirebisaTvis umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi~ (Allgemeine Bestimmungen fr Diplomprfungsordnungen -

11

FH). es dadgenilebebi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos TiToeuli sagnis Sinaarsis regulirebis dros. programis struqtura TiToeuli programa dayofilia sabaziso (Grundstudium) da ZiriTad (Hauptstudium) seqtorad. G sabazo safexuri (Grundstudium) swavlis periodi oTx semestramdea. igi saSualo donis diplomis gamocdiT sruldeba (Diplomvorpruefung). ZiriTadi safexuri (Hauptstudium) swavlebis seqtoris xangrZlivoba, rogorc wesi, 9 semestriania da diplomis gamocdiT (Diplompruefung) sruldeba. semestrebi martidan agvistomde da seqtembridan Tebervlamde mimdinareobs. semestri, rogorc wesi 19 kvira grZeldeba, saswavlo saaTebis umetesoba leqciebze ixarjeba. sagamocdo regulireba sagnebis mixedviT xdeba. dadgenilebebi gamocdebis Sesaxeb umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis mier iwereba da aRiarebisaTvis gadaecema administraciuli miwis mecnierebaTa samisistros. 1998 wels umaRlesi skolis CarCo kanonma (Hochschulrahmengesetz HRG), dawesebulebebs, arsebuli sadiplomi programebis gverdiT sabakalavro da samagistro programebis danergva moTxova. bakalavris programebi sam an oTx wels SeiZleba grZeldebodes, magistris programebi ki Semdgom erT an or wels. im SemTxvevaSi Tu sabakalavro da samagistro programebi erTmaneTis gamgrZelebel blokad iqna Camoyalibebuli, swavlis maqsimaluri xangrZlivoba xuTi wliT limitirdeba. dReisaTvis, mimdevrobiT modelze srulad programaTa nawilia gadasuli. arsebobs sabakalavro da samagistro programebis sakmarisi raodenoba.. kursis dizaini saswavlo kursis dizaini da swavlebis dagegmva umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli praqtikul moTxovnebsa da profesiul saWiroebebze. praqtikis semestrebis (Praxissemester) ganmavlobaSi, dawesebulebis gareT, praqtikuli gamocdilebis SeZena cxovrebiseuli momavalia. umaRles profesiul saswavleblebSi saswavlo personali da sagnobrivi kursebi gamoyenebiT mecnierebebsa da ganviTarebad proeqtebze muSaoben, rac amgvari dawesebulebebis maxasiaTebelia. dualuri sistema ukanasknel wlebSi, umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebma dargobrivi akademiebis (Berufsakademien) msgavsi adaptacia gaiares, gansakuTrebiT inJineriisa da biznesis menejmentis mimarTulebiT. warmodgenili kursebi, dualuri sistemis (Duales system) mimarTulebis Sesabamisad, akademiur swavlebas samuSaoze miRebul (on-the-job training) gamocdilebasa Tu dasaqmebasTan akavSireben. es kursebi `swavlebisa da praqtikis kombinaciis kursebis~ (Studiengaenge im Praxisverbund) saxelwodebiTaa cnobili an `kooperatiuli swavlebis kursebis~ (Kooperative studiengaenge) saxeliT moixsenieba. studentebs utardebaT treiningebi an uformdebaT damqiraveblis kontraqti. swavlebis periodi da samuSao gamocdileba gansxvavebuli modelis (Teoria da praqtika paralelurad e.w. sandwich an mimdevrobiTi modeli - Consecutive model) an saswavlo regulirebis mixedviT nawildeba. diplomis xarisxi (Diplomgrad), romelSic miTiTebulia sityva `Fachhochschuhle~, studentebs programis dasrulebis Semdeg mieniWebaT. miReba umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi Casaricxad saWiroa mowmoba, rogoricaa, erTis mxriv, umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebi zogadi kvalifikacia (Allgemeine Hochschulreife), an umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebi kvalifikacia dargebis mixedviT (Fachgebundene Hochschulreife), an meores mxriv, dargobriv umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebi kvalifikacia (Fachhochschulreife), romlis mopovebac, dargobrivi saSualo skolis maRal klasebSi (Fachoberschule) SeiZleba. rogorc wesi, visac aqvs umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebi kvalifikacia (Hochschulreife), man aucileblad unda gaiaros praqtikuli treiningi an praqtikuli

12

internatura. Tumca, kvalifikacia umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebisaTvis aseve SeiZleba mopovebuli iqnas damatebiTi klasebis gavliT dargobriv skolebSi. magaliTad, Berufsfachschulen an Fachschulen-Si. damatebiT, garkveul kursze Casaricxad aucileblobiT moiTxoveba manamade miRebuli praqtikuli gamocdileba. garkveul kursebze (mag. dizaini) Casaricxad, umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebi kvalifikaciis garda, moiTxoveba xelovnebisadmi midrekilebis damadasturebeli sabuTebi. dReisaTvis umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis abiturientebs aqvT umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebi zogadi kvalifikacia, romlis saSualebiTac maT universitetSic SeuZliaT Cabareba. SedarebisaTvis 1975 wels amgvari kvalifikaciis mflobeli studentebis mxolod 20% abarebda umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi. TiTqmis yvela administraciul miwaze arsebobs alternatiuli gza im abiturientebisaTvis, romelTac gaaCniaT dargobrivi kvalifikacia, magram ar aqvT umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebi kvalifikacia. abiturientma unda daamtkicos, rom mas gaaCnia umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad saWiro codna da unarebi. gaiaros misaRebi procedurebi (mag. swavlebis garkveuli periodiT Cairicxos pirobiTad) an Caabaros misaRebi gamocdebi umaRles profesiul saswavleblebSi (mag. Sefasebis an vargisianobis testi, interviu). abiturientebis wina gamcdilebaze dayrdnobiT, rogorc wesi, Rebuloben uflebas Cairicxon umaRlesi ganaTlebis swavlebis specifiur kursze. ucxoeli abiturientebisaTvis (aplikantebisTvis) damatebiT zogierTi wesis dakmayofilebaa saWiro. isini aseve iricxebian umaRles profesiul saswavlebelSi, Tuki gaaCniaT eqvivalenturi ucxouri xarisxi da SeuZliaT daakmayofilon germanuli enis garkveuli codnis done. TiTqmis yvela umaRles profesiul saswavlebelSi, studentTa didi raodenobis gamo, SezRudulia sagnebze Cawera. sagnebze misaReb adgilTa raodenoba umaRlesi profesiuli saswavlebelebis mier ganisazRvreba, rogorc wesi, saSualo niSanTa da lodinis periodis mixedviT. gamocdebi da xarisxebi umaRles profesiul saswavlebelSi (Fachschulen) swavlebis standartuli periodi (Regelstudienzeit) TiToeuli kursisaTvis sagamocdo instruqciebiT (Pruefungsordnung) fiqsirdeba. instruqciebis Sinaarsi damokidebulia saswavlo kurssa da im droisaTvis Casabarebel gamocdebze. cxra semestridan, erTi an ori praqtikuli semesteri (Praxissemester) TiTqmis yvela specialobaze savaldebuloa. saSualod, studentebi swavlebis dasamTavreblad damatebiT erT an or semestrs iReben. umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebi xarisxis Sesabamis diplomebs dasrulebuli saswavlo kursebis mixedviT aniWeben. xarisxi aRniSnavs specialobas da imas, rom igi gacemulia umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblis (Fachschulen) mier: magaliTad inJineris diplomi - dargobrivi umaRlesi saswavlebeli (Diplomingineur (Fachhochschule)), abriviatura Dipl. Ing. (FH). zogierT umaRlesi profesiul saswavlebels aqvs SeTanxmeba ucxour universitetTan an sxva umaRlesi skolis dawesebulebasTan. SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad studenti Rebulobs ucxouri xarisxs germanul diplomTan erTad. Semdgomi swavleba (Further study), damatebiT da Semavsebel kursebs (Postgraduale Studiengaenge) sTavazobs studentebs. igi ZiriTadad bolo sami semestris ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs da meore diplomis xarisxiT (Second Diplom degree) an akademiur miRwevis damadasturebeli sertifikatiT sruldeba. doqtoris xarisxis mopoveba umaRles profesiul saswavlebelSi SeuZlebelia, es xarisxi, mxolod xarisxis miniWebis uflebis (Doktorgrad) mflobeli universitetebis an maTi eqvivalenturi umaRlesi saswavleblebis mier gaicema.

universitetebi9
struqtura
9

am seqtorSi moqceulia, calke gansaxilveli informacia xelovnebisa da musikis kolejebis seqtoris Sesaxeb.

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germaniaSi tradiciuli universitetebis gverdiT, universitetis statusiT sabunebismetyvelo da sainJinro profilis specializirebulni teqnikuri universitetebic (Technische Hochschulen an Technische Universitaeten) sargebloben. 1970 wlis Semdeg Seqmnili erToblivi universitetebi (Gesamthochschulen) SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT universitetebis specialur tipebs, Tumca maTi popularoba garkveulwilad dabalia. am tipis Svidi universiteti - erToblivi umaRlesi skola (Universitaet-Gesamthochschulen) darCenilia mxolod hesenis da nordrain-vestfaliis miwebze. isini saswavlo akademiur, umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebs da e.w. integrirebul kursebsac atareben. kvalifikaciebs sami an oTxi wlis Semdeg, universitetis statusis eqvivalentur statuss aniWeben. iseTi dawesebulebebi rogoricaa, Teologiuri umaRlesi skolebi (Theologische Hochschulen) da pedagogiuri umaRlesi skolebi (Paedagogische Hochschulen), kursebis SedarebiT SezRuduli raodenoba iswavleba. yvela am dawesebulebas kanonmdeblobiT aqvs tradiciuli ufleba momxmarebels SesTavazon doqtorantura (Doctorgrad) da doqtoranturis Semdgomi swavlebis kvalifikacia (Habilitation). umaRlesi skolis CarCo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT (Hochschulrahmengesetz), universiteti studentebs garkveuli profesiuli sferosaTvis amzadebs, aZlevs maT profilis Sesabamis gansakuTrebul codnas, uviTarebs unarebs ise, rom warmarTon mecnieruli an SemoqmedebiTi saqmianoba. universitetebis saswavlo mimarTulebebi universitetebi, rogorc wesi, saganTa farTo arCevans sTavazoben studentebs. saganTa raodenoba varirebs dawesebulebaTa Soris, erTad maTi raodenoba 330-s Seadgens da 6800 gansxvavebuli xarisxis kurss iTvlis. yvelaze gavrcelebuli mimarTulebebia: - ena da humanitaruli mecnierebebi, sporti - iurisprudencia, ekonomika da socialuri mecnierebebi - maTematika, sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebi - medicina - agronomia, metyeveoba, dieturi(kvebasTan dakavSirebuli) mecnierebebi - sainJinro mecnierebebi garda amisa, xelovnebis da samusiko profiliT, germaniaSi arsebobs umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebi, romelTac kolejebi hqviaT. xelovnebisa da samusiko kolejebis saswavlo mimarTulebebi xelovnebis kolejebi studentebs sTavazoben kursebs vizualur, dizainisa da SemoqmedebiT xelovnebaSi. samusiko kolejebi sxvadasxva sagnebs, zogjer Teoriul disciplinebTan kombinaciis saxiTac aswavlian (SemoqmedebiTi xelovneba da xelovnebis istoria, musikaTmcodneoba, musikis swavlebis istoria, da bolo wlebSi gavrcelebuli mediis axali sferoebi). zogierTi koleji xelovnebis saganTa srul speqtrs aswavlis, zogierTi ki garkveul mimarTulebs sTavazobs studentebs. gamocdebi da xarisxebi universitetebSi standartuli swavlebis periodi (Regelstudienzeit) gamocdebis instruqciebis safuZvelze (Pruefungsordnungen) TiToeuli saswavlo programisaTvis individualurad fiqsirdeba. kursis swavlebis xangrZlovobis (da gamocdebis Cabarebis) periodi Sesabamisi instruqciiT ganisazRvreba. umetesoba kursebisa oTxnaxevari weli grZleldeba, zogierTi ufro metxans (mag. medicinis swavleba grZeldeba eqvsi weli da sami Tve). saSualod, miuxedavad amisa, yvela studenti swavlis dasasruleblad damatebiT erT an or wels iRebs. akademiur xarisxebis mosapoveblad, studentebi abareben akademiur, saxelmwifo da saeklesio gamocdebs. rogorc wesi, profesiuli kvalifikaciis miniWeba

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gamocdebis Cabarebis safuZvelze xdeba. umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebs kanonieri ufleba aqvT Tavad Caataron gamocdebi (Hochschulpruefungen). akademiuri xarisxi mieniWebaT Semdegi ori tipis akademiuri gamocdis safuZvelze xdeba: - sadiplomo gamocda (Diplompruefung) (romelic aniWebs diplomis xarisxs (Diplomgrad) da wodebas, mag. fsiqologis diplomi) - samagistro gamocda (Magisterpruefung) (romelic aniWebs magistris xarisxs (Magistergrad) da wodebas, magaliTad, Magister Artium - MA). saswavlo kursebi, romlebic sruldeba diplomiT (Diploma) Semoifargleba mxolod erTi sferoTi, xolo is kursebi, romlebic magistris xarisxiT sruldeba, moicavs specialobaTa kombinacias, rogorc wesi, erT ZiriTad (Major) da or meorexarisxovan (Minor) sferoebs, an or Tanasworuflebian Major sferos. 1998 wlis umaRlesi skolis CarCo kanoni (HRG), ukve arsebuli Diplom da Magister programebis paralelurad, sTavazobs universitetebs warmoadginon sabakalavro da samagistro (MASTER) programebi. bakalavro programebi SeiZleba iyos sam an oTx wliani, samagistro programebi swavlebis erTi an ori weli. im SemTxvevaSi Tu sabakalavro da samagistro programebi erTmaneTis Tanmimdevrul blokad iqna Camoyalibebuli, swavlis maqsimaluri xangrZlivoba xuT wels Seadgens. arsebobs sabakalavro da samagistro programebis didi raodenoba (gansakuTrebiT maTematikaSi, sabunebismetyvelo da humanitarul mecnierebebSi bakalavriatis doneze, da sainJinro pogramebi samagistro doneze). umaRlesi skolis reqtorTa konferenciaze (Hochschulrektorenknferenz) `umaRlesi skolis kompasma (Hochschulkompass) aRricxa TiTqmis aTasi sabakalavro da samagistro programa (55). Tumca am programebze msurvelTa raodenoba SedarebiT mwiria. germaniis umaRlesi ganaTlebis kursTa mxolod 10% mimdinareobs inglisurad. (Klemperer et al., 2002). germaniis kanonmdeblobiT, saxelmwifo gamocdebiT (Staatpruefung) aucileblobiT unda sruldebodes sazogadoebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis profesiis mimniWebeli kursebi. aseTebia medicina, stomatologia, veterinaruli medicina, farmacia, kvebis qimia, iurisprudencia da ganaTleba. saxelmwifo gamocdis Catarebis standarti Seesabameba akademiur gamocdebs. aqedan gamomdinare, gansxvaveba saxelmwifo da akademiur gamocdebs Soris principSi formaluri xasiaTisaa. saxelmwifo gamocdebis Catarebis Semdeg, saxelmwifo gamomcdelebi, universitetis profesorebTan SeTanxmebiT, gamocdebis Sedegebs aqtis saxiT warmoadgenen. saeklesio gamocdebi tardeba Teologiuri sferos gaTvaliswinebiT da zustad asaxavs saxelmwifo gamocdebis xarisxs. momavali iuristebi da maswavleblebi, pirveli saxelmwifo gamocdis Semdeg, gadian treinings e.w. mosamzadebel serviss (Vorbereitungsdienst), romelic sruldeba Semdgomi saxelmwifo gamocdiT. kursdamTavrebuls mxolod meore saxelmwifo gamocdis Cabarebis Semdeg eZleva profesiul sferoSi praqtikis gavlis ufleba. gamocdebi da xarisxebi xelovnebisa da musikalur kolejebSi xelovanis kvalifikacia germaniaSi eniWebaT pirveli xarisxis kursis (Diplom) damTavrebisas. xelovnebis treiningebTan erTad, xelovnebis kolejebi atareben iseTi tipis saswavlo kursebsac, romelic studentebs saxelmwifo gamocdebis Cabarebis (Staatpruefung) da Semdgomi mosamzadebeli servisis (Vorbereitungsdienst) gavlisas skolebSi xelovnebisa an musikis swavlebis uflebas aZlevs. swavlis gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi, damatebiTi da momdevno kursebis (postgraduale Studiengaenge) gavlis Semdeg studentebs mieniWebaT xelovnebis skolis studentis (Meisterschueler) wodeba, xelovanis kvalifikaciis damadasrulebeli mowmoba (Kuenstlerische Reifepruefung), sakoncerto gamocdis damadasturebeli mowmoba (Konzerterxamen) an Semdgomi xarisxis diplomi (Diplom).

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sabolood, umaRlesi ganaTlebis pirveli kvalifikaciis mopovebis Semdeg, profesiul saqmianobaSi Cabmamde, studentebs aseve doqtoranturis gavla SeuZliaT. xelovnebisa da musikis kolejebma (iseve rogorc Teologiurma umaRlesma skolebma (Theologische Hochschulen) da pedagogiurma umaRlesma skolebma (Paedagogische Hochschulen)) gadawyvites ar warmoadginon sabakalavro da samagistro programebi. xelovnebisa da musikis kolejebma magistris donis gamoyofa maT sferoSi azrs moklebulad CaTvales. Teologiuri saswavleblebi didad arian damokidebuli kursdamTavrebulTa dasaqmebis arealze (mag. eklesiebi, skolebi). am saswavleblebs jer ar aqvT danergili sabakalavro da samagistro programebi, magram didi wnexis gamo iZulebulni iqnebian gadavidnen swavlebis am modelze. (Klemperer et al., 2002). kursebis Sinaarsi universitetebSi saswavlo kursTa struqtura da Sinaarsi gansazRvrulia saswavlo instruqciebiT (Studienordnungen) da sagamocdo wesebiT (Pruefungsoednungen). instruqciebSi aRwerilia konkretul klasebSi saaTobrivi datvirTvis is raodenoba, romelic saWiroa umaRlesi ganaTlebis TiToeuli safexuris (sabaziso - Grundstudium da ZiriTadi - Hauptstudium) saswavlo kursis warmatebiT dasrulebisaTvis, miTiTebulia romeli sagania savaldebulo, arCeviTi da arasavaldebulo. saswavlo debulebaSi aseve aRniSnulia serTifikatis forma, romelic mieniWebaT specialuri klasebis gavlisas. amgvari debulebebis Sesaxeb informacias studentebi srulad floben. aRniSnuli procedura TiToeuli departamentis kurikulumis dagegmvis erT-erTi sabaziso safuZvelia. sagamocdo wesebiTa Tu instruqciebiT (Pruefungsoednungen), aseve dadgenilia swavlebis standartuli periodi (Regelstudienzeit), misaRebi moTxovnebi, gamocdebze misaniWebeli kreditebis raodenoba, disertaciis dasasruleblad daSvebuli periodi, sagamocdo standartebs, procedurebi da sagnebi. germaniaSi, sxvadasxva administraciuli erTeulis (miwebis) ganaTlebisa da kulturis saqmeTa saministroebis regularulma konferenciam da umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebis reqtorebisa da prezidentebis konferenciam (Hochschulrektorenkonferenz), saswavlo dawesebulebebSi sagamocdo instruqciaTa regulaciis mizniT, Seadgina `saswavlo da sagamocdo instruqciebis maregulirebeli erToblivi komisia~ (Joint Commission for the Coordination of Study and Examination Regulations), romelmac SeimuSava ZiriTadi dadgenilebebi gamocdebisa da struqturis tipis Sesaxeb TiToeuli saswavlo kursis (Magister, Diplom) doneze. akademiuri weli sauniversiteto seqtorSi akademiuri weli or semestadaa dayofili, zafxulis semestri mimdinareobs aprilidan agvistomde, zamTris semestri oqtombridan martamde. xuTTvian periodebSi studentebs aqvT dro individualuri mecadineobisaTvis, praqtikuli samuSao gamocdilebis miRebisa da gamocdebis momzadebisaTvis. universitetebSi semestris ganmavlobaSi kvireuli saauditorio saaTebi umaRlesi dawesebulebebis mier SeTavazebuli yvela kursi eqvivalentur kvalifikaciebiT (Diplom, Magister, Staatpruefung) sruldeba. kvalifikaciebi gansazRvrulia `saswavlo da sagamocdo instruqciebis maregulirebeli erToblivi komisis~ (Joint Commission for the Coordination of Study and Examination Regulations~) mier. komisia aseve aregulirebs saswavlo kursebis raodenobriv monacemebs, gansakuTrebiT swavlebis standartul periods (Regelstudienzeit), savaldebulo da arasavaldebulo sagnebis saaTobriv datvirTvas da saganTa ganawilebas, gamocdebis Semdeg miniWebad sertifikatebs (Leistungsnachweise), gamocdebis detalebs da saboloo Tezisebis dasrulebisaTvis saWiro periods.

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semestris ganmavlobaSi saWiro saswavlo saaTebis raodenoba damokidebulia umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebis saswavlo instruqciebze. TiToeuli sagnisaTvis ganisazRvreba semestris ganmavlobaSi saauditorio kvireuli saaTebi (Semesterwochenstunden). Cveulebriv, universitetebis kursebi studentTa saswavlo datvirTvis debulebis (Regelstudienzeit) gaTvaliswinebiT an standartuli swavlebiT, saSualod 9 semestrs moicavs 160 saaTiani datvirTviT (20 kvireuli saauditorio saaTi, 8 saswavlo semestri). es sqema gacilebiT izrdeba, rodesac kursi praqtikul treiningebs an laboratoriul samuSaos moicavs. periodi, romelic cnobilia `daswrebis periodis~ (saauditorio datvirTva) saxelwodebiT, saswavlo kursis dasrulebis mxolod erTi aspeqtia. damatebiT, studentebma drois mniSvnelovani nawili unda daxarjon damoukidebel muSobaze, moemzadon individualuri mecadineobisaTvis an dauTmon yuradReba specialobaSi im damatebiT mimarTulebebs, romelic araa SemoTavazebuli kursis mimdinareobisas. dReisaTvis, yovelTvis SesaZlebeli araa drois nawilobrivi datvirTviT (Part-time) swavlis gaformeba, kursebis organizebisas didi yuradReba eTmoba mosamsaxure da im studetebis moTxovnebs, romelTac Svilebi yavT.

miReba
sauniversiteto seqtorze misaRebi kvalifikacia da miReba universitetis da misi eqvivalenturi umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebaSi misaRebad moiTxoveba zogadi kvalifikacia (Allgemeine Hochschulreife) an kvalifikacia dargebis mixedviT (Fachgebundene Hochschulreife). amgvari forma yofil moswavleebs aZlevs uflebas gaagrZelon swavla nebismieri umaRlesi dawesebulebis nebismier mimarTulebaze, maSin roca, adre arsebuli uflebebiT kursTa mimaTulebebi SezRuduli iyo. evroosabWos qveynebis aplikantebma, romelTac ar gaaCniaT germanuli umeRlesi ganaTlebis seqtorSi misaRebi kvalifikacia, unda warmoadginon saSualo skolis sertifikati, romelic aZlevs uflebas Cairicxon sakuTari qveynis umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebaSi. aplikants aseve SeuZlia warmoadginos sakuTari qveynis umaRles saswavlebelSi swavlis cnoba. damatebiT, ucxoelma aplikantebma saswavlo adgilis mosapoveblad unda daamtkicon germanuli enis garkveuli donis codna, Caabaron germanuli enis gamocda umaRlesi ganaTlebis seqtorSi misaRebad ucxoeli aplikantebisTvis (Deutsche Sprachpruefung fuer den Hochschulzugang auslaendischer Studienbewerber DSH) an eqvivalenturi gamocda. SerCeva umetesoba saswavlo kursze, nacionalobis kriteriumis mixedviT ar arsebobs aplikantTa raodenobis SezRudva. es niSnavs, rom nebismieri nacionalobis warmomadgenels, SeuZlia saqmianobis Tavisufali arCevanis uflebiT isargeblos, rogorc es garantirebulia konstituciis me-12-e muxliT. yvela aplikanti, romelic daadasturebs zemoT aRniSnul moTxovnebs, daregistrirdeba umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebaSi, sakuTari survilis mixedviT arCeul saswavlo kursze, yovelgvari damatebiTi misaRebi procedurebis gareSe. zogierT kursze, (magaliTad medicina, veterinariuli medicina, stomatologia, arqiteqtura, biznesis menejmenti da fsiqologia), arsebobs nacionaluri qvota, aplikantebis didi raodenobis gamo misaRebi adgilebis arasakmarisi raodenobaa gamoyofili. 1998 wlis zafxulis semestridan, saerTo arCeviTi proceduris gaTvaliswinebiT, kursebze misaReb adgilTa raodenobas adgens saswavlo adgilTa gamoyofis centraluri ofisi (Zentralstelle fuer die Vergabe von Studienplaetzen, ZVS). am proceduris legaluri safuZveli, saswavlo adgilebis gamoyofasTan dakavSirebiT, administraciuli miwebis Sida saxelmwifo SeTanxmebaa. 1997-98 wlis zamTris semestridan, medicinis kursis

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aplikantebma specialuri SerCevis procedura unda gaiaron damatebiT, rac testis CabarebaSi gamoixateba. dReisaTvis umaRlesi ganaTlebis doneze Cabarebis liberaluri procedurebi gadaxedvis stadiaSia. zogadnacionalur SerCevis proceduraze damokidebuli kursTa tipebi da raodenoba SeiZleba gansxvavdebodnen yovel semestrSi. es savsebiT SesaZlebelia, radgan yvela asarCev kursTa raodenoba mcirea aplikantTa raodenobasTan SedarebiT. saswavlo kursebze nacionaluri qvotis gaTvaliswinebiT aplikantebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis doneze Caricxvis kvalifikaciis statusiT (Abitur) sargebloben. damatebiT aseve gaTvaliswinebulia molodinis periodi (abitur statussa da Caricxvas Soris). arsebobs zogierTi saswavlo sfero, sadac yvela aplikanti Rebulobs adgils, Tumca SeiZleba es adgili ar iyos mis mier arCeul dawesebulebaSi. arsebobs zogadi SezRudvebi zogierTi saswavlo dawesebulebis kursisaTvis, romelic ar iTvaliswinebs nacionalur misaReb procedurebs. amis gamo aplikantebis miReba damokidebulia maT saSualo qulaTa raodenobis kriteriumze, gaTvaliswinebulia qulaTa SenarCunebis periodic. universitetebsa da xelovnebisa da musikis kolejebSi gadayvanis wesi da swavlis vadamde dasruleba universitetebSi studentTa saswavlo jgufebi dgeba ara saswavlo semestris mixedviT, aramed sabaziso an ZiriTad doneze savaldebulo sagnebis Sesabamisad. Tuki studenti ver Caabarebs romelime kurss, igi gaivlis am kurss momdevno nakadTan semestruli CamorCenis gareSe. praqtikaSi, miuxedavad Caubarebeli sagnebisa, studenti mainc rCeba universitetSi. swavlebisa da gamocdebis regulireba dgindeba misaReb moTxovnebTan erTad TiToeuli safexurisaTvis. rogorc wesi, saSualedo da saboloo gamocdebze ganmeorebiT gasvla mxolod erTxel aris SesaZlebeli. saswavlo periodis SemcirebasTan dakavSirebiT, es sakiTxi nawilobriv mogvarebulia. kerZod, Tu studenti saboloo gamocdas ver Cabareba standartuli swavlis periodSi (Regelstudienzeit) mas ufleba aqs gamocda sxva dros Caabaros. zogierT SemTxvevaSi studentebs survili aqvT Seicvalon saswavlo kursi an Sewyviton swavla universitetSi. yovelwliurad yvela universitetis studentTa 28%, gamocdebis srulad Cabarebis gareSe swavlas Tavs anebebs. Tuki studentebs sWirdebaT konsultacia raime kritikul situaciasTan dakavSirebiT, maT SesaZloa mimarTon studentTa konsultaciis samsaxurebs. studentTa socialuri uzrunvelyofis departamentSi maT SesTavazeben, rogorc konsultacias, aseve fsiqo-socialur daxmarebasac. zogadad SesaZlebelia saswavlo kursis Secvla, Tumca bolo semestrebze gansakuTrebuli pirobebis SemTxvevaSi. pirobebi SeiZleba iyos maT mier arCeuli kursebis sxva teritoriaze gavla. Cabarebulad eTvlebaT mxolod is kursebi, romelic eqvivalenturia maTi saswavlo kursisa.

Semdgomi ganaTleba (Further Education)


germaniaSi `Semdgomi~ ganaTleba, Tavisi sakuTari wesebiT ganaTlebis mimarTuleba gaxda. Semdgomi ganaTlebis sxvadasxva xangrZlivobis treiningebi aRrmavebs, rogorc ukve arsebuli codnasa da unarebs, aseve gamocdilebas. Semdgomi ganaTleba erTnairad moicavs zogad, dargobriv da socio-politikur mimarTulebebs. vinaidan moTxovna da oficialuri gancxadebebi Semdgom ganaTlebaze yoveldRiurad mzardia, struqtura socialuri bazris principebis gaTvaliswinebiT ganviTarda. Semdgom ganaTlebas mosaxleoba Rebulobs municipalur dawesebulebebSi, saxalxo umaRles skolebSi (Volkshochschulen), kerZo dawesebulebebSi, saeklesio dawesebulebebSi, profesiul gaerTianebebSi, industriisa da komerciis palatebSi, politikur partiebsa da asociaciebSi, kompaniebsa da saxelmwifo mmarTvel

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organoebSi, saojaxo ganaTlebis centrebSi, akademiebSi, umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebSi, umaRlesi ganaTlebis da distanciuri swavlebis dawesebulebebSi. radio da televiziebi aseve awarmoeben Semdgomi ganaTlebis programebs.

distanciuri ganaTleba
Cvens mier aqamde motanili masala ansxvavebda sauniversiteto da umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis seqtors. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom germaniaSi damatebiT arsebobs dawesebulebebi, romlebic studentebs sTavazoben distanciuri swavlebis formebs. distanciuri swavlebis zogadi universiteti (FernuniversitaetGesamthochschule) hagenSi 1974 wels daarsda. igi sTavazobs kursebs Diplom da Magister xarisxebis mosapoveblad. zogierT germanul qalaqSi, iseve rogorc avstriis, ungreTis da Sveicariis qalaqebSi distanciuri ganaTlebis universitetebs aqvT umaRlesi ganaTlebis centrebi adgilobrivi studentebis konsultaciisaTvis, aseve Rebuloben studentebs savaldebulo klasebis gavlis periodSi. zogierTi umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebam, distanciuri swavlebis kursebis ganviTarebis mizniT, danerga distanciuri swavlebis formebi. distanciuri swavlebis asociaciebi bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi daarsda aRmosavleT germaniaSi berlinis CaTvliT, nordrain-vestfaliaSi, hesenTan da zaarlandTan erTad rainland-pfalcSi. erTobliv proeqtTa nawili Seqmnilia distanciuri ganaTlebis saagentoebTan TanamSromlobiT. distanciur swavlebas damatebiT, kerZo organizaciebi axorcieleben. zrdasrulTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis akademikosTa sabWom (Akademiker-Gesellschaft fuer Erwachsenenfortbildung) daaarsa umaRlesi skola dasaqmebuli adamianebisaTvis (Hochschule fuer Berufstaetige). saxelmwifos mier aRiarebuli kerZo dawesebulebebi sTavazoben umaRles ganaTlebas rensburgSi (Slesvig-holStaini) da StutgartSi (baden-vutenbergi). Seqmnilia kursebi biznesis menejmentSi, industriul inJineriaSi da gamoTvliT biznesSi. ekonomikisa da sociologiis lahris koleji kerZo organizaciis kidev erTi magaliTia. distanciuri swavlebis centraluri dawesebulebis (ZFU) monacemebiT, 1995 wels distanciuri swavlebis kursebze 150000 studenti Caewera. aqedan daaxloebiT 50000 xarisxs mopovebis stadiazea.

xarisxisSemdgomi ganaTleba (Post-graduate education)


xarisxisSemdgomi ganaTlebis faqtiurad ori tipi arsebobs. erTi exeba damatebiT codnis an unarebis SeZena-gaRrmavebas specialuri kursebis da programebis saSualebiT (damatebiTi (Zusatz)-, damatebiTi (Ergaenzung)-, samSeneblo swavleba (Aufbaustudien). ukanasknel wlebSi, pirveli tipi metad poluparuli gaxda `codnis asociaciis~ konteqstiT. germaniaSi es iniciativa gaZlierda, `cxovrebis manZilze uwyveti ganaTleba yvelasaTvis~ programis (Aktionsprogramm Lebensbegleitendes Lernen fuer Alle) saxiT. ris Sedegadac, am tipis ganaTlebis miRebis msurveli ar finansdeba avtonomiurad, aramed mimarTavs aRniSnuli programis centrs. xolo meore tipi dakavSirebulia akademiuri swavlebis gagrZelebasTan, romelic sruldeba disertaciiT. germaniaSi, iseve rogorc bevr sxva qveyanaSi swavlebis pirvel da umaRles xarisxebs Soris dayofis zRvari mkveTrad araa gansazRvruli. tradiciulad studentebi agrZeleben swavlas maRal (an xarisxisSemdgom) safexurze sawyisi kvalifikaciis mopovebis gareSe.

struqtura da miReba
universitetsa an eqvivalentur umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebaSi, pirveli saswavlo safexuris warmatebiT dasrulebis, Semdeg akademiuri saqmianobis garkveul stadiaze myof adamianebs SeuZliaT swavla gaagrZelon doqtoranturis safexurze, procesi Promotion-is saxeliTaa cnobili. umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblis (Fachhochschulen) xarisxis mflobelebisaTvis doqtoranturis safexurze misaRebad arsebobs specialuri

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wesebi. ukve arsebuli umaRlesi profesiuli saswavleblebis xarisxis garda, studentebma damatebiT mosamzadebeli kursebi unda gaiaron doqtoranturaSi Sesaswavl saganSi, an aRniSnul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT universitetSi damatebiTi swavlebis periodi unda daZlion, an unda Caabaron vargisianobis testi (Aptitude Test). doqtoranturaSi yuradRebas sadoqtoro Tezisebze (romelic damoukidebel kvlevas unda eyrdnobodes) da zepir gamocdebze (Rigorosum) amaxvileben. gamocdebi SeiZleba Canacvldes studenturi PhD Tezisebis dacviT (Disputation). sadoqtoro Tezisebi unda iqnas dawerili dadgenili periodis ganmavlobaSi. doqtoranturis dasruleba aniWebs doqtoris (Doktor, Doktorgrad) akademiur xarisxs. xarisxisSemdgom doneze, studentebisagan minimalur droSi registracia moiTxoveba, aravin ar icis ra drois ganmavlobaSi gagrZeldeba muSaoba xarisxis mosapoveblad. sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT, doqtoranturaSi swavlis periodi gacilebiT grZelvadiani da Tavisuflad dagegmilia. igi profesiuli saqmianobis da ganaTlebis kombinacia ufroa, vidre ganaTlebis calkeuli faza. doqtorantebis umetesoba universitetSi personalis Tanamdebobaze muSaobs. umetes SemTxvevaSi atareben seminarebs an konsultaciebs (saSualod 1-2-s semestris ganmavlobaSi). kursebze daiSvebian, rogorc maRali donis xarisxamdeli, aseve xarisxisSemdgomi studentebi, magram unda aRiniSnos, rom aris Zalian didi gansxvavebebi sxvadasxva dawesebulebebis mier SeTavazebul pirobebs Soris. metic, radgan PhD studentebi yovelTvis ar arian formalurad registrirebulni (isini ar warmoadgenen personalis specialur kategorias), amis gamo Zalian rTulia bolo periodis raodenobrivi informaciis floba. samecniero sabWos (Wissenschaftsrat) 1995 wlis monacemebiT, 1992 wlisaTvis germaniaSi 63000 doqtoranti iyo. maTgan daaxloebiT 70% universitetis TanamSromelia, romlebic TavianTi samuSao drois nawils PhD Tezisebis momzadebas uTmoben. daaxloebiT 20% PhD-ze grantis an kontraqtis safuZvelze muSaobs. dafinanseba SeiZleba iyos mopovebuli sxvadasxva saswavlo-samecniero da arasamecniero organizaciebidan. 80-ian wlebSi germaniaSi, dainerga treiningebis araformalur sistema. germanuli kvlevis sabWom (Deutsche Forschungsgemainschaft) warmoadgina Sesabamisi programa xarisxis mflobelebisaTvis (Graduiertenkolleg). xarisxisSemdgomi treiningebis axali sistema warmatebiT Sefasda. 2002 wlisaTvis germaniaSi TiTqmis 300-mde xarisxis mimWiWebeli skola iyo. 2001 wlisaTvis am tipis skolebSi studentTa saerTo raodenobas 4800 studenti daemata. saleqcio jgufi Sedgeboda 15-25 PhD erTi an ramodenime damegobrebuli (SesaZloa internacionaluri) universitetis studentisagan. universiteti waradgens Graduiertenkolleg-s gegmas (kvleviTi da saswavlo programis CaTvliT), romelic rogorc Sinaarsobrivad, iseve finansuradac Sesabamisi administraciuli miwis mieraa damowmebuli da mxardaWerili. germanuli kvlevis sabWo (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) afasebs am winadadebas, misi damowmebis SemTxvevaSi dgeba Sesrulebis periodi samidan maqsimum 9 wlamde xangrZlivobiT.

ZiriTadi dafinanseba
germaniis umaRlesi ganaTleba saxelmwifo dafinansebazea, saswavleblebi cxadia, biujetis dagegmvisas unda icavdnen germaniis mTavrobis administrirebis kanonebs. kanonebi, Seqmnilia TiToeuli miwisaTvis, magram met-naklebad msgavsia mTeli qveynis teritoriaze. ZiriTadi SezRudvebi, romelTa dacvac savaldebuloa Semdegia: - biujetis moTxovna (xarjvis kategoriebis dafiqsireba) daafiqsiros finansuri wlis prioritetebi, - biujeti ar SeiZleba gaixarjos mimarTulebebis sawinaaRmdegod,

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dawesebuleba erTianad ar Rebulobs dafinansebas personalis dasafinanseblad, Tuki es saStato gegmaSi (Stellenplan) ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli, - dawesebulebas ar SeuZlia gaxarjos personalis fondi sxva saWiroebiisaTvis, maSinac ki, roca es iTvleba aucileblad da Sesaferisad, - fondebi (dauxarjavi balansi) ar SeiZleba gadatanil iqnas momdevno finansur welze, miuxedavad amisa, bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi germaniis administraciul miwebze mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi moxda. zogierTma miwam SeinarCuna sworxazovani biujetis forma, zogierTma gadauxvia dadgenil mimarTulebas, zogierTma ki mainc Seqmna erTiani dafinansebis biujeti (Ziegele, 2000).

swavlebis gadasaxadebi
rogorc wesi, umaRlesi ganaTlebis pirveli safexuris kursebze, germaneli da aragermaneli studentebisaTvis ar arsebobs registraciis gadasaxadi, semestruli gadasaxadi an sagamocdo gadasaxadi. Tumca, yvela studenti ixdis minimalur Tanxas socialuri keTilmowyobiT sargeblobisaTvis. saswavleblebSi arsebobs studentTa TviTadministirebis organizaciebi (rogorc wesi studenturi komitetebi Algemeine Studentenausschuss), studentebi aseve ixdian maT damatebiT gadasaxadebs. zogierT miwaze SemoiRes an apireben SemoiRon gadasaxadebi im studentebisaTvis, romlebic xangrZlivad swavloben, e.w. `Long-term. magaliTisaTvis baden-vunternbergSi studentebma, romlebic standartuli swavlis periodze (Regelstudienzeit) oTxi semestriT met xans swavloben, yovelsemestrulad 511 evro unda gadaixadon. saxelmwifo da kerZo dawesebulebebs SeuZliaT Secvalon gadasaxadebi Semdgomi (Weiterbildung) ganaTlebis programebze registrirebisas. gadasaxadebis zoma daregulirebulia, magaliTad, sruli Rirebulebis 60%. kerZo universitetebs sruli Tavisufleba aqvT nebismieri programis gadasaxadebis dadgenaSi. Sesabamisad, gadasaxadebi araa barieri saxelmwifo umaRlesi ganaTlebis pirvel safexurze. daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom germaniis umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema mravalferovania. Tanamedrove dakveTebidan gamomdinare, umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebis damokidebuleba da urTierTkavSiri maTi erTi qudis qveS gaerTianebas uwyobs xels, rac Tavis mxriv axleburi tipis universitets ayalibebs. cxadia, mTeli es cvlilebebi mimdinareobs boloniis procesis dakveTebis fonze, rac 2010 wlisaTvis unda damTavrdes. boloniis procesis farglebSi aqamde ganxorcielebuli yvela Zalisxmeva, romelic mimarTulia umaRlesi ganaTlebis gansxvavebuli sistemebis harmonizaciisaken, ar scildeba Sidastruqturul miTiTebebs. mravalricxovan miTiTebebsa Tu moTxovnebs Soris SeiZleba ramdenime davasaxeloT: swavlebis samsafexuriani sistemis, kreditebis transferisa da dagrovebis evropuli sistemis (ECTS), diplomis axleburi danarTis (evropis sabWosa da UNESCO/CEPEC-is mier SemuSavebuli modeli) SemoReba, swavlebis yvela doneze silabusebisa da kurikulumebisa Tanamedrove saxiT SemuSaveba, Sefasebis erTiani sistemis danergva da sxva. konvenciebisa da deklaraciebis dokumentebSi SefarviTac araa naxsenebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis seqtoris organizaciuli modelis saxe, saubari arc prioritetebzea. politikis globaluri xazi mimarTulia iqiTken, rom sanam studentebs mopovebuli, aRiarebadi kvalifikaciiT SesaZlebloba aqvT Tavisuflad gadaadgildnen qveynidan qveyanaSi, nebismier saxelmwifos damoukideblad ZaluZs airCios sakuTari umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis organizaciuli modeli.

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rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, umaRlesi ganaTlebis istoria platonis akademiidan da aristoteles likeidan iwyeba. Semdeg modis Sua saukuneebis umaRlesi ganaTlebis cnobili dawesebulebani. evropis uZvelesi universitetebi, burJuaziuli epoqa da socialisturi umaRlesi skola mTeli Tavisi gamocdilebiT. TiToeuli epoqis saswavlo dawesebulebas, qveynis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, sakuTari mizani da amocanebi gaaCnda. am SemTxvevaSi gamonakliss ar warmoadgens saqarTveloSi arsebuli saswavlo dawesebulebebic. Zveli berZeni istorikosebisa da geografebis Canawerebi mowmobs, rom antikur saqarTveloSi iyo `ayvavebuli qalaqebi~ SesaniSnavi `sazogadoebrivi Senobebis~, `gimnasionebiT~. antikuri ganaTlebis gavrcelebasa da mecnieruli azris Semdgom ganviTarebaSi didi roli iTamaSa kolxeTis umaRlesma ritorikulma skolam (IIIs.IInax). IV saukuneSi qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebas mohyva eklesiebTan skolebis gaxsna. magram male ucxo dampyrobTa Semosevebma, gansakuTrebiT ki arabTa batonobam, didi xniT Seaferxa qarTuli kulturis ganviTareba. ganaTlebis aRorZineba da intensiuri ganviTareba daiwyo XI-XII saukuneebSi, daviT aRmaSeneblis da Tamar mefis xanaSi. Seiqmna mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis iseTi kerebi, rogoric iyo gelaTis akademia da iyalTos akademia. am didi saqmis mosamzadebeli safexuri iyo qarTuli kulturis cnobili kerebi saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT aTonis iverielTa monasteri saberZneTSi, petriwonis monasteri bulgareTSi. XIII saukunidan moyolebuli jer monRolTa, xolo Semdeg iranisa da osmaleTis gamapartaxebelma Semosevebma daaqveiTes da dasces kultura da ganaTleba saqarTveloSi. XVII saukunis II naxevridan Seiqmna erTgvari pirobebi saqarTvelos politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli gamococxlebisaTvis. XVIII saukuneSi saxalxo ganaTlebis saqme xelisuflebis mzrunvelobis sagnad iqca, ramac saTanado Sedegi gamoiRo 1755 wels gaixsna Tbilisis seminaria, 1782 wels Telavis seminaria (romelic faqtobrivad umaRles skolas warmoadgenda), iTargmna da Seiqmna saxelmZRvaneloebi [6]. maswavlebelTa profesiuli momzadebis dawesebulebebs saqarTveloSi XIX saukunidan vxvdebiT. XIX saukunis I naxevarSi saqarTvelos saxalxo skolebisaTvis maswavleblebs amzadebda Tbilisis sasuliero seminaria (1817w), Tbilisisa da quTaisis wminda ninos saswavleblebi (1846, 1847 ww) da agreTve, nawilobriv vaJTa gimnaziebi, magram es ar iyo maTi ZiriTadi daniSnuleba. amasTan, maT ar hqondaT saTanado pirobebi maswavlebelTa mosamzadeblad da arc iyo SemuSavebuli pedagogiuri kadrebis momzadebis garkveuli sistema. saqarTveloSi pirveli specialuri pedagogiuri saswavlebeli Seiqmna 1866 wels. es skola gaxsna kavkasiaSi marTlmadidebeli qristianobis aRmdgenelma sazogadoebam da skolis daniSnulebas warmoadgenda aRniSnuli sazogadoebis saswavleblebisaTvis maswavlebelTa momzadeba. magram sinamdvileSi, es skola maswavleblebs amzadebda ganaTlebis saministros dawyebiTi saswavleblebisaTvisac. saswavlebeli Tavdapirvelad sami klasisagan Sedgeboda, iRebdnen dawyebiT skoladamTavrebulebs. 1871 wlidan igi gadakeTda saostato samaswavleblo institutad da aleqsandre II-is saxeli ewoda. samaswavleblo instituti amzadebda maswavleblebs jer amierkavkasiis saqalaqo, xolo Semdeg umaRlesi dawyebiTi saswavleblebisaTvis. swavlebis xangrZlivoba 4 weli iyo da rusul enaze mimdinareobda. qarTuli ena arasavaldebulo iyo, kvireuli datvirTviT 4 sT. skolaSi miReba xdeboda sakonkurso gamocdebis wesiT, iricxebodnen moswavleebi, romelTac samazro an saqalaqo saswavleblebi hqondaT damTavrebuli. samaswavleblo skolasTan arsebobda erTklasiani saswavlebeli, romelic SemdgomSi jer orklasianad, xolo Semdeg, 1882 wlidan saqalaqo saswavleblad

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gadakeTda. pedagogiuri ciklis sagnebidan iswavleboda pedagogika, saskolo higiena da pedagogiuri praqtika. aleqsandre II-s samaswavleblo instituti atarebda ruseTis politikas amierkavkasiaSi da cxadia, swavlebis kursi ar iyo Sefardebuli kavkasiis adgilobriv pirobebTan, arasavaldebulod iswavleboda adgilobrivi enebi, xolo kavkasiis istoria, geografia, eTnografia saerTod ar iswavleboda. momavali pedagogisaTvis, romelsac muSoba kavkasiaSi mouxdeboda, savaldebulo ar iyo adgilobrivi mxaris, xalxis, kulturisa da enebis codna. XX saukunis dasawyisidan, saqarTvelos saxalxo ganaTlebis sistemaSi seriozuli cvlilebebi daiwyo. 1909 wels TbilisSi, kerZo pirTa iniciativiT, daarsda pirveli umaRlesi skola - `qalTa umaRlesi kursebi~, romelic SemdgomSi amierkavkasiis kerZo institutad gadakeTda, iarseba 1920 wlamde. 1917 wels, aseve kerZo iniciativiT, daarsda Tbilisis politeqnikuri instituti (swavleba rusul enaze mimdinareobda), xolo 1918 wels, ivane javaxiSvilis da sxva qarTvel mecnierTa da sazogado moRvaweTa iniciativiT daarsda Tbilisis universiteti, romelmac saTave daudo erovnuli kadrebis momzadebas saqarTveloSi. rogorc aRvniSneT, Tbilisis pirveli samaswavleblo instituti 1919 wels gadakeTda Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis sapedagogio institutad, 1921 wlis 29 ivliss universitetis profesorTa sabWos dadgenilebiT universitetis sibrZnismetyvelebisa da samaTematikosabunebismetyvelo fakultetebi gaerTianda erT pedagogiur fakultetad, romelic gaerTianebis miuxedavad ori ganyofilebisagan Sedgeboda sobrZnismetyvelebisa da samaTematiko-sabunebismetyvelo, TiToeul ganyofilebas hyavda Tavisi Tavmjdomare da mdivani. pedagogiuri fakultetis dekanad damtkicebul iqna prof. k. kekeliZe, mdivnad doc. z. yanCaveli. 1922 wlis 30 ivniss universitetTan arsebuli sapedagogo instituti gadakeTda sapedagogo fakultetis institutad da misi kursis gavla savaldebulo iyo im studentebisaTvis, romlebic sapedagogo sarbielze apirebdnen moRvaweobas. aRniSnul institutTan gaixsna e.w. mTliani Sromis skolis tipis sacdeli skola, romlis xelmZRvaneloba daevala institutis direqtors, prof. d. uznaZes. 1923 wlis bolos instituti daixura da studentTa umravlesoba pedagogiur fakultetze gadavida. 1925 wlidan daiwyo saxelmwifos generaluri xazis gatareba ganaTlebis sferoSi, ramac cxadia, upirvelesi dartyma Tbilisis universitets miayena. daiwyo universitetis struqturis, swavlebis meTodebisa da profesor-maswavlebelTa kritika. saxelmwifo samecniero sabWos pedagogiurma seqciam SeimuSava proeqti, romlis mixedviT pedagogiuri fakultetis filosofiuri, fsiqologiuri da istoriis dargebi unda gauqmebuliyo. am proeqtis gamo, 1925 wlis Semodgomaze ivane javaxiSvili ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatSi gzavnis moxsenebiT baraTs, romelSic wers: `ratom unda dangreuli iqnes pedagogiuri fakulteti da ganadgurebuli is didi muSoba da moRvaweoba, romelic am Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi gaweuli iyo da didis energiiT mopovebulia? maswavleblis mowodeba da wodeba imdenad maRali da didia, rom is viTarca momavali Taobis aRmzrdeli saukeTesod da farTod unda iyos ganaTlebuli, Tavisi specialobis mecnierebis ukanaskneli miRweulobaTa mcodne da misi warmatebis Tvalyuris mdevneli. mxolod aseTi piri aasrulebs pirnaTlad Tavis movaleobas. amitom mas Sesaferisi momzadeba unda hqondes da pedagogiuri fakultetebis programas gamartiveba ki ara, piriqiT gafarToeba sWirdeba~. amonaridi ivane javaxiSvilis werilidan, naTlad gviCvenebs didi mecnieris damokidebulebas maswavleblis profesiisa da misi momzadebis saqmisadmi. werili reagirebis gareSe darCa. daiwyo universitetebis fakultetebis institutebad daSla. 1930 wlis 7 ivlisis dadgenilebiT Catarda Tsu-s reorganizacia. mis bazaze Seiqmna 4 specialuri saswavlo instituti. maT Soris pedagogiuri instituti. 1930-1931 saswavlo wels pedagogiur instituts, Camoyalibebis dros 6 fakulteti hqonda: fizika-

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maTematikis, sabunebismetyvelo-biologiuri da geografia-geologiuri. SemdgomSi daemata: enisa da literaturis (qarTuli da evropuli), sazogadoebriv-ekonomiuri (filosofiur-istoriuli da ekonomikuri ganyofilebiT), filologiur-pedagogiuri (pedagogiuri, skolamdeli da saskolo aRzrdis ganyofilebiT), saxviTi xelovnebis. 1930 wlis noembrisaTvis pedagogiur institutSi 49 profesori iyo, maT Soris n. musxeliSvili, al. javaxiSvili, k. kekeliZe, s. xundaZe, k. kakabaZe, d. kakabaZe da sxva. profesorTa pirvel kolegias (8 wevri) meTaurobda ivane javaxiSvili. rogorc vxedavT, am umZimes periodSi, swored pedagogiurma institutma itvirTa ZiriTadi humanitaruli specialobebisa da disciplinebis Tavmoyra. universitetis bazaze institutebis Seqmnam warmoSva safrTxe fundamenturi mecnierebis dargSi momuSave ZalTa daqsaqsvisa da samecniero kvleviTi muSaobis Seferxebisa sabednierod, yvelaferi male Cadga Tavis kalapotSi. 1933 wlis 8 ianvars saqarTvelos ssr cakma da saxkomsabWom miiRo dadgenileba, romlis safuZvelzec safinanso ekonomiuri institutis, sabWoTa mSeneblobisa da samarTlis institutis da nawilobriv pedagogiuri institutis bazaze moewyo tfilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, amjerad swavlebis vada ganisazRvreba 4-5 wliT da Seiqmna 5 fakulteti sxvadasxva ganyofilebebiT da seqciebiT (sul 24 seqcia). universitetSi, 1930 wlidan calke erTeulad daarsebuli pedagogikis kaTedra 1933 wlidan emsaxureba yvela fakultets da Sesabamisad universitetis kursdamTavrebulT eniWebaT maswavleblis wodeba. rogorc vxedavT, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi, TiTqmis gaxsnis dRidan, maswavlebels amzadebs specialuri fakulteti da misi wodeba eniWeba mxolod im pirebs, romlebic am fakultets gaivlian. im droindel msoflioSi arsebuli maswavleblis momzadebis sistemebic swored asea agebuli. XX saukunis 30-iani wlebidan sabWoTa kavSiris da maT Soris saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemac Zireulad icvleba da atarebs qveynis politikis interesebs. maswavleblis momzadebis sistemac gansxvavebulia msoflios danarCeni qveynebis sistemebisagan, sadac maswavleblebs amzadeben universitetebTan arsebuli specialuri fakultetebi, ganyofilebebi da kolejebi da maswavleblis kvalifikacia eniWebaT mxolod im pirebs, vinc TavianTi survilis Sesabamisad gaivlian aRniSnul fakultetebsa da kursebs. 1933 wels mTavrobis dadgenilebiT pedagogiuri instituti gadatanil iqna quTaisSi. institutSi Seiqmna Semdegi ganyofilebebi: 1. fizika-maTematikuri ganyofileba; 2. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa ganyofileba; 3. istoriul-literaturuli ganyofileba; 4. pedagogiur-pedologiuri ganyofileba. swavlebis vada pedagogiur institutSi 4 wliT ganisazRvra. quTaisis pedagogiuri institutis gaxsnas mohyva saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze pedagogiuri institutebis daarseba, kerZod, gaixsna cxinvalis (1932 w), soxumis (1932 w), Tbilisis (1935 w, puSkinis saxelobis), baTumis (1935 w), goris (1935 w), Telavis (1939 w), zugdidis (1939 w, iarseba 1952 wlamde), pedagogiuri institutebi, Tbilisis somxur-azerbaijanuli samaswavleblo (1939 w, romelic Semdgom SeuerTda Tbilisis pedagogiur institutebs). aRsaniSnavia, rom es pedagogiuri institutebi universitetma daayena fexze. wlebis ganmavlobaSi, universitetis xandazmuli profesor-maswavleblebi kvirebs mogzaurobaSi atarebdnen, Rarmeebs aTenebdnen, magram mainc dauzareblad emsaxurebodnen momavali maswavleblis aRzrdis saqmes quTaissa Tu baTumSi, gorsa Tu TelavSi. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetma gadamwyveti roli Seasrula agreTve am institutebisaTvis profesor-maswavlebelTa momzadebis saqmeSi [9].

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SemdgomSi ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetma ara erTi mniSvnelovani cvlileba ganicada, ganviTarda da dRes moiazreba, rogorc umaRlesi ganaTlebis seriozuli kera saqarTveloSi. 2005 wels saqarTvelo boloniis mimdinare procesSi gawevrianda. Sesabamisad sruldeba boloniis procesis farglebSi mimdinare yvela moTxovna. universitetis winaSe dgas amocana, man unda moamzados maRali kvalifikaciis mqone kadri, romelic konkurentunariani iqneba dasaqmebis bazarze. universitetis erTi mTavari piroba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom masSi saswavlo-pedagogiuri procesis gaSla mxolod seriozuli samecniero-kvleviTi muSaobis bazaze unda iyos SesaZlebeli, ris gareSec maRali kvalifikaciis mecnieruli kadrebis momzadeba warmoudgenelia. universiteti umaRlesi samecniero-saswavlo dawesebulebaa da ara marto umaRlesi saswavlebeli [8]. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi uamravi umaRlesi saswavlebeli arsebobs, romelTac msoflioSi arsebuli ukve cnobili tendenciis Sesabamisad universitetebi ewodebaT. Tumca qarTul sinamdvileSi, samwuxarod, jer kidev praqtikul doneze ver aris gawerili universitetis misia, da, Cveni azriT, saswavlo da samecniero procesebi spontanurad mimdinareobs. zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, universitetis mTel saswavlo-pedagogiur procesSi da kerZod, mis meTodur momsaxurebaSi, kvleviTi principebi uryevad unda iqnas daculi. universitetis da zogadad yvela umaRlesi saswavleblis amocanaa moamzados specialisti, romelsac SeeZleba mopovebuli codna gamoiyenos saWiroebisamebr da droisa da sazogadoebis moTxovnis Sesabamisad damoukideblad gaiRrmavos da srulhyos sakuTari gamocdileba. aseve mas unda hqondes mecnieruli azrovnebis, mecnieruli muSaobis unari da Cvevebi. aRniSnuli mosazreba kidev erTxel dafiqsirda boloniaSi 1988 wlis 18 seqtembers Catarebuli universitetebis didi qartiis (Magna Charta Universitatum) dokumentSi - `universitetSi swavleba da kvleva urTierTisagan ganuyofeli unda iyos, raTa saswavlo procesi ar CamorCes sazogadoebis cvalebad moTxovnebsa da samecniero codnis miRwevebs~. amrigad, istoriuli da Tanamedrove literaturis gadamuSavebam, morig jerze dagvarwmuna, rom universiteti saswavlo-samecniero dawesebulebaa, sadac Sexamebulia kvlevisa da swavlebis orientacia da saxelmwifos mxridan uzrunvelyofilia studentisa da maswavleblis Tavisufleba.

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