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NAMA :RIKO SAMUEL MANULLANG N.P.M :080520586 JURUSAN :BAHASA INGGRIS JUDUL PROPOSAL:Teaching writing by using Direct Method to increase the Effectivity of student undestanding on Procedure Text

Menyetujui Dosen Pembimbing Pembimbing I Pembimbing II



Mengetahui K.a prodi Bahasa Inggris


First of all,the writer would like to say thank to Jesus Christ for his grace,his blessing and his guidance so that he can finish and complete his study and his thesis in order to fulfill the requirement for Sarjana Degree of English Department FKIP University of Asahan, The writer would like to express his graduated and sincerest appreciation is extended to Mr.Ir.Ramlan Tambunan M.Si as P.l.t of The Dean of the faculty of teacher training and education and all of the staff.Thank to M.Yani S.Pd,M.M the head of English Department and as his first consultant who always guide him in writing this thesis that started from the beginning until this thesis is enough complete.The writer also say thanks to mom Lely Lestary,S.Pd,M.Pd as his the second consultant who gives her time to correct and suggest till this thesis finish. The writer also would like to thanks to Mr M.Reza,S.Pd,M.Hum as his scientific writing lectures and hanks to all lectures of EnglishDepartement,Drs.A.Kusnin,M.Hum,DatulinaGinting S.Pd,Masdelina Hutasuhut S.Pd,Drs.Azhari Tambusai,M.A and other lectures.Thanks to the librarians of University of Asahan who provided some usefull books and great amount of informationt that the writer need in completing this thesis. The writer best grateful tahnk is expressed to his beloved father E.S Manullang and his mother H.R Panggabean and for his young brother Agus Kristiadi Manullang and Ijan Fernando Manullang.And deep thank to his beloved sister in law Winda Eva Rezana Panggabean and Ragil Tiurma Panggabean. Finally,the writer say thanks to his best friend; Roulina Gultom,Eslina Nababan,Berlina Uli Purba,Bernadey Yuliana Tampubolon,Beny Nadeak,Beny Sianipar,Devi Hidayani,odiee,miftha and to all of his friends who can not be said one by one.

The writer realize that this thesis is still far from being perfect.The writer need suggestion,critics and ideas from the reader to make this thesis become available and usefull in future,But the writer hopes ir will be beneficial for those who are to be a goog teacher. Kisaran, November 2011 The Writer Riko Samuel Manullang N.P.M 080520586

TABLE OF CONTENT ANKNOWLEDGEMENTi TABLE OF CONTENTS.ii CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION. 1 1.1The back ground of study.1-2 1.2The scope of study..3 1.3The problem of study.3 1.4The objective of study4 1.5The significant of study..4


: REVIEW OF LITERATURE..5 2.1 Teaching writing.5 2.1.1Teaching writing process..6-8 2.1.2Writng purpose9-11 2.2 GENRE (kinds of text) 11-12 2.2.1 Procedure Text.13

2.3 Introduction of Direct method..14

2.3.1 The Characteristic ..15

2.3.2 The Principles.15-17


2.4 The Relationship between Teaching writing and Use of Direct Method in teaching Writing..18 2.5 Conceptual Framework..19 2.6 Hypothesis19


: RESEARCH METHOD20 3.1 Research Design.20 3.2 Population and Sample..20 3.3 Instrument for Collecting Data.21 3.3.1 Questionnare of writing ability..21 3.3.2 Test of procedure text.22 3.4 Validity and Reliability of the test23 3.5 The Organization of Data Analysis..24



CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1The back ground of study

Language is a means of communication.Although it is not only coming from communication among human being,it is certainly important for us (Wilkin, 1974 : 1 ).Dealing with the definition of language,an American anthropological linguist E.Sapir ascited by Alwasilah (1993) says that language is a purely human and non instinctive method of communication ideas,emotion,and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols.Meanwhile language is a system for the expression of meaning reflected in the structure of the language as an instrument to express meaning. As we know English is an international language.Almost all countries have adapted English used as a compulsory subject at schools.The nation education has decided that English as a foreign language taught in Indonesian schools.It learned started from primary school up to university.People realize that teaching English at this level becomes very important and need much concern.As an English teacher ,we demands to explore more effective techniques,method and approaches. In learning process,the student have to mastrer the four basic language skill in English.They are: Listening ability Speaking ability Reading ability,and the last Writing ability

However,writing is a complex skill and most difficult to learn.Many student are not interesting in learning writing.One if the chief difficulties young people feel uneasy in writing is lack of matters.they does not easily find anything to say about a subject.This is natural,because their experience ang general reading are limited.Writing is a deliberate act,which one has to make up ones mind or to do it.It present some information that will be unformatted to readers.The ideas and thought can be formed into many kinds of paragraph or text pattern,such as desciiptive,argumentative,expositor,procedure and etc. Writing is one of of the four language skill in English have to mastery.Writing is also a key to increase imagination,knowledge.Lado(1964 : 23) defines writing ability as the ability use the structure,lexical items and conventional representation in ordinary matter if fact or writing according what have been explained in the previous pages about the ability is the ability or skill to combine or arrange the graphic symbol into good and correct written form.The ability to write for a particular audience using the most appropriate kind of language is essential. In teaching writing,it is expected as a communicative activity between the teachers and has student.In learning English,writing is the same as learning other skill ( listening,speaking, and reading ).The student should practice and do a lot of drill of exercises,continually and seriously.Studying language for the students means that they learn how to communicate to another by using the language. Writing as one of the four language skill,the purpose of teaching writng is to enable the students to wrtite a good and correct written form.In order to attain the objective ot teaching writing,many experty assume that is very important for teachers to motivate the student to increase their ability with an correct and good method.Because writing is one important aspect in learning a foreign language.With limited writing ability will also has limited ability to mastery foreign language specially English.

Unfortunely,many teacher tend to stress teaching writing,they merely teaching writing without giving clear explanations about the techniques or method on how to make a good text or paragraph in writing.Beside it,the student till think that English a second language in Indonesia made them become uninterested to study English.Englishis a foreign language in Indonesia,however this language is a compulsory subject in our educational system.Generally the Indonesia student start learning English for about four hours a week to realize how important English language in our country. Our government has determined the curriculum as guide lines,this is means that all the teaching learning process should refer to the curriculum.That is why ,Ministry of Education put this language as a compulsory subject that must learned at the school.The goal of this language is to build the student ability in using and understanding Engliss communication.In this case,the teacher has a really important role in teaching student to master English especially in writing.Because writing is the most difficult better than the other language skill. Based on the explanation above,in this case the writer to discuss about the techniques the teacher use in teaching writing in using Direct Method to increase the students understanding specially on procedure text.And how the teacher motivates the students in learning English especially learning writing.

1.2 The scope of the study

This study is on teaching English writing.The scope of this study is limited about teaching writing in using Direct Method to increase the students understanding specially on procedure text.

1.3 The problem of the study

The problem of the study formulated in the form of question as started below; is there any increase the students understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in lteaching writing? 3

1.4 The objective of the study

The objective of this study is to answer the research question,especially concerning with the method applied by an English teacher and the problems encountered bystudent and English teacher in teaching learning process on writing.To be more specific, the objective of the study is to know any increase the students understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing.

1.5 The significant of study

is there any increase the students understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing? Having completed this study,the writer hopes that it would: (1) Give the English teacher some in put in improving the teaching writing in the future,and attempting to be success in teaching writing. (2) Motivate the student to learning English writing.


2.1Teaching Writing
Oxford ( 2008) teach : activity to give lessons to students in a school,college,university,etc; to help sb learn sth by giving information about it.Teaching is a planning activity to give or to send lesson or information from the teacher to the student,by using a effective method and strategy to get the goal of study. Oxford ( 2008 ) writing : the activity of writing in contrast to reading,speaking etc. Writing is one of of the four language skill in English have to mastery,whenever you write,consider your specific audience,that is the people who will read what you have written.Knowing your audience will help you to communicate clearly and effectively.In addition,you should also consider the the tone of your writing,which depends on your subject matter and your audience.Tone its mean your style or manner of expression.It is revealed by your choice of words ang grammatical structure and even the lengt of your setences. In teaching writing,it is expected as a communicative activity between the teachers and has student.In learning English,writing is the same as learning other skills ( listening,speaking and reading ).The student should practice and do a lot of drills of exercise,continually and seriously.Studying writing for the student means that they learn how to write by using correct grammatical and words.

2.1.1Teaching Writing Process.

Writing is not easy,it is take study and practice to develop this skill.There are four main stages in teaching writing process: 1.prewriting a.choosing and narrowing a topic. To write,of course what we can write is limited.On thre other hand,when we are given a free choice of topics and can write about something are interested in,then you must narrow the topic to a particular aspect of that general subject.The diagram under of this text illustrates the process of narrowing a general topic to a specific.






b.brainstorming After chosen a topic and narrowed it to a specific focus,the next prewriting steps is to generate ideas.This is done by a process called brainstorming.Athough these brainstorming activities may seem unnecessary at first,after doing them a few times,and then will realize their usefulness.Brainstorming for ideas make started writing more quickly and save the time in the later stages of the writing process. 6

Three usefull brainstorming techniques are: Listing : a brainstorming techniques in which think about the topic and quickly make a list of whatever words or phrases come into the mind.The porpuse is to produce as many ideas as possible in a short time,and the goal is to find a specific focus for the topic. Freewriting : a brainstorming activity in which write freely about topic because looking for specific focus.While writing,one idea will spark another ideas.As with listing,the purpose of freewriting is to generate as many ideas as possible and to write them down without worrying about appropriatness,grammer,spelling,logic or organization.Its important to remember,the more do freewriting,the more ideas will have. Clustering : another brainstorming activity that you can use to generate ideas.Heres how to use this techniques: In the center of the paper ,write the topic and draw a ballon around it.This is the center,or core,ballon.Then write whatever ideas come to in the ballons around the core.Think about each of these ideas and make more ballons around them 2.planning In prewriting stage,after chose topics and narrowed them,and then generate ideas by brainstorming.Now for planning stage in the process of writing.In this stage,organize the ideas that generated by brainstorming into an outlining. a.making sublist In this step toward making outlining is to divide the ideas in the list further into sublists and to cross out any items that dont belong or that arent useable. b.writing the topic setences The topic setences is the most general sentence in a paragraph,and it express the central focus of the paragraph. c.outlining An outline is a formal plan for a paragraph.In an outline,write down the maint points and subpoints in the order in which plan to write about them. 3.writing and revising drafts In this stage is writing and revising several drafts until you have produced a final copy to hand in.Its important to remember that no piece of writing is ever perpect the first time.Each time write a new draft,that will refine and improping writing skill.

a.writing the first rough draft. The first stage is how to write a rough draft from your outline.This is how to prooced: Write down the topic setences and underline it.Doing this will remind of the focus of the paragraph. Skip one or two lnis per line or writing and leave margins of one inch on both sides of the paper.These blank spaces will allow to add more details,information,examples,etc. Write the paragraph following the outline as closely as possible.Try writing steadly,dont hesitate that arent in outline if are certain they relevant to the topic. Dont worry about grammar,punctuation or spelling.This first rough draft does not have to be perpect , in fact it wont be because the main goal is to write down as much information as we can,following the points in your outline. b.revising content and organization After write the rough draft,the next step is to revise it.When revise its change what more clearly,effectively,and a more interesting way. written in order to improve it.Its check over for content and organization,including unity,coherence,and logic.We can change,rearrange,add,or delete,all for the goal of communicating that thought During the first revision,do not try to correct grammar,sentence structure,spelling,or punctuation which will do later,and be concerned mainly with content and organization. This is how to proceed: Read over the paragraph carefully for a general overview.Focus on the general aspect of the paper and make notes in the margins so that can rewrite parts that need to be improved. Check to see that you have achieved your stated purpose. Check for general logic coherence.the audience should be able to follow the ideas easily and understand what it has written. Check to make sure that the paragraph has a topic sentence and that the topic sentence has a central ( main ) focus.

Check for unity,cross out any sentence that does not support the topis sentence. Check to make sure thet the topic sentence is developed with sufficient supporting detail. Check use transition signal. Finally,does the paragraph have or need a concluding sentence?if wrote a final comment,is it on the topic? 4.writing the final copy to hand in To write the final copy hand in,the instructor will except it to be written neatly and legibly in ink or typed..Be sure that writer make all the correction that you noted on the second draft.After rereading the final copy hand,dont be surprised if you decide to make a few minor or even major changes.Remember that the writing is a continous process of writing and rewriting until satisfied with the final product.

2.1.2 Writing purpose

When a person writes something, he or she has purposes for writing. The writer may have motivations of which he or she is unaware. The writer may also have mixed, and even contradictory, motivations for writing.For instance, a student writing an essay for a class may wish to please the teacher and to amuse his or her classmates. Unfortunately, what might amuse classmates the teacher could find unacceptable. In general, people write either because they are required to or because they choose to write for their own reasons. Required writing happens on the job and in school. Self-chosen writing happens in many circumstances. Both required and self-chosen writing can be of many kinds. In either case, reflection on different purposes for writing can help one produce the most effective piece of writing. Roman Jakobson's model of the communication situation provides a good framework for classifying the varied purposes of writing.Adapted to written communication, Jakobson's model has these parts:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Writer Reader Context Message Contact Code

Writing can be seen as having six general types of purpose, each type of purpose focusing on one of the parts of the communication model. 1. Writer: Expressive purposes. One may write simply to express one's feelings, attitudes, ideas, and so on. This type of writing doesn't take the reader into consideration; instead, it focuses on the writer's feelings, experience, and needs. Expressive writing may take the form of poetry, journals, letters, and, especially, free writing. Often, a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don't respond to it. 2. Reader: Conative purposes. Conative writing seeks to affect the reader. Persuasive writing is conative; so is writing intended to entertain the reader. Writing intended to arouse the reader's feelings is conative. Conative writing may take about any form, so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally. 3. Context: Informative purposes. Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself, with the purpose of informing the reader. For instance, this page is informative, as are the other components of this Map. In our times, informative writing is usually prose, although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes. 4. Message: Poetic purposes. Poetic (or literary or stylistic) purposes focus on the message itselfon its language, on the way the elements of language are used, on structure and pattern both on the level of phrase and of the overall composition. Poetic writing can be in prose as well as in verse. Fiction has poetic purposes. Anytime one writes with an emphasis on the way the language is used, one has a poetic purpose.


5. Contact: Phatic purposes. Phatic language (and nonverbal communication) establishes and maintains contacts between speakers or between writer and reader. In speaking, for instance, we may greet someone by saying, "Howya doin?" or Hozit goin?" These questions are not requests for information. They are intended to establish and maintain friendly contact. Phatic purposes are not significant in most writing. The use of greetings and closings in letters is one example of phatic purpose in writing. 6. Code: Metalinguistic purposes. Comments on a piece of writing are metalinguistic. If a student attaches a note to an essay to explain why the essay is late, the note is metalinguistic in relation to the essay. An author's preface to a book is another example of metalinguistic purpose in writing. If you think about it, you will realize that many pieces of writing have more than one purpose. A poem may be intended to arouse the feeling of sadness in the reader (conative), express the poet's feelings (expressive), and use the language imaginatively and forcefully (poetic). When you write, define the purposes of your writing. Decide what your primary purpose is and subordinate the other purposes to it. If you have conflicting purposes, be aware of that, and try to resolve the conflict or exploit it to make the writing more intense. I have discussed the purposes of writing from the writer's point of view, not the reader's. The reader's purposes are discussed with interpretation. But for now, consider that the reader's purposes may be quite different from, and may conflict with, the writer's purposes. A poet may have written a poem to experiment with the language. A reader may read the poem seeking biographical information on the poet. Such conflicts and tensions produce much of the energy and excitement of literature.

2.2 GENRE (kinds of text)

There are many kinds of english text. Those are recount, report, discussion, Explanation, Exposition, new item anecdote, narrative, procedure,

description, and review. Today ,lets learn on recount, report, narrative, procedure and description. 11 1. Recount Text Social Function : to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. Generic Stucture: a. Orientation: provides the setting and introduces the participants b. Events : tell what happened, in what sequences c. Reorientation: optional closure of events Significant lexiogrammatical features: Focus on specific participants, use material processes, circumstances on time and place, use past tense, focus on temporal sequence 2. Report Text Social Function : to describe the way things are with reference to a range of natural, manmade, and social phenomenoa in our environment Generic Stucture: a. General classification: tells what phenomena under the discussion b. Description: tells what the phenomenon under the discussion is like in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviour. Significant Lexiogrammatical Features: focus on generic participants, use relational processes to state what is and that which it is. use simple present tense 3. Narrative Text Social Function :to amuse, entertainn Generic Stucture: a. Orientation: sets the scene and intruuduces the participants b. Evaluations: a stepping back to evaluate the plight. c. Complication: a crisis arises d. Resolution : the crisis is resolved e. reorientation: optional Significant lexiogrammatical features: focus n specific participants, use material processes, behavioral processes, and verbal processes. USe temporal conjuctions, and temporal circumstances, use past tense 4. Procedure Text Social Function : to describe how something is accomplished through a sequences of actions or steps. Generic Stucture: a. Goal b. Material

c. Steps 1-n 12 Significant lexicogrammatical features: Use simple present tense, often imperative. use mainly material processes 5. Descriptive Text Social Function : to describe a particular person, places, or things Generic Stucture: a. Identification: identifies the phenomenon to be described b. Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics Significant lexicogrammatical features: Focus on specific participants, use simple present tense

2.2.1 Procedure Text

Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps. A. Generic Structure of procedure 1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe) 2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts 3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal B. Generic Features 1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,. 2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text)

a. As the sentence introducers (sequencers) especially in spoken text: First Firstly Second Secondly 13

Then Thirdly After that Afterwards Finally Lastly e.g. Firstly, prepare some water! b. As time introducers, especially in written text before After When While until During e.g. While you are boiling the water, grind the chilies, onions and salt

2.3 Introduction of Direct method

The direct method of teaching foreign languages, sometimes called the natural method, refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfaction with the older grammar translation method, which teaches students grammar and vocabulary through direct translations and thus focuses on the written language.As with grammar translation method,the direct method is not new.Its principles have been applied by language teachers for many years.Most recently,it was revived as a method when the goal og instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate.Since grammar translation method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively,the direct method became popular. There was an attempt to set up conditions that imitate mother tongue acquisition, which is why the beginnings of these attempts were called the natural method. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Sauveur and Franke

proposed that language teaching should be undertaken within the targetlanguage system, which was the first stimulus for the rise of the direct method.


The direct method has one basic rule: No translation is allowed.In fact,the direct method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be connected diretly with the target language,without going trough the process of translating into the students native language. The audio-lingual method was developed in an attempt to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the direct method.

2.3.1 The Characteristic:

teaching vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language) centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation) focus on question-answer patterns teacher-centering

2.3.2 The Principles

Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language. 1. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase. 2. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 3. Grammar is taught inductively. 4. New teaching points are introduced orally.

5. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. 6. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.


7. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized. 8. Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson. 9. Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them. The key Aspects of Direct Method method are: 1 introduction of new word, number, alphabet character, sentence or concept (referred to as an Element) : SHOW...Point to Visual Aid or Gestures (for verbs), to ensure student clearly understands what is being taught. SAY...Teacher verbally introduces Element, with care and enunciation. TRY...Student makes various attempts to pronounce new Element. MOLD...Teacher corrects student if necessary, pointing to mouth to show proper shaping of lips, tongue and relationship to teeth. REPEAT...Student repeats each Element 5-20 times. NOTE: Teacher should be aware of "high frequency words and verbs" and prioritize teaching for this. (i.e. Teach key verbs such as "To Go" and "To Be" before unusual verbs like "To Trim" or "To Sail"; likewise, teach Apple and Orange before Prune and Cranberry.)

II. Syntax, the correct location of new Element in sentence: SAY & REPEAT...Teacher states a phrase or sentence to student; Student repeats such 5-20 times. ASK & REPLY IN NEGATIVE...Teacher uses Element in negative situations (e.g. "Are you the President of the United States?" or "Are

you the teacher?"); Students says "No". If more advanced, may use the negative with "Not". INTERROGATIVES Teacher provides intuitive examples using 5 "w"s (Who, What, Where, Why, When) or How". Use random variations to practice. 16 PRONOUNS WITH VERBS Using visuals (such as photos or illustrations) or gestures, Teacher covers all pronouns. Use many random variations such as "Is Ana a woman?" or "Are they from France?" to practice. USE AND QUESTIONS...Student must choose and utilize the correct Element, as well as posing appropriate questions as Teacher did. III. Progress, from new Element to new Element (within same lesson): A. Random Sequencing: 1. After new Element (X) is taught and learned, go to next Element (Y). 2. After next Element (Y) is taught and learned, return to practice with Element (X). 3. After these two are alternated (X-Y; Y-X; Y-Y, etc), go to 3rd Element (Z). 4. Go back to 1 and 2, mix in 3, practice (X-Y-Z; Z-Y-X; Y-Y-Z, etc.) and continue building up to appropriate number of Elements (may be as many as 20 per lesson, depending on student, see B.1), practicing all possible combinations and repeating 5-20 times each combination. B. Student-Led Limits: 1. Observe student carefully, to know when mental "saturation" point is reached, indicating student should not be taught more Elements until another time. 2. At this point, stop imparting new information, and simply do Review as follows: C. Review: Keep random, arbitrary sequencing. If appropriate, use visuals, pointing quickly to each. Employ different examples of Element that are easy to understand, changing country/city names, people names, and words student already knows. Keep a list of everything taught, so proper testing may be done. D. Observation and Notation: Teacher should maintain a student list of words/phrases that are most difficult for that student. List is called "Special Attention List" IV. Progress, from Lesson to Lesson:

LESSON REVIEW The first few minutes of each lesson are to review prior lesson(s).


GLOBAL REVIEW Transition from Lesson Review to a comprehensive review, which should always include items from the Special Attention List. V. Advanced Concepts: Intermediate and Advanced Students may skip some Element introduction as appropriate; become aware of student's language abilities, so they are not frustrated by too much review. If Student immediately shows recognition and knowledge, move to next Element. Non-Standard Alphabets: Teaching Student to recognize letters/characters and reading words should employ same steps as in above Aspect I. and alphabet variations may be taught using Aspect III. Writing characters and words should initially be done manually, either on paper or whiteboard. Country Accents: Any student at intermediate stages or higher should be made aware of subtle variations in pronunciation, which depend on geography within a country or from country to country. It should be noted that an integral aspect of the Direct Method is varying the setting of teaching; try different scenarios using the same Element. This makes the lessons more "real world," as it will bring some confusing distractions to the student and employ organic variables common in the culture and locale of language use.

2.4The Relationship between Teaching writing and Use of Direct Method in teaching Writing
Every body know that there are some factors influencing to teaching writing.This idea support by Smith in Jane B Hugey et al ( 1983 : 41 ) say that writing is learned by writing,and perceiving one self as a writer.none of this can be taught and what teacher require is. And understanding of task a

(child ) faces up learning to write.the teacher must provide an enviroment in which a child will want to write and in which a child can learn about writing In teaching language special in teaching writing,there are some method can be use,one of the method is Direct Method,when using this method to teaching writing, 18 the teacher applied the method in teaching writing with interesting way so make the student became interest to study writing.Because direct method is not difficult to understand for the student like the other method in learning English.

2.5Conceptual Framework
Direct Method can be choose as a effective method to teaching writing. Writing is one of the four language skill.The purpose of teaching writing is to enable the student to write a good and correct written form,which refers to description about an object in details.As it was started earlier,is very important for teacher to choose effective method to teaching writing and make the student became more understand. In order to attain the objective of teaching writing,many expert assume that is important for teacher to choose and applied the effective method.This is assumed because there is a relationship between teaching writing and use of direct method in teaching writing.

2.6 Hypotesis
The research hypotesis is formulated as follow: There is any increase the students understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing.



This research was a teaching study,which was conducted by giving test to the sample.The design was applied in order to investigate teaching writing by using direct method to increase students understanding on procedure text.So,this study design as :

In which :

X = the writing ability Y= the direct method

3.2 Population and Sample

The population of this research was the first year of SMP Negeri 1 Air Joman.There are 5 (five) classes and each class consist of 40 students Because the population consist of a large number, the writer only took 40 students as the sample.This based on Arikunto (2002 ; 120) that says if the subject or population consisting of a large number,the sample can be taken between 10%-15% or 20%-25%

Based on the quotation above,the writer took 12,5% of the population as the sample to represent the whole population.The eght clasess of the population were not classified on the basis of their grade of intelligence.All of them would be considered to have same opportunities to be sample.So,the total number of the sanple in this study is 40 students 20

3.3 Instrument for collecting data

The tecnique for collecting data plays an important role in confucting any kind of reseacrh in order that thr result of the study will be valid.In this study , the instrument used for collecting the data was quetionnaire for writing ability and essay for procedure text.

3.3.1 Questionnare of Writing

The indicator of student writing ability NO INDICATORS 1 Time 2 Student attitude in writing 3 Expoiting Facilitator 4 Family support 5 Teacher support ITEM 1,8 6,7,12,15,16,17,18,19,20 8,9,10,11,13,14 2 3,4

In this study ,closed questionare format was applied consisting of questions and list of altenatives that includes all possible responses.The qoestionnare consisit of 20 items of 20 items and each gradiation consist of 5 option : a , b , c , d , e respectively.They will be scored as a = 5 , b = 4 , c = 3 , d = 2 , e = 1 , the form of the items is a multiple choice the cumulative scores range from o to 100 . In scoring the questionnare .The linker scale was used.There are an numbers of possible sets of Likert resposes.The important characteristic of a set is that the responses be appropriate for the items.Following are some sample of likert responses: a.Strongly a.Alwys/usually a.Definitely yes

b.Agre c.Neutral

b.often c.sometimes

b.probably yes c.uncertain


d.disagree e.strongly disagree

d.seldom e.never

d.probably no e.definitely no

3.3.2 Test of student understanding on procedure text

To collect the data of student understanding on procedure text,the student were asked to write essay.The cumulative scores range 0 to 100.There were five indicator suggested by Heaton ( 1988 ) were used in scoring this test. 1.Content It depend on the ability to write the ideas or the information of procdure text in the form of logical setences.The criteria of scoring the test are : 30 27 EXCELLENT TTO VERY GOOD : knowledge substantive etc 26 22 GOOD TO EVARAGE : some knowledge of subject little substance 21 16 FAIR TO POOR : limited knowledge of subject substantive 16 13 VERY POOR : does not show knowledge of subject non substantive


It refers to ability to write ideas and information in good logical order.The topic and supporting sentences are clearly stated.The criteria are:


20-18 EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD ; fluent expression ideas clearly stated and so on. 17-14 GOOD TO AVERAGE ; somewhat rough loosely organized but ideas stand out etc. 13-10 FAIR TO POOR:non fluent ideas confused of disconnected etc 9 - 7 VERY POOR:essential translation little knowledge of English vocabulary

3.4 Validity and Reliability of the test

There are some requirement of a good test such as ,validity and reliability.The validity of a test is the extent to which it measures whwt it suppose to measures Arikunto ( 2002 : 90 ) . In other word, a test must be capable of measuring what is intended to measures.The validity that used in this study is content validity. The reliability is a necessary characteristic of any good test.To be valid at all,a test must first a reliable measuring instrument.Reliability can be defined in terms of accuracy,stability,consistency. Reliability means if the test were done in many times,the result is same. If the score of the student are stable,therefore,the test is considered reliablle. If the score tend to fluctuate too much,however,the test is unreliable. In this case,the writer used Split Halves formula to find out the reliability of the test.The formula of Split Halves is the following.

r 11 = 2 r 1+r

23 In which : r 11 R = Coefficient of reliability = Coefficient correlation between the two test

3.5 The Organization of Data Analysis

Having administrated the two types of the test,the writer will analyze the result as the research aimed at exploring the correlation;therefore, the writer employed the quantitative easement of correlation. In this case there are two variable, X and Y . X variable is the student scores in questionnare of writing ability andb Y variable as the student understanding on procedure text. The writer uses the coefficient correlation of Pearson Product Moment formula to check the coefficient correlation between to variable. N xy ( x ) ( y ) The formula is : rxy = { Nx2 ( x)2 } { N y2 ( y2 - ( y)2 } Where rxy = increasing student understanding on procedure text in learning writing N = The number of sample x=Sum of writing ability scores y=Sum of undertanding on procedure text scores xy= Total Sum of x and y. The significance of increasing student understanding on procedure text in learning writing by using Direct Method is compared with the critical r product moment level of significance is 5% .If r observation is the same or

more than r-table.So the r observation is significance.We will reject Ho (Hadi , 1986 : 302 ).


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