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29K Aufrufe1269 SeitenDec 07, 2011

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29K Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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1-1-1

PROBLEM 1-1

Statement: It is often said, "Build a better mousetrap and the world will beat a path to your door." Consider this problem and write a goal statement and a set of at least 12 task specifications that you would apply to its solution. Then suggest 3 possible concepts to achieve the goal. Make annotated, freehand sketches of the concepts.

Solution: Goal Statement: Create a mouse-free environment. Task Specifications: 1. Cost less than $1.00 per use or application. 2. Allow disposal without human contact with mouse. 3. Be safe for other animals such as house pets. 4. Provide no threat to children or adults in normal use. 5. Be a humane method for the mouse. 6. Be environmentally friendly. 7. Have a shelf-life of at least 3 months. 8. Leave no residue. 9. Create minimum audible noise in use. 10. Create no detectable odors within 1 day of use. 11. Be biodegradable. 12. Be simple to use with minimal written instructions necessary. Concepts and sketches are left to the student. There are an infinity of possibilities.

1-2-1

PROBLEM 1-2

Statement: A bowling machine is desired to allow quadriplegic youths, who can only move a joystick, to engage in the sport of bowling at a conventional bowling alley. Consider the factors involved, write a goal statement, and develop a set of at least 12 task specifications that constrain this problem. Then suggest 3 possible concepts to achieve the goal. Make annotated, freehand sketches of the concepts.

Solution: Goal Statement: Create a means to allow a quadriplegic to bowl. Task Specifications: 1. Cost no more than $2 000. 2. Portable by no more than two able-bodied adults. 3. Fit through a standard doorway. 4. Provide no threat of injury to user in normal use. 5. Operate from a 110 V, 60 Hz, 20 amp circuit. 6. Be visually unthreatening. 7. Be easily positioned at bowling alley. 8. Have ball-aiming ability, controllable by user. 9. Automatically reload returned balls. 10. Require no more than 1 able-bodied adult for assistance in use. 11. Ball release requires no more than a mouth stick-switch closure. 12. Be simple to use with minimal written instructions necessary. Concepts and sketches are left to the student. There are an infinity of possibilities.

1-3-1

PROBLEM 1-3

Statement: A quadriplegic needs an automated page turner to allow her to read books without assistance. Consider the factors involved, write a goal statement, and develop a set of at least 12 task specifications that constrain this problem. Then suggest 3 possible concepts to achieve the goal. Make annotated, freehand sketches of the concepts.

Solution: Goal Statement: Create a means to allow a quadriplegic to read standard books with minimum assistance. Task Specifications: 1. Cost no more than $1 000. 2. Useable in bed or from a seated position 3. Accept standard books from 8.5 x 11 in to 4 x 6 in in planform and up to 1.5 in thick. 4. Book may be placed, and device set up, by able-bodied person. 5. Operate from a 110 V, 60 Hz, 15 amp circuit or by battery power. 6. Be visually unthreatening and safe to use. 7. Require no more than 1 able-bodied adult for assistance in use. 8. Useable in absence of assistant once set up. 9. Not damage books. 10. Timing controlled by user. 11. Page turning requires no more than a mouth stick-switch closure. 12. Be simple to use with minimal written instructions necessary. Concepts and sketches are left to the student. There are an infinity of possibilities.

1-4-1

PROBLEM 1-4

Statement: Units: Convert a mass of 1 000 lbm to (a) lbf, (b) slugs, (c) blobs, (d) kg. blob := lbf sec in Given: Solution: Mass See Mathcad file P0104. M := 1000 lb

2

1. To determine the weight of the given mass, multiply the mass value by the acceleration due to gravity, g. W := M g W = 1000 lbf

2. Convert mass units by assigning different units to the units place-holder when displaying the mass value. Slugs Blobs Kilograms M = 31.081 slug M = 2.59 blob M = 453.592 kg

1-5-1

PROBLEM 1-5

Statement: Given: A 250-lbm mass is accelerated at 40 in/sec2. Find the force in lb needed for this acceleration. Mass M := 250 lb Acceleration in a := 40 sec Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0105.

2

To determine the force required, multiply the mass value, in slugs, by the acceleration in feet per second squared. Convert mass to slugs: M = 7.770 slug a = 3.333s

-2

ft

1-6-1

PROBLEM 1-6

Statement: Units: Given: Express a 100-kg mass in units of slugs, blobs, and lbm. How much does this mass weigh? blob lbf sec in

2

M 100 kg

Assumptions: The mass is at sea-level and the gravitational acceleration is g 32.174 ft sec Solution: 1.

2

or

g 386.089

in sec

2

or

g 9.807

m sec

2

Convert mass units by assigning different units to the units place-holder when displaying the mass value. The mass, in slugs, is The mass, in blobs, is The mass, in lbm, is M 6.85 slug M 0.571 blob M 220.5 lb

Note: Mathcad uses lbf for pound-force, and lb for pound-mass. 2. To determine the weight of the given mass, multiply the mass value by the acceleration due to gravity, g. The weight, in lbf, is The weight, in N, is W M g W M g W 220.5 lbf W 980.7 N

1-7-1

PROBLEM 1-7

Statement: Prepare an interactive computer program (using, for example, Excell, Mathcad, or TKSolver) from which the cross-sectional properties for the shapes shown in the inside front cover can be calculated. Arrange the program to deal with both ips and SI unit systems and convert the results between those systems. See the inside front cover and Mathcad file P0107.

Solution: 1.

3 3 2

2 4 6 4

Ix 16.000 in

Ix 6.660 10 mm Iy 9.000 in

4 6

Iy

Iy 3.746 10 mm Radius of gyration about x-axis kx Ix A Iy A kx 1.155 in kx 29.329 mm ky 0.866 in ky 21.997 mm Jz 25.000 in

4 7

ky

Jz Ix Iy

D

4

A 7.069 in

2 2

A 4560 mm

4

Ix

D

64

Ix 3.976 in

4 6 4

Ix 1.655 10 mm

4

Iy

D

64

Iy 3.976 in

4 6 4

1-7-2

ky

Iy A

ky 0.750 in ky 19.05 mm

4

Jz

D

32

Jz 7.952 in

4 6 4

Jz 3.310 10 mm

3.

D d

A 6.283 in

2 2

A 4054 mm D d

4 4

Ix

64

64

Ix 3.927 in

4 6 4

Iy 3.927 in

4 6 4

ky

Jz

32

D d

Jz 7.854 in

4 6 4

Jz 3.269 10 mm

4.

2 2

D

8

4

Ix 0.556 in

4 5 4

R

8

Iy 1.988 in

4 5 4

Iy 8.275 10 mm

1-7-3

kx

Ix A Iy A

4 6 4

ky

Jz Ix Iy

5.

3 2

Ix

b h 36 h b 36

Ix 0.056 in

4 4 4

Ix 2.312 10 mm

3

Iy

Iy 0.222 in

4 4 4

Iy 9.250 10 mm Radius of gyration about x-axis kx Ix A kx 0.236 in kx 5.987 mm ky 0.471 in ky 11.974 mm Jz 0.278 in

4 5

ky

Iy A

Jz Ix Iy

Jz 1.156 10 mm

1-8-1

PROBLEM 1-8

Statement: Prepare an interactive computer program (using, for example, Excell, Mathcad, or TKSolver) from which the mass properties for the solids shown in the page opposite the inside front cover can be calculated. Arrange the program to deal with both ips and SI unit systems and convert the results between those systems. blob lbf sec in

3 2

Units: Solution: 1.

See the page opposite the inside front cover and Mathcad file P0108. a 2 in b 3 in V a b c c 4 in

0.28 lbf in

V 24.000 in

3

2

Ix

M a b 12

2 2 2

Ix 0.019 blob in

2 2

Iy

M a c 12

2 2

Iy 3277.6 kg mm Iz M b c 12

2

Iz 0.036 blob in

2 2

Iz 4097.0 kg mm kx Ix M Iy M Iz M

3

ky

kz

2.Cylinder, let:

r 2 in Volume

L 3 in

0.30 lbf in

V r L V g

2

V 37.699 in

3 3

Moment about x-axis Ix M r 2 M 3 r L 12 M 3 r L 12

2

1-8-2

Ix 0.059 blob in

2 2

Iy

2 2

Iz

2 2

Iz 5791.9 kg mm Radius of gyration about x-axis kx Ix M Iy M Iz M kx 1.414 in kx 35.921 mm ky 1.323 in ky 33.601 mm kz 1.323 in kz 33.601 mm

ky

kz

3.

0.28 lbf in

3 3 3

V b a L

V 62.832 in

Ix

M 2 M 12 M 12

a b

2 2

Ix 0.296 blob in

4

2 2

Ix 3.3 10 kg mm 3 a 3 b L

2

Iy

Iy 0.209 blob in

4

2 2

Iy 2.4 10 kg mm 3 a 3 b L

2 2 2

Iz

Iz 0.209 blob in

4

2 2

kx

Ix M Iy M

ky

Radius of gyration about z-axis kz Iz M kz 2.141 in kz 54.378 mm

1-8-3

4.

2

0.28 lbf in

V

3 3 3

r h

3 V g

V 20.944 in

2

Ix

3 10

M r

Ix 0.018 blob in

2 2

Iy M

12r2 3h2

80

2 2

Iy 2638.5 kg mm Iz M

12r2 3h2

80

Iz 0.023 blob in

2 2

Iz 2638.5 kg mm Radius of gyration about x-axis kx Ix M Iy M Iz M kx 1.095 in kx 27.824 mm ky 1.240 in ky 31.495 mm kz 1.240 in kz 31.495 mm

ky

kz

5.

3

V 113.097 in

3 3

2

Mass

V g 2 5

Ix

M r

Ix 0.295 blob in

2 2

Ix 33362 kg mm

Moment about y-axis Iy 2 5 2 5 M r

2

1-8-4

Iy 0.295 blob in

2 2

2

Iz 0.295 blob in

2 2

kx

ky

kz

1-9-1

PROBLEM 1-9

Statement: Convert the template in Problem 1-7 to have and use a set of functions or subroutines that can be called from within any program in that language to solve for the cross-sectional properties of the shapes shown on the inside front cover. See inside front cover and Mathcad file P0109. Area Moment about x-axis A ( b h ) b h Ix( b h ) Iy( b h ) b h 12 h b 12

2 3 3

Solution: 1. Rectangle:

2. Solid circle:

Area

A ( D) Ix( D) Iy( D)

D

4

D

64

D

64

A ( D d ) Ix( D d )

D d

64

D d

Iy( D d )

64

D d

D

8

R

8

A ( b h )

b h 2 b h 36 h b 36

3 3

Ix( b h ) Iy( b h )

1-10-1

PROBLEM 1-10

Statement: Convert the template in Problem 1-8 to have and use a set of functions or subroutines that can be called from within any program in that language to solve for the cross-sectional properties of the shapes shown on the page opposite the inside front cover. See the page opposite the inside front cover and Mathcad file P0110.

Solution: 1

Ix( a b c ) Iy( a b c )

2 2 2

Iz( a b c )

V ( r L) r L M ( r L ) V ( r L) g M ( r L ) r 2

2

M ( r L ) 3 r L 12 M ( r L ) 3 r L 12

3.

2 2

3 a 3 b L 3 a 3 b L

2 2

Volume V ( r h )

1-10-2

2

r h

3 V ( r h ) g 3 10 M ( r h ) r

2

Mass

M ( r h )

Ix( r h )

Iy( r h ) M ( r h )

12r2 3h2

80

Iz( r h ) M ( r h )

12r2 3h2

80

V ( r)

4 3

Mass

M ( r )

V ( r) g 2 5 2 5 2 5 M ( r ) r M ( r ) r M ( r ) r

2

2-1-1

PROBLEM 2-1

Statement: Figure P2-1 shows stress-strain curves for three failed tensile-test specimens. All are plotted on the same scale. (a) Characterize each material as brittle or ductile. (b) Which is the stiffest? (c) Which has the highest ultimate strength? (d) Which has the largest modulus of resilience? (e) Which has the largest modulus of toughness? See Figure P2-1 and Mathcad file P0201.

Solution: 1.

The material in Figure P2-1(a) has a moderate amount of strain beyond the yield point, P2-1(b) has very little, and P2-1(c) has considerably more than either of the other two. Based on this observation, the material in Figure P2-1(a) is mildly ductile, that in P2-1(b)is brittle, and that in P2-1(c) is ductile. The stiffest material is the one with the grearesr slope in the elastic range. Determine this by dividing the rise by the run of the straight-line portion of each curve. The material in Figure P2-1(c) has a slope of 5 stress units per strain unit, which is the greatest of the three. Therefore, P2-1(c) is the stiffest. Ultimate strength corresponds to the highest stress that is achieved by a material under test. The material in Figure P2-1(b) has a maximum stress of 10 units, which is considerably more than either of the other two. Therefore, P2-1(b) has the highest ultimate strength. The modulus of resilience is the area under the elastic portion of the stress-starin curve. From observation of the three graphs, the stress and strain values at the yield points are: P2-1(a) P2-1(b) P2-1(c)

2.

3.

4.

ya := 5 yb := 9 yc := 5

ya := 5 yb := 2 yc := 1

Using equation (2.7), the modulus of resiliency for each material is, approximately, P21a := 1 2 1 2 1 2 ya ya P21a = 12.5

P21b :=

yb yb

P21b = 9

P21c :=

yc yc

P21c = 2.5

P2-1 (a) has the largest modulus of resilience 5. The modulus of toughness is the area under the stress-starin curve up to the point of fracture. By inspection, P2-1 (c) has the largest area under the stress-strain curve therefore, it has the largest modulus of toughness.

2-2-1

PROBLEM 2-2

Statement: Determine an approximate ratio between the yield strength and ultimate strength for each material shown in Figure P2-1. See Figure P2-1 and Mathcad file P0202.

Solution: 1.

The yield strength is the value of stress at which the stress-strain curve begins to be nonlinear. The ultimate strength is the maximum value of stress attained during the test. From the figure, we have the following values of yield strength and tensile strength: Figure P2-1(a) Figure P2-1(b) Figure P2-1(c) S ya := 5 S yb := 9 S yc := 5 S ua := 6 S ub := 10 S uc := 8

2.

The ratio of yield strength to ultimate strength for each material is: Figure P2-1(a) ratioa := S ya S ua S yb S ub S yc S uc ratioa = 0.83

Figure P2-1(b)

ratiob :=

ratiob = 0.90

Figure P2-1(c)

ratioc :=

ratioc = 0.63

2-3-1

PROBLEM 2-3

Statement: Which of the steel alloys shown in Figure 2-19 would you choose to obtain (a) Maximum strength (b) Maximum modulus of resilience (c) Maximum modulus of toughness (d) Maximum stiffness Young's modulus for steel E 207 GPa

Given: Solution: 1.

Determine from the graph: values for yield strength, ultimate strength and strain at fracture for each material. Steel AISI 1020: AISI 1095: AISI 4142: Yield Strength Sy1020 300 MPa Sy1095 550 MPa Sy4142 1600 MPa Ultimate Strength Sut 1020 400 MPa Sut 1095 1050 MPa Sut 4142 2430 MPa Fracture Strain

Note: The 0.2% offset method was used to define a yield strength for the AISI 1095 and the 4142 steels. 2. 3. From the values of Sut above it is clear that the AISI 4142 has maximum strength. Using equation (2-7) and the data above, determine the modulus of resilience. 1 Sy1020 UR1020 2 E 1 Sy1095 UR1095 2 E 1 Sy4142 UR4142 2 E

2

UR1020 0.22

2

MN m m

3

UR1095 0.73

2

MN m m

3

UR4142 6.18

MN m

3

m Even though the data is approximate, the AISI 4142 clearly has the largest modulus of resilience. 4. Using equation (2-8) and the data above, determine the modulus of toughness. UT1020 UT1095 UT4142 1 2 1 2 1 2 Sy1020 Sut 1020 f 1020 Sy1095 Sut 1095 f 1095 Sy4142 Sut 4142 f 4142 UT1020 128 UT1095 88 MN m m

3 3

MN m m MN m m

3

UT4142 121

Since the data is approximate, there is no significant difference between the 1020 and 4142 steels. Because of the wide difference in shape and character of the curves, one should also determine the area under the curves by graphical means. When this is done, the area under the curve is about 62 square units for 1020 and 66 for 4142. Thus, they seem to have about equal toughness, which is about 50% greater than that for the 1095 steel. 5. All three materials are steel therefore, the stiffnesses are the same.

2-4-1

PROBLEM 2-4

Statement: Which of the aluminum alloys shown in Figure 2-21 would you choose to obtain (a) Maximum strength (b) Maximum modulus of resilience (c) Maximum modulus of toughness (d) Maximum stiffness Young's modulus for aluminum E 71.7 GPa

Given: Solution: 1.

Determine, from the graph, values for yield strength, ultimate strength and strain at fracture for each material. Alum 1100: 2024-T351: 7075-T6: Yield Strength Sy1100 120 MPa Sy2024 330 MPa Sy7075 510 MPa Ultimate Strength Sut 1100 130 MPa Sut 2024 480 MPa Sut 7075 560 MPa Fracture Strain

Note: The 0.2% offset method was used to define a yield strength for all of the aluminums. 2. 3. From the values of Sut above it is clear that the 7075-T6 has maximum strength. Using equation (2-7) and the data above, determine the modulus of resilience. 1 Sy1100 UR1100 2 E UR2024 1 Sy2024 2 E

2

UR1100 0.10

2

MN m m

3

UR2024 0.76

2

MN m m

3

1 Sy7075 UR7075 2 E

UR7075 1.81

MN m m

3

Even though the data is approximate, the 7075-T6 clearly has the largest modulus of resilience. 4. Using equation (2-8) and the data above, determine the modulus of toughness. UT1100 UT2024 UT7075 1 2 1 2 1 Sy1100 Sut 1100 f 1100 Sy2024 Sut 2024 f 2024 Sy7075 Sut 7075 f 7075 UT1100 21 UT2024 79 UT7075 88 MN m m

3

MN m m

3

MN m

2 3 m Even though the data is approximate, the 7075-T6 has the largest modulus of toughness. 5. All three materials are aluminum therefore, the stiffnesses are the same.

2-5-1

PROBLEM 2-5

Statement: Which of the thermoplastic polymers shown in Figure 2-22 would you choose to obtain (a) Maximum strength (b) Maximum modulus of resilience (c) Maximum modulus of toughness (d) Maximum stiffness See Figure 2-22 and Mathcad file P0205.

Solution: 1.

Determine, from the graph, values for yield strength, ultimate strength, strain at fracture, and modulus of elasticity for each material. Plastic Nylon 101: HDPE: PTFE: Yield Strength SyNylon 63 MPa SyHDPE 15 MPa SyPTFE 8.3 MPa Ultimate Strength Sut Nylon 80 MPa Sut HDPE 23 MPa Sut PTFE 13 MPa Fracture Strain Mod of Elasticity ENylon 1.1 GPa EHDPE 0.7 GPa EPTFE 0.8 GPa

2. 3.

From the values of Sut above it is clear that the Nylon 101 has maximum strength. Using equation (2-7) and the data above, determine the modulus of resilience. 1 SyNylon URNylon 2 ENylon

2

URNylon 1.8

2

MN m m

3

2

URHDPE 0.16

MN m m

3

URPTFE 0.04

MN m m

3

Even though the data is approximate, the Nylon 101 clearly has the largest modulus of resilience. 4. Using equation (2-8) and the data above, determine the modulus of toughness. UTNylon 1 2 1 2 1 2 SyNylon Sut Nylon f Nylon SyHDPE SutHDPE f HDPE UTNylon 37 MN m m UTHDPE 57

3

UTHDPE

MN m m

3

UTPTFE

UTPTFE 5

MN m m

3

Even though the data is approximate, the HDPE has the largest modulus of toughness. 5. The Nylon 101 has the steepest slope in the (approximately) elastic range and is, therefore, the stiffest of the three materials..

2-6-1

PROBLEM 2-6

Statement: A metal has a strength of 414 MPa at its elastic limit and the strain at that point is 0.002. What is the modulus of elasticity? What is the strain energy at the elastic limit? Assume that the test speimen is 12.8-mm dia and has a 50-mm gage length. Can you define the type of metal based on the given data? Elastic limit: Strength S el 414 MPa Strain

Given:

el 0.002

Length Lo 50 mm

The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain curve, which is a straight line, in the elastic region. Since one end of this line is at the origin, the slope (modulus of elasticity) is E S el E 207 GPa

el

2.

The strain energy per unit volume at the elastic limit is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the elastic limit. Since the curve is a straight line up to this limit, the area is one-half the base times the height, or U'el 1 2 S el el U'el 414 kN m m

3

The total strain energy in the specimen is the strain energy per unit volume times the volume,

Uel U'el

d o

4

Lo

Uel 2.7 N m

3.

Based on the modulus of elasticity and using Table C-1, the material is steel.

2-7-1

PROBLEM 2-7

Statement: A metal has a strength of 41.2 kpsi (284 MPa) at its elastic limit and the strain at that point is 0.004. What is the modulus of elasticity? What is the strain energy at the elastic limit? Assume that the test speimen is 0.505-in dia and has a 2-in gage length. Can you define the type of metal based on the given data? Elastic limit: Strength S el 41.2 ksi Strain

Given:

el 0.004

S el 284 MPa

Length Lo 2.00 in

The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain curve, which is a straight line, in the elastic region. Since one end of this line is at the origin, the slope (modulus of elasticity) is E S el E 10.3 10 psi

6

el

E 71 GPa

2.

The strain energy per unit volume at the elastic limit is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the elastic limit. Since the curve is a straight line up to this limit, the area is one-half the base times the height, or 1 2 lbf in in

2 3

U'el

S el el

U'el 82.4

U'el 568

kN m m

3

The total strain energy in the specimen is the strain energy per unit volume times the volume, Uel U'el 3.

d o

4

Lo

Based on the modulus of elasticity and using Table C-1, the material is aluminum.

2-8-1

PROBLEM 2-8

Statement: A metal has a strength of 134 MPa at its elastic limit and the strain at that point is 0.006. What is the modulus of elasticity? What is the strain energy at the elastic limit? Assume that the test speimen is 12.8-mm dia and has a 50-mm gage length. Can you define the type of metal based on the given data? Elastic limit: Strength S el 134 MPa Strain

Given:

el 0.003

Length Lo 50 mm

The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain curve, which is a straight line, in the elastic region. Since one end of this line is at the origin, the slope (modulus of elasticity) is E S el E 45 GPa

el

2.

The strain energy per unit volume at the elastic limit is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the elastic limit. Since the curve is a straight line up to this limit, the area is one-half the base times the height, or U'el 1 2 S el el U'el 201 kN m m

3

The total strain energy in the specimen is the strain energy per unit volume times the volume,

Uel U'el

d o

4

Lo

Uel 1.3 N m

3.

Based on the modulus of elasticity and using Table C-1, the material is magnesium.

2-9-1

PROBLEM 2-9

Statement: A metal has a strength of 100 kpsi (689 MPa) at its elastic limit and the strain at that point is 0.006. What is the modulus of elasticity? What is the strain energy at the elastic limit? Assume that the test speimen is 0.505-in dia and has a 2-in gage length. Can you define the type of metal based on the given data? Elastic limit: Strength S el 100 ksi S el 689 MPa Test specimen: Diameter d o 0.505 in Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0209. Length Lo 2.00 in Strain

Given:

el 0.006

The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain curve, which is a straight line, in the elastic region. Since one end of this line is at the origin, the slope (modulus of elasticity) is E S el E 16.7 10 psi

6

el

E 115 GPa

2.

The strain energy per unit volume at the elastic limit is the area under the stress-strain curve up to the elastic limit. Since the curve is a straight line up to this limit, the area is one-half the base times the height, or U'el 1 2 S el el U'el 300 lbf in in

3

U'el 2 10

3 kN m

The total strain energy in the specimen is the strain energy per unit volume times the volume,

Uel U'el

d o

4

Lo

3.

Based on the modulus of elasticity and using Table C-1, the material is titanium.

2-10-1

PROBLEM 2-10

Statement: A material has a yield strength of 689 MPa at an offset of 0.6% strain. What is its modulus of resilience? MJ 10 joule Yield strength Yield strain Solution: 1. S y 689 MPa

6

Units: Given:

y 0.006

The modulus of resilience (strain energy per unit volume) is given by Equation (2.7) and is approximately 1 2 MJ m

3

UR

S y y

UR 2.067

UR 2.1 MPa

2-11-1

PROBLEM 2-11

Statement: A material has a yield strength of 60 ksi (414 MPa) at an offset of 0.2% strain. What is its modulus of resilience? MJ 10 joule Yield strength Yield strain Solution: 1. S y 60 ksi S y 414 MPa

6

Units: Given:

y 0.002

The modulus of resilience (strain energy per unit volume) is given by Equation (2.7) and is approximately 1 2 in lbf in

3

UR

S y y

UR 60

UR 0.414

MJ m

3

UR 0.414 MPa

2-12-1

PROBLEM 2-12

Statement: A steel has a yield strength of 414 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 689 MPa, and an elongation at fracture of 15%. What is its approximate modulus of toughness? What is the approximate modulus of resilience? S y 414 MPa See Mathcad file P0212. S ut 689 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

f 0.15

UT

Sy S ut f 2

UT 82.7

MN m m

3

UT 82.7 MPa

2.

Determine the modulus of resilience using Equation (2.7) and Young's modulus for steel: E 207 GPa 1 Sy UR 2 E

2

UR 414

kN m m

3

UR 0.41 MPa

2-13-1

PROBLEM 2-13

Statement: The Brinell hardness of a steel specimen was measured to be 250 HB. What is the material's approximate tensile strength? What is the hardness on the Vickers scale? The Rockwell scale? Brinell hardness of specimen See Mathcad file P0213. HB 250

Given: Solution:

1. Determine the approximate tensile strength of the material from equations (2.10), not Table 2-3. S ut 0.5 HB ksi S ut 125 ksi S ut 862 MPa

2. From Table 2-3 (using linear interpolation) the hardness on the Vickers scale is HV HB 241 277 241 ( 292 253 ) 253 HV 263

3. From Table 2-3 (using linear interpolation) the hardness on the Rockwell C scale is HRC HB 241 277 241 ( 28.8 22.8) 22.8 HRC 24.3

2-14-1

PROBLEM 2-14

Statement: The Brinell hardness of a steel specimen was measured to be 340 HB. What is the material's approximate tensile strength? What is the hardness on the Vickers scale? The Rockwell scale? Brinell hardness of specimen See Mathcad file P0214. HB 340

Given: Solution:

1. Determine the approximate tensile strength of the material from equations (2.10), not Table 2-3. S ut 0.5 HB ksi S ut 170 ksi S ut 1172 MPa

2. From Table 2-3 (using linear interpolation) the hardness on the Vickers scale is HV HB 311 341 311 ( 360 328 ) 328 HV 359

3. From Table 2-3 (using linear interpolation) the hardness on the Rockwell C scale is HRC HB 311 341 311 ( 36.6 33.1) 33.1 HRC 36.5

2-15-1

PROBLEM 2-15

Statement: Solution: What are the principal alloy elements of an AISI 4340 steel? How much carbon does it have? Is it hardenable? By what techniques? See Mathcad file P0215.

1. Determine the principal alloying elements from Table 2-5 for 43xx steel.. 1.82% Nickel 0.50 or 0.80% Chromium 0.25% Molybdenum 2. From "Steel Numbering Systems" in Section 2.6, the carbon content is From the last two digits, the carbon content is 0.40%. 3. Is it hardenable? Yes, all of the alloying elements increase the hardenability. By what techniques? It can be through hardened by heating, quenching and tempering; and it can also be case hardened (See Section 2.4).

2-16-1

PROBLEM 2-16

Statement: Solution: What are the principal alloy elements of an AISI 1095 steel? How much carbon does it have? Is it hardenable? By what techniques? See Mathcad file P0216.

1. Determine the principal alloying elements from Table 2-5 for 10xx steel. Carbon only, no alloying elements 2. From "Steel Numbering Systems" in Section 2.6, the carbon content is From the last two digits, the carbon content is 0.95%. 3. Is it hardenable? Yes, as a high-carbon steel, it has sufficient carbon content for hardening. By what techniques? It can be through hardened by heating, quenching and tempering; and it can also be case hardened (See Section 2.4).

2-17-1

PROBLEM 2-17

Statement: Solution: What are the principal alloy elements of an AISI 6180 steel? How much carbon does it have? Is it hardenable? By what techniques? See Mathcad file P0217.

1. Determine the principal alloying elements from Table 2-5 for 61xx steel.. 0.15% Vanadium 0.60 to 0.95% Chromium 2. From "Steel Numbering Systems" in Section 2.6, the carbon content is From the last two digits, the carbon content is 0.80%. 3. Is it hardenable? Yes, all of the alloying elements increase the hardenability. By what techniques? It can be through hardened by heating, quenching and tempering; and it can also be case hardened (See Section 2.4).

2-18-1

PROBLEM 2-18

Statement: Solution: Which of the steels in Problems 2-15, 2-16, and 2-17 is the stiffest? See Mathcad file P0218.

1. None. All steel alloys have the same Young's modulus, which determines stiffness.

2-19-1

PROBLEM 2-19

Statement: Calculate the specific strength and specific stiffness of the following materials and pick one for use in an aircraft wing spar. Material Steel Code st 0 al 1 ti 2 Ultimate Strength Sut 80 ksi

st

Given:

st 6

Weight Density

0.28

st

lbf in

3

Aluminum

Sut

al

60 ksi

al

10.4 10 psi

6

0.10

al

lbf in

3

Titanium

Sut 90 ksi

ti

E 16.5 10 psi

ti

0.16

ti

lbf in

3

Index Solution: 1.

i 0 1 2

Specific strength is the ultimate tensile strength divided by the weight density and specific stiffness is the modulus of elasticity divided by the weight density. The text does not give a symbol to these quantities. Sut Specific strength

i 1

i 1

in

in

i

2.

Based on the results above, all three materials have the same specific stiffness but the aluminum has the largest specific strength. Aluminum for the aircraft wing spar is recommended.

2-20-1

PROBLEM 2-20

Statement: Solution: If maximum impact resistance were desired in a part, which material properties would you look for? See Mathcad file P0220.

1. Ductility and a large modulus of toughness (see "Impact Resistance" in Section 2.1).

2-21-1

PROBLEM 2-21

Statement:

_____

Refer to the tables of material data in Appendix A and determine the strength-to-weight ratios of the following material alloys based on their tensile yield strengths: heat-treated 2024 aluminum, SAE 1040 cold-rolled steel, Ti-75A titanium, type 302 cold-rolled stainless steel. Material

1

Given:

Yield Strength

1

Specific Weight

2

0.10 lbf in

1

27.14

1

kN m

3

Sy 490 MPa

2

0.28 lbf in

2

76.01

2

kN m

3

3

Sy 517 MPa

3

0.16 lbf in

3

43.43

3

kN m

3

4

Sy 1138 MPa

4

0.28 lbf in

4

76.01

4

kN m

3

Calculate the strength-to-weight ratio for each material as described in Section 2.1. Sy SWR

i

SWR

4

10 m

"2024 Aluminum, HT" "1040 CR Steel" Mat i "Ti-75A Titanium" "Type 302 CR SS"

2-22-1

PROBLEM 2-22

Statement:

_____

Refer to the tables of material data in Appendix A and determine the strength-to-weight ratios of the following material alloys based on their ultimate tensile strengths: heat-treated 2024 aluminum SAE 1040 cold-rolled steel, unfilled acetal plastic, Ti-75A titanium, type 302 cold-rolled stainless steel. Material

1 2 3 4 5

Given:

Tensile Strength

1 2 3 4 5

Specific Weight

Mat "2024 Aluminum, HT" Sut 441 MPa Mat "1040 CR Steel" Mat "Acetal, unfilled" Mat "Ti-75A Titanium" Mat "Type 302 CR SS" i 1 2 5 Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0222. Sut 586 MPa Sut 60.7 MPa Sut 586 MPa Sut 1310 MPa

0.10 lbf in

1 2 3 4 5

3 3 3

27.14 kN m

1 2 3 4 5

3 3 3 3 3

0.28 lbf in

3 3

Calculate the strength-to-weight ratio for each material as described in Section 2.1.

Sut SWR

i

SWR

4

10 m

"2024 Aluminum, HT" "1040 CR Steel" Mat "Acetal, unfilled" i "Ti-75A Titanium" "Type 302 CR SS"

2-23-1

PROBLEM 2-23

Statement:

_____

Refer to the tables of material data in Appendix A and calculate the specific stiffness of aluminum, titanium, gray cast iron, ductile iron, bronze, carbon steel, and stainless steel. Rank them in increasing order of this property and discuss the engineering significance of these data. Mg 10 kg Material Mat "Aluminum"

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3

Units: Given:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Density

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Mat "Titanium" Mat "Gray cast iron" Mat "Ductile iron" Mat "Bronze" Mat "Carbon steel" Mat "Stainless steel" i 1 2 7 Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0223.

E 113.8 GPa E 103.4 GPa E 168.9 GPa E 110.3 GPa E 206.8 GPa E 189.6 GPa

Calculate the specific stiffness for each material as described in Section 2.1. E E'

i

i i

E'

i 6

2 2

"Aluminum" "Titanium" "Gray cast iron" Mat "Ductile iron" i "Bronze" "Carbon steel" "Stainless steel"

E'

2 5 s 6

10

2.

5

3

12.8

2 3 s 6

7

14.4

2 7 s 6

10

24.3

2-23-2

4

2 4 s 6

1

24.5

2 1 s 6

2

25.6

2 2 s 6

6

25.9

2 6 s 6

10 3.

26.5

Bending and axial deflection are inversely proportional to the modulus of elasticity. For the same shape and dimensions, the material with the highest specific stiffness will give the smallest deflection. Or, put another way, for a given deflection, using the material with the highest specific stiffness will result in the least weight.

2-24-1

PROBLEM 2-24

Statement: Call your local steel and aluminum distributors (consult the Yellow Pages) and obtain current costs per pound for round stock of consistent size in low-carbon (SAE 1020) steel, SAE 4340 steel, 2024-T4 aluminum, and 6061-T6 aluminum. Calculate a strength/dollar ratio and a stiffness/dollar ratio for each alloy. Which would be your first choice on a cost-efficiency basis for an axial-tension-loaded round rod (a) If maximum strength were needed? (b) If maximum stiffness were needed?

Solution:

Left to the student as data will vary with time and location.

2-25-1

PROBLEM 2-25

Statement: Call your local plastic stock-shapes distributors (consult the Yellow Pages) and obtain current costs per pound for round rod or tubing of consistent size in plexiglass, acetal, nylon 6/6, and PVC. Calculate a strength/dollar ratio and a stiffness/dollar ratio for each alloy. Which would be your first choice on a cost-efficiency basis for an axial-tension-loaded round rod or tube of particular diameters. (a) If maximum strength were needed? (b) If maximum stiffness were needed?

Solution:

Left to the student as data will vary with time and location.

2-26-1

PROBLEM 2-26

Statement: A part has been designed and its dimensions cannot be changed. To minimize its deflections under the same loading in all directions irrespective of stress levels, which material woulod you choose among the following: aluminum, titanium, steel, or stainless steel? See Mathcad file P0226.

Solution: 1.

Choose the material with the highest modulus of elasticity because deflection is inversely proportional to modulus of elasticity. Thus, choose steel unless there is a corrosive atmosphere, in which case, choose stainless steel.

2-27-1

PROBLEM 2-27

Statement: Assuming that the mechanical properties data given in Appendix Table A-9 for some carbon steels represents mean values, what is the value of the tensile yield strength for 1050 steel quenched and tempered at 400F if a reliability of 99.9% is required? Mean yield strength See Mathcad file P0227. S y 117 ksi S y 807 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

From Table 2-2 the reliability factor for 99.9% is Re 0.753. Applying this to the mean tensile strength gives S y99.9 S y Re S y99.9 88.1 ksi S y99.9 607 MPa

2-28-1

PROBLEM 2-28

Statement: Assuming that the mechanical properties data given in Appendix Table A-9 for some carbon steels represents mean values, what is the value of the ultimate tensile strength for 4340 steel quenched and tempered at 800F if a reliability of 99.99% is required? Mean ultimate tensile strength See Mathcad file P0228. S ut 213 ksi S ut 1469 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

From Table 2-2 the reliability factor for 99.99% is Re 0.702. Applying this to the mean ultimate tensile strength gives S ut99.99 S ut Re S ut99.99 150 ksi S ut99.99 1031 MPa

2-29-1

PROBLEM 2-29

Statement: Assuming that the mechanical properties data given in Appendix Table A-9 for some carbon steels represents mean values, what is the value of the ultimate tensile strength for 4130 steel quenched and tempered at 400F if a reliability of 90% is required? Mean ultimate tensile strength See Mathcad file P0229. S ut 236 ksi S ut 1627 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

From Table 2-2 the reliability factor for 90% is Re 0.897. Applying this to the mean ultimate tensile strength gives S ut99.99 S ut Re S ut99.99 212 ksi S ut99.99 1460 MPa

2-30-1

PROBLEM 2-30

Statement: Assuming that the mechanical properties data given in Appendix Table A-9 for some carbon steels represents mean values, what is the value of the tensile yield strength for 4140 steel quenched and tempered at 800F if a reliability of 99.999% is required? Mean yield strength See Mathcad file P0230. S y 165 ksi S y 1138 MPa

Given: Solution:

1. From Table 2-2 the reliability factor for 99.999% is Re 0.659. Applying this to the mean tensile strength gives S y99.9 S y Re S y99.9 109 ksi S y99.9 750 MPa

2-31-1

PROBLEM 2-31

Statement: A steel part is to be plated to give it better corrosion resistance. Two materials are being considered: cadmium and nickel. Considering only the problem of galvanic action, which would you chose? Why? See Mathcad file P0231.

Solution: 1.

From Table 2-4 we see that cadmium is closer to steel than nickel. Therefore, from the standpoint of reduced galvanic action, cadmium is the better choice. Also, since cadmium is less noble than steel it will be the material that is consumed by the galvanic action. If nickel were used the steel would be consumed by galvanic action.

2-32-1

PROBLEM 2-32

Statement: A steel part with many holes and sharp corners is to be plated with nickel. Two processes are being considered: electroplating and electroless plating. Which process would you chose? Why? See Mathcad file P0232.

Solution: 1.

Electroless plating is the better choice since it will give a uniform coating thickness in the sharp corners and in the holes. It also provides a relatively hard surface of about 43 HRC.

2-33-1

PROBLEM 2-33

Statement: What is the common treatment used on aluminum to prevent oxidation? What other metals can also be treated with this method? What options are available with this method? See Mathcad file P0233.

Solution: 1.

Aluminum is commonly treated by anodizing, which creates a thin layer of aluminum oxide on the surface. Titanium, magnesium, and zinc can also be anodized. Common options include tinting to give various colors to the surface and the use of "hard anodizing" to create a thicker, harder surface.

2-34-1

PROBLEM 2-34

Statement: Steel is often plated with a less nobel metal that acts as a sacrificial anode that will corrode instead of the steel. What metal is commonly used for this purpose (when the finished product will not be exposed to saltwater), what is the coating process called, and what are the common processes used to obtain the finished product? See Mathcad file P0234.

Solution: 1.

The most commonly used metal is zinc. The process is called "galvanizing" and it is accomplished by electroplating or hot dipping.

2-35-1

PROBLEM 2-35

Statement: A low-carbon steel part is to be heat-treated to increase its strength. If an ultimate tensile strength of approximately 550 MPa is required, what mean Brinell hardness should the part have after treatment? What is the equivalent hardness on the Rockwell scale? Approximate tensile strength See Mathcad file P0235. S ut 550 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

Use equation (2.10), solving for the Brinell hardness, HB. S ut = 3.45 HB HB S ut 3.45 MPa HB 159

2.

From Table 2-3, the equivalent hardness on the Rocwell scale is 83.9HRB.

2-36-1

PROBLEM 2-36

Statement: A low-carbon steel part has been tested for hardness using the Brinell method and is found to have a hardness of 220 HB. What are the approximate lower and upper limits of the ultimate tensile strength of this part in MPa? Hardness HB 220

Given: Solution: 1.

Use equation (2.10), solving for ultimate tensile strength. Minimum: S utmin ( 3.45 HB 0.2 HB) MPa S utmax ( 3.45 HB 0.2 HB) MPa S utmin 715 MPa S utmax 803 MPa

Maximum:

2-37-1

PROBLEM 2-37

Statement: Figure 2-24 shows "guide lines" for minimum weight design when failure is the criterion. The guide line, or index, for minimizing the weight of a beam in bending is f2/3/, where f is the yield strength of a material and is its mass density. For a given cross-section shape the weight of a beam with given loading will be minimized when this index is maximized. The following materials are being considered for a beam application: 5052 aluminum, cold rolled; CA-170 beryllium copper, hard plus aged; and 4130 steel, Q & T @ 1200F. The use of which of these three materials will result in the least-weight beam? Units: Given: Mg kg

3

5052 Aluminum

S ya 255 MPa

3 3

CA-170 beryllium copper S yb 1172 MPa 4130 steel Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0237. S ys 703 MPa

The values for the mass density are taken from Appendix Table A-1 and the values of yield strength come from from Tables A-2, A-4, and A-9 for aluminum, beryllium copper, and steel, respectively. Calculate the index value for each material. Index S y Sy

0.667

Mg m MPa

0.667

The 5052 aluminum has the highest value of the index and would be the best choice to minimize weight.

2-38-1

PROBLEM 2-38

Statement: Figure 2-24 shows "guide lines" for minimum weight design when failure is the criterion. The guide line, or index, for minimizing the weight of a member in tension is f/, where f is the yield strength of a material and is its mass density. The weight of a member with given loading will be minimized when this index is maximized. For the three materials given in Problem 2-37, which will result in the least weight tension member? Units: Given: Mg kg

3

5052 Aluminum

S ya 255 MPa

3 3

CA-170 beryllium copper S yb 1172 MPa 4130 steel Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0238. S ys 703 MPa

The values for the mass density are taken from Appendix Table A-1 and the values of yield strength come from from Tables A-2, A-4, and A-9 for aluminum, beryllium copper, and steel, respectively. Calculate the index value for each material. Index S y S y Mg m 3 MPa Ia 91.1 Ib 141.2 Is 90.1

The beryllium copper has the highest value of the index and would be the best choice to minimize weight.

2-39-1

PROBLEM 2-39

Statement: Figure 2-23 shows "guide lines" for minimum weight design when stiffness is the criterion. The guide line, or index, for minimizing the weight of a beam in bending is E1/2/, where E is the modulus of elasticity of a material and is its mass density. For a given cross-section shape the weight of a beam with given stiffness will be minimized when this index is maximized. The following materials are being considered for a beam application: 5052 aluminum, cold rolled; CA-170 beryllium copper, hard plus aged; and 4130 steel, Q & T @ 1200F. The use of which of these three materials will result in the least-weight beam? Units: Given: Mg kg

3

5052 Aluminum

Ea 71.7 GPa

3 3

CA-170 beryllium copper Eb 127.6 GPa 4130 steel Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0239. Es 206.8 GPa

The values for the mass density and modulus are taken from Appendix Table A-1. Calculate the index value for each material. E

0.5

Index( E )

Mg m GPa

0.5

The 5052 aluminum has the highest value of the index and would be the best choice to minimize weight.

2-40-1

PROBLEM 2-40

Statement: Figure 2-24 shows "guide lines" for minimum weight design when stiffness is the criterion. The guide line, or index, for minimizing the weight of a member in tension is E/, where E is the modulus of elasticity of a material and is its mass density. The weight of a member with given stiffness will be minimized when this index is maximized. For the three materials given in Problem 2-39, which will result in the least weight tension member? Mg kg

3

Units: Given:

5052 Aluminum

Ea 71.7 GPa

3 3

CA-170 beryllium copper Eb 127.6 GPa 4130 steel Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0240. Es 206.8 GPa

The values for the mass density and modulus are taken from Appendix Table A-1. Calculate the index value for each material. E Mg m GPa

3

Index( E )

The steel has the highest value of the index and would be the best choice to minimize weight.

3-1-1

PROBLEM 3-1

Statement: Which load class from Table 3-1 best suits these systems? (a) Bicycle frame (b) Flag pole (c) Boat oar (d) Diving board (e) Pipe wrench (f) Golf club. See Mathcad file P0301.

Solution:

1. Determine whether the system has stationary or moving elements, and whether the there are constant or time-varying loads. (a) Bicycle frame Class 4 (Moving element, time-varying loads) (b) Flag pole (c) Boat oar Class 2 (Stationary element, time-varying loads) Class 2 (Low acceleration element, time-varying loads)

(d) Diving board Class 2 (Stationary element, time-varying loads) (e) Pipe wrench Class 2 (Low acceleration elements, time-varying loads) (f) Golf club Class 4 (Moving element, time-varying loads)

3-2a-1

PROBLEM 3-2a

Statement: Draw free-body diagrams for the system of Problem 3-1a (bicycle frame). Assumptions: 1. A two-dimensional model is adequate. 2. The lower front-fork bearing at C takes all of the thrust load from the front forks. 3. There are no significant forces on the handle bars. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0302a.

A typical bicycle frame is shown in Figure 3-2a. There are five points on the frame where external forces and moments are present. The rider's seat is mounted through a tube at A. This is a rigid connection, capable of transmitting two force components and a moment. The handle bars and front-wheel forks are supported by the frame through two bearings, located at B and C. These bearings are capable of transmitting radial and axial loads. The pedal-arm assembly is supported by bearings at D. These bearings are capable of transmitting radial loads. The rear wheel-sprocket assembly is supported by bearings mounted on an axle fixed to the frame at E.

Ra Rb Fbr Rc Fay Rd Re Fey C

Ma Fax

B Fct Fcr

Fex Fdx D

Fdy

FIGURE 3-2a

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-2a

2. The loads at B and C can be determined by analyzing a FBD of the front wheel-front forks assembly. The loads at D can be determined by analyzing a FBD of the pedal-arm and front sprocket (see Problem 3-3), and the loads at E can be determined by analyzing a FBD of the rear wheel-sprocket assembly. 3. With the loads at B, C, D, and E known, we can apply equations 3.3b to the FBD of the frame and solve for Fax , Fay , and Ma.

Fx : Fy : Mz:

Fax Fbr cos( ) + Fcr cos( ) Fct sin( ) Fdx + Fex = 0 Fay Fbr sin( ) + Fcr sin( ) + Fct cos( ) Fdy + Fey = 0

3-2e-1

PROBLEM 3-2e

Statement: Draw free-body diagrams for the system of Problem 3-1e (pipe wrench). Assumptions: A two-dimensional model is adequate. Solution: See Mathcad file P0302e.

1. A typical pipe wrench with a pipe clamped in its jaw is shown in Figure 3-2e(a). When a force Fhand is applied on the wrench, the piping system provides an equal and opposite force and a resisting torque, Tpipe.

Fhand

Tpipe Fhand a

Fbt Fbn

Fax

A Fay d b

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 3-2e

2. The pipe reacts with the wrench at the points of contact A and B. The forces here will be directed along the common normals and tangents. The jaws are slightly tapered and, as a result, the action of Fhand tends to drive the wrench further into the taper, increasing the normal forces. This, in turn, allows for increasing tangential forces. It is the tangential forces that produce the turning torque. 3. Applying equations 3.3b to the FBD of the pipe wrench,

Fx : Fy : M A:

4.

Fax + Fbn cos( ) Fbt sin( ) = 0 Fay + Fbn sin( ) + Fbt cos( ) Fhand = 0 d ( Fbt cos( ) + Fbn sin( ) ) ( d + a ) Fhand = 0

These equations can be solved for the vertical forces if we assume is small so that sin() = 0 and cos () = 1.

3-3-1

PROBLEM 3-3

Statement: Draw a free-body diagram of the pedal-arm assembly from a bicycle with the pedal arms in the horizontal position and dimensions as shown in Figure P3-1. (Consider the two arms, pedals and pivot as one piece). Assuming a rider-applied force of 1500 N at the pedal, determine the torque applied to the chain sprocket and the maximum bending moment and torque in the pedal arm. a 170 mm b 60 mm Frider 1.5 kN

Given:

Assumptions: The pedal-arm assembly is supprted by bearings at A and at B. Solution: See Figure 3-3 and Mathcad file P0303.

1. The free-body diagram (FBD) of the pedal-arm assembly (including the sprocket) is shown in Figure 3-3a. The rider-applied force is Frider and the force applied by the chain (not shown) is Fchain. The radial bearing reactions are Fax, Faz, Fbx, and Fbz. Thus, there are five unknowns Fchain, Fax, Faz, Fbx, and Fbz. In general, we can write six equilibrium equations for a three-dimensional force system, but in this system there are no forces in the y-direction so five equations are available to solve for the unknowns.

z Fchain Faz a Frider b Arm Fax Fbx Pedal x y A B Arm (sectioned) Fbz Sprocket

z

a Frider b Mc Arm

Tc

Fc Pedal x

(b) FBD of pedal and arm with section through the origin FIGURE 3-3

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram of the pedal-arm assembly for Problem 3-3

2.

The torque available to turn the sprocket is found by summing moments about the sprocket axis. From Figure 3-3a, it is

3-3-2

Ty-axis:

where r is the sprocket pitch radius. 3. In order to determine the bending moment and twisting torque in the pedal arm, we will cut the arm with a section plane that goes through the origin and is parallel to the y-z plane, removing everything beyond that plane and replacing it with the internal forces and moments in the pedal arm at the section. The resulting FBD is shown in Figure 3-3b. The internal force at section C is Fc the internal bending moment is Mc, and the internal twisting moment (torque) is Tc. We can write three equilibrium equations to solve for these three unknowns: Shear force in pedal arm at section C

Fz : My-axis: Mx-axis:

Fc Frider = 0

Fc Frider

Fc 1.5 kN

3-4-1

PROBLEM 3-4

Statement: The trailer hitch from Figure 1-1 has loads applied as shown in Figure P3-2. The tongue weight of 100 kg acts downward and the pull force of 4905 N acts horizontally. Using the dimensions of the ball bracket in Figure 1-5 (p. 15), draw a free-body diagram of the ball bracket and find the tensile and shear loads applied to the two bolts that attach the bracket to the channel in Figure 1-1. a 40 mm Mtongue 100 kg b 31 mm Fpull 4.905 kN c 70 mm t 19 mm d 20 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: 1. See Figure 3-4 and Mathcad file P0304.

2. The FBD of the hitch and bracket assembly is shown in Figure 3-4. The known external forces that act on the ball are Fpull and Wtongue . The reactions on the bracket are at points C and D. The bolts at C provide tensile (Fc2x) and shear (Fc2y) forces, and the bracket resists rotation about point D where the reaction force Fd2 is applied by the channel to which the bracket is bolted. 3. Solving for the reactions by summing the horizontal and vertical forces and the moments about D:

Fx : Fy : MD :

Fc2y Wtongue = 0 Fc2x d Fpull ( a t b d ) Wtongue c = 0

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

40 = a 2 A

19 = t 31 = b Fc2x

C 20 = d D

C D

Fd2 F c2y

FIGURE 3-4

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-4

4.

Fpull ( a t b d ) Wtongue c d

3-4-2

Fc2x 5.

Fc2x 30.41 kN

(4)

Substituting into (1) and solving for Fd2 Fd2 Fc2x Fpull Fd2 25.505 kN (5)

6.

7.

The loads applied to the two bolts that attach the bracket to the channel are: Axial force on two bolts Shear force on two bolts Fc2x 30.4 kN Fc2y 0.98 kN

We assume that each bolt would carry one half of these loads.

3-5-1

PROBLEM 3-5

Statement: Given: For the trailer hitch of Problem 3-4, determine the horizontal force that will result on the ball from accelerating a 2000-kg trailer to 60 m/sec in 20 sec. Mass of trailer Final velocity Time to reach velocity Mtrailer 2000 kg vf 60 m sec

20 sec

Assumptions: 1. Acceleration is constant. 2. The rolling resistance of the tires and the wheel bearings is negligible. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0305.

2

(1)

2.

Using Newton's second law to find the force required to accelerate the trailer, Fhitch Mtrailer a Fhitch 6.00 kN (2)

3-6-1

PROBLEM 3-6

Statement: For the trailer hitch of Problem 3-4, determine the horizontal force that will result on the ball from an impact between the ball and the tongue of the 2000-kg trailer if the hitch deflects 2.8 mm dynamically on impact. The tractor weighs 1000 kg. The velocity at impact is 0.3 m/sec. Mass of trailer Dynamic deflection Mass of tractor Impact velocity Mtrailer 2000 kg

Given:

i 2.8 mm

Mtractor 1000 kg vi 0.3 m sec

Assumptions: 1. The tractor is the "struck member" because the hitch is on the tractor and it is the hitch that deflects. 2. Equations (3.9) and (3.10) can be used to model the impact. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0306.

The weight of the trailer (the "striking member") is Wtrailer Mtrailer g Wtrailer 19.613 kN

2.

1 Mtractor 3 Mtrailer

0.857

3.

Eliminating E from equations (3.9a) and (3.10) and solving for the horizontal force on the ball Fi yields 1 2 Fi i = Mtrailer vi 2 2 1

Fi

Mtrailer vi i

Fi 55.1 kN

3-7-1

PROBLEM 3-7

Statement: The piston of an internal-combustion engine is connected to its connecting rod with a "wrist pin." Find the force on the wrist pin if the 0.5-kg piston has an acceleration of 2 500 g. Mass of piston Acceleration of piston Mpiston 0.5 kg a piston 2500 g

Given:

Assumptions: The force on the wrist pin due to the weight of the piston is very small compared with the acceleration force. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0307. a piston 2.452 10

4

m sec

2

2.

Using Newton's Second Law expressed in equation (3.1a), the force on the wrist pin is Fwristpin Mpiston a piston Fwristpin 12.258 kN

3-8-1

PROBLEM 3-8

Statement:

_____

A cam-follower system similar to that shown in Figure 3-15 has a mass m = 1 kg, a spring constant k = 1000 N/m, and a damping coefficient d = 19.4 N-s/m. Find the undamped and damped natural frequencies of this system. cps := 2 rad sec Mass

1 1

Units: Given:

M := 1 kg,

Spring constant

1

k := 1000 N m

Calculate the undamped natural frequency using equation 3.4. k M rad sec

n :=

2.

n = 31.6

n = 5.03 cps

2

d :=

k M

d 2 M

d = 30.1

rad sec

d = 4.79 cps

3-9-1

PROBLEM 3-9

Statement: A ViseGrip plier-wrench is drawn to scale in Figure P3-3. Scale the drawing for dimensions. Find the forces acting on each pin and member of the assembly for an assumed clamping force of P = 4000 N in the position shown. What force F is required to keep it in the clamped position shown? Clamping force Dimensions P 4.00 kN a 50.0 mm b 55.0 mm c 39.5 mm d 22.0 mm e 28.0 mm f 26.9 mm g 2.8 mm h 21.2 mm

Given:

Assumptions: Links 3 and 4 are in a toggle position, i.e., the pin that joins links 3 and 4 is in line with the pins that join 1 with 4 and 2 with 3. Solution: 1. See Figure 3-9 and Mathcad file P0309.

The FBDs of the assembly and each individual link are shown in Figure 3-9. The dimensions, as scaled from Figure P3-3 in the text, are given above and are shown on the link FBDs.

F 4 P 1

3 F

55.0 = b 50.0 = a 22.0 = d

2 P

F14

39.5 = c

129.2

4 F34 P

F41

F21

28.0 = e

2.8 = g

F43 3 F23 F

F12 F32 2

21.2 = h

26.9 = f

FIGURE 3-9

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 3-9

2.

Looking first at Part 3, we see that it is a three-force body. Therefore, the lines of action of the three forces must intersect at a point. But, since Parts 3 and 4 are in a toggle position, F43 and F23 are colinear, which means that their x- and y-components must be equal and opposite, leading to the conclussion that F = 0.

3-9-2

3.

Now, looking at Part 1, we see that (for F = 0) it is also a three-force body, as is Part 2. In fact, the forces on Part 1 are identical to those on Part 2. Solving for the unknown reactions on Parts 1 and 2, Fx: Fy: F41 cos( 180 deg ) F21 cos( 180 deg) = 0 F41 sin( 180 deg ) F21 sin( 180 deg) P = 0 (a) (b)

Solving equation (a) for F21 F21 = F41 cos( 180 deg ) cos( 180 deg) (c)

Substituting equation (c) into (b) F41 sin( 180 deg ) Solving equation (d) for F41 F41 sin( 180 deg ) P cos( 180 deg ) cos( 180 deg) sin( 180 deg) F41 cos( 180 deg ) cos( 180 deg) sin( 180 deg) P = 0 (d)

F21

Checking moment balance on Part 1, F41 sin( ) c F21 sin( 90 deg) d P a 0 kN m The result is, within the accuracy of the scaled dimensions, zero as it must be. 4. The x and y components of the pin forces on Part 1 are F41x F41 cos( 180 deg ) F41y F41 sin( 180 deg ) F21x F21 cos( 180 deg) F21y F21 sin( 180 deg) 5. The forces on the pins at the ends of Part 4 are F14 F41 F34 F14 6. The forces on the pins at the ends of Part 3 are F43 F34 F23 F43 F43 5.1 kN F23 5.1 kN F14 5.1 kN F34 5.1 kN F41x 4.749 kN F41y 1.823 kN F21x 4.749 kN F21y 5.823 kN

3-9-3

7.

The forces on the pins at the ends of Part 2 are F12 F21 F32 F23 Checking moment equilibrium on Part 2, F12 ( e cos( 90 deg) g sin( 90 deg) ) 0 kN m F32 ( h cos( ) f sin( ) ) which is zero, as it must be. F12 7.5 kN F32 5.1 kN

3-10-1

PROBLEM 3-10

Statement: An overhung diving board is shown in Figure P3-4a. Find the reaction forces and construct the shear and moment diagrams for this board with a 100 kg person standing at the free end. Determine the maximum shear force, maximum moment and their locations. Beam length Distance to support Mass at free end L 2000 mm a 700 mm M 100 kg

2000 = L R1 P

Given:

Assumptions: The weight of the beam is negligible compared to the applied load and so can be ignored.

700 = a

R2

Solution:

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-10

1. From inspection of Figure 3-10, write the load function equation q(x) = -R1<x - 0>-1 + R2<x - a>-1 - P<x - L >-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -R1<x - 0>0 + R2<x - a>0 - P<x - L >0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -R1<x - 0>1 + R2<x - a>1 - P<x - L >1 4. Determine the magnitude of the force, P P M g P 980.7 N

5. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 R1 P La a V = R1 R2 P = 0 R1 1821 N R2 2802 N M = R1 L R2 ( L a ) = 0

x 0 in 0.005 L L

7. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 8. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) R2 S ( x a ) P S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) x R2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) P S ( x L) ( x L)

9. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

1000

3-10-2

0 V ( x) N 1000

2000

500

1000 x mm

1500

2000

Moment Diagram

375 M ( x) Nm

750

1125

1500

500

1000 x mm

1500

2000

FIGURE 3-10B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-10

10. The maximum value of the shear force ocuurs throughout the distance from x = 0 to x = a and is R1 1821 N 11. Find the maximum value of the bending moment by determining the value of x where the shear is zero. Inspection of the shear diagram shows that this occurs at x = a. Mmax M ( a ) Mmax 1275 N m

3-11-1

PROBLEM 3-11

Statement: Determine the impact force and dynamic deflection that will result when the 100-kg person in Problem 3-10 jumps up 250 mm and lands back on the board. Assume that the board weighs 29 kg and deflects 131 mm statically when the person stands on it. Find the reaction forces and construct the shear and moment diagrams for this dynamic loading. Determine the maximum shear force, maximum moment and their locations along the length of the board. Beam length Distance to support Mass of person Mass of board Static deflection Height of jump L 2000 mm a 700 mm mpers 100 kg mboard 29 kg

R1 2000 = L Fi

Given:

st 131 mm

h 250 mm

700 = a

R2

Assumptions: Equation (3.15) can be used to approximate a mass correction factor. Solution: See Figure 3-11 and Mathcad file P0311.

FIGURE 3-11A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-11

1. The person is the moving object and the board is the struck object. The mass ratio to be used in equation (3.15) for the correction factor is massratio mpers mboard massratio 3.448

1 1 3 massratio

0.912

Wpers mpers g

Wpers 0.981 kN

4. The dynamic force is found by solving equation (3.14) for Fi. Fi Wpers 1

2 h

st

Fi Wpers 3.12

Fi 3.056 kN

5. From inspection of Figure 3-11, write the load function equation q(x) = -R1<x - 0>-1 + R2<x - a>-1 - Fi<x - L >-1 6. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -R1<x - 0>0 + R2<x - a>0 - Fi<x - L >0 7. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -R1<x - 0>1 + R2<x - a>1 - Fi<x - L >1

3-11-2

8. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 R1 Fi L a a V = R1 R2 Fi = 0 R1 5676 N R2 8733 N M = R1 L R2 ( L a ) = 0

x 0 in 0.005 L L

10. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 11. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) R2 S ( x a ) Fi S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) x R2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) Fi S ( x L) ( x L) 12. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

4 2 0 2 4 6

Moment Diagram

0

1 M ( x)

V ( x) kN

2 kN m 3

0.5

1 x m

1.5

0.5

1 x m

1.5

FIGURE 3-11B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-11

13. The maximum value of the shear force ocuurs throughout the distance from x = 0 to x = a and is R1 5676 N 14. Find the maximum value of the bending moment by determining the value of x where the shear is zero. Inspection of the shear diagram shows that this occurs at x = a. Mmax M ( a ) Mmax 3973 N m

3-12-1

PROBLEM 3-12

Statement: An overhung diving board is shown in Figure P3-4b. Find the reaction forces and construct the shear and moment diagrams for this board with a 100 kg person standing at the free end. Determine the maximum shear force, maximum moment and their locations. Beam length Mass at free end L 1300 mm M 100 kg

2000 1300 = L P

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The weight of the beam is negligible compared to the applied load and so can be ignored. Solution: See Figure 3-12 and Mathcad file P0312.

M1 700

R1

1. From inspection of Figure 3-12, write the load function equation q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - a>-1 - P<x - L >-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - a>0 - P<x - L >0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - a>1 - P<x - L >1 4. Determine the magnitude of the force, P P M g

FIGURE 3-12A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-12

P 980.7 N

5. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 R1 P M1 R1 L 6. Define the range for x V = R1 P = 0 R1 981 N M1 1275 m N M = M1 R1 L = 0

x 0 in 0.005 L L

7. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 8. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 mm) P S ( x L) M ( x) M1 S ( x 0 mm) R1 S ( x 0 mm) ( x 0 mm) P S ( x L) ( x L) 9. Plot the shear and moment diagrams.

3-12-2

Shear Diagram

V ( x) N

0.5

1 x m

1.5

Moment Diagram

M ( x) Nm

0.5

1 x m

1.5

FIGURE 3-12B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-12

10. The maximum value of the shear force ocuurs throughout the distance from x = 0 to x = L and is R1 981 N 11. Find the maximum value of the bending moment by determining the value of x where the shear is zero. Inspection of the shear diagram shows that this occurs at x = 0. Mmax M ( 0 mm) Mmax 1275 N m

3-13-1

PROBLEM 3-13

Statement: Determine the impact force and dynamic deflection that will result when a 100-kg person jumps up 25 cm and lands back on the board. Assume the board weighs 19 kg and deflects 8.5 cm statically when the person stands on it. Find the reaction forces and construct the shear and moment diagrams for this dynamic loading. Determine the maximum shear force, maximum moment, and their locations along the length of the board. Total board length Supported length Mass of board Static board deflection Mass of person Height of jump b 2000 mm a 700 mm mboard 19 kg

2000 1300 = L Fi

Given:

stat 85 mm

mperson 100 kg h 250 mm

M1 700 R1

Assumptions: 1. The board can be modelled as a cantilever beam with maximum shear and moment at the edge of the support. Solution: 1. See Figure 3-13 and Mathcad file P0313.

FIGURE 3-13A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-13

The person impacts the board upon landing. Thus, the board is the struck object and the person is the striking object. To determine the force exerted by the person we will first need to know the impact correction factor from equation (3.15).

1 mboard 3 mperson

0.94

(1)

2.

We can now use equation (3.14) to determine the impact force, Fi, Fi mperson g 1

2 h

stat

Fi 3.487 kN

(2)

3.

Write an equation for the load function in terms of equations 3.17 and integrate the resulting function twice using equations 3.18 to obtain the shear and moment functions. Note use of the unit doublet function to represent the moment at the wall. For the beam in Figure 3-13, q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - Fi<x - l>-1 V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - Fi<x - l>0 + C1 M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - Fi<x - l>1 + C1x+ C2 The reaction moment M1 at the wall is in the z direction and the forces R1 and Fi are in the y direction in equation (4). All moments in equation (5) are in the z direction. (3) (4) (5)

4. 5.

Because the reactions have been included in the loading function, the shear and moment diagrams both close to zero at each end of the beam, making C1 = C2 = 0. The reaction force R1 and the reaction moment M1 can be calculated from equations (4) and (5) respectively

by substituting the boundary conditions x = l+, V = 0, M = 0. Note that we can substitute l for l+ since their difference is vanishingly small.

Unsupported beam length l b a l 1300 mm

3-13-2

V(l) = -M1<l - 0>-1 + R1<l - 0>0 - Fi<l - l>0 = 0 V = R1 Fi = 0 R1 Fi M(l) = -M1<l - 0>0 + R1<l - 0>1 - Fi<l - l>1 = 0 M = M1 R1 l Fi ( l l) = 0 M1 R1 l M1 4533 N m (7) R1 3.487 kN (6)

6. To generate the shear and moment functions over the length of the beam, equations (4) and (5) must be evaluated for a range of values of x from 0 to l, after substituting the above values of C1, C2, R1, and M1 in them. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than the dummy variable z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. It will have the same effect as the singularity function. Range of x Unit step function x 0 in 0.005 l l S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 )

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) ( x 0 ) Fi S ( x l) ( x l)

0 0 0 1 1

(8)

M ( x) M1 S ( x 0 in) ( x 0 ) R1 S ( x 0 in) ( x 0 ) Fi S ( x l ) ( x l) Plot the shear and moment diagrams (see below). Shear Diagram

0 1 2

Moment Diagram

3 V ( x) kN 2 M ( x)

kN m 3 4 5

0.5 x m

0.5 x m

1.5

7. The graphs show that the shear force and the moment are both largest at x = 0. The function values of these points can be calculated from equations (4) and (5) respectively by substituting x = 0 and evaluating the singularity functions: Vmax = V(0) = R1<0 - 0>0 - Fi<0 - l>0 = R1 (9)

Vmax R1 Vmax 3.49 kN

3-13-3

M.max = M(0) = -M1<0 - 0>0 + R1<0 - 0>1 - Fi<0 - l>1 = -M1 Mmax M1 Mmax 4533 N m

(10)

3-14-1

PROBLEM 3-14

Statement: Figure P3-5 shows a child's toy called a pogo stick. The child stands on the pads, applying half her weight on each side. She jumps off the ground, holding the pads up against her feet, and bounces along with the spring cushioning the impact and storing energy to help each rebound. Find the natural frequency of the system, the static deflection of the spring with the child standing still, and the dynamic force and deflection when the child lands after jumping 2 in off the ground.

2

Units: Given:

blob :=

lbf sec in

1

Assumptions: 1. An approximate energy method will be acceptable. 2. The correction factor for energy dissipation will be applied. Solution: See Figure 3-14 and Mathcad file P0314.

1. Find the natural frequency of the (child/spring) system. Mass of child (striker) m := Wc g Wp g k m m = 0.155 blob

Fi /2

Fi /2

mb :=

mb = 0.013 blob

Natural frequency

:=

= 25.367

rad sec

f :=

P

f = 4.037 Hz FIGURE 3-14

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-14

2. The static deflection of the spring with the child standing still is Static deflection of spring

st :=

Wc k

st = 0.6 in

3. Determine the mass ratio correction factor from equation (3.15): Correction factor

:=

1+

1 mb 3 m

= 0.973

Fi := Wc 1 +

1+

2 h

st

Fi = 224 lbf

3-15-1

PROBLEM 3-15

Statement: A pen plotter imparts a constant acceleration of 2.5 m/sec2 to the pen assembly, which travels in a straight line across the paper. The moving pen assembly weighs 0.5 kg. The plotter weighs 5 kg. What coefficient of friction is needed between the plotter feet and the table top on which it sits to prevent the plotter from moving when the pen accelerates? Acceleration of pen ass'y a 2.5 m sec Mass of pen ass'y mpen 0.5 kg Mass of plotter Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0315. mplot 5 kg

2

Given:

The force imparted to the pen assembly by the internal drive mechanism must be reacted at the table top by the plotter feet. The horizontal force at the feet will be equal to the force on the pen assembly and must be less than or equal to the maximum friction force, which is the product of the coefficient of friction and the normal force, which is the weight of the plotter. Horizontal driving force on pen ass'y Weight of plotter Minimum coefficient of friction Fpen mpen a Wplot mplot g Fpen 1.25 N Wplot 49.033 N

Fpen Wplot

0.025

3-16-1

PROBLEM 3-16

Statement: A track to guide bowling balls is designed with two round rods as shown in Figure P3-6. The rods are not parallel to one another but have a small angle between them. The balls roll on the rods until they fall between them and drop onto another track. The angle between the rods is varied to cause the ball to drop at different locations. Each rod's unsupported length is 30 in and the angle between them is 3.2 deg. The balls are 4.5 in dia and weigh 2.5 lb. The center distance between the 1-in-dia rods is 4.2 in at the narrow end. Find the distance from the narrow end at which the ball drops through and determine the worst-case shear and moment maximum for the rods as the ball rolls a distance from the narrow end that is 98% of the distance to drop. Assume that the rods are simply supported at each end and have zero deflection under the applied loading. (Note that assuming zero deflection is unrealistic. This assumption will be relaxed in the next chapter after deflection has been discussed.) Unsupported rod length Half-angle between rods Bowling ball diameter L 30 in 1.6 deg D 4.5 in Bowling ball weight Rod diameter Half width of rod gap W 2.5 lbf d 1.0 in c 2.1 in

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the distance between the ball and rod centers. Distance between centers h D d 2 h 2.75 in

c

TOP VIEW

u x

W/2 F

SECTION A-A

width(x)

(a) Distance between the roll axis and the rod axis. (b) Partial FBD of the bowling ball.

FIGURE 3-16

Dimensions and Free Body Diagrams for Problem 3-16

2.

3-16-2

Let x be the distance along the roll axis, and u be the corresponding distance to the point of contact between the ball and rods, measured along the rods. Then the distance from the center plane of the ball to the center of a rod as shown in Figure 3-16(a) is, width( x) c cos( ) x sin( ) And the distance from the narrow end to the point at which the ball drops (assuming rigid rods) is xdrop h c cos( ) sin( ) xdrop 23.31 in (1)

The distance along the rod corresponding to xdrop is u drop xdrop h sin( ) cos( ) u drop 23.24 in

3.

The angle made by a line through the ball-rod centers and the horizontal plane (see Figure 3-16b) is

( x) acos

width( x) h

0 ( 0 in) 98% 0.98 xdrop 0 40.241 deg 98% 5.577 deg

The loading on the ball is symmetric about its center plane along the x-axis. Figure 3-16(b) shows a FBD of one half of the ball with the internal forces along the plane of symmetry due to the reaction at the other rod omitted. With these forces omitted we may only sum forces in the vertical direction.

Fy :

F sin( ) F cos( ) W

W 2

=0

(2)

F=

2 ( sin( ) cos( ) )

(3)

5.

The ball will drop through the rods when is zero. If there were no friction force present ( = 0) then F would become very large as approached zero. The presence of the friction term in the denominator of equation (3) limits F to finite values. However, with the assumption that the rods are rigid, there is no way for the rods to provide a normal force when reaches zero. Thus, we will need to limit the range of for this analysis. Let

and

min 98%

Then

xmax

xmax 22.84 in

u max Fmax

(4)

3-16-3

6.

Determine the worst-case shear and moment maximum for the rods as the ball rolls along their length from Figure B-2(a) in Appendix B where a in the figure is u max. Then, Mmax Fmax u max 1

u max L

(5)

For the shear, we must find the reactions, which are R1 Fmax 1 R2 Fmax R1

u max L

The maximum absolute value of shear is the larger of these two. Thus Vmax R2 Vmax 9.8 lbf (6)

3-17-1

PROBLEM 3-17

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P3-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of a tong is 6 in. Draw free-body diagrams of the two tongs and find all forces acting on them. Determine the bending moment at point A. Weight of ice Distances W 50 lbf a x 11.0 in b x 5.0 in cx 2.0 in a y 6.0 in b y 12.0 in cy 3.5 in (1)

Given:

Assumptions: Assume that the horizontal force at C (the handle) is zero, thus Fc 0 lbf Solution: See Figure 3-17 and Mathcad file P0317.

F C FC O

11.0 = ax 3.5 = cy

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

FB B W/2

W

FIGURE 3-17A

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 3-17

1.

Summing forces and moments on a single tong (see FBD above right).

Fx Fy MC

2. 3.

FO FB FC = 0 W 2 F=0 W 2 b x cx = 0

FO cy FB b y cy

From equations (1) and (2), FO = FB Eliminating FO from equations (4) and (5) and solving for FB FB W b x cx 2 by FB 14.58 lbf

3-17-2

F

4. From equation (3), the vertical force on one handle is F W 2 F 25 lbf

C FC O

11.0 = ax 3.5 = cy

FO

2.0 = cx

5. From Figure 3-17B we see that, at any section that we might take through the tong, there will be an internal moment, shear force, and axial force present. The bending moment will be a maximum at point A because it is the fartherest point from the centroid of the system. Summing forces and moments:

Fx Fy MO

-FDs cos + FDn sin (6) + FO = 0 -FDs sin - FDn cos +F=0 (7)

FDs M D FDn

FIGURE 3-17B

Free Body Diagram with section at D for Problem 3-17

F cx - M D - (FDs cos + FDn sin )(ay + rc sin ) + (FDs sin + FDn cos )[ax - rc (1 - cos)] = 0 (8)

6.

Solving equations (6) and (7) for FDs and FDn FDn = F cos( ) FO sin( ) FDs = FDn sin( ) FO cos( )

7.

The maximum value of MD will occur at = 0 deg. At = 0 deg, FO FB FDn F FDs FO MD F cx FDs a y FDn a x FDn 25 lbf FDs 14.58 lbf MD 237.5 lbf in

3-18-1

PROBLEM 3-18

Statement: A tractor-trailer tipped over while negotiating an on-ramp to the New York Thruway. The road has a 50-ft radius at that point and tilts 3 deg toward the outside of the curve. The 45-ft-long by 8-ft-wide by 8.5-ft-high trailer box (13 ft from ground to top) was loaded 44 415 lb of paper rolls in two rows by two high as shown in Figure P3-8. The rolls are 40-in-dia by 38-in-long and weigh about 900 lb each. They are wedged against rolling backward but not against sliding sidewards. The empty trailer weighed 14 000 lb. The driver claims that he was traveling at less than 15 mph and that the load of paper shifted inside the trailer, struck the trailer sidewall, and tipped the truck. The paper company that loaded the truck claims the load was properly stowed and would not shift at that speed. Independent test of the coefficient of friction between similar paper rolls and a similar trailer floor give a value of 0.43 +/- 0.08. The composite center of gravity of the loaded trailer is estimated to be 7.5 ft above the road. Determine the truck speed that would cause the truck to just begin to tip and the speed at which the rolls will just begin to slide sidways. What do you think caused the accident? Weight of paper Weight of trailer Radius of curve Nominal coefficient of friction Coefficient of friction uncertainty Trailer width Height of CG from pavement Wp := 44415 lbf Wt := 14000 lbf r := 50 ft nom := 0.43 u := 0.08 w := 8 ft h := 7.5 ft

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The paper rolls act as a monolith since they are tightly strapped together with steel bands. 2. The tractor has about 15 deg of potential roll freedom versus the trailer due to their relative angle in plan during the turn combined with the substantial pitch freedom in the fifth wheel. So the trailer can tip independently of the tractor. 3. The outside track width of the trailer tires is equal to the width of the trailer. Solution: See Figure 3-18 and Mathcad file P0318.

1. First, calculate the location of the trailer's CG with respect to the outside wheel when it is on the reverse-banked curve. From Figure 3-18A, Tilt angle a := h tan( ) b := w 2 a

:= 3 deg

a = 0.393 ft b = 3.607 ft

3 7.500'

ybar

b xbar 4.000'

The coordinates of the CG of the loaded trailer with respect to the lower outside corner of the tires are: xbar = 3.602 ft ybar = 7.699 ft

FIGURE 3-18A

Location of CG for Problem 3-18

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed. 3-18-2 2. The trailer is on the verge of tipping over when the copule due to centrifugal force is equal to the couple formed by the weight of the loaded trailer acting through its CG and the vertical reaction at the outside edge of the tires. At this instant, it is assumed that the entire weight of the trailer is reacted at the outside tires with the inside tires carrying none of the weight. Any increase in tangential velocity of the tractor and trailer will result in tipping. Summing moments about the tire edge (see Figure 3-18B),

Fw xbar Fc ybar = 0

(1)

where Fc is the centrifugal force due to the normal acceleration as the tractor and trailer go through the curve. The normal acceleration is a tip = vtip r

2

Fc

(2)

Fw ybar

(3)

and the force necessary to keep the tractor trailer following a circular path is Fc = mtot a tip where mtot is the total mass of the trailer and its payload. Combining equations (2) and (3) and solving for vtip, we have vtip = Fc r mtot

Rx Ry xbar

(4) FIGURE 3-18B

FBD of Trailer on the Verge of Tipping

3.

Calculate the minimum tipping velocity of the tractor/trailer. From equations (1) and (5), Total weight Centrifugal force required to tip the trailer Minimum tipping speed Fw := Wt + Wp Fc := xbar ybar Fw Fw = 58415 lbf Fc = 27329 lbf

vtip :=

Fc r g Fw

Thus, with the assumptions that we have made, the trailer would not begin to tip over until it reached a speed of vtip = 18.7 mph 4. The load will slip when the friction force between the paper rolls and the trailer floor is no longer sufficient to react the centrifugal force on the paper rolls. Looking at the FBD of the paper rolls in Figure 3-18C, we see that Normal force between paper and floor Fn = Wp cos( ) Fcp sin( ) (6)

Tangential force tending to slide the paper Ft = Wp sin( ) + Fcp cos( ) Centrifugal force on the paper W p vs = as = g g r Wp

2

3-18-3

(7)

Fcp Wp

Fcp

(8)

Ft Fn

FBD of Paper on the Verge of Sliding

Substituting equation (9) into (7), then combining (6) and (7) to eliminate Fn, and solving for Fcp yields Wp ( cos( ) sin( ) ) sin( ) + cos( )

Fcp =

(10)

Substituting equation (10) into (8), to eliminate Fcp , and solving for vs yields

vs =

(11)

5.

Use the upper and lower limit on the coefficient of friction to determine an upper and lower limit on the speed necessary to cause sliding. Maximium coefficient Minimium coefficient

max min

:= :=

nom nom

+u u

max min

= 0.51 = 0.35

vsmax :=

sin( ) ) + cos( )

r g

vsmin :=

sin( ) ) + cos( )

r g

6.

This very rough analysis shows that , if the coefficient of friction was at or near the low end of its measured value, the paper load could slide at a tractor/trailer speed of 15 mph, which would lead to the trailer tipping over. In any case, it appears that the paper load would slide before the truck would tip with the load in place.

3-19-1

PROBLEM 3-19

Statement: Given:

Assume that the CG of the paper rolls in Problem 3-18 is 2.5 ft above the floor of the trailer. At what speed on the same curve will the pile of rolls tip over (not slide) with respect to the trailer?

Weight of paper Radius of curve Paper roll length Height of CG from floor

Assumptions: The paper rolls act as a single, lumped mass and tip about one corner where they are braced against sliding. The brace provides no moment support. Solution: See Figure 3-19 and Mathcad file P0319.

1. First, calculate the location of the paper's CG with respect to the outside corner when it is on the reverse-banked curve. From Figure 3-19, Tilt angle a := h tan ( ) b := L a xbar := b cos ( ) ybar := b sin ( ) + ybar = 2.662 ft The coordinates of the CG of the paper with respect to the lower outside corner are: xbar = 3.031 ft 2. ybar = 2.662 ft

:= 3 deg

a = 0.131 ft b = 3.036 ft xbar = 3.031 ft h cos ( ) FIGURE 3-19

The paper is on the verge of tipping over when the couple due to centrifugal force is equal to the couple formed by the weight of the paper acting through its CG and the vertical reaction at the outside edge of the rolls. At this instant, it is assumed that the entire weight of the paper is reacted at the outside corner. Any increase in tangential velocity of the tractor and trailer will result in tipping. Summing moments about the outside corner nearest the floor (see Figure 3-19),

(1)

where Fcp is the centrifugal force due to the normal acceleration as the tractor and trailer go through the curve. The normal acceleration is a tip = vtip r

2

(2)

and the force necessary to keep the tractor trailer following a circular path is Fcp = mp a tip where mp is the mass of the paper. Combining equations (2) and (3) and solving for vtip, we have (3)

vtip = or, vtip = Fcp r g Wp Fcp r mp

3-19-2

(4)

(5)

3.

Calculate the minimum paper tipping velocity of the tractor/trailer. From equations (1) and (5), Centrifugal force required to tip the paper Minimum tipping speed Fcp := xbar ybar Wp Fcp = 50574 lbf

vtip :=

Fcp r g Wp

Thus, with the assumptions that we have made, the paper would not begin to tip over until the tractor/trailor reached a speed of vtip = 29.2 mph

3-20-1

PROBLEM 3-20

Statement: Assume that the load of paper rolls in Problem 3-18 will slide sideways at a truck speed of 20 mph on the curve in question. Estimate the impact force of the cargo against the trailer wall. The force-deflection characteristic of the trailer wall has been measured as approximately 400 lb/in. Weight of paper Weight of trailer Speed of tractor/trailer Radius of curve Trailer width Paper roll length Trailer wall stiffness Wp := 44415 lbf Wt := 14000 lbf vt := 20 mph r := 50 ft w := 8 ft L := 38 in lbf k := 400 in

Given:

L = 3.167 ft

Assumptions: 1. The paper rolls act as a monolith since they are tightly strapped together with steel bands. 2. The worst case will result if friction between the floor and the paper is neglected. Solution: 1. See Figure P3-8 and Mathcad file P0320.

Calculate the distance that the rolls will slide before impacting the wall. s := 1 2 ( w 2 L) s = 10 in

2.

2

a p = 206.507

in sec

2

3.

From elementary particle dynamics, estimate the velocity at impact due to the centripetal acceleration vi := 2 a p s vi = 64.266 in sec

4.

With the paper as the moving mass and the trailer as the stationary or struck mass, calculate the correction factor using equation (3.15)

:=

1+

1 Wt 3 Wp

= 0.905

5.

Calculate the static deflection caused by the paper against the trailer wall.

st :=

6.

Wp k

st = 111.037 in

Using equation (3.12), estimate the dynamic force of the paper rolls impacting the trailer wall.

Fi := Wp vi

g st

Fi = 13114 lbf

3-21-1

PROBLEM 3-21

Statement: Figure P3-9 shows an automobile wheel with two common styles of lug wrench being used to tighten the wheel nuts, a single-ended wrench in (a), and a double-ended wrench in (b). In each case two hands are required to provide forces respectively at A and B as shown. The distance between points A and B is 1 ft in both cases. The wheel nuts require a torque of 70 ft-lb. Draw free body diagrams for both wrenches and determine the magnitudes of all forces and moments on each wrench. Is there any difference between the way these two wrenches perform their assigned task? Is one design better than the other? If so, why? Explain. Distance between A and B Tightening torque d AB := 1 ft T := 70 ft lbf

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The forces exerted by the user's hands lie in a plane through the wrench that is also parallel to the plane of the wheel. 2. The applied torque is perpendicular to the plane of the forces. 3. By virtue of 1 and 2 above, this is a planar problem that can be described in a 2D FBD. Solution: See Figure 3-21 and Mathcad file P0321.

12" = dAB F

1. Summing moments about the left end of the wrench (for either case) T F d AB = 0 2. Solving for F

T

F :=

T d AB

F = 70 lbf

12" = dAB

Is there any difference between the way these two wrenches perform their assigned task? No, they both require the same two-handed exertion of 70 lb from each hand. Is one design better than the other? If so, why? Explain. Design (b) has advantages over (a) because it is balanced about the wheel nut. This allows the user to spin the wrench once the nut is loosened. It is also slightly easier to apply the upward and downward forces (F) in a plane with design (b).

F

6"

FIGURE 3-21

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 3-21

3-22-1

PROBLEM 3-22

Statement: A roller-blade skate is shown in Figure P3-10. The polyurethane wheels are 72 mm dia. The skate-boot-foot combination weighs 2 kg. The effective "spring rate" of the person-skate subsystem is 6000 N/m. Find the forces on the wheels' axles for a 100-kg person landing a 0.5-m jump on one foot. (a) Assume all 4 wheels land simultaneously. (b) Assume that one wheel absorbs all the landing force. Mass of struck member Stiffness of struck member Mass of striking member Height of drop Assumptions: Equation (3.14) applies in this case. Solution: 1. See Figure P3-10 and Mathcad file P0322. Msys 2 kg k 6000 N m Mperson 100 kg h 0.5 m

Given:

2.

st

3.

Wperson k

st 163.444 mm

1 Msys 3 Mperson

0.993

4.

Fi 1

2 h

st

Wperson

Fi 3.59 kN

(a) If this will be absorbed by 4 wheel axles, the force per axle is Fa Fi 4 Fb Fi Fa 897 N

Fb 3.59 kN

3-23a-1

PROBLEM 3-23a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-11a. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-1. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m

a b L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Solution: w 200 N m F 500 N

R1

R2

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-23

1. From inspection of Figure P3-11a, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - 0>0 + w<x - a>0 - F<x - b>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - 0>1 + w<x - a>1 - F<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - 0>2/2 + w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>1 4. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 w ( L) w ( L a ) F R2 = 0 M = R 1 L R1 w 2 L w 2 L

2

w 2

( L a) F ( L b) = 0 w 2 L ( L a)

2

F L

( L b)

R1 264 N R2 316 N

6. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 7. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) w S ( x 0 m) ( x) w S ( x a ) ( x a ) F S ( x b ) R2 S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) x w 2 S ( x 0 m) x

2

w 2

S ( x a ) ( x a ) F S ( x b ) ( x b )

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

400 200 V ( x) N 0 200 400

3-23a-2

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

Moment Diagram

150

100 M ( x) Nm 50

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 3-23aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-23a

9. Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax V ( b ) Vmax 316 N

3-24a-1

PROBLEM 3-24a

Statement: Given: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-11b. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-1. Beam length Distance to distributed load Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Solution: L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m F 500 N

M1 R1 a L

1

w

FIGURE 3-24A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-24

q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 - F<x - L>-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 - F<x - L>0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - L>1 4. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 [ w ( L a ) F ] = 0 M = M1 R1 L R1 w ( L a ) F M1 w 2 ( L a ) R1 L x 0 m 0.005 L L

2

w 2

( L a) = 0 R1 620 N M1 584 N m

6. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 7. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) w S ( x a ) ( x a ) F S ( x L) M ( x) M1 R1 S ( x 0 m) x w 2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) F S ( x L) ( x L)

2

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

600 V ( x) N 400 200 0

3-24a-2

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

Moment Diagram

150 M ( x) Nm

300

450

600

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 3-24aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-24a

9. Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax V ( 0 m) Vmax 620 N

3-25a-1

PROBLEM 3-25a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-11d. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-1. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m

a b F w L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Solution: w 200 N m F 500 N

R1

R2

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-25

1. From inspection of Figure P3-11c, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - F<x - L>-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - F<x - L>0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - F<x - L>1 4. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 w ( L a ) R2 F = 0 M = R 1 L R1 1 w 2 ( L a ) R2 ( L b ) = 0 R1 353 N R2 973 N

2

w 2 ( L a ) F ( L b ) w ( L a ) ( L b ) 2 b

6. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 7. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) w S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) F S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) x w 2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) ( x b )

2

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

1 0.5 V ( x) kN 0 0.5 1

3-25a-2

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

Moment Diagram

75 M ( x) Nm

150

225

300

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 3-25aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-25a

9. Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax V ( b ) Vmax 580.0 N

3-26a-1

PROBLEM 3-26a

Statement: Given: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-11d. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-1. Beam length Distance to distributed load Distance to reaction load Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Solution: L 1 m a 0.4 m b 0.6 m w 200 N m F 500 N

R1 R2 L b a

F w

FIGURE 3-26A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-26

1. From inspection of Figure 3-26aA, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - F<x - a>-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - F<x - a>0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - F<x - a>1 4. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 w ( L a ) R2 F = 0 M = R 1 L R1 1 w 2 ( L a ) R2 ( L b ) F ( L a ) = 0 R1 147 N R2 473 N

2

w 2 ( L a ) F ( b a ) w ( L a ) ( L b ) 2 b

6. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 7. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) w S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) F S ( x a ) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) x w 2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) ( x b ) F S ( x a ) ( x a )

2

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

500 250 V ( x) N 0 250 500

3-26a-2

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

Moment Diagram

60

40 M ( x) Nm 20

20

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 3-26aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-26a

9. Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax V ( b 0.001 mm) Vmax 393 N

3-27-1

PROBLEM 3-27

Statement: A storage rack is to be designed to hold the paper roll of Problem 3-8 as shown in Figure P3-12. Determine the reactions and draw the shear and moment diagrams for the mandrel that extends 50% into the roll. Paper roll dimensions OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m

Given:

Roll density

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. 2. The mandrel's root in the stanchion experiences a distributed load over its length of engagemen Solution: See Figure 3-27 and Mathcad file P0327.

W

1. Determine the weight of the roll and the length of the mandrel. W

OD ID Lroll g

M1 R1

FIGURE 3-27

Lm

2. From inspection of Figure 3-27, write the load function equation q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - W<x - L>-1 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - W<x - L>0 4. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - W<x - L>1 5. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 W = 0 R1 W M1 R1 Lm 6. Define the range for x M = M1 R1 L = 0 R1 53.895 kN M1 87.040 kN m x 0 m 0.005 Lm Lm

3-27-2

7. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 8. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) W S x Lm M ( x) M1 R1 S ( x 0 m) x W S x Lm x Lm 9. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

40 V ( x) kN 20

0.5

1 x m

1.5

Moment Diagram

20

1.615

10 M ( x) kN m

40

70

100

0.5

1 x m

1.5

FIGURE 3-27B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-27

3-28-1

PROBLEM 3-28

Statement: Figure P3-13 shows a forklift truck negotiating a 15 deg ramp to to drive onto a 4-ft-high loading platform. The truck weighs 5 000 lb and has a 42-in wheelbase. Determine the reactions and draw the shear and moment diagrams for the worst case of loading as the truck travels up the ramp. Ramp angle Platform height Truck weight Truck wheelbase

Given:

15 deg

h 4 ft W 5000 lbf Lt 42 in h 48 in

Assumptions: 1. The worst case is when the truck CG is located at the center of the beam's span. 2. Use a coordinate frame that has the x-axis along the long axis of the beam. 3. Ignore traction forces and the weight components along the x-axis of the beam. 4. There are two ramps, one for each side of the forklift. 5. The location of the CG in Figure P3-13 is 32 in from the front wheel and 10 in from the rear wheel. CGa 32 in Solution: See Figure 3-28 and Mathcad file P0328. CGb 10 in

L b a CG a

CG b

R1 Fa Wa Fb Wb R2 x

FIGURE 3-28A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-28

1. Determine the length of the beam between supports and the distances a and b. Length of beam L h sin( ) L 2 a b L 2 L 2 CGa CGb L 15.455 ft a 5.061 ft b 8.561 ft

a CGa =

and

3-28-2

2. The weight distribution on the wheels is determined from the distance from the front wheel to the CG. Each wheel weight is divided by 2 to get the weight on a single ramp. Weight on front wheel Wa Wb CGb W Lt 2 W 2 Wa Wa 595 lbf Wb 1905 lbf

3. The normal force on the ramp at each wheel is adjusted for the ramp angle. Load at front wheel Load at rear wheel Fa Wa cos( ) Fb Wb cos( ) Fa 575 lbf Fb 1840 lbf

4. From inspection of Figure 3-28A, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - Fa<x - a>-1 - Fb<x - b>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 5. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - Fa<x - a>0 - Fb<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>0 6. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - Fa<x - a>1 - Fb<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>1 7. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 Fa Fb R2 = 0 M = R1 L Fa ( L a ) Fb ( L b ) = 0 R1 1 L Fa ( L a ) Fb ( L b ) R1 1207 lbf R2 1207 lbf

9. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 10. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) Fa S ( x a ) Fb S ( x b ) R2 S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 m) x Fa S ( x a ) ( x a ) Fb S ( x b ) ( x b ) R2 S ( x L) ( x L)

11. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

2000 1000 V ( x) lbf 0 1000 2000

3-28-3

8 x ft

10

12

14

16

Moment Diagram

15.455

M ( x) ft lbf

8 x ft

10

12

14

16

FIGURE 3-28B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-28

3-29-1

PROBLEM 3-29

Statement:

_____

Run the TKSolver or Mathcad model for Case Study 1A and move the point of application of the hand force along the lever by changing the values of Rb2, recalculate and observe the changes to the forces and moments. Determine the forces on the elements of the bicycle brake lever assembly shown in Figure 3-1 during braking. The geometry of each element is known. The average human's hand can develop a grip force of about 267 N (60 lb) in the lever position shown. Magnitude of handle force Fb2 Direction of handle force Fb2 Direction of cable force Fc2 Direction of cable force Fcable Fb2 := 267 N

Problem: Given:

Position vector components (Change the value of Rb2x and note the results) Rb2x := 19 mm Rb2y := 4 mm R21x := 7 mm R21y := 19 mm Rc2x := 25 mm Rc2y := 0 mm Rb1x := 47.5 mm Rb1y := 14 mm R12x := 12 mm R12y := 7 mm R31x := 27 mm R31y := 30 mm

Assumptions: The accelerations are negligible. All forces are coplanar and two-dimensional. A class 1 load model is appropriate and a static analysis is acceptable. The higher applied load will be used as a worst case, assuming that it can be reached before bottoming the tip of the handle on the handgrip. If that occurs, it will change the beam's boundary conditions and the analysis. Solution: 1. See Figures 3-1, 3-2, and Mathcad file P0329.

Figure 3-1 shows the hand brake lever assembly, which consists of three subassemblies: the handlebar (1), the lever (2), and the cable (3). The lever is pivoted to the handlebar and the cable is connected to the lever. The cable runs within a plastic-lined sheath (for low friction) down to the brake caliper assembly at the bicycle's wheel rim. The user's hand applies equal and opposite forces at some point on the lever and handgrip. These forces are transformed to a larger force in the cable by reason of the lever ratio of part 2. Figure 3-1 is a free-body diagram of the entire assembly since it shows all the forces and moments acting on it except for its weight, which is small compared to the applied forces and is thus neglected for this analysis. The "broken away" portion of the handlebar provides internal x and y force components and a moment. These are arbitrarily shown as positive in sign. Their actual signs will "come out in the wash" in the calculations. The known applied forces are shown in their actual directions and senses.

2.

Figure 3-2 shows the three subassembly elements separated and drawn as free-body diagrams with all relevant forces and moments applied to each element, again neglecting the weights of the parts. The lever (part 2) has three forces on it, Fb2, Fc2, and F12. The two-character subscript notation used here should be read as, force of element 1 on 2 (F12) or force at B on 2 (Fb2), etc. This defines the source of the forces (first subscript) and the element on which it acts (second subscript). This notation will be used consistently throughout this text for both forces and position vectors such as Rb2, Rc2, and R12 in Figure 3-2, which serve to locate the above three forces in a local, non rotating coordinate system whose origin is at the center of gravity (CG) of the element or subassembly being analyzed. (See foot note on page 83 of the text). On this brake lever, Fb2 is an applied force whose magnitude and direction are known. Fc2 is the force in the

3-29-2

cable. Its direction is known but not its magnitude. Force F12 is provided by part 1 on part 2 at the pivot pin. Its magnitude and direction are both unknown. We can write equations 3.3b for this element to sum forces in the x and y directions and sum moments about the CG. Note that all unknown reactive forces and moments are initially assumed positive in the equations. Their true signs will come out in the calculation. (See foot note on page 84 of the text).

Fx = Fb2x + Fc2x + F12x = 0 Fy = Fb2y + Fc2y + F12y = 0 Mz = ( R12 F12) + ( Rb2 Fb2) + ( Rc2 Fc2 ) = 0

The cross products in the moment equation represent the "turning forces" or moments created by the application of these forces at points remote from the CG of the element. Recall that these cross products can be expanded to (a)

(b)

We have three equations and four unknowns (F12x, F12y, Fc2x, Fc2y) at this point, so we need another equation. It is available from the fact that the direction of Fc2 is known. (The cable can pull only along its axis). We can express one component of the cable force Fc2 in terms of its other component and the known angle c2 of the cable. (c) Fc2y = Fc2x tan( c2 ) We will now use a Mathcad solve block to solve equations a through c. Calculate components of Fb2 Fb2x := Fb2 cos( b2) Fb2y := Fb2 sin( b2) Guess Given F12x := 1000 N Fb2x + Fc2x + F12x = 0 Fb2y + Fc2y + F12y = 0 Fb2x = 0 N Fb2y = 267 N Fc2x := 1000 N F12y := 1000 N Fc2y := 1000 N

( R12x F12y R12y F12x) ... = 0 + ( Rb2x Fb2y Rb2y Fb2x) ... + ( R F R F ) c2x c2y c2y c2x

Fc2y = Fc2x tan( c2 )

3-29-3

Components of the unknown forces F12, and Fc2 F12x = 1047 N 3. Fc2x = 1047 N F12y = 340 N Fc2y = 73.2 N

Part 3 in Figure 3-2 is the cable that passes through a hole in part 1. This hole is lined with a low friction material, which allows us to assume no friction at the joint between parts 1 and 3. We will further assume that the three forces F13, Fc3, and Fcable form a concurrent system of forces acting through the CG and thus create no moment. With this assumption, only a summation of forces is necessary for this element.

(d)

Using Newton's third law, we have Fc3x := Fc2x and Fc3y := Fc2y. We also assume that the cable entering from the left is horizontal and that the reaction F13 is vertical, thus Fcabley := 0 N and F13x := 0 N (e)

We can now solve for the forces on part 3 directly, Fcablex := F13x Fc3x F13y := Fcabley Fc3y Fcablex = 1047 N F13y = 73.2 N

The assembly of elements labeled part 1 in Figure 3-2 has both force and moments on it (i.e., it is not a concurrent system), so the three equations 3.3b are needed.

Fx = F21x + Fb1x + F31x + Px + Fsheathx = 0 Fy = F21y + Fb1y + F31y + Py = 0 Mz = Mh + ( R21 F21) + ( Rb1 Fb1) + ( R31 F31) ... = 0

+ ( Rp Fp) + ( Rd Fsheath ) Expanding cross products in the moment equation gives the moment magnitude as (f)

+ ( Rb1x Fb1y Rb1y Fb1x) ... + ( R31x F31y R31y F31x) ... + ( R F R F ) ... Px Py Py Px + ( 0 Rdy Fsheathx)

(g)

Using Newton's third law, we have F31x := F13x F31y := F13y F21x := F12x F21y := F12y Fb1x := Fb2x (h) Fb1y := Fb2y

Fsheathx := Fcablex

3-29-4

Given

RPx := 27 mm Rdx := 41 mm

RPy := 0 mm Rdy := 27 mm

We will now use a Mathcad solve block to solve equations (f) through (h). Guess Given Px := 1000 N Mh := 100 N m Py := 0 N

Mh + ( R21x F21y R21y F21x) ... = 0 + ( Rb1x Fb1y Rb1y Fb1x) ... + ( R31x F31y R31y F31x) ... + ( R P R P ) ... Px y Py x + ( 0 N m Rdy Fsheathx)

Px Py := Find( Px , Py , Mh) M h

Summarizing, the results obtained for a grip force Fb2 = 267 N are: Handlebar (1) Fb1x = 0 N F21x = 1047 N F31x = 0 N Px = 1 10

6

Mh = 0.0 N m Lever (2) Fc2x = 1047 N F12x = 1047 N Cable (3) Fc3x = 1047 N F13x = 0 N Fcablex = 1047 N Fc2y = 73.2 N F12y = 340 N Fc3y = 73.2 N F13y = 73.2 N Fcabley = 0 N

3-30-1

PROBLEM 3-30

Statement:

_____

Run the TKSolver or Mathcad model for Case Study 2A and move the point of application of the crimp force along the jaw by changing the values of Rhand, recalculate and observe the changes to the forces and moments. Determine the forces on the elements of the crimping tool shown in Figure 3-3 during a crimp operation. The geometry is known and the tool develops a crimp force of 2000 lb (8896 N) at closure in the position shown. Applied crimp force Fc4x := 1956.30 lbf Fc4y := 415.82 lbf

Problem: Given:

Position vector components (Change the value of Rhand and note the results) Rc4x := 0.454 in Rc4y := 0.337 in R23x := 0.602 in R23y := 0.127 in R34x := 0.161 in R12x := 1.399 in R12y := 0.049 in R43x := 0.602 in R43y := 0.127 in R34y := 0.758 in R32x := 2.199 in R32y := 0.077 in R14x := 0.161 in R14y := 0.758 in Rhand := 4.40 in

Assumptions: The accelerations are negligible. All forces are coplanar and two-dimensional. A class 1 load model is appropriate and a static analysis is acceptable. Solution: 1. See Figures 3-3, 3-4, and Mathcad file P0330.

Figure 3-3 shows the tool in the closed position, in the process of crimping a metal connector onto a wire. The user's hand provides the input forces between links 1 and 2, shown as the reaction pair Fhand. The user can grip the handle anywhere along its length but we are assuming a nominal moment arm of Rhand for the application of the resultant of the user's grip force (see Figure 3-4). The high mechanical advantage of the tool transforms the grip force to a large force at the crimp. Figure 3-3 is a free-body diagram of the entire assembly, neglecting the weight of the tool, which is small compared to the crimp force. There are four elements, or links, in the assembly, all pinned together. Link 1 can be considered to be the "ground" link, with the other links moving with respect to it as the jaw is closed. The desired magnitude of the crimp force Fc is defined and its direction will be normal to the surfaces at the crimp.

2.

Figure 3-4 shows the elements of the crimping tool assembly separated and drawn as free-body diagrams with all forces applied to each element, again neglecting their weights as being insignificant compared to the applied forces. The centers of gravity of the respective elements are used as the origins of the local, non rotating coordinate systems in which the points of application of all forces on the element are located. (See footnote on page 116 of the text). We will consider link 1 to be the ground plane and analyze the remaining moving links. Note that all unknown forces and moments are initially assumed positive. Link 4 has three forces acting on it: Fc4 is the known (desired) force at the crimp, and F14 and F34 are the reaction forces from links 1 and 3, respectively. The magnitudes of these two forces are unknown as is the direction of F14. The direction of F34 will be the same as link 3, since it is a two-force member. Writing equations 3.3b for this element:

3.

Fx = F14x + F34x + Fc4x = 0 Fy = F14y + F34y + Fc4y = 0 Mz = ( R14x F14y R14y F14x) ... = 0

(a)

3-30-2

We have three equations and four unknowns (F14x, F14y, F34x, F34y) at this point, so we need another equation. It is available from the fact that the direction of F34 is known. We can express one component of the force F34 in terms of its other component and the known angle 3 of link 3. (b) F34y = F34x tan( 3) where Guess Given

3 := 168 deg

F14x := 500 lbf F14x + F34x + Fc4x = 0 F34x := 1000 lbf F14y := 100 lbf F14y + F34y + Fc4y = 0 F34y := 100 lbf

(c)

( Rc4x Fc4y Rc4y Fc4x) ... = 0 + ( R14x F14y R14y F14x) ... + ( R F R F ) 34x 34y 34y 34x

F34y = F34x tan( 3)

Components of the unknown forces F14, and F34 F14x = 442.9 lbf 4. F14y = 94.1 lbf F34x = 1513.4 lbf F34y = 321.7 lbf

Link 3 has two forces on it, F23 and F43. Because this is a two-force link, these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Also, from Newton's third law, F43 = - F34. Thus, F43x := F34x F43x = 1513.4 lbf F43y := F34y F43y = 321.7 lbf F23x := F43x F23x = 1513.4 lbf F23y := F43y F23y = 321.7 lbf (d)

5.

Link 2 has three forces acting on it: Fhand is the unknown force from the hand, and F12 and F32 are the reaction forces from links 1 and 3, respectively. Force F12 is provided by part 1 on part 2 at the pivot pin and force F32 is provided by part 3 acting on part 2 at their pivot pin. The magnitude and direction of F32 is known and the direction of Fhand is known. Using equations 3.3b, we can solve for the magnitude of Fhand and the two components of F12. From the third law, F32x := F23x F32y := F23y F32x = 1513.4 lbf F32y = 321.7 lbf

Fx = F12x + F32x = 0 Fy = Fhand + F12y + F32y = 0 Mz = ( R12 F12) + ( R32 F32) ... = 0

+ ( Rhand Fhand ) Guess F12x := 1500 lbf F12y := 100 lbf Fhand := 100 lbf (e)

Given F12x + F32x = 0 F12y + F32y + Fhand = 0

3-30-3

( R12x F12y R12y F12x) ... = 0 + ( R32x F32y R32y F32x) ... + R F hand hand F12x F12y := Find( F12x , F12y , Fhand ) F hand

F12x = 1513.4 lbf 6. F12y = 373.4 lbf Fhand = 51.7 lbf

The four forces on link 1 can now be determined using the third law. F21x := F12x F21x = 1513.4 lbf Fc1x := Fc4x F21y := F12y F21y = 373.4 lbf Fc1y := Fc4y F41x := F14x F41x = 442.9 lbf Fc1x = 1956.3 lbf F41y := F14y F41y = 94.1 lbf Fc1y = 415.8 lbf

7.

The solution to this problem for the scaled dimensions in Figure 3-3 assuming a 2000-lb (8896-N) force applied at the crimp, normal to the crimp surface, is given above. The total forces at the pivot points are: Pivot A Pivot B Pivot C Pivot D F12 := F12x + F12y

2 2 2 2 2 0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

2 2

The moment that must be applied to the handles to generate the crimp force of Crimp force Moment Fc4 := Fc4x + Fc4y

2 2 0.5

Mh := Rhand Fhand

This moment can be obtained with a force of Fhand = 52 lbf applied at mid-handle. This force is within the physiological grip-force capacity of the average human.

3-31-1

PROBLEM 3-31

Statement:

_____

Run the TKSolver or Mathcad model for Case Study 2A and move the point of application of P along the x direction by changing the values of Rpx, recalculate and observe the changes to the forces and moments. What happens when the vertical force P is centered on link 3? Also, change the angle of the applied force P to create an x component and observe the effects on the forces and moments on the elements. Determine the forces on the elements of the scissors-jack in the position shown in Figure 3-5. The geometry is known and the jack supports a force of 1000 lb (4448 N) in the position shown. Support force Px := 0.0 lbf Py := 1000 lbf

Problem: Given:

Position vector components (Change the value of Rpx and note the results) Rpx := 0.50 in Rpy := 0.87 in R42x := 2.71 in R42y := 1.00 in R14x := 3.12 in R14y := 1.80 in R12x := 3.12 in R12y := 1.80 in R23x := 0.78 in R23y := 0.78 in R24x := 2.58 in R24y := 1.04 in R32x := 2.08 in R32y := 1.20 in R43x := 0.78 in R43y := 0.78 in R34x := 2.08 in R34y := 1.20 in

:= 45.0 deg

Assumptions: The accelerations are negligible. The jack is on level ground. The angle of the elevated car chassis does not impart an overturning moment to the jack. All forces are coplanar and two-dimensional. A class 1 load model is appropriate and a static analysis is acceptable. Solution: 1. See Figures 3-5 through 3-8, and Mathcad file P0331.

Figure 3-5 shows a schematic of a simple scissors jack used to raise a car. It consists of six links that are pivoted and/or geared together and a seventh link in the form of a lead screw that is turned to raise the jack. While this is clearly a three-dimensional device, it can be analyzed as a two-dimensional one if we assume that the applied load (from the car) and the jack are exactly vertical (in the z direction). If so, all forces will be in the xy plane. This assumption is valid if the car is jacked from a level surface. If not, then there will be some forces in the yz and xz planes as well. The jack designer needs to consider the more general case, but for our simple example we will initially assume two-dimensional loading. For the overall assembly as shown in Figure 3-5, we can solve for the reaction force Fg, given force P, by summing forces: Fg = -P. Figure 3-6 shows a set of free-body diagrams for the entire jack. Each element or subassembly of interest has been separated from the others and the forces and moments shown acting on it (except for its weight, which is small compared to the applied forces and is thus neglected for this analysis). The forces and moments can be either internal reactions at interconnections with other elements or external loads from the "outside world." The centers of gravity of the respective elements are used as the origins of the local, non rotating coordinate systems in which the points of application of all forces on the element are located. In this design, stability is achieved by the mating of two pairs of crude (non involute) gear segments acting between links 2 and 4 and between links 5 and 7. These interactions are modeled as forces acting along a common normal shared by the two teeth. This common normal is perpendicular to the common tangent at the contact point. There are 3 second-law equations available for each of the seven elements allowing 21 unknowns. An additional 10 third-law equations will be needed for a total of 31. This is a cumbersome system to solve for such a simple device, but we can use its symmetry to advantage in order to simplify the problem.

2.

3.

Figure 3-7 shows the upper half of the jack assembly. Because of the mirror symmetry between the upper and lower portions, the lower half can be removed to simplify the analysis. The forces calculated for this half will be duplicated in the other. If we wished, we could solve for the reaction forces at A and B using equations 3.3b from this free-body diagram of the half-jack assembly.

4.

3-31-2

Figure 3-8a shows the free-body diagrams for the upper half of the jack assembly, which are essentially the same as those of Figure 3-6. We now have four elements but can consider the subassembly labeled 1 to be the "ground," leaving three elements on which to apply equations 3.3. Note that all forces and moments are initially assumed positive in the equations. Link 2 has three forces acting on it: F42 is the unknown force at the gear tooth contact with link 4; F12 and F32 are the unknown reaction forces from links 1 and 3, respectively. Force F12 is provided by part 1 on part 2 at the pivot pin and force F32 is provided by part 3 acting on part 2 at their pivot pin. The magnitudes and the directions of these pin forces and the magnitude of F42 are unknown. The direction of F42 is along the common normal shown in Figure 3-8b. Write equations 3.3b for this element to sum the forces in the x and y directions and sum moments about the CG (with the cross products expanded). Fx = F12x + F32x + F42x = 0

5.

(a)

6.

Link 3 has three forces acting on it: P, F23 and F43. Only P is known. Writing equations 3.3b for this element gives

(b)

7.

Link 4 has three forces acting on it: F24 is the unknown force from link 2; F14 and F34 are the unknown reaction forces from links 1 and 3, respectively.

Fx = F14x + F24x + F34x = 0 Fy = F14y + F24y + F34y = 0 Mz = ( R14x F14y R14y F14x) ... = 0

(c)

8.

The nine equations in sets a through c have 16 unknowns in them, F12x, F12y, F32x, F32y, F23x, F23y, F43x, F43y, F14x , F14y, F34x, F34y, F24x, F24y, F42x, F42y. We can write the third-law relationships between action-reaction pairs at each of the joints to obtain six of the seven additional equations needed: F32x = F23x F34x = F43x F42x = F24x F32y = F23y F34y = F43y F42y = F24y (d)

9.

The last equation needed comes from the relationship between the x and y components of the force F24 (or F42) at the tooth/tooth contact point. Such a contact (or half) joint can transmit force (excepting friction force) only along the common normal , which is perpendicular to the joint's common tangent as shown in Figure 3-8b. The common normal is also called the axis of transmission.

The tangent of the angle of this common normal relates the two components of the force at the joint: F24y = F24x tan( ) 10. Equations (d) and (e) will be substituted into equations (a) through (c) to create a set of nine simultaneous equations for solution. Guess F12x := 500 lbf F23x := 500 lbf F43x := 500 lbf Given F12y := 500 lbf F23y := 500 lbf F43y := 500 lbf F14x := 500 lbf F24x := 500 lbf F14y := 500 lbf

3-31-3

(e)

( R12x F12y R12y F12x) ... + ( R32x F23y + R32y F23x) ... + ( R F tan( ) + R F ) 42x 24x 42y 24x ( R23x F23y R23y F23x) ... = 0 + ( R43x F43y R43y F43x) ... + ( R P R P ) px y py x

=0

( R14x F14y R14y F14x) ... =0 + ( R24x F24x tan( ) R24y F24x) ... + ( R F + R F ) 34x 43y 34y 43x

F12x F12y F14x F14y F23x := Find ( F , F , F , F , F , F , F , F , F ) 12x 12y 14x 14y 23x 23y 24x 43x 43y F23y F 24x F43x F43y

Results: F14x = 877.8 lbf F24x = 290.1 lbf F34x := F43x F23x = 587.7 lbf F12x = 877.8 lbf F42x := F24x F14y = 469.6 lbf F24y := F24x tan( ) F34y := F43y F23y = 820.5 lbf F12y = 530.4 lbf F42y := F24y F43x = 587.7 lbf F32x := F23x F43y = 179.5 lbf F32y := F23y F24y = 290.1 lbf

3-32-1

PROBLEM 3-32

Statement:

_____

Figure P3-14 shows a cam-follower arm. If the load P = 200 lb, what spring force is needed at the right end to maintain a minimum load between cam and follower of 25 lb? Find the maximum shear force and bending moment in the follower arm. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Load at left end of beam Load at cam follower P := 200 lbf Pcam := 25 lbf a := 10 in b := 22 in c := 29 in

Given:

Distance from left end to: Pivot point Cam follower Spring Solution: 1. See Figure P3-14 and Mathcad file P0332.

c b

Pcam

Fspring

2.

From inspection of the FBD, write the load function equation q(x) = -P<x - 0>-1 + R<x - a>-1 + Pcam<x - b >-1 - Fspring<x - 0>-1

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -P<x - 0>0 + R<x - a>0 + Pcam<x - b >0 - Fspring<x - 0>0

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -P<x - 0>1 + R<x - a>1 + Pcam<x - b >1 - Fspring<x - 0>1

5.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = c, where both are zero. At x = c+, V = M = 0 V = P + R + Pcam Fspring = 0 M = P c + R ( c a ) + Pcam ( c b ) = 0 P a + Pcam ( b a ) ca

Fspring :=

7.

3-32-2

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x , z) := if ( x z , 1 , 0 )

8.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := P S ( x , 0 in) + R S ( x , a ) + Pcam S ( x , b ) Fspring S ( x , c) M ( x) := P S ( x , 0 in) x + R S ( x , a ) ( x a) + Pcam S ( x , b ) ( x b ) Fspring S ( x , c) ( x c)

9.

Plot the shear and moment diagrams and find the maximum shear force and bending moment.

SHEAR DIAGRAM

200 100 0 100 200 300

V ( x) lbf

10 x in

20

30

Vmax := V ( 0 in)

MOMENT DIAGRAM

0

1500

2000

10 x in

20

30

Mmax := M ( a )

3-33-1

PROBLEM 3-33

Statement:

_____

Write a computer program or equation solver model to calculate all the singularity functions listed in equations 3.17. Set them up as functions that can be called from within any other program or model. See Mathcad file P0333.

Solution: 1.

3-34a-1

PROBLEM 3-34a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-15. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to concentrated load Concentrated load L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in P := 1000 lbf

R1

a

Given:

R2

FIGURE 3-34aA Solution: 1. See Figure 3-34 and Mathcad file P0334a.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-34

From inspection of Figure 3-34, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 + R2<x - b>-1 - P<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 + R2<x - b>0 - P<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 + R2<x - b>1 - P<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b, where both are zero. At x = b +, V = M = 0 V = R1 + R2 P = 0 M = R1 b + R2 ( b a ) = 0 R1 := P a (a b) R1 = 125 lbf R2 = 1125 lbf

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x , z) := if ( x z , 1 , 0 )

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) + R2 S ( x , a ) P S ( x , b ) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) x + R2 S ( x , a ) ( x a ) P S ( x , b ) ( x b)

8.

3-34a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 1000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

500

10 x in

15

20

3000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-34aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-34a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( a ) Vmax = 1000 lbf

Maximum moment occurs where V is zero, which is x = a: Mmax := M ( a ) Mmax = 2000 in lbf

3-35a-1

PROBLEM 3-35a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-15. Write a computer program or equation solver model to find the reactions and calculate and plot the loading, shear, and moment functions. Test the program with the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Enter data in highlighted areas Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to concentrated load Concentrated load Solution: 1. L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in F := 1000 lbf FIGURE 3-34aA See Figures 3-35 and Mathcad file P0335a.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-34

R1

a

Input data:

R2

From inspection of Figure 3-35, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 + R2<x - b>-1 - F<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 + R2<x - b>0 - F<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 + R2<x - b>1 - F<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b, where both are zero. At x = b +, V = M = 0 V = R1 + R2 F = 0 M = R1 b + R2 ( b a ) = 0 R1 := F a ( a b) R1 = 125 lbf R2 = 1125 lbf

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x , z) := if ( x z , 1 , 0 )

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) + R2 S ( x , a ) F S ( x , b ) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) x + R2 S ( x , a ) ( x a ) F S ( x , b ) ( x b )

8.

3-35a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 1000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

500

10 x in

15

20

3000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-34aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-35a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( a ) Vmax = 1000 lbf

Maximum moment occurs where V is zero, which is x = a: Mmax := M ( a ) Mmax = 2000 in lbf

3-36a-1

PROBLEM 3-36a

Statement: Given: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-16. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to start of load Distance to end of load Distributed load Solution: 1. L := 20 in L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in p := 1000 lbf in

R1 L R2 b a p

FIGURE 3-36aA

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-36

From inspection of Figure 3-36, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - p<x - a>0 + p<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - p<x - a>1 + p<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - p<x - a>2/2 + p<x - b>2/2 + R2<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 p ( L a ) + p ( L b ) + R2 = 0 M = R1 L p 2 L p 2 (L a) +

2

p 2

2

( L b ) + R2 ( L b) = 0

2

R1 :=

2 ( b a ) L + a b

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) p S ( x , a ) ( x a) + p S ( x , b ) ( x b ) + R2 S ( x , L) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) x p 2 S(x , a) ( x a) +

2

p 2

S ( x , b ) ( x b ) + R2 S ( x , L) ( x L)

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams.

3-36a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 5000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

2000

10 x in

15

20

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-36aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-36a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( b ) Vmax = 1700 lbf

c :=

c = 16.3 in

Mmax := M ( c)

3-37a-1

PROBLEM 3-37a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-16. Write a computer program or equation solver model to find the reactions and calculate and plot the loading, shear, and moment functions. Test the program with the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Enter data in highlighted areas Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to start of load Distance to end of load Distributed load Solution: 1. L := 20 in L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in p := 1000 lbf in

R1 L R2 b a p

Input data:

FIGURE 3-37aA

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-37

From inspection of Figure 3-37, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - p<x - a>0 + p<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - p<x - a>1 + p<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - p<x - a>2/2 + p<x - b>2/2 + R2<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 p ( L a ) + p ( L b ) + R2 = 0 M = R1 L p 2 L p 2 (L a) +

2

p 2

2

( L b ) + R2 ( L b) = 0

2

R1 :=

2 ( b a ) L + a b

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) p S ( x , a ) ( x a) + p S ( x , b ) ( x b ) + R2 S ( x , L) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) x p 2 S(x , a) ( x a) +

2

p 2

S ( x , b ) ( x b ) + R2 S ( x , L) ( x L)

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams.

3-37a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 5000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

2000

10 x in

15

20

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-37aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-37a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( b ) Vmax = 1700 lbf

c :=

c = 16.3 in

Mmax := M ( c)

3-38a-1

PROBLEM 3-38a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-17. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to concentrated load Concentrated load Distributed load Solution: 1. L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in P := 1000 lbf p := 1000 lbf in

1

R1

a

Given:

b p

R2

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-38

Determine the distance from the origin to the left and right ends of the roller. Distance to left end Distance to right end e := 0.1 a f := 0.9 a e = 1.600 in f = 14.400in

2.

From inspection of Figure 3-38, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - p<x - e>0 + p<x - f>0 + R2<x - a>-1 - P<x - b>-1

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - p<x - e>1 + p<x - f>1 + R2<x - a>0 - P<x - b>0

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - p<x - e>2/2 + p<x - f>2/2 + R2<x - a>1 - P<x - b>1

5.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b, where both are zero. At x = b +, V = M = 0 V = R1 p ( b e ) + p ( b f ) + R2 P = 0 M = R1 b p 2 ( b e) +

2

p 2

( b f ) + R2 ( b a) = 0

R1 :=

e2 f 2 b a P + f e p 2 a a

8.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 m) p S ( x , e) ( x e) + p S ( x , f ) ( x f ) + R2 S ( x , a ) P S ( x , b ) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 m) x p S ( x , e) ( x e) +

2

2 2 + R2 S ( x , a ) ( x a) P S ( x , b ) ( x b )

S ( x , f ) ( x f ) ...

3-38a-2

9.

SHEAR DIAGRAM

10000 30000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

20000

10000

5000

10000

10 x in

15

20

10000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-38aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-38a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( f ) Vmax = 6525 lbf

Mmax := M ( c)

3-39a-1

PROBLEM 3-39a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-17. Write a computer program or equation solver model to find the reactions and calculate and plot the loading, shear, and moment functions. Test the program with the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Enter data in highlighted areas Beam length Distance to RH bearing Distance to concentrated load Concentrated load Distributed load Solution: 1. L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in P := 1000 lbf p := 1000 lbf in

1

R1

a

Input data:

b p

R2

Determine the distance from the origin to the left and right ends of the roller. Distance to left end Distance to right end e := 0.1 a f := 0.9 a e = 40.64 mm f = 365.76mm

2.

From inspection of Figure 3-39, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - p<x - e>0 + p<x - f>0 + R2<x - a>-1 - P<x - b>-1

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - p<x - e>1 + p<x - f>1 + R2<x - a>0 - P<x - b>0

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - p<x - e>2/2 + p<x - f>2/2 + R2<x - a>1 - P<x - b>1

5.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b, where both are zero. At x = b +, V = M = 0 V = R1 p ( b e ) + p ( b f ) + R2 P = 0 M = R1 b p 2 ( b e) +

2

p 2

( b f ) + R2 ( b a) = 0

R1 :=

e2 f 2 b a P + f e p 2 a a

8.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 m) p S ( x , e) ( x e) + p S ( x , f ) ( x f ) + R2 S ( x , a ) P S ( x , b )

3-39a-2

M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 m) x

2 2 + R2 S ( x , a ) ( x a) P S ( x , b ) ( x b )

S ( x , e) ( x e) +

S ( x , f ) ( x f ) ...

9.

SHEAR DIAGRAM

10000 30000

MOMENT DIAGRAM

20000

10000

5000

10000

10 x in

15

20

10000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-39aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-39a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( f ) Vmax = 6525 lbf

Mmax := M ( c)

3-40a-1

PROBLEM 3-40a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-18. Find the reactions, maximum shear, and maximum moment for the data given in row a from Table P3-2.

a

Given:

Distance to gear 2 Distance to gear 1 Distance to RH bearing Concentrated load at gear 2 Concentrated load at gear 1

R1

P1

P2

R2 b

L

FIGURE 3-40a Solution: 1. See Figure 3-40 and Mathcad file P0340a.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-40

From inspection of Figure 3-40, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - P1<x - a>-1 + R2<x - b>-1 - P2<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - P1<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>0 - P2<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - P1<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>1 - P<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 P1 + R2 P2 = 0 M = R1 L P1 ( L a ) + R2 ( b a ) = 0

R1 := P1 1

a b

+ P2 1

L b

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 in) P1 S ( x , a ) + R2 S ( x , b ) P2 S ( x , L) M ( x) := R1 S ( x , 0 mm) ( x 0 mm) P1 S ( x , a ) ( x a ) ... + R2 S ( x , b ) ( x b) P2 S ( x , L) ( x L)

8.

3-40a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 0

MOMENT DIAGRAM

1000

2000

500

10 x in

15

20

3000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-40aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-40a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( b ) Vmax = 1000 lbf

Maximum moment occurs where V is zero, which is x = b: Mmax := M ( b ) Mmax = 2000 in lbf

3-41a-1

PROBLEM 3-41a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P3-18. Write a computer program or equation solver model to find the reactions and calculate and plot the loading, shear, and moment functions. Test the program with the data given in row a from Table P3-2. Enter data in highlighted areas Distance to gear 2 Distance to gear 1 Distance to RH bearing Concentrated load at gear 2 Concentrated load at gear 1 Solution: 1. L := 20 in a := 16 in b := 18 in P2 := 1000 lbf P1 := 0.4 P2 FIGURE 3-41aA See Figure 3-41 and Mathcad file P0341a.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-41

R1 b

L

Input data:

a P1

P2

R2

From inspection of Figure 3-41, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - P1<x - a>-1 + R2<x - b>-1 - P2<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - P1<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>0 - P2<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - P1<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>1 - P<x - L>1

4.

Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = L, where both are zero. At x = L+, V = M = 0 V = R1 P1 + R2 P2 = 0 M = R1 L P1 ( L a ) + R2 ( b a ) = 0

R1 := P1 1

a b

+ P2 1

L b

7.

Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( z) := R1 S ( z , 0 in) P1 S ( z , a) + R2 S ( z , b) P2 S ( z , L) M ( z) := R1 S ( z , 0 mm) ( z 0 mm ) P1 S ( z , a) ( z a ) ... + R2 S ( z , b) ( z b ) P2 S ( z , L) ( z L)

8. Plot the shear and moment diagrams.

3-41a-2

SHEAR DIAGRAM

1000 0

MOMENT DIAGRAM

1000

2000

500

10 x in

15

20

3000

10 x in

15

20

FIGURE 3-41aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 3-41a

9.

Determine the maximum shear and maximum moment from inspection of the diagrams. Maximum shear: Vmax := V ( b ) Vmax = 1000 lbf

Maximum moment occurs where V is zero, which is x = b: Mmax := M ( b ) Mmax = 2000 in lbf

3-42-1

PROBLEM 3-42

Statement:

_____

A 1000 kg speedboat reaches a speed of 16 kph at the instant it takes up the slack in a 100 m-long tow rope attached to a surfboard carrying a 100 kg passenger. If the rope has k = 5 N/m, what is the dynamic force exerted on the surfboard? Mass of speedboat Speed of boat Mass of passenger Rope stiffness ms := 1000 kg vi := 16 kph mp := 100 kg k := 5 N m

1

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The water does not influence the dynamic force. 2. An impact model can be used to estimate the dynamic force. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0342.

For the impact model, the passenger is the "struck" mass and the speedboat is the "striking mass". Thus, from equation 3.15, the energy correction factor is:

:=

1+

1 mp 3 ms

= 0.97

2.

Fi := vi ms k

Fi = 309 N

3-43-1

PROBLEM 3-43

Statement: Figure P3-19 shows an oil-field pump jack. For the position shown, draw free-body diagrams of the crank (2), connecting rod (3) and walking beam (4) using variable names similar to those used in Case Studies 1A and 2A. Assume that the crank turns slowly enough that accelerations can be ignored. Include the weight acting at the CG of the walking beam and the crank but not the connecting rod.

Assumptions: 1. A two-dimensional model is adequate. 2. Inertia forces may be ignored. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0343.

Isolate each of the elements to be analyzed, starting with the walking beam, since the external forces on it are known. Place the known force, Fcable, at the point P and the known weight at the CG. Assume the forces at the interfaces O4 and B to be positive. The position vectors R14, R34, and Rp will be known as will the angle, 3,that the connecting rod makes with the horizontal axis.

14x

y 3 B x

counterweight

RP F

14y

F cable

2. The connecting rod is a two-force member with the forces acting at the interfaces A and B along the line joining points A and B. The assumption made in step 1 is that these are compressive forces on link 3.

W4

F43 y B R 43

3

x

R23

F 23

3. The crank is acted on by forces at A and O2, its weight at its CG, and a torque which we will assume to be positive (CCW). As in step 1, assume that the unknown reaction force at O2 is positive.

3-43-2

F32 y

12y

3 x

2 O2 T2 W2

12x

3-44-1

PROBLEM 3-44

Statement: Given: For the pump jack of Problem 3-43 and the data of Table P3-3, determine the pin forces on the walking beam, connecting rod, and crank and the reaction torque on the crank. R12 := 13.2 in R32 := 0.80 in Fcable := 2970 lbf

W4 := 2706 lbf

3 := 98.5 deg

Solution: 1.

14x

y 3 B x

counterweight

RP F

14y

F cable

W4

F43 y

F32 y

B R 43

12y

3 x

3

x

2 O2 T2 W2

12x

R23

F 23

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed. 2. Calculate the x- and y-components of the position vectors.

R12x := R12 cos( 12) R14x := R14 cos( 14) R32x := R32 cos( 32) R34x := R34 cos( 34) RPx := RP cos( P) 3. R12x = 9.334 in R14x = 76.151 in R32x = 0.566 in R34x = 31.412 in RPx = 123.966 in R12y := R12 sin( 12) R14y := R14 sin( 14) R32y := R32 sin( 32) R34y := R34 sin( 34) RPy := RP sin( P) R12y = 9.334 in R14y = 21.836 in R32y = 0.566 in R34y = 6.106 in RPy = 10.846 in

3-44-2

4.

F14x + F34x = 0 Fcable + F14y + F34y W4 = 0 Rpx Fcable + ( R14x F14y R14y F14x) + ( R34x F34y R34y F34x) = 0

The direction (but not the sense) of F34 is known so write the equation that relates the x- and y-components of this force. F34y F34x tan( 3) = 0 (4)

5.

There are four unknowns in the four equations above. Solving for F14x, F14y, F34x, and F34y, 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A := R14y R14x R34y R34x in in in in 0 tan( 3) 1 0 F14x = 2446 lbf F14y = 10687 lbf 0 Fcable + W4 lbf B := RPx Fcable in lbf 0 F34x = 2446 lbf

F34y = 16363 lbf

6.

From Newton's thrid law and, since the connecting rod (3) is a two-force member F43x := F34x F23x := F43x F43x = 2446 lbf F23x = 2446 lbf F43y := F34y F23y := F43y F43y = 16363 lbf F23y = 16363 lbf

7.

8. F32x := F23x

F12x + F32x = 0 F12y + F32y W2 = 0 T2 + ( R12x F12y R12y F12x) + ( R32x F32y R32y F32x) = 0 (7)

(5) (6)

There are three unknowns in the three equations above. Solving for F12x, F12y, and T2, since F32x = 2446 lbf F32y := F23y F32y = 16363 lbf

3-44-3

0 0 1 1 0 0 A := R12y R12x 1 in in

F12x 1 F12y := A B T 2

lbf in-lbf

F12y = 16961

lbf

3-45-1

PROBLEM 3-45

Statement: Figure P3-20 shows an aircraft overhead bin mechanism in end view. For the position shown, draw free-body diagrams of links 2 and 4 and the door (3) using variable names similar to those used in Case Studies 1A and 2A. There are stops that prevent further clockwise motion of link 2 (and the identical link behind it at the other end of the door) resulting in horizontal forces being applied to the door at points A. Assume that the mechanism is symmetrical so that each set of links 2 and 4 carry one half of the door weight. Ignore the weight of links 2 and 4 as they are negligible.

Assumptions: 1. A two-dimensional model is adequate. 2. Inertia forces may be ignored as the mechanism is at rest against stops. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0345.

Isolate each of the elements to be analyzed, starting with the door. Place the force, Fstop, at the point A and the known weight at the CG. Assume the forces in links 2 and 4 to be positive (tensile). The position vectors R43 and R23 will be known as will the angles 2 and 4 that links 2 and 4 make with the horizontal axis.

W3 2

F 12

2.

Links 2 and 4 are two-force members with the forces acting at the pinned ends along the line joining the pin centers. The assumption made in step 1 is that these are tensile forces on links 2 and 4.

y O2 R12 2

x

4

F 14 O4 R14 x 4 R34 B F 34

R32 A

F 32

3-46-1

PROBLEM 3-46

Statement: Given: For the overhead bin mechanism of Problem 3-45 and the data of Table P3-4, determine the pin forces on the door (3), and links 2 & 4 and the reaction force on each of the two stops. R23 := 180.0 mm 23 := 160.345 deg W3 := 45 N Solution: 1. R43 := 180.0 mm

43 := 27.862 deg

2 := 85.879 deg

4 := 172.352 deg

F 12

y O2 R12 2

2

4

F 14

x R32 A

F 23

O4

R14

x 4 R34 B F 34

F 32

F stop A

2 R23

F 43 y R43 3 B x

W3 2

2. Calculate the x- and y-components of the position vectors on the door (3). R23x := R23 cos( 23) R43x := R43 cos( 43) 3. R23x = 169.512 mm R43x = 159.134 mm R23y := R23 sin( 23) R43y := R43 sin( 43) R23y = 60.544 mm R43y = 84.122 mm

Fx:

(1)

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed. F23y + F43y 0.5 W3 = 0 Fy:

3-46-2

(2)

Mz:

4.

R23x Fstop + ( R23x F23y R23y F23x) + ( R43x F43y R43y F43x) = 0

(3)

The directions (but not the sense) of F 23 and F43 are known so write the equations that relates the x- and y-components of these forces. F23y F23x tan( 2) = 0 F43y F43x tan( 4) = 0 (4) (5)

5.

There are five unknowns in the five equations above. Solving for F23x, F23y, F43x, F43y, and Fstop:

0 0.5 W3 N B := 0 0 0

F23x = 1.49 N

F23y = 20.63 N

F43x = 13.96 N

F43y = 1.87 N

2 2

F43 :=

F43x + F43y

F43 = 14.08 N

From Newton's thrid law and, since links 2 and 4 are two-force members F34x := F43x F32x := F23x F34x = 13.96 N F32x = 1.49 N F34y := F43y F32y := F23y F34y = 1.87 N F32y = 20.63 N

The pin forces at O2 and O4 are numerically equal to those at A and B, respectively.

3-47-1

PROBLEM 3-47

Statement: A particular automobile front suspension consists of two A-arms , the wheel (with tire), a coil spring, and a shock absorber (damper). The effective stiffness of the suspension (called the "ride rate") is a function of the coil spring stiffness and the tire stiffness. The A-arms are designed to give the wheel a nearly vertical displacement as the tire rides over bumps in the road. The entire assembly can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system as shown in Figure 3-15(b). If the sprung mass (mass of the portion of the vehicle supported by the suspension system) weighs 675 lb, determine the ride rate that is required to achieve an undamped natural frequency of 1.4 Hz. What is the static deflection of the suspension for the calculated ride rate? Hz := 2 rad sec Sprung mass

1

Ws := 675 lbf

See Figure 3-15(b) and Mathcad file P0347. Ws g Ms = 1.748 lbf sec in

2 1

2.

Using equation 3.4, calculate the required ride rate Ride rate k := n Ms

2

k = 135.28

lbf in

3.

:=

Ws k

= 4.99in

3-48-1

PROBLEM 3-48

Statement: The independent suspension system of Problem 3-47 has an unsprung weight (the weight of the axle, wheel, A-arms, etc.) of 106 lb. Calculate the natural frequency (hop resonance) of the unsprung mass if the sum of the tire and coil spring stiffnesses is 1100 lb/in. Hz := 2 rad sec Unsprung mass

1

Units: Given:

Wu := 106 lbf

Stiffness

k := 1100

lbf in

Solution: 1.

See Figure 3-15(b) and Mathcad file P0348. Wu g Mu = 0.275 lbf sec in

2 1

2.

n :=

k Mu

n = 10.1 Hz

3-49-1

PROBLEM 3-49

Statement: The independent suspension system of Problem 3-47 has a sprung weight of 675 lb and a ride rate of 135 lb/in. Calculate the damped natural frequency of the sprung mass if the damping coefficient of the shock absorber is a constant 12 lb-sec/in. Hz := 2 rad sec Sprung mass

1

Units: Given:

Ws := 675 lbf d := 12

k := 135

lbf in

Damping coefficient

Solution: 1.

2 1

2.

Using equation 3.7, calculate the damped natural frequency Damped natural frequency

d :=

k Ms

2 Ms

d

d = 1.29Hz

3-50-1

PROBLEM 3-50_______________________________________________________

Statement: Figure P3-22 shows a powder compaction mechanism. For the position shown, draw free-body diagrams of the input arm (2), connecting rod (3) and compacting ram (4) using variable names similar to those used in Case Studies 1A and 2A. Assume that the input arm turns slowly enough that accelerations can be ignored. Ignore the weights of the arm, connecting rod, and compacting ram. Neglect friction.

Assumptions: 1. A two-dimensional model is adequate. 2. Inertia forces may be ignored. 3. The reactions at slider bearings E and F can be modeled as concentrated forces acting horizontally at the center of each bearing. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0350.

y E D F34

3

Isolate each of the elements to be analyzed, starting with the compacting rod, since the external force on it is known. Place the known force, Fcom , at the point P. The position vectors R14E, R14F, and R p will be known as will the angle, q3,that the compacting ram makes with the vertical axis.

F14E

2.

3.

The connecting rod is a two-force member with the forces acting at the interfaces B and D along the line joining points B and D. The assumption made in step 1 is that these are tensile forces on link 3. The input arm is acted on by forces at A, B, and C. Assume that the unknown reaction force at A is positive.

F14F

F43

P Fcom

Compacting Ram (4)

D y R43 x R23 B

Fin Rin B R32 R12

Input Arm (2)

F23

3-51-1

PROBLEM 3-51______________________________________________________

Statement: Given:

For the compaction mechanism of Problem 3-50 and the data of Table P3-5, determine the pin forces on the compacting ram, connecting rod, and input arm.

R12 := 148.4 mm 12 := 45 deg R14F := 62.9 mm 14F := 270 deg R23 := 87.6 mm R32 := 42.9 mm Fcom := 100 N

R43 := 87.6 mm

Solution: 1.

y R14E R34 x F

3

F43

F14E

E D

D y R43 x R23 B

C

F34 F14F

R14F RP

P Fcom

F23

y

Connecting Rod (3)

Input Arm (2)

2. Calculate the x- and y-components of the position vectors. R12x := R12 cos( 12) R14Ex := R14E cos( 14E) R14Fx := R14F cos( 14F ) R23x := R23 cos( 23) R32x := R32 cos( 32) R34x := R34 cos( 34) R43x := R43 cos( 43) RPx := RP cos( P) Rinx := Rin cos( in) 3. R12x = 104.935 mm R14Ex = 0 mm R14Fx = 0.000 mm R23x = 23.616 mm R32x = 11.566 mm R34x = 0.000 mm R43x = 23.616 mm RPx = 0.000 mm Rinx = 107.904 mm R12y := R12 sin( 12) R14Ey := R14E sin( 14E) R14Fy := R14F sin( 14F ) R23y := R23 sin( 23) R32y := R32 sin( 32) R34y := R34 sin( 34) R43y := R43 sin( 43) RPy := RP sin( P) Riny := Rin sin( in)

3-51-2

R12y = 104.935 mm R14Ey = 57.000 mm R14Fy = 62.900 mm R23y = 84.357 mm R32y = 41.312 mm R34y = 15.000 mm R43y = 84.357 mm RPy = 105.000 mm Riny = 107.904 mm

4.

The direction (but not the sense) of F34 is known so write the equation that relates the x- and y-components of this force. F34y F34x tan( 3) = 0 (4)

5.

There are four unknowns in the four equations above. Solving for F14x, F14y, F34x, and F34y, 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 A := R14Ey R14Fy R34y R34x mm mm mm mm 0 tan( 3) 1 0 F14E = 18.2 N F14F = 9.8 N

0 F com B := N 0 0

F34x = 28.0 N

F34y = 100.0 N

6.

From Newton's thrid law and, since the connecting rod (3) is a two-force member F43x := F34x F23x := F43x F43x = 28.0 N F23x = 28.0 N F43y := F34y F23y := F43y F43y = 100.0 N F23y = 100.0 N

7.

(R12x F12y R12y F12x) + (R32x F32y R32y F32x) + (Rinx Finy Riny Finx) = 0

8. The direction (but not the sense) of Fin is known so write the equation that relates the x- and y-components of this force. Finy Finx tan( in) = 0 9. There are four unknowns in the four equations above. Solving for F12x, F12y, Finx, and Finy, since F32x := F23x F32x = 28 N F32y := F23y F32x N F32y B := N ( R32x F32y R32y F32x) N mm 0 Finx = 64.0 N Fin := F32y = 100 N

3-51-3

(8)

F12y = 36.0 N

Finx = 64.0 N

F12x2 + F12y2

Finx2 + Finy2

F12 = 51 N

Fin = 91 N

3-52-1

PROBLEM 3-52

Statement: Figure P3-23 shows a drag link slider crank mechanism. For the position shown, draw free-body diagrams of links 2 through 6 using variable names similar to those used in Case Studies 1A and 2A. Assume that the crank turns slowly enough that accelerations can be ignored. Ignore the weights of the links and any friction forces or torques.

Assumptions: 1. A two-dimensional model is adequate. 2. Inertia forces may be ignored. 3. Links 4 and 6 are three-force bodies. Solution: 1. See Figure P3-23 and Mathcad file P0352.

Isolate each of the elements to be analyzed, starting with the slider, link 6, since the external forces on it are known. Place the known force, FP, at the point P. This is a three-force member so the forces are coincident at point D and there is no turning moiment on the link. The angle, 5,that link 5 makes with the horizontal axis is known.

y

F 56

5

D

F P

2.

Link 5 is a two-force member with the forces acting at the interfaces C and D along the line joining points C and D. The assumption made in step 1 is that these are compressive forces on link 5.

F 16

Slider block 6

F45

x R45

5

D

R65

Link 5

F65

3.

Link 4 is a three-force body with the three forces meeting at a point. The position vectors R 14, R34, and R54 will be known as will the angles, 3 and 5,that links 3 and 5, respectively, make with the horizontal axis.

3-52-2

y R34

E

F54 x F14y

O4

R54

Link 4

F43 y

B

R43 x

4.

Link 3 is a two-force member with the forces acting at the interfaces A and B along the line joining points A and B.

R23

5. The crank is acted on by forces at A and O2, and a torque which we will assume to be positive (CCW). As in step 1, assume that the unknown reaction force at O2 is positive.

F23

Link 3

F y R32 T

12y

F12x

O2

x R12

F32

Link 2

3-53-1

PROBLEM 3-53

Statement: Given:

For the drag link slider crank mechanism of Problem 3-52 and the data of Table P3-6, determine the pin forces on the slider, connecting rods, and crank and the reaction torque on the crank.

R34 := 103.5 mm 34 := 202.68 deg R45 := 190.5 mm 45 := 156.65 deg R65 := 190.5 mm 65 := 23.35 deg R54 := 103.5 mm 54 := 45.34 deg

3 := 87.80 deg

Solution: 1.

y

F 56

Slider block 6

5

D

F P

F 16

F45

x R45

5

D

Link 5

R65

F65

2.

Calculate the x- and y-components of the position vectors. R12x := R12 cos( 12) R14x := R14 cos( 14) R23x := R23 cos( 23) R32x := R32 cos( 32) R34x := R34 cos( 34) R43x := R43 cos( 43) R12x = 44.602 mm R14x = 52.489 mm R23x = 2.438 mm R32x = 44.602 mm R34x = 95.497 mm R43x = 2.438 mm R12y := R12 sin( 12) R14y := R14 sin( 14) R23y := R23 sin( 23) R32y := R32 sin( 32) R34y := R34 sin( 34) R43y := R43 sin( 43) R12y = 45.198 mm R14y = 77.497 mm R23y = 63.453 mm R32y = 45.198 mm R34y = 39.908 mm R43y = 63.453 mm

R45x := R45 cos( 45) R54x := R54 cos( 54) R65x := R65 cos( 65) R45x = 174.898 mm R54x = 72.75 mm R65x = 174.898 mm R45y := R45 sin( 45) R54y := R54 sin( 54) R65y := R65 sin( 65)

3-53-2

R45y = 75.504 mm R54y = 73.619 mm R65y = 75.504 mm

F43 y

y R34

E

F54 x F14y

O4

R43 x

B

R54

F14x

R23

A

F34

R14

Link 4

F23

Link 3

F y R32 T

12y

F12x

O2

x R12

F32

Link 2 3. Write equations 3(b) for link 5, the slider.

Fx: Fy:

4.

(1) (2)

The direction (but not the sense) of F56 is known so write the equation that relates the x- and y-components of this force. F56y F56x tan( 5) = 0 (3)

5.

There are three unknowns in the three equations above. Solving for F56x, F56y, and F16,

0 0 1 0 1 1 A := tan( 5) 1 0

3-53-3

FP N B := 0 0

F56y = 36.7 N F16 = 36.7 N

F56x 1 F56y := A B N F 16

F56x = 85.0 N 6.

From Newton's thrid law and, since the connecting rod (5) is a two-force member F65x := F56x F45x := F65x and, for link 4 F54x := F45x F54x = 85 N F54y := F45y F54y = 36.7 N F65x = 85 N F45x = 85 N F65y := F56y F45y := F65y F65y = 36.7 N F45y = 36.7 N

7.

8.

(4) (5)

(R14x F14y R14y F14x) + (R34x F34y R34y F34x) + (R54x F54y R54y F54x) = 0

The direction (but not the sense) of F34 is known so write the equation that relates the x- and y-components of this force. F34y F34x tan( 3) = 0 (7)

9.

There are four unknowns in the four equations above. Solving for F34x, F34y, F14x, and F14y, F54x N F54y B := N ( R54x F54y R54y F54x) N mm 0 F14x = 81.5 N

F34x = 3.5 N

F34y = 90.9 N

F14y = 127.6 N

10. From Newton's thrid law and, since the connecting rod (3) is a two-force member F43x := F34x F23x := F43x and, for link 2 F32x := F23x F32x = 3.5 N F32y := F23y F32y = 90.9 N F43x = 3.5 N F23x = 3 N F43y := F34y F23y := F43y F43y = 90.9 N F23y = 90.9 N

11. Write equations 3(b) for link 2, the crank.

3-53-4

F12x + F32x = 0 F12y + F32y = 0 T2 + ( R12x F12y R12y F12x) + ( R32x F32y R32y F32x) = 0

12. There are three unknowns in the three equations above. Solving for F12x, F12y, and T2 F32x N F32y B := N ( R32x F32y R32y F32x) N mm

0 0 1 1 0 0 A := R12y R12x mm mm 1

F12x 1 F12y := A B T 2

F12x = 3.5 N

F12y = 90.9

T2 = 7796

N*mm

4-1a-1

PROBLEM 4-1a

Statement: A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as indicated in each row of Table P4-1. For row a, draw the stress element showing the applied stresses, find the principal stresses and maximum shear stress using Mohr's circle diagram, and draw the rotated stress element showing the principal stresses.

Given:

x := 1000 xy := 500

y := 0 yz := 0

z := 0 zx := 0

500 y x 1000

Solution:

1. Draw the stress element, indicating the x and y axes. 2. Draw the Mohr's circle axes, indicating the and axes with CW up and CCW down. 3. Plot the positive x-face point, which is (+1000, -500), and label it with an "x." 4. Plot the positive y-face point, which is (0, +500), and label it with a "y."

FIGURE 4-1aA

Stress Element for Problem 4-1a

5. Draw a straight line from point x to point y. Using the point where this line intersects the -axis as the center of the Mohr circle, draw a circle that goes through points x and y. 6. The center of the circle will be at

c :=

x + y

2

c = 500

7. The circle will intersect the -axis at two of the principal stresses. In this case, we see that one is positive and the other is negative so they will be 1 and 3. The third principal stress is 2 = 0.

x y 2 R := + xy 2

R = 707.1

CW

CW

-500 3 0

500 2

1000 1

1500

-500 3

2-3 0 2

500

1000 1

1500

500

500

CCW

CCW

FIGURE 4-1aB

2D and 3D Mohr's Circle Diagrams for Problem 4-1a

9. Calculate the principal stresses

4-1a-2

1 := c + R 3 := c R

1 = 1207 3 = 207

2 := 0

10. Draw the three Mohr's circles to represent the complete 3D stress state. 11. Calculate the principal shear stresses

y 207 1207 22.5 x

The maximum principal stress is always 13. 12. Determine the orientation of the principal normal stress (1) with respect to the x-axis. From the 2D Mohr's circle diagram, we see that the angle 2 from x to 1 is CCW and is given by FIGURE 4-1aC

x c := acos 2 R

1

= 22.5 deg

13. Draw the rotated 2D stress element showing the two nonzero principal stresses.

4-1h-1

PROBLEM 4-1h

Statement: A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as indicated in each row of Table P4-1. For row h, draw the stress element showing the applied stresses, find the principal stresses and maximum shear stress and draw the Mohr's circle diagram.

Given:

x := 750 xy := 500

y := 500 yz := 0

z := 250 zx := 0

z 250

Solution:

3

C1 :=

x xy x zx y yz + + xy y zx z yz z

750

C1 = 4.375 10

500

500

500

y

x xy zx C0 := xy y yz zx yz z

C0 = 3.125 10

FIGURE 4-1hA

Stress Element for Problem 4-1h

C2 + C 1 C0 = 0

C0 C1 v := C2 1

r := polyroots ( v)

CW

1 := r 2 := r 3 := r

3 2 1

1 = 1140

500

1-3 1-2

2 = 250 3 = 110

-500

2-3

0

500

1000

1500

3 2 1

13 := 12 := 23 :=

1 3

2

13 = 515 12 = 445 23 = 70

500

1 2

2

2 3

2

CCW

The Three Mohr's Circles for Problem 4-1h

4-2-1

PROBLEM 4-2

Statement: A 400-lb chandelier is to be hung from two 10-ft-long solid steel cables in tension. Choose a suitable diameter for the cable such that the stress will not exceed 5000 psi. What will be the deflection of the cables? State all assumptions. Weight of chandelier Length of cable Allowable stress Number of cables Young's modulus W := 400 lbf L := 10 ft L = 120 in allow := 5000 psi N := 2 E := 30 10 psi

6

Given:

Assumptions: The cables share the load equally. Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0402. P := W N P = 200 lbf

The stress in each cable will be equal to the load on the cable divided by its cross-sectional area. Using equation (4.7), and setting the stress equal to the allowable stress, we have

allow =

3.

4 P

d

Solve this equation for the unknown cable diameter. d := 4 P

allow

d = 0.226 in

4. 5.

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fractional size: Using equation (4.8), determine the deflection in each cable. Cross-section area A :=

d := 0.250 in

d

4

A = 0.049 in

Cable deflection

s :=

P L A E

s = 0.016 in

4-3-1

PROBLEM 4-3

Statement: For the bicycle pedal-arm assembly in Figure 4-1 with rider-applied force of 1500 N at the pedal, determine the maximum principal stress in the pedal arm if its cross-section is 15 mm in dia. The pedal attaches to the pedal arm with a 12-mm screw thread. What is the stress in the pedal screw? Distances (see figure) Rider-applied force Pedal arm diameter Screw thread diameter a 170 mm Frider 1.5 kN d pa 15 mm d sc 12 mm

z

Given:

b 60 mm

Solution:

a C Mc Arm y Tc Frider b

1. From the FBD in Figure 4-3A (and on the solution for Problem 3-3), we see that the force from the rider is reacted in the pedal arm internally by a moment, a torque, and a vertical shear force. There are two points at section C (Figure 4-3B) that we should investigate, one at z = 0.5 d pa (point A), and one at y = 0.5 d pa (point B). 2. Refering to the FBD resulting from taking a section through the arm at C, the maximum bending moment Mc is found by summing moments about the y-axis, and the maximum torque Tc is found by summing moments about the x-axis. M y: M x: Frider a Mc = 0 Frider b Tc = 0

Fc Pedal x

FIGURE 4-3A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-3

A

Maximum bending moment: Mc Frider a Mc 255 N m

Section C B

Arm

x y

FIGURE 4-3B

Points A and B at Section C

3.

Determine the stress components at point A where we have the effects of bending and torsion, but where the transverse shear due to bending is zero because A is at the outer fiber. Looking down the z-axis at a stress element on the surface at A, Distance to neutral axis cpa 0.5 d pa cpa 7.5 mm

Moment of inertia of pedal-arm

4-3-2

Ipa

d pa

64

Ipa 2.485 10 mm

Mc cpa Ipa

x 769.6 MPa

y 0 MPa xy

Tc cpa 2 Ipa

xy 135.8 MPa

CW

1A

x y

2

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

3A

x y

2

1A 793 MPa

4.

2A 0 MPa

3A 23 MPa

Determine the stress components at point B where we have the effects of transverse shear and torsion, but where the bending stress is zero because B is on the neutral plane. Looking down the y-axis at a stress element at B, Cross-section area of pedal-arm Torsional stress due to Tc and shear stress due to Fc Normal stresses

Apa

d pa

4

Apa 176.7 mm

zx

4 Fc xy 3 Apa

zx 124.5 MPa

CW

x 0 MPa x z

2

z 0 MPa

2 x z 2 zx 2 2 x z 2 zx 2

Principal stresses at B

1B

3B 1B 124 MPa

x z

2

2B 0 MPa

3B 124 MPa

5.

1A 793 MPa

6. Determine the stress in the pedal screw. Bending moment Distance to neutral axis Moment of inertia of pedal screw Msc Frider b csc 0.5 d sc Isc Msc 90 N m csc 6 mm Isc 1.018 10 mm

3 4

4-3-3

d sc

64

y 530.5 MPa

z 0 MPa xy 0 MPa

Since there is no shear stress present at the top of the screw where the bending stress is a maximum, the maximum principal stress in the pedal screw is

1 y

1 530.5 MPa

4-4-1

PROBLEM 4-4

Statement: The trailer hitch shown in Figure P4-2 and Figure 1-1 (p. 12) has loads applied as defined in Problem 3-4. The tongue weight of 100 kg acts downward and the pull force of 4905 N acts horizontally. Using the dimensions of the ball bracket shown in Figure 1-5 (p. 15), determine: (a) The principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) The bearing stress in the ball bracket hole. (c) The tearout stress in the ball bracket. (d) The normal and shear stresses in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) The principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 4.905 kN c 70 mm d sh 26 mm d 20 mm t 19 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figure 4-4 and Mathcad file P0404. Wtongue Mtongue g Wtongue 0.981 kN

2. Solving first for the reactions on the ball by summing the horizontal and vertical forces and the moments about A.

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 4-4A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-4

Fx : Fy :

(1) (2)

MA: Fb1 t Fpull a = 0 Fb1 Fpull a t Fb1 10.326 kN Fa1x 15.231 kN Fa1y 0.981 kN

4-4-2

(3)

3. Solving equation (3) for Fb1 4. Substituting into (1) and solving for Fa1x 5. Solving (2) for Fa1y

6. Now, refering to the FBD of the bracket, we can apply the equations of equilibrium to determine the reactions at C and D on the bracket. Fx : Fy : MC: Fa2x Fb2 Fc2x Fd2 = 0 Fc2y Fa2y = 0 Fd2 d Fb2 b Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c = 0 (4) (5) (6)

7. Note also that the interface forces between part 1 (ball) and part 2 (bracket) have been drawn on their respective FBDs in opposite senses. Therefore, Fa2x Fa1x Fa2y Fa1y Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c Fb2 b d Fc2x Fa2x Fb2 Fd2 Fc2y Fa2y Fb2 Fb1

Fd2

9. Substituting into (4) and solving for Fc2x 10. Solving (5) for Fa1y

11. Determine the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. The internal bending moment at A on the FBD of the ball is M Fpull a Distance to neutral axis csh 0.5 d sh Ish M 196.2 N m csh 13 mm

4

d sh

64 M csh Ish

Ish 2.243 10 mm

x 113.7 MPa

y 0 MPa xy 0 MPa

Since the shear stress is zero, x is the maximum principal stress, thus

1 x

1 114 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

12. Determine the bearing stress in the ball bracket hole. Bearing area Bearing stress Abearing d sh t Abearing 494 mm

2

4-4-3

bearing

Fpull Abearing

Tearout length

13. Determine the tearout stress in the ball bracket. Shear area (see Figure 4-4B) Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

2

tear

Tearout Diagram for Problem 4-4

14. Determine the normal and shear stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm dia. Bolt cross-section area (2 bolts) d bolt 19 mm

Abolt 2

d bolt

4

Abolt 567.1 mm

bolt

Fc2x Abolt

4-4-4

W tongue

bolt

Fc2y Abolt

F pull 1

15. Determine the principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever (see Figure 4-4C). Bending moment M Fpull a Wtongue c Width of bracket Moment of inertia Total tensile stress w 64 mm I w t

3

2

M 264.8 N m

M R c

12

I 36581 mm M t 2 I Fpull w t

FIGURE 4-4C

Cantilever FBD for Problem 4-4

72.8 MPa

Since there are no shear stress at the top and bottom of the bracket where the bending stresses are maximum, they are also the principal stresses, thus

1 max

2

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4-5-1

PROBLEM 4-5

Statement: Repeat Problem 4-4 for the loading conditions of Problem 3-5, i.e., determine the stresses due to a horizontal force that will result on the ball from accelerating a 2000-kg trailer to 60 m/sec in 20 se Assume a constant acceleration. From Problem 3-5, the pull force is 6000 N. Determine: (a) The principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) The bearing stress in the ball bracket hole. (c) The tearout stress in the ball bracket. (d) The normal and shear stresses in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) The principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 6 kN c 70 mm d sh 26 mm d 20 mm t 19 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figure 4-5 and Mathcad file P0405. Wtongue Mtongue g Wtongue 0.981 kN

2. Solving first for the reactions on the ball by summing the horizontal and vertical forces and the moments about A.

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 4-5A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-5

Fx : Fy :

(1) (2)

MA: Fb1 t Fpull a = 0 Fb1 Fpull a t Fb1 12.632 kN Fa1x 18.632 kN Fa1y 0.981 kN

4-5-2

(3)

3. Solving equation (3) for Fb1 4. Substituting into (1) and solving for Fa1x 5. Solving (2) for Fa1y

6. Now, refering to the FBD of the bracket, we can apply the equations of equilibrium to determine the reactions at C and D on the bracket. Fx : Fy : MC: Fa2x Fb2 Fc2x Fd2 = 0 Fc2y Fa2y = 0 Fd2 d Fb2 b Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c = 0 (4) (5) (6)

7. Note also that the interface forces between part 1 (ball) and part 2 (bracket) have been drawn on their respective FBDs in opposite senses. Therefore, Fa2x Fa1x Fa2y Fa1y Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c Fb2 b d Fc2x Fa2x Fb2 Fd2 Fc2y Fa2y Fb2 Fb1

Fd2

9. Substituting into (4) and solving for Fc2x 10. Solving (5) for Fa1y

11. Determine the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. The internal bending moment at A on the FBD of the ball is M Fpull a Distance to neutral axis csh 0.5 d sh Ish M 240 N m csh 13 mm

4

d sh

64 M csh Ish

Ish 2.243 10 mm

x 139.1 MPa

y 0 MPa xy 0 MPa

Since the shear stress is zero, x is the maximum principal stress, thus

1 x

1 139 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

Bearing area Bearing stress Abearing d sh t Abearing 494 mm

2

4-5-3

bearing

Fpull Abearing

13. Determine the tearout stress in the ball bracket. Shear area (see Figure 4-4B) Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

Tearout length

2

tear

Tearout Diagram for Problem 4-5

14. Determine the normal and shear stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm dia. Bolt cross-section area (2 bolts)

d bolt 19 mm

Abolt 2

d bolt

4

Abolt 567.1 mm

bolt

Fc2x Abolt

W tongue

bolt

Fc2y Abolt

F pull 1

15. Determine the principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever (see Figure 4-4C). Bending moment M Fpull a Wtongue c Width of bracket Moment of inertia w 64 mm I w t

3

2

M 308.6 N m

M R c

12

I 36581 mm M t 2 I Fpull w t

FIGURE 4-5C

Cantilever FBD for Problem 4-5

85.1 MPa

4-5-4

Since there are no shear stress at the top and bottom of the bracket where the bending stresses are maximum, they are also the principal stresses, thus

1 max

2

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4-6-1

PROBLEM 4-6

Statement: Repeat Problem 4-4 for the loading conditions of Problem 3-6, i.e., determine the stresses due to a horizontal force that will results from an impact between the ball and the tongue of the 2000-kg trailer if the hitch deflects 2.8 mm dynamically on impact. The tractor weighs 1000 kg and the velocity at impact is 0.3 m/sec. Determine: (a) The principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) The bearing stress in the ball bracket hole. (c) The tearout stress in the ball bracket. (d) The normal and shear stresses in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) The principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 55.1 kN c 70 mm d sh 26 mm d 20 mm t 19 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figure 4-6 and Mathcad file P0406. Wtongue Mtongue g Wtongue 0.981 kN

2. Solving first for the reactions on the ball by summing the horizontal and vertical forces and the moments about A.

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 4-6A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-6

Fx :

(1)

Fy : MA: Fa1y Wtongue = 0 Fb1 t Fpull a = 0 Fb1 Fpull a t Fb1 116 kN Fa1x 171.1 kN Fa1y 0.981 kN

4-6-2

(2) (3)

3. Solving equation (3) for Fb1 4. Substituting into (1) and solving for Fa1x 5. Solving (2) for Fa1y

6. Now, refering to the FBD of the bracket, we can apply the equations of equilibrium to determine the reactions at C and D on the bracket. Fx : Fy : MC: Fa2x Fb2 Fc2x Fd2 = 0 Fc2y Fa2y = 0 Fd2 d Fb2 b Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c = 0 (4) (5) (6)

7. Note also that the interface forces between part 1 (ball) and part 2 (bracket) have been drawn on their respective FBDs in opposite senses. Therefore, Fa2x Fa1x Fa2y Fa1y Fa2x ( b t) Fa2y c Fb2 b d Fc2x Fa2x Fb2 Fd2 Fc2y Fa2y Fb2 Fb1

Fd2

9. Substituting into (4) and solving for Fc2x 10. Solving (5) for Fa1y

11. Determine the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. The internal bending moment at A on the FBD of the ball is M Fpull a Distance to neutral axis csh 0.5 d sh Ish M 2.204 10 N m csh 13 mm

4 3

d sh

64 M csh Ish

Ish 2.243 10 mm

x 1277 MPa

y 0 MPa xy 0 MPa

Since the shear stress is zero, x is the maximum principal stress, thus

1 x

1 1277 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

12. Determine the bearing stress in the ball bracket hole. Bearing area Bearing stress Abearing d sh t Abearing 494 mm

2

4-6-3

bearing

Fpull Abearing

13. Determine the tearout stress in the ball bracket. Shear area (see Figure 4-4B) Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

Tearout length

2

tear

Tearout Diagram for Problem 4-6

14. Determine the normal and shear stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm dia. Bolt cross-section area (2 bolts) d bolt 19 mm

Abolt 2

d bolt

4

Abolt 567.1 mm

bolt

Fc2x Abolt

W tongue

bolt

Fc2y Abolt

F pull 1

15. Determine the principal stresses in the ball bracket as a cantilever (see Figure 4-4C). Bending moment M Fpull a Wtongue c Width of bracket Moment of inertia w 64 mm I w t

3 3

2

M 2.3 10 N m

M R c

12

I 36581 mm M t 2 I Fpull w t

FIGURE 4-6C

Cantilever FBD for Problem 4-6

635.5 MPa

4-6-4

Since there are no shear stress at the top and bottom of the bracket where the bending stresses are maximum, they are also the principal stresses, thus

1 max

2

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4-7-1

PROBLEM 4-7

Statement: Design the wrist pin of Problem 3-7 for a maximum allowable principal stress of 20 ksi if the pin is hollow and loaded in double shear. Force on wrist pin Allowable stress Fwristpin 12.258 kN Fwristpin 2756 lbf

Given:

allow 20 ksi

od 0.375 in

See Figure 4-12 in the text and Mathcad file P0407. F Fwristpin 2 F 1378 lbf

2. With only the direct shear acting on the plane, the Mohr diagram will be a circle with center at the origin and radius equal to the shear stress. Thus, the principal normal stress is numerically equal to the shear stress, which in this case is also the principal shear stress, so we have = 1 = allow. F A 4 F

2

od id

= allow

id

od

4 F

allow

id 0.230 in

4-8-1

PROBLEM 4-8

Statement: A paper mill processes rolls of paper having a density of 984 kg/m3. The paper roll is 1.50 m outside dia (OD) by 0.22 m inside dia (ID) by 3.23 m long and is on a simply supported, hollow, steel shaft. Find the shaft ID needed to obtain a maximum deflection at the center of 3 mm if the shaft OD is 22 cm. Paper density Roll dimensions Outside diameter Inside diameter Lemgth

Given:

984

kg m

3

Assumptions: The shaft (beam) supporting the paper roll is simply-supported at the ends and is the same length as the paper roll. The paper acts as a distributed load over the length of the shaft. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0408.

The weight of the paper roll is equal to its volume times the paper density times g. Wroll

OD ID L g Wroll L

2.

3.

Using Figure B-2(b) in Appendix B with a = 0, the maximum deflection is at the midspan and is y = w x 24 E I 2 L x x L

y =

5 w L

384 E I I 5 w L

4

384 E

I 3.808 10 mm

4.

64

od id

4 od4 64 I id

id 198.954 mm

id 198 mm

4-9-1

PROBLEM 4-9

Statement: A ViseGrip plier-wrench is drawn to scale in Figure P4-3, and for which the forces were analyzed in Problem 3-9, find the stresses in each pin for an assumed clamping force of P = 4000 N in the position shown. The pins are 8-mm dia and are all in double shear. Pin forces as calculated in Problem 3-9: Member 1 F21 7.5 kN Member 2 Member 3 Member 4 Pin diameter F12 7.5 kN F23 5.1 kN F14 5.1 kN d 8 mm F41 5.1 kN F32 5.1 kN F43 5.1 kN F34 5.1 kN

Given:

Assumptions: Links 3 and 4 are in a toggle position, i.e., the pin that joins links 3 and 4 is in line with the pins that join 1 with 4 and 2 with 3. Solution: 1. See Figure 4-9 and Mathcad file P0409.

The FBDs of the assembly and each individual link are shown in Figure 4-9. The dimensions, as scaled from Figure P4-3 in the text, are shown on the link FBDs.

F 4 P 1

3 F

55.0 = b 50.0 = a 22.0 = d

2 P

F14

39.5 = c

129.2

4 F34 P

F41

F21

28.0 = e

2.8 = g

F43 3 F23 F

F12 F32 2

21.2 = h

26.9 = f

FIGURE 4-9

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 4-9

2.

d

4

A 50.265 mm

3.

4-9-2

The pin that joins members 1 and 2 is the most highly stressed while the stress on each of the remaining pins is the same. Since the pins are in double shear, we will divide the pin load by 2 in each case. F12 2 A F14 2 A

12

12 74.6 MPa

14

14 50.7 MPa

4-10-1

PROBLEM 4-10

Statement: The over-hung diving board of problem 3-10 is shown in Figure P4-4a. Assume cross-section dimensions of 305 mm x 32 mm. The material has E = 10.3 GPa. Find the largest principal stress at any location in the board when a 100-kg person is standing at the free end. Weight of person Board dimensions Distance to support Length of board Cross-section a 0.7 m L 2 m w 305 mm t 32 mm

700 = a R2

Given:

W 100 kgf

R1

2000 = L P

FIGURE 4-10 Assumptions: The weight of the beam is negligible compared to the applied load and so can be ignored. Solution: 1. See Figure 4-10 and Mathcad file P0410.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-10

From the FBD of the diving board and Figure B-3 (Appendix B), the reactions at the supports are R1 W 1

R1 1821 N R2 2802 N

R2 W 2.

Also from Figure D-3, the maximum bending moment occurs at the right-hand support where, in the FBD above, x = a. Mmax R1 a Mmax 1275 N m

3.

The maximum bending stress will occur on the top and bottom surfaces of the board at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = a. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the board is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the top surface where the stress is tensile, x. is the principal stress 1 . Thus, Distance to extreme fiber c I t 2 w t

3

c 16 mm I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

Moment of inertia

12 Mmax c I

Bending stress

1 x

4-11-1

PROBLEM 4-11

Statement: Repeat Problem 4-10 using the loading conditions of Problem 3-11. Assume the board weighs 29 kg and deflects 13.1 cm statically when the person stands on it. Find the largest principal stress at any location in the board when the 100-kg person in Problem 4-10 jumps up 25 cm and lands back on the board. Find the maximum deflection. Beam length Distance to support Mass of person Mass of board Static deflection Height of jump Cross-section L 2000 mm a 700 mm mpers 100 kg mboard 29 kg

R1 2000 = L Fi

Given:

st 131 mm

h 250 mm w 305 mm t 32 mm

700 = a

R2

FIGURE 4-11

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-11

Assumptions: The apparent Young's modulus for fiberglas is E 1.03 10 MPa Solution: See Figure 4-11 and Mathcad file P0411.

4

1. From Problem 3-11, the dynamic load resulting from the impact of the person with the board is i 3.056 kN F 2. From the FBD of the diving board and Figure B-3(a) (Appendix B), the reactions at the supports are R1 Fi 1 L a

R1 5.675 kN R2 8.731 kN

R2 Fi

3. Also from Figure D-3(a), the maximum bending moment occurs at the right-hand support where, in the FBD above, x = a. Mmax R1 a Mmax 3.973 kN m

4. The maximum bending stress will occur on the top and bottom surfaces of the board at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = a. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the board is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the top surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, Distance to extreme fiber c I t 2 w t

3

c 16 mm I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

Moment of inertia

12 Mmax c I

1 x

5. Calculate the maximum deflection from the equation given in Figure D-3(a) at x = L. Let b in the figure be a in our problem and let a in the figure be equal to L, then ymax Fi 6 a E I ( a L) L L ( L a ) a ( L a ) L

3 3 2

ymax 401.4 mm

4-12-1

PROBLEM 4-12

Statement: Given: Repeat Problem 4-10 using the cantilevered diving board design in Figure P4-4b. Beam length Weight at free end Cross-section L 1300 mm P 100 kgf w 305 mm t 32 mm Assumptions: The apparent Young's modulus for fiberglas is E 1.03 10 MPa Solution: See Figure 4-12 and Mathcad file P0412.

4

2000 1300 = L P

M1 700

R1

FIGURE 4-12

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-12

1.

From the FBD of the diving board and Figure B-1(a) (Appendix B), the reactions at the supports are R1 P M1 P L R1 981 N M1 1275 N m

2.

Also from Figure D-1, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support where, in the FBD above, x = 0. Mmax M1 Mmax 1275 N m

3. The maximum bending stress will occur on the top and bottom surfaces of the board at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = 0. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the board is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the top surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, Distance to extreme fiber c I t 2 w t

3

c 16 mm I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

Moment of inertia

12 Mmax c I

Bending stress

1 x

4-13-1

PROBLEM 4-13

Statement: Repeat Problem 4-11 using the diving board design shown in Figure P4-4b. Assume the board weighs 19 kg and deflects 8.5 cm statically when the person stands on it. Unsupported length Mass of board Static board deflection Mass of person Height of jump Cross-section L 1300 mm mboard 19 kg

2000 1300 = L Fi

Given:

stat 85 mm

mperson 100 kg h 250 mm w 305 mm t 32 mm

M1 700 R1

Assumptions: The apparent Young's modulus for fiberglas is E 1.03 10 MPa Solution: 1. 2. See Figure 4-13 and Mathcad file P0413.

4

FIGURE 4-13

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-13

From Problem 3-13, the dynamic load resulting from the impact of the person with the board is i 3.487 kN F From the FBD of the diving board and Figure B-1(a) (Appendix B), the reactions at the supports are R1 Fi M1 Fi L R1 3487 N M1 4533 N m

3.

Also from Figure D-1, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support where, in the FBD above, x = 0. Mmax M1 Mmax 4533 N m

4. The maximum bending stress will occur on the top and bottom surfaces of the board at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = 0. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the board is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the top surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, Distance to extreme fiber c I t 2 w t

3

c 16 mm I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

Moment of inertia

12 Mmax c I

Bending stress

1 x

Calculate the maximum deflection from the equation given in Figure D-3(a) at x = L. Let b in the figure be a in our problem and let a in the figure be equal to L, then Fi L

3

ymax

3 E I

ymax 297.7 mm

4-14-1

PROBLEM 4-14

Statement: Figure P4-5 shows a child's toy called a pogo stick. The child stands on the pads, applying half her weight on each side. She jumps off the ground, holding the pads up against her feet, and bounces along with the spring cushioning the impact and storing energy to help each rebound. Design the aluminum cantilever beam sections on which she stands to survive jumping 2 in off the ground. Assume an allowable stress of 20 ksi. Define and size the beam shape. Allowable stress Young's modulus

Given:

allow 20 ksi

E 10.3 10 psi

6

Assumptions: The beam will have a rectangular cross-section with the load applied at a distance of 5 in from the central support. L 5 in Solution: See Figure 4-14 and Mathcad file P0414.

1. From Problem 3-14, the total dynamic force on both foot supports is Fi 224 lbf Therefore, the load on each support is P Fi 2 P 112 lbf

Fi /2

Fi /2

2. To give adequate support to the childs foot, let the width of the support beam be w 1.5 in 3. From Figure B-1(a) in Appendix B, the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is M P L 4. M 560 in lbf FIGURE 4-14

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-14

=

Z

= allow M Z 458.8 mm

3

allow

3

5.

w t

12

and c =

t 2

so Z =

w t 6

Solving for t,

6 Z w

t 0.335 in t 0.375 in

4-15-1

PROBLEM 4-15

Statement: Design a shear pin for the propeller shaft of an outboard motor if the shaft through which the pin is placed is 25-mm diameter, the propeller is 20-cm diameter, and the pin must fail when a force > 400 N is applied to the propeller tip. Assume an ultimate shear strength for the pin material of 100 MPa. Propeller shaft dia Propeller dia Max propeller tip force Ultimate shear strength d 25 mm D 200 mm Fmax 400 N S us 100 MPa

T Fpin

Given:

Propeller Hub

Shear Pin

Assumptions: A shear pin is in direct, double shear. Solution: See Figure 4-15 and Mathcad file P0415.

Fpin d Propeller Shaft

1. Calculate the torque on the propeller shaft that will result from a tip force on the propeller of Fmax. T Fmax 2. D 2 T 40000 N mm

FIGURE 4-15

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-15

This will be reacted by the shear pin's couple on the shaft. Determine the magnitude of the direct shear force. Fpin T d Fpin 1600 N

3.

Determine the maximum pin diameter that will shear at this force. Fpin A 4 Fpin

d pin

4 Fpin

= S us

d pin

S us

d pin 4.514 mm

Round this to

d pin 4.5 mm

4-16-1

PROBLEM 4-16

Statement: A track to guide bowling balls is designed with two round rods as shown in Figure P4-6. The rods are not parallel to one another but have a small angle between them. The balls roll on the rods until they fall between them and drop onto another track. The angle between the rods is varied to cause the ball to drop at different locations. Find the maximum stress and deflection in the rods assuming that they are (a) simply supported at each end, and (b) fixed at each end. Rod length Rod diameter Distance to load Young's modulus L 30 in d 1.00 in a 23.15 in E 30 10 psi

6

R1 L R2 a Fball

Given:

Assumptions: The analysis of Problem 3-16 yielded the following for a simply supported beam: Max ball load Max moment Reactions Fball 13.89 lbf Mmax 73.4 in lbf R1 3.17 lbf R2 10.72 lbf Solution: See Figure 4-16 and Mathcad file P0416.

FIGURE 4-16A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-16(a), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

1. The maximum bending stress will occur at the outer fibers of the rod at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = a. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the rod is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the bottom surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, for a simply supported rod, Distance to extreme fiber c I d 2 c 0.5 in

4

Moment of inertia

d

64

I 0.0491 in

Mmax c I

1 x

Calculate the maximum deflection for the simply supported case from the equation given in Figure D-2(a), ymax Fball 6 E I 2 a

3

L a

ymax 0.0013 in

a Fball

3. For the case where the rod is built in at each end, the beam is statically indeterminate. As seen in Figure 4-16B, there are four unknown reactions and only two equilibrium equations can be written using statics. We will find the reactions using Example 4-7 as a model.

M1

R1

R 2 M2

FIGURE 4-16B

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-16(b), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

4-16-2

4. Write an equation for the load function in terms of equations 3.17 and integrate the resulting function four times using equations 3.18 to obtain the shear and moment functions. Note use of the unit doublet function to represent the moment at the wall. For the beam in Figure 4-16B, q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - F<x - a>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 + M2<x - L>-2 V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - F<x - a>0

+ R2<x

M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - F<x - a>1 + R2<x - L>1 + M2<x - L>0 + C1x+ C2 (x) = ( -M1<x - 0>1 + R1<x - 0>2/2 - F<x - a>2/2

+ R2<x

y(x) = ( -M1<x - 0>2/2 + R1<x - 0>3/6 - F<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - L>3/6 + M2<x - L>2 /2+ C1x3/6 + C2x2/2 + C3x + C4) / EI 5. Because the reactions have been included in the loading function, the shear and moment diagrams both close to zero at each end of the beam, making C1 = C2 = 0. This leaves six unknowns; the four reactions and the constants of integration, C3 and C4. There are four boundary conditions that we can use and two equilibrium equations. The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 and y = 0; and at x = L, = 0 and y = 0. Applying the boundary conditions at x = 0 results in C3 = C4 = 0. Applying the BCs at x = L results in the following two equations, which are solved for R1 and M1. At x = L,

=0

0=

R1 2 R1 6

L M 1 L L

3

F 2

( L a) F 6

y =0

0=

M1 2

( L a)

2

( L a) L

2

M1 16.765 in lbf

R1 2

Fball

( L a) L

2

R1 1.842 lbf

6.

The remaing two reactions can be found by using the equations of equilibrium.

Fy = 0: M = 0:

R1 Fball R2 = 0 M1 Fball a R2 L M2 = 0

Solving these two equations simultaneously for R2 and M2, R2 Fball R1 M2 M1 Fball a R2 L 7. Define the range for x, x 0 in 0.005 L L R2 12.048 lbf M2 56.657 in lbf

8. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 9. Write the shear, moment, slope, and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions.

V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 mm) Fball S ( x a ) R2 S ( x L) M ( x) M1 S ( x 0 mm) R1 S ( x 0 mm) ( x 0 mm) Fball S ( x a ) ( x a ) M2 S ( x L) R2 S ( x L) ( x L) 1 E I

4-16-3

( x)

M1 S ( x 0 mm) x

R1 2

S ( x 0 mm) ( x 0 mm)

Fball 2

R M2 S( x L) ( x L) 2 S( x L) ( x L) 2 2

S ( x 0 mm) x

2

S ( x a ) ( x a )

y ( x)

1 E I

M1

2

R1 6

S ( x 0 mm) ( x 0 mm)

Fball 6

M R 2 S ( x L) ( x L) 2 2 S ( x L) ( x L) 3 6 2

S ( x a ) ( x a )

10. Plot the shear, moment, slope, and deflection diagrams. (a) Shear Diagram

5

40 20 Moment, M - lb in 0 20 40 60

0 Shear, V - lb

10

15

10

20

30

10

20

30

0.1 Deflection - thousandths of in Slope - Thousands of Rad

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.1

10

20

30

0.8

10

20

30

FIGURE 4-16C

Shear, Moment, Slope, and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-16(b)

11 The maximum moment occurs at x = L and is Mmax M2 Mmax 56.7 in lbf

4-16-4

12 Calculate the maximum bending and principal stresses. Bending stress Maximum principal stress

Mmax c I

1 x

13. To find the maximum deflection, first determine at what point on the beam the slope is zero. Let this be at x = e. From the slope diagram, we see that e < a. Using the slope equation and setting it equal to zero, we have For = 0 0 = M1 e e 2 M1 R1 R1 2 e 2 e 18.204 in ymax 0.00063 in

Solving for e

Maximum deflection

ymax y ( e)

4-17-1

PROBLEM 4-17

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P4-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of the tong is 6 in. The rectangular cross-sectional dimensions are 0.75 x 0.312 in. Find the stress in the tongs. Mean radius of tong Tong width Tong depth Assumptions: beam. rc 6.00 in w 0.312 in h 0.75 in

Given:

F C FC O

11.0 = ax 3.5 = cy

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

See Problem 3-17, Figure 4-17, Solution: and Mathcad file P0417. 1. The maximum bending moment and axial force in the tong were found in Problem 3-17 at point A. They are

FB B

W/2

FIGURE 4-17

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-17

2.

Calculate the section area, inside radius and outside radus. Area of section Inside and outside radii of section A h w ri rc 0.5 h ro rc 0.5 h A 0.234 in ri 5.625 in ro 6.375 in

2

3.

Use the equation in the footnote on page 195 of the text to calculate the radius of the neutral axis. Radius of neutral axis rn ro ri

ro ln ri

rn 5.992 in

4.

Calculate the eccentricty and the distances from the neutral axis to the extreme fibers. Eccentricity Distances from neutral axis to extreme fibers e rc rn ci rn ri co ro rn e 0.007821 in ci 0.3672 in co 0.3828 in

MA c i FAn e A ri A

i 8.58 ksi

o

5.

MA co FAn A e A ro

o 7.69 ksi

The shear stress is zero at the outer fibers. Therefore, these are the principal stresses. At the inner surface

1 i

1 8.58 ksi

2 0 ksi

3 0 ksi

4-18-1

PROBLEM 4-18

Statement: A set of steel reinforcing rods is to be stretched axially in tension to create a tensile stress of 30 ksi prior to being cast in concrete to form a beam. Determine how much force will be required to stretch them the required amount and how much deflection is required. There are 10 rods; each is 0.75-in diameter and 30 ft long. Desired stress Number of rods Rod length

Given:

30 ksi

Nrods 10 L 30 ft

d 0.75 in E 30 10 psi

6

Assumptions: The rods share the load equally. Solution: 1. 2. See Mathcad file P0418.

d

4

A 0.442 in

Determine the force required to achieve the desired stress level in one rod.

=

3.

F A

F A

F 13.254 kip

Determine the total force required to achieve the desired stress level in all rods. Ftotal Nrods F Ftotal 132.5 kip

4.

Determine the amount the rods will deflect under the applied load.

F L A E

0.360 in

4-19-1

PROBLEM 4-19

Statement: The clamping fixture used to pull the rods in Problem 4-18 is conected to the hydraulic ram by a clevis like that shown in Figure P4-8. Determine the size of the clevis pin needed to withstand the applied force. Assume an allowable shear stress of 20 000 psi and an allowable normal stress of 40 000 psi. Determine the required outside radius of the clevis end to not exceed the above allowable stresses in either tear out or bearing if the clevis flanges are each 0.8 in thick. Desired rod stress rod 30 ksi Number of rods Rod length Clevis strength Nrods 10 L 30 ft S sallow 20 ksi S ballow 40 ksi Assumptions: The rods share the load equally, and there is one clevis for all ten rods. Solution: 1. 2. See Figures 4-12 and 4-13 in the text, Figure 4-19, and Mathcad file P0419. A Rod diameter d 0.75 in E 30 10 psi t 0.8 in

6

Given:

d

4

A 0.442 in

Determine the force required to achieve the desired stress level in one rod. F rod = F rod A F 13.254 kip A Determine the total force required to achieve the desired stress level in all rods. Ftotal Nrods F Ftotal 132.5 kip

3.

This force is transmitted through the clevis pin, which is in double shear. 4. Calculate the minimum required clevis pin diameter for the allowable shear stress. Divide the load by 2 because of the double shear loading.

pin =

Ftotal 2 Apin

2 Ftotal

= S sallow

2 Ftotal

S sallow

d 2.054 in

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fraction ( 2 1/8) 5. Check the bearing stress in the clevis due to the pin on one side of the clevis. Bearing stress area Bearing force Ab d t Fb Ftotal 2 Fb Ab Ab 1.700 in

2

d 2.125 in

Fb 66.268 kip

Bearing stress

b 39.0 ksi

6. Determine the tearout stress in the clevis. Shear area (see Figure 4-19) Shear force Ftear Ftotal 2 Ftear 66.268 kip Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

Tearout length

4-19-2

d R

Ftear Atear

Ftear 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

= S sallow

FIGURE 4-19

Tearout Diagram for Problem 4-19

R 2.328 in

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fraction ( 2 3/8)

R 2.375 in

4-20-1

PROBLEM 4-20

Statement: Repeat Problem 4-19 for 12 rods, each 1 cm in diameter and 10 m long. The desired rod stress is 20 MPa. The allowable normal stress in the clevis and pin is 280 MPa and their allowable shear stress is 140 MPa. Each clevis flange is 2 cm wide. kN 10 newton

3

Units: Given:

GPa 10 Pa Rod diameter Young's modulus Clevis flange thickness d 10 mm E 207 GPa t 20 mm

Desired rod stress rod 200 MPa Number of rods Rod length Clevis strength

Assumptions: The rods share the load equally, and there is one clevis for all twelve rods. Solution: 1. 2. See Figures 4-12 and 4-13 in the text, Figure 4-20, and Mathcad file P0420. A

d

4

A 78.54 mm

Determine the force required to achieve the desired stress level in one rod.

rod =

3.

F A

F rod A

F 15.708 kN

Determine the total force required to achieve the desired stress level in all rods. Ftotal Nrods F Ftotal 188.5 kN

This force is transmitted through the clevis pin, which is in double shear. 4. Calculate the minimum required clevis pin diameter for the allowable shear stress. Divide the load by 2 because of the double shear loading.

pin =

Ftotal 2 Apin

2 Ftotal

= S sallow

2 Ftotal

S sallow

d 30 mm

d 29.277 mm

Check the bearing stress in the clevis due to the pin on one side of the clevis. Bearing stress area Bearing force Ab d t Fb Ftotal 2 Fb Ab Ab 600 mm

2

Fb 94.248 kN

Bearing stress

b 157.1 MPa

6. Determine the tearout stress in the clevis. Shear area (see Figure 4-19) Shear force Ftear Ftotal 2 Ftear 94.248 kN Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

Tearout length

4-20-2

d R

Ftear Atear

Ftear 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

= S sallow

FIGURE 4-20

Tearout Diagram for Problem 4-20

R 24 mm

R 22.544 mm

4-21-1

PROBLEM 4-21

Statement: Figure P4-9 shows an automobile wheel with two common styles of lug wrench being used to tighten the wheel nuts, a single-ended wrench in (a), and a double-ended wrench in (b). In each case two hands are required to provide forces respectively at A and B as shown. The distance between points A and B is 1 ft in both cases and the handle diameter is 0.625 in. The wheel nuts require a torque of 70 ft-lb. Find the maximum principle stress and maximum deflection in each wrench design. Distance between A and B Tightening torque Wrench diameter d AB 1 ft T 70 ft lbf d 0.625 in

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The forces exerted by the user's hands lie in a plane through the wrench that is also parallel to the plane of the wheel. 2. The applied torque is perpendicular to the plane of the forces. 3. By virtue of 1 and 2 above, this is a planar problem that can be described in a 2D FBD. Solution: See Figure 4-21 and Mathcad file P0421.

12" = dAB F

1. In Problem 3-21 we found that for both cases F 70 lbf 2. From examination of the FBDs, we see that, in both cases, the arms are in bending and the stub that holds the socket wrench is in pure torsion. The maximum bending stress in the arm will occur near the point where the arm transitions to the stub. The stress state at this transition is very complicated, but we can find the nominal bending stress there by treating the arm as a cantilever beam, fixed at the transition point. For both cases the torque in the stub is the same.

Case (a)

T

F

Ma F d AB

d

64

I 0.00749 in c 0.313 in

c 0.5 d

M a c I

x 35.05 ksi

There are no other stress components present at this point, so x is the maximum principle stress here and

1 x

5. 6. The torque in the stub is

1 35.0 ksi

T 840 in lbf

2 0 psi

3 0 psi

The shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the stub is found from

Polar moment of inertia Shear stress 7. J 2 I J 0.0150 in J

4

4-21-2

xy

Tc

xy 17.52 ksi

There are no other stress components present along the outside surface of the stub, so

1 xy

8.

1 17.5 ksi

2 0 psi

3 1

Thus, the maximum principle stress for case (a) is on the upper surface of the handle (arm) near the point where it transitions to the stub. There will be two deflection components that we can calculate separately and then add (superposition). One will come from the bending of the arm and one will come from the twisting of the stub, projected out to the end of the arm.

9.

Deflection of the arm due to bending only for a stub length of stub 3 in: Assuming that the wrenches are made from steel E 30 10 psi yarm F d AB

3 6

From Figure B-1(a), Appendix B, From equation (4.24), the angular twist of the stub is The deflection at the end of the arm due to the stub twist is So, the total deflection is

3 E I T stub J G

stub

ystub 0.173 in ya 0.352 in

Case (b) 10. The bending moment at the transition is 11. The tensile stress at this point is found from Stress Mb F d AB 2 Mb 420 lbf in

M b c I

x 17.52 ksi

12. There are no other stress components present at this point, so x is the maximum principle stress here and

1 x

13. The torque in the stub is 14.

1 17.5 ksi

T 840 in lbf

2 0 psi

3 0 psi

The shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the stub is found from Shear stress

xy

Tc J

xy 17.52 ksi

15. There are no other stress components present along the outside surface of the stub, so

1 xy

1 17.5 ksi

2 0 psi

3 1

4-21-3

16. Thus, the maximum principle stress for case (b) is the same on the upper surface of the handle (arm) near the point where it transitions to the stub, and on the outside surface of the stub. There will be two deflection components that we can calculate separately and then add (superposition). One will come from the bending of the arm and one will come from the twisting of the stub, projected out to the end of the arm. Deflection of the arm due to bending only: From Figure B-1(a), Appendix B, yarm F 0.5 d AB 3 E I T stub J G d AB 2 stub

3

yarm 0.022 in

From equation (4.24), the angular twist of the stub is The deflection at the end of the arm due to the stub twist is So, the total deflection is

stub

ystub

ystub 0.086 in

yb yarm ystub

yb 0.109 in

4-22-1

PROBLEM 4-22

Statement: A roller-blade skate is shown in Figure P4-10. The polyurethane wheels are 72 mm dia. The skate-boot-foot combination weighs 2 kg. The effective "spring rate" of the person-skate subsystem is 6000 N/m. The axles are 10-mm-dia steel pins in double shear. Find the stress in the pins for a 100-kg person landing a 0.5-m jump on one foot. (a) Assume all 4 wheels land simultaneously. (b) Assume that one wheel absorbs all the landing force. Axle pin diameter d 10 mm

Given: Solution: 1. 2.

From Problem 3-22, we have the forces for cases (a) and (b):

In both cases, this is the force on one axle. The shear force will be one half of these forces because the pins are in double shear. Shear area Shear stress Case (a) all wheels landing As

d

4

As 78.54 mm

Fa 2 As Fb 2 As

a 5.71 MPa

b 22.9 MPa

4-23a-1

PROBLEM 4-23a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-11a. Find the reactions, maximum shear, maximum moment, maximum slope, maximum bending stress, and maximum deflection for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m F 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

a w L b F

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia

R1

R2

FIGURE 4-23A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-23

The reactions, maximum shear and maximum moment were all found in Problem 3-23a. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Modulus of elasticity Reactions Maximum shear Maximum moment q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - 0>0 + w<x - a>0 - F<x - b>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - 0>1 + w<x - a>1 - F<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>0 M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - 0>2/2 + w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>1 E 207 GPa R1 264.0 N Vmax 316 N Mmax 126.4 N m R2 316.0 N (negative, from x = b to x =L) (at x = b)

2.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - w<x>3/6 + w<x - a>3/6 - F<x - b>2/2 + R2<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

3.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - w<x>4/24 + w<x - a>4/24 - F<x - b>3/6 + R2<x-L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

4.

3

w 24

w 24

( L a)

F 6

( L b ) C 3 L

C3 5. 6.

R1 3 w 4 w F 4 3 L L ( L a) ( L b) L 6 24 24 6

1 x 0 m 0.005 L L

C3 31.413 N m

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 )

7.

Write the slope and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. See Figure 4-23aB where these functions are plotted.

4-23a-2

w 6 S ( x a ) ( x a )

3

( x)

1 E I

R1

2

S ( x 0 in) x

w 6

S ( x 0 in) x

R 2 S ( x L) ( x L) 2 F S( x b) ( x b ) 2 C3 2 2

S ( x 0 in) x

3

y ( x)

1 E I

R1

6

w 24

S ( x 0 in) x

w 24

R 2 S( x L) ( x L) 3 F S ( x b ) ( x b) 3 C3 x 6 6

max ( L)

S ( x a ) ( x a )

0 =

Solving for c, A R1 2

R1 2 w 3 w 3 c c ( c a ) C3 = 0 E I 2 6 6

1 w 6 a B 3 w 6 a

2

C C3

w 6

3 2

A 92.000 N c B B 4 A C 2 A

2

C 33.547 N m

0.01

0 0.5

( x)

1 1.5 2

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 4-23aB

Slope and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-23a

10. The maximum bending stress occurs at x = b, where the moment is a maximum. For c 2.00 10

2

c 20 mm

max

Mmax c I

4-24a-1

PROBLEM 4-24a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-11b. Find the reactions, maximum shear, maximum moment, maximum slope, maximum bending stress, and maximum deflection for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m F 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

M1 a F w L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia

R1

FIGURE 4-24A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-24

The reactions, maximum shear and maximum moment were all found in Problem 3-24a. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Modulus of elasticity Reactions Maximum shear Maximum moment q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 - F<x - L>-1 V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 - F<x - L>0 M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - L>1 E 207 GPa R1 620.0 N Vmax 620 N Mmax 584 N m M1 584.0 N m (positive, at x = 0) (negative, at x = 0)

2.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [-M1<x-0>1 + R1<x - 0>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 - F<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

3.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [-M1<x-0>2/2 + R1<x - 0>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 - F<x - L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

4. 5. 6.

Evaluate C3 and C4. At x = 0, = 0 and y = 0, therefore, C3 = 0 and C4 = 0. Define the range for x x 0 m 0.005 L L

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 )

7.

Write the slope and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. See Figure 4-24aB where these functions are plotted.

( x)

1 E I

M1 S ( x 0 in) x

R1

2 F S( x L) ( x L) 2 2

S ( x 0 in) x

w 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

y ( x) 1 E I

4-24a-2

3

M1

6 2F 3 S ( x L) ( x L) 6

S ( x 0 in) x

R1

S ( x 0 in) x

w 24

S ( x a ) ( x a )

max ( L)

ymax y ( L)

ymax 32.2 mm c 20 mm

10. The maximum bending stress occurs at x = 0, where the moment is a maximum. For

max

SLOPE, radians

0 0.01 0.02

M1 c I

DEFLECTION, mm

0

10 y ( x) mm

( x)

0.03 0.04 0.05

20

30

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

40

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 4-24aB

Slope and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-24a

4-25a-1

PROBLEM 4-25a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-11c. Find the reactions, maximum shear, maximum moment, maximum slope, maximum bending stress, and maximum deflection for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load Distance to reaction load Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia L 1 m a 0.4 m b 0.6 m w 200 N m F 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

a w b F L

Given:

R1

R2

FIGURE 4-25A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-25

The reactions, maximum shear and maximum moment were all found in Problem 3-25a. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Modulus of elasticity Reactions Maximum shear Maximum moment q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - F<x - L>-1 V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - F<x - L>0 M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - F<x - L>1 E 207 GPa R1 353.3 N Vmax 580 N Mmax 216 N m R2 973.3 N (positive, at x = b) (negative, at x = b)

2.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x - 0>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - b>2/2 - F<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

3.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x - 0>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 + R2<x-b>3/6 - F<x - L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

4.

3

w 24

( b a ) C3 b C3 21.22 N m

2

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 )

7.

Write the slope and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. See Figure 4-25aB where these functions are plotted.

1 E I

4-25a-2

( x)

R1

2

R2 F 2 2 S ( x b ) ( x b ) S ( x L) ( x L) C3 2 2

S ( x 0 in) x

2

w 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

y ( x)

E I 6 24 R 2 S( x b) ( x b ) 3 F S ( x L) ( x L) 3 C3 x 6 6

1 S ( x 0 in) x

3

R1

S ( x a ) ( x a )

max ( L)

ymax y ( L)

ymax 4.81 mm c 20 mm

10. The maximum bending stress occurs at x = b, where the moment is a maximum. For

max

Mmax c I

DEFLECTION, mm

2

SLOPE, radians

0.005

0 y ( x) mm

( x) 0.005

0.01

0.015

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 4-25aB

Slope and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-25a

4-26a-1

PROBLEM 4-26a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-11d. Find the reactions, maximum shear, maximum moment, maximum slope, maximum bending stress, and maximum deflection for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load Distance to R2 Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia L 1 m a 0.4 m b 0.6 m w 200 N m F 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

a L b F w

Given:

R1

R2

R3

FIGURE 4-26A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-26

E 207 GPa

1. From inspection of Figure P4-11d, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - R3<x - L>-1 2. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x>0 - F<x - a>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - R3<x - L>0 3. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x>1 - F<x - a>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - R3<x - L>1 4. Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - F<x - a>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - b>2/2 + R3<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI 5. Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - F<x - a>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 + R2<x - b>3/6 + R3<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI 6. Evaluate R1, R2, R3, C3 and C4 At x = 0, x = b, and x = L; y = 0, therefore, C4 = 0. At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given R1 6 R1 6 b

3

R1 100 N

R2 100 N

R3 100 N

C3 5 N m

F 6 F 6

( b a)

w 24 w 24

( b a ) C3 b = 0 N m R2 6

( L a)

( L a)

( L b ) C 3 L = 0 N m

R1 F w ( L a ) R2 R3 = 0 N R 1 L F ( L a ) w 2 ( L a ) R 2 ( L b ) = 0 N m

2

4-26a-2

R1 R 2 Find R R R C 1 2 3 3 R3 C3

R1 112.33 N 7. Define the range for x R2 559.17 N R3 51.50 N C3 5.607 N m

2

x 0 in 0.002 L L

8. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 9. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) F S ( x a ) w S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) R3 S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) x F S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) ( x b ) 10. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. w 2 S ( x a ) ( x a )

2

SHEAR, N

200 60

MOMENT, N-m

0 V ( x) N M ( x) Nm

35

200

10

400

15

3

3

FIGURE 4-26aB

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 4-26a

11. From the diagram, we see that maximum shear occurs at x = b -, Vmax V ( b 0.001 mm) 12. The maximum moment occurs at x = a, Mmax M ( a ) Mmax 44.9 N m Vmax 428 N

13. Write the slope and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get t effect of the singularity functions. See Figure 4-26aB where these functions are plotted.

4-26a-3

2

( x)

1 E I

R1

2

S ( x 0 in) x

F 2

S ( x a ) ( x a )

w 6

R R 2 S ( x b ) ( x b) 2 3 S ( x L) ( x L) 2 C3 2 2

S ( x 0 in) x

3

S ( x a ) ( x a )

y ( x)

1 E I

R1

6

F 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

w 24

R R 2 S( x b) ( x b ) 3 3 S( x L) ( x L) 3 C3 x 6 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

14. Maximum slope occurs between x = a and x = b 15. Maximum deflection occurs between x = 0 and x = a

ymax 0.200 mm c 20 mm

16. The maximum bending stress occurs at x = a, where the moment is a maximum. For

max

Mmax c I

DEFLECTION, mm

0.1

SLOPE, deg.

0.1

0.05

0 y ( x)

( x)

deg 0

mm

0.1

0.05

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

0.3

0.2

0.4 x m

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 4-26aC

Slope and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-26a

4-27-1

PROBLEM 4-27

Statement: A storage rack is to be designed to hold the paper roll of Problem 4-8 as shown in Figure P4-12. Determine suitable values for dimensions a and b in the figure. Consider bending, shear, and bearing stresses. Assume an allowable tensile/compressive stress of 100 MPa and an allowable shear stress of 50 MPa for both stanchion and mandrel, which are steel. The mandrel is solid and inserts halfway into the paper roll. Balance the design to use all of the material strength. Calculate the deflection at the end of the roll. Paper roll dimensions OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Roll density

3

Given:

Material properties

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. 2. The mandrel's root in the stanchion experiences a distributed load over its length of engagement Solution: See Figures 4-27 and Mathcad file P0427.

y W

1. In Problem 3-27, we were concerned only with the portion of the mandrel outside of the stanchion. Therefore, we modeled it as a cantilever beam with a shear and moment reaction at the stanchion. Unfortunately, this tells us nothing about the stress or force distributions in the portion of the mandrel that is inside the stanchion. To do this we need to modify the model by replacing the concentrated moment (and possibly the concentrated shear force) with a force system that will yield information about the stress distribution in the mandrel on that portion that is inside the stanchion. Figure 4-27A shows the FBD used in Problem 3-27. Figure 4-27B is a simple model, but is not representative of a built-in condition. It would be appropriate if the hole in the stanchion did not fit tightly around the mandrel. Figure 4-27C is an improvement that will do for our analysis. 2. Determine the weight of the roll and the length of the mandrel. W

M1 R1

Lm

FIGURE 4-27A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 3-27

y R1 W

Lm R2

OD ID Lroll g

W 53.9 kN Lm 1.615 m

FIGURE 4-27B

Simplified Free Body Diagram, not used

Lm 0.5 Lroll

3. From inspection of Figure 4-27C, write the load function equation q(x) = -w<x>0 + w<x - b>0 + R<x - b>-1 - W<x - b -Lm>-1 4. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -w<x>1 + w<x - b>1 + R<x - b>0 - W<x - b -Lm>0 5. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x)

b a

y w

Lm R

FIGURE 4-27C

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 4-27

M(x) = -(w/2)<x>2 + (w/2)<x - b>2 + R<x - b>1 - W<x - b -Lm>1

4-27-2

6. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b + Lm, where both are zero. At x = (b + Lm)+ , V = M = 0 0 = w b Lm w Lm R W w w 2 w 2 2 w 2 0 = b Lm Lm R Lm = b Lm Lm ( W w b ) Lm 2 2 2 2 Note that R is inversely proportional to b and w is inversly proportional to b 2. 7. To see the value of x at which the shear and moment are maximum, let b 400 mm then w 2 W Lm b 8. Define the range for x

2

R = W w b w= 2 W Lm b

2

and

R W w b

L b Lm

x 0 mm 0.002 L L

9. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 10. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) w S ( x 0 mm) x w S ( x b ) ( x b ) R S ( x b ) W S ( x L) M ( x) w 2 S ( x 0 mm) x

2

w 2

S ( x b ) ( x b ) R S ( x b ) ( x b ) W S ( x L) ( x L)

200 0 200 400 600 800 100 0 M ( x) kN m 50 50

Moment Diagram

V ( x) kN

400

800 x

1200 mm

1600

2000

400

800 x

1200 mm

1600

2000

FIGURE 4-27D

Shear and Moment Diagram Shapes for Problem 4-27

12. From Figure 4-27D, the maximum internal shear and moment occur at x = b and are Vmax = 2 W Lm b Mmax W Lm Mmax 87.04 kN m

4-27-3

13. The bending stress will be a maximum at the top or bottom of the mandrel at a section through x = b.

max =

Mmax a 2 I

where

1

I=

a

64

so,

max =

32 Mmax

a

a 206.97 mm

= Sy

Solving for a,

32 W Lm a S y

a 210 mm

Round this to

14. Using this value of a and equation 4.15c, solve for the shear stress on the neutral axis at x = b.

max =

4 Vmax 3 A

8 W Lm

a 2 b 3 4

= S ys

Solving for b

8 W Lm

a 2 Sys 3 4

b 134.026 mm

Round this to

b 134 mm

15. These are minimum values for a and b. Using them, check the bearing stress. Magnitude of distributed load w 2 W Lm b Bearing stress

2

w 9695

N mm

bear

w b a b

Since this is less than S y, the design is acceptable for a 210 mm and b 134 mm 16. Assume a cantilever beam loaded at the tip with load W and a mandrel diameter equal to a calculated above. Moment of inertia I

a

64

I 9.547 10 mm W Lm

3

ymax

3 E I

ymax 3.83 mm

This can be accomodated by the 220-mm inside diameter of the paper roll.

4-28-1

PROBLEM 4-28

Statement: Figure P4-13 shows a forklift truck negotiating a 15 deg ramp to to drive onto a 4-ft-high loading platform. The truck weighs 5 000 lb and has a 42-in wheelbase. Design two (one for each side) 1-ft-wide ramps of steel to have no more than 1-in deflection in the worst case of loading as the truck travels up them. Minimize the weight of the ramps by using a sensible cross-sectional geometry. Ramp angle Platform height Truck weight Truck wheelbase

Given:

15 deg

h 4 ft W 5000 lbf Lt 42 in

6

Assumptions: 1. The worst case is when the truck CG is located at the center of the beam's span. 2. Use a coordinate frame that has the x-axis along the long axis of the beam. 3. Ignore traction forces and the weight components along the x-axis of the beam. 4. There are two ramps, one for each side of the forklift. Solution: See Figure 4-28 and Mathcad file P0428.

L b a CG a

CG b

R1 Fa Wa Fb Wb R2 x

FIGURE 4-28A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-28

1. Determine the length of the beam between supports and the distances a and b for the worst-case loading. Length of beam From Problem 3-28, L h sin( ) L 15.455 ft b 8.561 ft

a 5.061 ft

2. The load distribution of the wheels on a single ramp is given in Problem 3-28 as Fa 575.0 lbf Fb 1839.9 lbf

3. From inspection of Figure 4-28A, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - Fa<x - a>-1 - Fb<x - b>-1 + R2<x - L>-1

4. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - Fa<x - a>0 - Fb<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>0 5. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - Fa<x - a>1 - Fb<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>1 6. The reactions are given in Problem 3-28 as R1 1207.4 lbf R2 1207.4 lbf

4-28-2

7. Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - Fa<x - a>2/2 - Fb<x - b>2/2 + R2<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI 8. Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - Fa<x - a>3/6 - Fb<x - b>3/6 + R2<x-L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI 9. Evaluate C3 and C4 At x = 0 and x = L, y = 0, therefore, C4 = 0. 0 = R1 L Fa ( L a ) Fb ( L b ) 6 C3 L C3 1 6 L R1 L Fa ( L a ) Fb ( L b )

3 3 3 3 3 3

C3 4.983 10 lbf in

x 0 m 0.005 L L

9. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 10. Write the slope and deflection equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. Use an assumed value of I so that the value of x that corresponds to ymax can be found. Let I 10 in

4 2

( x)

1 E I

R1

2

S ( x 0 m) x

Fa 2

S ( x a ) ( x a )

Fb 2

R 2 S ( x L) ( x L) 2 C3 2

S ( x 0 m) x

3

S ( x b ) ( x b )

y ( x)

1 E I

R1

6

Fa 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

Fb 6

R 2 S( x L) ( x L) 3 C3 x 6

S ( x b ) ( x b )

11. Plot the shear and moment diagrams using the assumed value of I.

SLOPE, radians

0.02 0

4-28-3

DEFLECTION, in

( x)

0.02

8 x ft

12

16

1.5

8 x ft

12

16

FIGURE 4-28B

Slope and Deflection Diagrams for Problem 4-28, Using an Assumed Value for I

0 =

Solving for c, A R1 2

R1 2 Fa 2 c ( c a ) C3 = 0 E I 2 2

1 B a Fa B 3.492 10 lbf in c 7.804 ft

4

Fa 2

C C3

a Fa 2

6 2

A 316.200 lbf c B B 4 A C 2 A

2

C 6.043 10 in lbf

ymax

R 1 c 3 F a 3 = ( c a ) C3 c = max E I 6 6

1

R 1 c 3 F a 3 I ( c a ) C3 c E max 6 6

1 This is the minimum allowable value of the moment of inertia.

I 10.159 in

14. Assume a channel section such as that shown in Figure 4-28C. To keep it simple, let the thickness of the flanges and web be the same. Choose 3/8-in thick plate, which is readily available. Then, t 0.375 in 15. The cross-sectional area of the ramp is 16. The distance to the CG is cg( h ) A ( h ) w t 2 t ( h t) 1 A (h)

w t 2 2

t h t

17. The moments of inertia of the web and a flange are Iweb( h ) w t

3

4-28-4

12

w t cg( h )

2 h t

2

Flange Web

Ifl ( h )

t ( h t) 12

h t cg( h )

18. Using the known moment of inertia, solve for the unknown flange height, h. Guess h 1 in Given I = Iweb( h ) 2 Ifl ( h ) h Find ( h ) Round this up to h 4.00 in h 3.988 in FIGURE 4-28C

Channel Section for Problem 4-28

19. Summarizing, the ramp design dimensions are: Length Width L 185.5 in w 12.00 in Flange height Thickness h 4.00 in t 0.375 in Shape Material channel steel

4-29a-1

PROBLEM 4-29a

Statement: Find the spring rate of the beam in Problem 4-23 at the applied concentrated load for row a in Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m Fb 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

R1 b a w F L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia Modulus of elasticity Solution:

R2

E 207 GPa

FIGURE 4-29

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-23

1. The deflection equation was found in Problem 4-23. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Slope function Deflection function q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - 0>0 + w<x - a>0 - F<x - b>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - 0>1 + w<x - a>1 - F<x - b>0 + R2<x - L>0 M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - 0>2/2 + w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - b>1 + R2<x - L>1 (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - w<x>3/6 + w<x - a>3/6 - F<x - b>2/2 + R2<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - w<x>4/24 + w<x - a>4/24 - F<x - b>3/6 + R2<x-L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

2. To determine the stiffness under the load F we will need to find the incremental beam deflection due to F alone. The procedure will be to find the deflection at x = b when F = 0, and then find it when Fb 500 N . The stiffness will then be the force divided by the incremental deflection. 3. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 4. Write the reactions (from Problem 3-23), integration constant, and deflection (from problem 4-23) equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. R1( F ) w 2 L F L ( L b) w 2 L ( L a)

2

R1( F ) 3 w 4 w F 4 3 L L ( L a) ( L b) 6 L 24 24 6

1 1 E I

R1( F )

6

S ( x 0 in) x

w 24

S ( x 0 in) x

w 24

R (F ) 2 S( x L) ( x L) 3 F S ( x b ) ( x b) 3 C3( F ) x 6 6

y0 y ( b F ) yF y ( b F )

S ( x a ) ( x a )

5. The deflection at x = b for F 0 N is 6. The deflection at x = b for F Fb is 7. The deflection due to F alone is

y0 0.137 mm yF 1.765 mm

y yF y0

k F

y 1.627 mm y

k 307 N mm

4-30a-1

PROBLEM 4-30a

Statement: Find the spring rate of the beam in Problem 4-24 at the applied concentrated load for row a in Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia Modulus of elasticity Solution: L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m FL 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

w a F L

Given:

4

M1 R1

E 207 GPa

FIGURE 4-30

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-24

1. The deflection equation was found in Problem 4-24. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Slope function Deflection function

q(x) = -M1<x - 0>-2 + R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 - F<x - L>-1 V(x) = -M1<x - 0>-1 + R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 - F<x - L>0 M(x) = -M1<x - 0>0 + R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 - F<x - L>1 (x) = [-M1<x-0>1 + R1<x - 0>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 - F<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI y(x) = [-M1<x-0>2/2 + R1<x - 0>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 - F<x - L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

2. To determine the stiffness under the load F we will need to find the incremental beam deflection due to F alone. The procedure will be to find the deflection at x = L when F = 0, and then find it when FL 500 N . The stiffness will then be the force divided by the incremental deflection. 3. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 4. Write the reaction (from Problem 3-24) and deflection (from problem 4-24) equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. R1( F ) w ( L a ) F M1( F ) w 2 1 E I ( L a ) R 1( F ) L

2

y ( x F )

M1( F )

2

S ( x 0 in) x

R1( F ) 6

S ( x 0 in) x

w 24

F S( x L) ( x L) 3 6

S ( x a ) ( x a )

5. The deflection at x = L for F 0 N is 6. The deflection at x = L for F FL is 7. The deflection due to F alone is

y0 y ( L F ) yF y ( L F )

y0 3.912 mm yF 32.163 mm

y yF y0

k F

y 28.251 mm

k 17.7 N mm

4-31a-1

PROBLEM 4-31a

Statement: Find the spring rate of the beam in Problem 4-25 at the applied concentrated load for row a in Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m FL 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

R1 b a w F L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia Modulus of elasticity Solution:

R2

E 207 GPa

FIGURE 4-31

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-25

1. The deflection equation was found in Problem 4-25. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Slope function Deflection function q(x) = R1<x - 0>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - F<x - L>-1 V(x) = R1<x - 0>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - F<x - L>0 M(x) = R1<x - 0>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - F<x - L>1 (x) = [R1<x - 0>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - b>2/2 - F<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI y(x) = [R1<x - 0>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 + R2<x-b>3/6 - F<x - L>3/6 + C3x +C4]/EI

2. To determine the stiffness under the load F we will need to find the incremental beam deflection due to F alone. The procedure will be to find the deflection at x = L when F = 0, and then find it when FL 500 N . The stiffness will then be the force divided by the incremental deflection. 3. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 4. Write the reactions (from Problem 3-25), integration constant, and deflection (from problem 4-25) equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. R1( F ) w 2 ( L a ) F ( L b ) w ( L a ) ( L b ) 2 b 1

R1( F )

6 24 R2( F ) F 3 3 S ( x b ) ( x b ) S ( x L) ( x L) C3( F ) x 6 6

S ( x 0 in) x

3

S ( x a ) ( x a )

y0 y ( L F ) yF y ( L F )

y0 0.288 mm yF 4.808 mm

7. The deflection due to F alone is

4-31a-2

y yF y0

k F

y 4.52 mm

k 111 N mm

4-32a-1

PROBLEM 4-32a

Statement: Find the spring rate of the beam in Problem 4-26 at the applied concentrated load for row a in Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to distributed load L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m Fa 500 N I 2.85 10

8 1

R1 b a F w L

Given:

Distance to concentrated load b 0.6 m Distributed load magnitude Concentrated load Moment of inertia Modulus of elasticity Solution:

R2

R3

E 207 GPa

FIGURE 4-32

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-26

1. The deflection equation was found in Problem 4-26. Those results are summarized here. Load function Shear function Moment function Slope function q(x) = R1<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 - w<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>-1 - R3<x - L>-1 V(x) = R1<x>0 - F<x - a>0 - w<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>0 - R3<x - L>0 M(x) = R1<x>1 - F<x - a>1 - w<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>1 - R3<x - L>1 (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - F<x - a>2/2 - w<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - b>2/2 + R3<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

Deflection function y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - F<x - a>3/6 - w<x - a>4/24 + R2<x - b>3/6 + R3<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI 2. To determine the stiffness under the load F we will need to find the incremental beam deflection due to F alone. The procedure will be to find the deflection at x = a when F = 0, and then find it when Fa 500 N . The stiffness will then be the force divided by the incremental deflection. 3. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 4. Write the reactions, integration constant, and deflection (from problem 4-26) equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. Let f1 ( F ) F 6 ( b a) w 2

3

w 24

( b a)

2

f2 ( F )

F 6

( L a)

w 24

( L a)

f3 ( F ) F ( L a ) then

( L a)

2 L f1 ( F ) f2 ( F ) ( L b ) f3 ( F ) R1( F ) L b ( L b ) b 6

R2( F )

1 ( L b)

f3 ( F ) L R1( F )

2

R 1( F )

4-32a-2

y ( x F )

1 E I

R1( F )

w 3 F 3 4 S ( x 0 in) x S ( x a ) ( x a ) S ( x a ) ( x a ) 6 6 24 R (F ) R (F ) 2 S( x b) ( x b ) 3 3 S ( x L) ( x L) 3 C3( F ) x 6 6

5. The deflection at x = a for F 0 N is 6. The deflection at x = a for F Fa is 7. The deflection due to F alone is

y0 y ( a F ) yF y ( a F )

y0 0.00126 mm yF 0.177 mm

y yF y0

k F

y 0.176 mm

k 2844 N mm

4-33a-1

PROBLEM 4-33a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P4-14 and the data in row a of Table P4-3, determine the bending stress at point A and the shear stress due to transverse loading at point B. Also the torsional shear stress at both points. Then determine the principal stresses at points A and B. Tube length Arm length Arm thickness Arm depth Applied force Tube OD Tube ID Modulus of elasticity Solution: L 100 mm a 400 mm t 10 mm h 20 mm F 50 N OD 20 mm ID 14 mm E 207 GPa

R T M L y A B T x F

Given:

FIGURE 4-33

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 4-33

1. Determine the bending stress at point A. From the FBD of the tube in Figure 4-33 we see that Reaction force Reaction moment Distance from NA to outside of tube Moment of inertia Bending stress at point A R F M F L ct 0.5 OD It R 50.0 N M 5.00 N m ct 10.0 mm

4 4

64

OD ID

It 5968 mm

xA

M ct It

xA 8.38 MPa

2. Determine the shear stress due to transverse loading at B. Cross-section area Maximum shear Maximum shear stress (Equation 4.15d) A

OD ID

A 160.2 mm

V R

Vmax 2

V A

3. Determine the torsional shear stress at both points. Using equation 4.23b and the FBD above Torque on tube Polar moment of inertia Maximum torsional stress at surface T F a J T 20.0 N m

4 4

32

OD ID T ct J

J 11936 mm

Tmax

Principal stresses

4-33a-2

xA zA

2

2 xA zA 2 xz 2

1 21.46 MPa

2 0 MPa xA zA

2

2 xA zA 2 xz 2

3 13.08 MPa

13

1 3

2

13 17.27 MPa

Principal stresses

xB yB

2

2 xB yB 2 xy 2

1 16.13 MPa

2 0 MPa xB yB

2

2 xB yB 2 xy 2

3 16.13 MPa

13

1 3

2

13 16.13 MPa

4-34a-1

PROBLEM 4-34a

Statement: Given: For the bracket shown in Figure P4-14 and the data in row a of Table P4-3, determine the deflection at load F. Tube length Arm length Arm thickness Arm depth L 100 mm a 400 mm t 10 mm h 20 mm Applied force Tube OD Tube ID Modulus of elasticity Modulus of rigidity F 50 N OD 20 mm ID 14 mm E 207 GPa G 80.8 GPa

Solution: 1. 2.

The deflection at load F can be determined by superimposing the rigid-body deflection of the arm due to the twisting of the tube with the beam deflection of the tube and the arm alone. Determine the rigid-body deflection due to twisting of the tube. Refering to Figure 4-34, the torque in the tube is Torque on tube Polar moment of inertia Tube angle of twist T F a Jt T 20.0 N m

4 4

32

TL J t G

OD ID

Jt 11936 mm

4 3

rad

Deflection at F due to 3.

a

Jt 2 F L

3

0.829 mm

Determine the rigid-body deflection due to bending of the tube. Moment of inertia Deflection of tube end and arm end (see Appendix B)

F y A a

It

It 5968 mm

tb

3 E It

tb 0.013 mm

F

T M

z T

L R F

FIGURE 4-34

Free Body Diagrams of Tube and Arm for Problem 4-34

4.

3

12 F a

3

Ia 6667 mm

3 E Ia

a 0.773 mm

tot tb a

tot 1.616 mm

downward

4-35a-1

PROBLEM 4-35a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P4-14 and the data in row a of Table P4-3, determine the spring rate of the tube in bending, the spring rate of the arm in bending, and the spring rate of the tube in torsion. Combine these into an overall spring rate in terms of the force F and the linear deflection at F. Tube length Arm length Arm thickness Arm depth L 100 mm a 400 mm t 10 mm h 20 mm Applied force Tube OD Tube ID Modulus of elasticity Modulus of rigidity F 50 N OD 20 mm ID 14 mm E 207 GPa G 80.8 GPa

Given:

Solution: 1.

Determine the spring rate due to bending of the tube. Moment of inertia Deflection of tube end and arm end (see Appendix B) Spring rate due to bending in tube It

64

OD ID

3

It 5968 mm

tb

F L

3 E It F

tb 0.013 mm

N mm

ktb

tb

ktb 3706

2.

Determine the spring rate due to beam bending of arm alone. Moment of inertia Ia t h

3

12 F a

3

Ia 6667 mm

Deflection at F

3 E Ia

a 0.773 mm

F

ka

ka 64.7

N mm

F

y A T M L R B

z T F

FIGURE 4-35

Free Body Diagrams of Tube and Arm for Problem 4-35

3.

Determine the spring rate of the tube in torsion. Refering to Figure 4-35, the torque in the tube is Torque on tube Polar moment of inertia T F a Jt

32

OD ID

T 20.0 N m Jt 11936 mm

4

Tube angle of twist

4-35a-2

TL J t G

rad

a

k F

0.829 mm

k 60.28 N mm

1 koa 1 k

4.

Determine the overall spring rate. The springs are in series, thus k ktb ka ktb ka k ka k ktb

1 ktb

1 ka N mm

koa

koa 30.9

Checking,

tot

F koa

tot 1.616 mm

4-36a-1

PROBLEM 4-36a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P4-14 and the data in row a of Table P4-3, redo Problem 4-33 considering the stress concentration at points A and B. Assume a stress concentration factor of 2.5 in both bending and torsion. Tube length Arm length Arm thickness Arm depth Applied force Tube OD Tube ID Modulus of elasticity Stress-concentration factors Solution: 1. L 100 mm a 400 mm t 10 mm h 20 mm F 50 N OD 20 mm ID 14 mm E 207 GPa Ktb 2.5 Kts 2.5

R T M L y A B T x F

Given:

FIGURE 4-36

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 4-36

Determine the bending stress at point A. From the FBD of the tube in Figure 4-36 we see that Reaction force Reaction moment Distance from NA to outside of tube Moment of inertia Bending stress at point A R F M F L ct 0.5 OD It R 50.0 N M 5.00 N m ct 10.0 mm

4 4

64

OD ID M ct It

It 5968 mm

xA Ktb

xA 20.94 MPa

2.

Determine the shear stress due to transverse loading at B. Cross-section area Maximum shear Maximum shear stress (Equation 4.15d) A

OD ID

A 160.2 mm

V R

Vmax 2

V A

3.

Determine the torsional shear stress at both points. Using equation 4.23b and the FBD above Torque on tube Polar moment of inertia Maximum torsional stress at surface T F a J T 20.0 N m

32

OD ID T ct J

J 11936 mm

Tmax Kts

4.

xA 20.944 MPa

zA 0 MPa

4-36a-2

xz Tmax

Principal stresses

xz 41.89 MPa

xA zA

2

2 xA zA 2 xz 2

1 53.6 MPa

2 0 MPa xA zA

2

2 xA zA 2 xz 2

3 32.71 MPa

13

5.

1 3

2

13 43.18 MPa

Principal stresses

xB yB

2

2 xB yB 2 xy 2

1 41.26 MPa

2 0 MPa xB yB

2

2 xB yB 2 xy 2

3 41.26 MPa

13

1 3

2

13 41.26 MPa

4-37-1

PROBLEM 4-37

Statement: A semicircular, curved beam as shown in Figure 4-37 has the dimensions given below. For the load pair applied along the diameter and given below, find the eccentricity of the neutral axis and the stress at the inner and outer fibers. Outside diameter Inside diameter Width of beam Load Solution: od 150 mm id 100 mm w 25 mm F 14 kN

od id F F w

Given:

1. Calculate the section depth, area, inside radius and outside radus. Section depth Area of section Centroid radius Inside and outside radii of section h od id 2 od id 4 h 25 mm A 625 mm

2

F M F rc (b) Critical Section (a) Entire Beam

A h w rc

rc 62.5 mm ri 50 mm ro 75 mm

ri rc 0.5 h ro rc 0.5 h

2. The critical section is the one that is along the horizontal centerline. There, the bending moment is Bending moment 3. M F rc

FIGURE 4-37

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 4-37

M 0.875 kN m

Use the equation in the footnote of the text to calculate the radius of the neutral axis. Radius of neutral axis rn ro ri

ro ln ri

rn 61.658 mm

4.

Calculate the eccentricty and the distances from the neutral axis to the extreme fibers. Eccentricity Distances from neutral axis to extreme fibers e rc rn ci rn ri co ro rn e 0.8424 mm ci 11.66 mm co 13.34 mm F A

e A ri

ci

i 409.9 MPa

M co F e A ro A

o 273.2 MPa

4-38-1

PROBLEM 4-38

Statement: Design a solid, straight, steel torsion bar to have a spring rate of 10 000 in-lb per radian per foot of length. Compare designs of solid round and solid square cross-sections. Which is more efficient in terms of material use? Length of rod Spring rate Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0438. L 12 in k 10000 in lbf rad Modulus of rigidity G 11.7 10 psi

6

Given:

Determine the rod diameter and volume for a round rod. Spring rate k= J G L

1

J =

d

32

Rod diameter

d V

32 L k G

d

4

2

d 0.569 in V 3.046 in

3

Volume of rod 2.

Determine the rod width and volume for a square rod using equation 4.26b and Table 4-6. Spring rate k= K G L

1 4

K = 2.25 a

L k a 2.25 G V ( 2 a ) L

2

a 0.260 in V 3.241 in

3

2 a 0.520 in

3.

Even though the square rod width is less than the round rod diameter, it takes slightly more material when a square rod is used than when a round rod is used. Thus, the round rod is more efficient.

4-39-1

PROBLEM 4-39

Statement: Design a 1-ft-long steel, end-loaded cantilever spring for a spring rate of 10 000 lb/in. Compare designs of solid round and solid square cross-sections. Which is more efficient in terms of material use? Length of rod Spring rate Solution: 1. L 12 in k 10000 lbf in Modulus of rigidity E 30 10 psi

6

Given:

Determine the rod diameter and volume for a round rod. Spring rate k= 3 E I L

3 1 4

I=

d

64

Rod diameter

64 L3 k d 3 E

V

d 1.406 in V 18.64 in

3

Volume of rod 2.

d

4

Determine the rod width and volume for a square rod using equation 4.26b and Table 4-6. Spring rate k= 3 E I L Rod width Volume of rod

3 1 4

I=

12

4 L3 k a E

V a L

2

a 1.232 in V 18.215 in

3

3.

It takes slightly more material when a round rod is used than when a square rod is used. Thus, the square rod is more efficient.

4-40-1

PROBLEM 4-40

Statement: Redesign the roll support of Problem 4-8 to be like that shown in Figure P4-16. The stub mandrels insert to 10% of the roll length at each end. Choose appropriate dimensions a and b to fully utilize the mandrel's strength, which is the same as in Problem 4-27. See Problem 4-8 for additional data. Paper roll dimensions OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Roll density

3

Given:

Material properties

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. 2. The mandrel's root in the stanchion experiences a distributed load over its length of engagement Solution: See Figures 4-40 and Mathcad file P0440.

y w a x F

1. Model the support in such a way that stresses in the portion of the mandrel that is inside the stanchion can be determined. There are several assumptions that can be made about the loads on this portion of the mandrel. Figure 4-40A shows the one that will be used for this design. 2. Determine the weight of the roll, the load on each support, and the length of the mandrel. W

b R

Lm

OD ID Lroll g

FIGURE 4-40A

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 4-40

3. From inspection of Figure 4-40A, write the load function equation q(x) = -w<x>0 + w<x - b>0 + R<x - b>-1 - F<x - b -Lm>-1 4. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -w<x>1 + w<x - b>1 + R<x - b>0 - F<x - b -Lm>0 5. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -(w/2)<x>2 + (w/2)<x - b>2 + R<x - b>1 - F<x - b -Lm>1 6. Solve for the reactions by evaluating the shear and moment equations at a point just to the right of x = b + Lm, where both are zero. At x = (b + Lm)+ , V = M = 0 0 = w b Lm w Lm R F w w 2 w 2 2 w 2 0 = b Lm Lm R Lm = b Lm Lm ( F w b ) Lm 2 2 2 2 Note that R is inversely proportional to b and w is inversly proportional to b 2. 7. To see the value of x at which the shear and moment are maximum, let R = F w b w= 2 F Lm b

2

b 200 mm then w 2 F Lm b 8. Define the range for x

2

4-40-2

and R F w b L b Lm

x 0 mm 0.002 L L

9. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) 10. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) w S ( x 0 mm) x w S ( x b ) ( x b ) R S ( x b ) F S ( x L) M ( x) w 2 S ( x 0 mm) x

2

w 2

S ( x b ) ( x b ) R S ( x b ) ( x b ) F S ( x L) ( x L)

200

Moment Diagram

2

100 V ( x) kN 0 M ( x) kN m

100

200

100

200

300 x mm

400

500

600

10

100

200

300 x mm

400

500

600

FIGURE 4-40B

Shear and Moment Diagram Shapes for Problem 4-40

12. From Figure 4-40B, the maximum internal shear and moment occur at x = b and are Vmax = 2 F Lm b Mmax F Lm Mmax 8.704 kN m

13. The bending stress will be a maximum at the top or bottom of the mandrel at a section through x = b.

max =

Mmax a 2 I

where

1

I=

a

64

so,

max =

32 Mmax

a

a 121.037 mm

= Sy

Solving for a,

32 W Lm a S y

a 125 mm

Round this to

4-40-3

14. Using this value of a and equation 4.15c, solve for the shear stress on the neutral axis at x = b.

max =

4 Vmax 3 A

8 F Lm

a 2 b 3 4

= S ys

Solving for b

8 F Lm

a 2 Sys 3 4

b 37.828 mm

Round this to

b 38 mm

15. These are minimum values for a and b. Using them, check the bearing stress. Magnitude of distributed load w 2 F Lm b Bearing stress

2

w 12055

N mm

bear

w b a b

Since this is less than S y, the design is acceptable for a 125 mm and b 38 mm

4-41-1

PROBLEM 4-41

Statement: Given: Assumption: Solution: A 10-mm ID steel tube carries liquid at 7 MPa. Determine the principal stresses in the wall if its thickness is: a) 1 mm, b) 5 mm. Tubing ID ID 10 mm Inside pressure p i 7 MPa

The tubing is long therefore the axial stress is zero. See Mathcad file P0441. t 1 mm

1. Check wall thickness to radius ratio to see if this is a thick or thin wall problem. ratio t 0.5 ID ratio 0.2

Since the ratio is greater than 0.1, this is a thick wall problem. 2. Using equations 4.48a and 4.48b, the stresses are maximum at the inside wall where Inside radius Outside radius ri 0.5 ID ro ri t

2 1 ro t 2 2 2 ri ro ri

ri 5 mm ro 6 mm

Tangential stress

ri p i

t 38.82 MPa

Radial stress

2 1 ro r 2 2 2 ri ro ri

ri p i

r 7.00 MPa

3. Determine the principal stresses (since, for this choice of coordinates, the shear stress is zero),

1 t 2 0 MPa 3 r

The maximum shear stress is

1 38.82 MPa

3 7.00 MPa 1 3

2 t 5 mm

max

(b) Wall thickness is

1. Check wall thickness to radius ratio to see if this is a thick or thin wall problem. ratio t 0.5 ID ratio 1

Since the ratio is greater than 0.1, this is a thick wall problem. 2. Using equations 4.48a and 4.48b, the stresses are maximum at the inside wall where Inside radius Outside radius ri 0.5 ID ro ri t ri 5 mm ro 10 mm

2 1 ro t 2 2 2 ri ro ri

4-41-2

2

Tangential stress

ri p i

t 11.67 MPa

Radial stress

ri p i

2 2

ro ri

ro ri

r 7.00 MPa

3. Determine the principal stresses (since, for this choice of coordinates, the shear stress is zero),

1 t 2 0 MPa 3 r

The maximum shear stress is

1 11.67 MPa

3 7.00 MPa 1 3

2

max

4-42-1

PROBLEM 4-42

Statement: A cylindrical tank with hemispherical ends is required to hold 150 psi of pressurized air at room temperature. Find the principal stresses in the 1-mm-thick wall if the tank diameter is 0.5 m and its length is 1 m. Tank ID Wall thickness Inside pressure ID 500 mm t 1 mm p i 150 psi

Given:

p i 1034 kPa

Solution: 1.

Check wall thickness to radius ratio to see if this is a thick or thin wall problem. ratio t 0.5 ID ratio 4 10

3

Since the ratio is less than 0.1, this is a thin wall problem. 2. Using equations 4.49a, 4.49b and 4.49c, the stresses are Radius Tangential stress Radial stress Axial stress 3. r 0.5 ID r 250 mm

pi r t

r 0 MPa a

pi r 2 t

Determine the principal stresses (since, for this choice of coordinates, the shear stress is zero),

1 t 2 a 3 0 MPa

The maximum shear stress is

max

1 3

2

4-43-1

PROBLEM 4-43

Statement: Figure P4-17 shows an off-loading station at the end of a paper rolling machine. The finished paper rolls are 0.9-m OD by 0.22-m ID by 3.23-m long and have a density of 984 kg/m3. The rolls are transfered from the machine conveyor (not shown) to the forklift truck by the V-linkage of the off-load station, which is rotated through 90 deg by an air cylinder. The paper then rolls onto the waiting forks of the truck. The forks are 38-mm thick by 100-mm wide by 1.2-m long and are tipped at a 3-deg angle from the horizontal. Find the stresses in the two forks on the truck when the paper rolls onto it under two different conditions (state all assumptions): (a) The two forks are unsupported at their free end. (b) The two forks are contacting the table at point A. Paper roll dimensions OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Fork dimensions t 38 mm w 100 mm Lfork 1200 mm

Given:

Roll density

984 kg m

fork 3 deg

Assumptions: 1. The greatest bending moment will occur when the paper roll is at the tip of the fork for case (a) and when it is midway between supports for case (b). 2. Each fork carries 1/2 the weight of a paper roll. 3. For case (a), each fork acts as a cantilever beam (see Appendix B-1(a)). 4. For case (b), each fork acts as a beam that is built-in at one end and simply-supported at the other. Solution: See Figure 4-43 and Mathcad file P0443.

F L fork

1. Determine the weight of the roll and the load on each fork. W

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN F 9.32 kN

Case (a), Cantilever Beam R1 M1

F 0.5 W

2. The moment of inertia and the distance to the extreme fiber for a fork are I c w t t 2

3

12

I 4.573 10 mm c 19 mm

0.5 L fork t

L fork R1 R2

M2

Case (a) 3. From Figure D-1(a), the moment is a maximum at the support and is Mmax F Lfork Mmax 11.186 kN m

FIGURE 4-43A

Free Body Diagrams used in Problem 4-43

Mmax c I

a 464.8 MPa

5. This beam is statically indeterminate. However, using singularity functions and the method shown in Example 4-7, we can determine the reactions and find the maximum moment. 6. Calculate the distance from the left support to the load and the distance between supports.

4-43-2

a 600 mm L 1200 mm

7. From inspection of Figure 4-43A, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 + R2<x - L>-1 + M2<x - L>-2 8. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x>0 - F<x - a>0 + R2<x - L>0 + M2<x - L>-1 9. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x>1 - F<x - a>1 + R2<x - L>1 + M2<x - L>0 10. Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - F<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - L>2/2 + M2<x - L>1 + C3]/EI 11. Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - F<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - L>3/6 + M2<x - L>2/2 + C3x + C4]/EI 12. Evaluate R1, R2, M2, C3 and C4 At x = 0 and x = L; y = 0, therefore, C4 = 0. At x = L, = 0 At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given R 1 L 6 R 1 L 2

2 3

R1 1 kN

R2 1 kN

3

M2 1 kN m

C3 1 kN m

F ( L a) 6 F ( L a) 2

C3 L = 0 kN m

C3 = 0 kN m

R1 R2 F = 0 kN R1 L F ( L a ) M2 = 0 kN m

R1 R 2 Find R R M C 1 2 2 3 M2 C3

R1 2.913 kN 13. Define the range for x R2 6.409 kN M2 2.097 kN m C3 0.419 kN m

2

x 0 in 0.002 L L

14. For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 )

4-43-3

15. Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) F S ( x a ) R2 S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) x F S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x L) ( x L) 16. Plot the shear and moment diagrams. Shear Diagram

10

Moment Diagram

2 1 0

5 V ( x) kN 0 M ( x)

kN m 1 2 3

10

200

400

600 x mm

800

1000 1200

200

400

600 x mm

800

1000 1200

FIGURE 4-43B

Shear and Moment Diagrams for Problem 4-43

Mmax M ( L)

Mmax 2.097 kN m

Mmax c I

a 87.2 MPa

4-44-1

PROBLEM 4-44

Statement: Determine a suitable thickness for the V-links of the off-loading station of Figure P4-17 to limit their deflections at the tips to 10-mm in any position during their rotation. Two V-links support the roll, at the 1/4 and 3/4 points along the roll's length, and each of the V arms is 10-cm wide by 1-m long. The V arms are welded to a steel tube that is rotated by the air cylinder. See Problem 4-43 for more information. Roll OD Roll ID Roll length Roll density OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m

3

Given:

wa 100 mm La 1000 mm

tip 10 mm

E 207 GPa

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The maximum deflection on an arm will occur just after it begins the transfer and just before it completes it, i.e., when the angle is either zero or 90 deg., but after the tip is no longer supported by the base unit. 2. At that time the roll is in contact with both arms ("seated" in the V) and will remain in that state throughout the motion. When the roll is in any other position on an arm the tip will be supported. 3. The arm can be treated as a cantilever beam with nonend load. 4. A single arm will never carry more than half the weight of a roll. 5. The pipe to which the arms are attached has OD = 160 mm. Solution: See Figure 4-44 and Mathcad file P0444.

450

1. Determine the weight of the roll and the load on each V-arm. W

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN F 9.32 kN

F 0.5 W

2. From Appendix B, Figure B-1, the tip deflection of a cantilever beam with a concentrated load located at a distance a from the support is ymax = F a

2

6 E I

( a 3 L)

370 = a

1000 = L F

where L is the beam length and I is the cross-section moment of inertia. In this case w a t a 12 and a 370 mm

3

M F

I= 3. Setting

FIGURE 4-44

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 4-44

ymax = tip

1

2 F a2 3 La a ta E tip wa

Let the arm thickness be

ta 31.889 mm ta 32 mm

4-45-1

PROBLEM 4-45

Statement: Determine the critical load on the air cylinder rod in Figure P4-17 if the crank arm that rotates it is 0.3 m long and the rod has a maximum extension of 0.5 m. The 25-mm-dia rod is solid steel with a yield strength of 400 MPa. State all assumptions. Rod length Rod diameter L 500 mm d 25 mm Young's modulus Yield strength E 207 GPa S y 400 MPa

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The rod is a fixed-pinned column. 2. Use a conservative value of 1 for the end factor (see Table 4-7 in text). Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0445.

Calculate the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E Sy S rD 101.07

2.

Calculate the cross-section area and the moment of inertia. Area Moment of inertia A I

2

4 d d

A 490.87 mm

4

2 4

64

I 1.92 10 mm

3.

Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L Leff 500 mm

4.

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k I A Leff k k 6.25 mm

Slenderness ratio

S r

S r 80.00

Since the Sr for this column is less than SrD, it is a Johnson column. 5. Calculate the critical load using the Johnson equation.

2 S S Sy 1 y r Pcr A E 2

Pcr 134.8 kN

4-46-1

PROBLEM 4-46

Statement: The V-links of Figure P4-17 are rotated by the crank arm through a shaft that is 60 mm dia by 3.23 m long. Determine the maximum torque applied to this shaft during motion of the V-linkage and find the maximum stress and deflection for the shaft. See Problem 4-43 for more information. Paper roll dimensions OD 900 mm ID 220 mm Lroll 3230 mm Roll density

3

Given:

Shaft dims

984 kg m

Modulus of rigidity

Assumptions: The greatest torque will occur when the link is horizontal and the paper roll is located as shown in Figure P4-17 or Figure 4-46. Solution: See Figure 4-46 and Mathcad file P0446.

y

OD ID Lroll g

W

d

32

J 1.272 10 mm

4

Ry 60-mm-dia shaft 450.0

4. The maximum torsional stress will be at the outside diameter of the shaft. The radius of the OD is, r d 2 r 30 mm

FIGURE 4-46

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 4-46

max

Tr J

T Lshaft J G

15.447 deg

4-47-1

PROBLEM 4-47

Statement: Given: Determine the maximum forces on the pins at each end of the air cylinder of Figure P4-17. Determine the stress in these pins if they are 30-mm dia and in single shear. Paper roll dimensions OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Pin diameter d 30 mm

Roll density

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The maximum force in the cylinder rod occurs when the transfer starts. 2. The cylinder and rod make an angle of 8 deg to the horizontal at the start of transfer. 3. The crank arm is 300 mm long and is 45 deg from vertical at the start of transfer. 4. The cylinder rod is fully retracted at the start of the transfer. At the end of the transfer it will have extended 500 mm from its initial position. Solution: See Figure 4-47 and Mathcad file P0447.

y

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN 2. From the assumptions and Figure 4-47, the x and y distances from the origin to point A are, Rax 300 cos( 45 deg) mm Ray 300 sin( 45 deg) mm Rax 212.132 mm Ray 212.132 mm

212.1 W Rx x 212.1 A F 450.0 8

Ry

3. From Figure 4-47, the x distance from the origin to point where W is applied is,

FIGURE 4-47

Free Body Diagram at Start of Transfer for V-link of Problem 4-47

Rwx 4.

OD 2

Rwx 450 mm

Sum moments about the pivot point and solve for the compressive force in the cylinder rod. W Rwx F Rax sin( 8 deg) F Ray cos( 8 deg) = 0 F W Rwx Ray cos( 8 deg) Rax sin( 8 deg) F 46.469 kN

5. Determine the cross-sectional area of the pins and the direct shear stress. Shear area A

4-47-2

d

4 F A

A 706.858 mm

Shear stress

65.7 MPa

4-48-1

PROBLEM 4-48

Statement: A 100-kg wheelchair marathon racer wants an exerciser that will allow indoor practicing in any weather. The design shown in Figure P4-18 is proposed. Two free-turning rollers on bearings support the rear wheels. A platform supports the front wheels. Design the 1-m-long rollers as hollow tubes of aluminum to minimize the height of the platform and also limit the roller deflections to 1 mm in the worst case. The wheelchair has 650-mm-dia drive wheels separated by a 700-mm track width. The flanges shown on the rollers limit the lateral movement of the chair while exercising and thus the wheels can be anywhere between those flanges. Specify suitable sized steel axles to support the tubes on bearings. Calculate all significant stresses. Mass of chair M 100 kg Wheel diameter d w 650 mm Track width Roller length T 700 mm Lr 1000 mm Maximum deflection Modulus elasticity Aluminum Steel

Given:

1 mm

Ea 71.7 GPa Es 207 GPa

Assumptions: 1. The CG of the chair with rider is sufficiently close to the rear wheel that all of the weight is taken by the two rear wheels. 2. The small camber angle of the rear wheels does not significantly affect the magnitude of the forces on the rollers. 3. Both the aluminum roller and the steel axle are simply supported. The steel axles that support the aluminum tube are fixed in the mounting block and do not rotate. The aluminum tube is attached to them by two bearings (one on each end of the tubes, one for each axle). The bearings' inner race is fixed, and the outer race rotates with the aluminum tube. Each steel axle is considered to be loaded as a simply supported beam. Their diameter must be less than the inner diameter of the tubes to fit the roller bearings between them. Solution: See Figures 4-48 and Mathcad file P0448.

W/2

F

FIGURE 4-48A

1. Calculate the weight of the chair with rider. Weight of chair W M g W 980.7 N

2. Calculate the forces exerted by the wheels on the rollers (see Figure 4-48A). From the FBD of a wheel, summing vertical forces 2 F cos( ) Let W 2 =0 then F W 4 cos( ) F 260.9 N

20 deg

3.

The worst condition (highest moment at site of a stress concentration) will occur when the chair is all the way to the left or right. Looking at the plane through the roller that includes the forces exerted by the wheels (the FBD is shown in Figure 4-48B) the reactions R1 and R2 come from the bearings, which are inside the hollow roller and are, themselves, supported by the steel axle.

M1 Fy R2 R2 Lr F ( a T ) F a = 0 R1 2 F R2 = 0 F (2 a T ) Lr R2 190.5 N

15 F 700 F

4-48-2

R2 1000

R1 2 F R2

R1 331.3 N

R1

FIGURE 4-48B

Free Body Diagram of One Tube used in Problem 4-48

5. The maximum bending moment will be at the right-hand load and will be Mrmax R2 Lr ( a T ) Mrmax 54.3 N m

Note, if the chair were centered on the roller the maximum moment would be Mc F Lr T 2 Mc 39.1 N m

and this would be constant along the axle between the two loads, F. 6. Note that the bearing positions are fixed regardless of the position of the chair on the roller. Because of symmetry, Ra1 R1 Ra2 R2 Ra1 331.3 N Ra2 190.5 N

R a1 1130 R a2 65 R1 1000 R2

7. The maximum bending moment occurs at R1 and is for b 65 mm Mamax Ra1 b Mamax 21.5 N m

FIGURE 4-48C

Free Body Diagram of One Axle used in Problem 4-48

8. Determine a suitable axle diameter. Let the factor of safety against yielding in the axle be Nsa 3 9. Tentatively choose a low-carbon steel for the axle, say AISI 1020, cold rolled with S y 393 MPa 10. At the top of the axle under the load R1 there is only a bending stress. Set this stress equal to the yield strength divided by the factor of safety.

x =

32 Mamax

Sy Nsa

1

d a

32 Nsa Mamax d a S y

d a 15 mm

d a 11.875 mm

11. Suppose that bearing 6302 from Chapter 10, Figure 10-23. It has a bore of 15 mm and an OD of 42 mm. Thus, the inside diameter of the roller away from the bearings where the moment is a maximum will be d i 40 mm. This will provide a 1-mm shoulder for axial location of the bearings. 12. The maximum deflection of the roller will occur when the chair is in the center of the roller. For this case the reactions are both equal to the loads, F (see Figure 4-48D). The maximum deflection is at the center of the roller.

4-48-3

150 F

700 F

F 15 1000 F

FIGURE 4-48D

Free Body Diagram of Roller with Chair in the Center.

13. Write the load function and then integrate four times to get the deflection function. q(x) = F<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 - F<x - b>-1 + F<x - L>-1 y(x) = F[<x>3 - <x - a>3 - <x - b>3 + <x - L>3 + C3x]/(6EI) where C3 = 1 L ( L a ) a L

3 3 3

L 3 6 Ea I 2

F

3 L a 1 ( L a) 3 a3 L3 2 2

15. Set this equation equal to the allowed deflection and solve for the required moment of inertia, I.

Lr 3 6 Ea 2

F

3 Lr 1 3 3 3 a Lr a a Lr 2 2

I 6.618 10 mm

16. Knowing the inside diameter of the tube, solve for the outside diameter.

1

I=

4 4 do di 64

d o 46 mm

d o

64 I d 4 i

d o 44.463 mm

Rollers AISI 1020 steel, cold-rolled d a 15 mm 1220 mm Material Outside diameter Inside diameter Length Spacing 2024-T4 aluminum d o 46 mm d i 40 mm 1040 mm c d w d o sin( ) c 238 mm

4-49a-1

PROBLEM 4-49a

Statement: A hollow, square column has the dimensions and properties below. Determine if it is a Johnson or an Euler column and find the critical load: (a) If its boundary conditions are pinned-pinned. (b) If its boundary conditions are fixed-pinned. (c) If its boundary conditions are fixed-fixed. (d) If its boundary conditions are fixed-free. Length of column Outside dimension Inside dimension Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0449a. Material L 100 mm Yield strength so 4 mm si 3 mm Modulus of elasticity Steel S y 300 MPa E 207 GPa

Given:

Calculate the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E Sy S rD 116.7

2.

Calculate the cross-section area and the moment of inertia. Area Moment of inertia A so si I 1 12

2 2 4

A 7.00 mm

2 4

so si

I 14.58 mm

(a) pinned-pinned ends 3. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L 4. Leff 100 mm

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k I A Leff k k 1.443 mm

Slenderness ratio

S r

S r 69.28

Since the S r for this column is less than S rD, it is a Johnson column. 5. Calculate the critical load using the Johnson equation.

2 1 S y S r Pcr A S y E 2

Pcr 1.73 kN

(b) fixed-pinned ends 6. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.8 L 7. Leff 80 mm

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k I A k 1.443 mm

Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 55.43

4-49a-2

Since the S r for this column is less than S rD, it is a Johnson column. 8. Calculate the critical load using the Johnson equation. Pcr A S y

2 Sy S r E 2

Pcr 1.86 kN

(c) fixed-fixed ends 9. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.65 L Leff 65 mm

10. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k S r I A Leff k k 1.443 mm S r 45.03

Slenderness ratio

Since the S r for this column is less than S rD, it is a Johnson column. 11. Calculate the critical load using the Johnson equation.

2 S S Sy 1 y r Pcr A E 2

Pcr 1.94 kN

(d) fixed-free ends 12. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 2.1 L Leff 210 mm

13. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k S r I A Leff k k 1.443 mm S r 145.49

Slenderness ratio

Since the S r for this column is greater than S rD, it is an Euler column. 14. Calculate the critical load using the Euler equation.

Pcr A

E

Sr

2

Pcr 676 N

4-50a-1

PROBLEM 4-50a

Statement: A hollow, round column has the dimensions and properties below. Determine if it is a Johnson or an Euler column and find the critical load: (a) If its boundary conditions are pinned-pinned. (b) If its boundary conditions are fixed-pinned. (c) If its boundary conditions are fixed-fixed. (d) If its boundary conditions are fixed-free. Length of column Outside diameter Inside diameter Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0450a. L 1500 mm Material Yield strength od 20 mm id 14 mm Modulus of elasticity Steel S y 300 MPa E 207 GPa

Given:

Calculate the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E Sy S rD 116.7

2.

Calculate the cross-section area, moment of inertia, and the radius of gyration. Area A I

od id od id

4

A 160.22 mm I 5968 mm

4

Moment of inertia

64

I A

Radius of gyration

k 6.103 mm

3.

Define functions to determine column type and critical load. Type type S r "Euler" if S r S rD "Johnson" otherwise Pcr S r return A

Critical load

E

Sr

2

if type S r = "Euler"

2 S S S y 1 y r otherwise A E 2

(a) pinned-pinned ends 4. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L 5. Leff 1500 mm

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 245.77

6.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Euler" Pcr S r 5.42 kN

(b) fixed-pinned ends 7. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.8 L 8. Leff 1200 mm

4-50a-2

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 196.62

9.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Euler" Pcr S r 8.47 kN

(c) fixed-fixed ends 10. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.65 L Leff 975 mm

11. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 159.75

12. Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Euler" (d) fixed-free ends 13. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 2.1 L Leff 3150 mm Pcr S r 12.8 kN

14. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 516.12

15. Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Euler" Pcr S r 1.23 kN

4-51a-1

PROBLEM 4-51a

Statement: A solid, rectangular column has the dimensions and properties below. Determine if it is a Johnson or an Euler column and find the critical load: (a) If its boundary conditions are pinned-pinned. (b) If its boundary conditions are fixed-pinned. (c) If its boundary conditions are fixed-fixed. (d) If its boundary conditions are fixed-free. Length of col. Thickness Height Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0451a. L 100 mm t 10 mm h 20 mm Material Yield strength Modulus of elasticity Steel S y 300 MPa E 207 GPa

Given:

Calculate the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E Sy S rD 116.7

2.

Calculate the cross-section area, moment of inertia, and the radius of gyration. Area A h t I h t

3

A 200.00 mm I 1667 mm

4

Moment of inertia

12 I A

Radius of gyration

k 2.887 mm

3.

Define functions to determine column type and critical load. Type type S r "Euler" if S r S rD "Johnson" otherwise Pcr S r return A

Critical load

E

Sr

2

if type S r = "Euler"

2 1 S y S r A S y otherwise E 2

(a) pinned-pinned ends 4. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L 5. Leff 100 mm

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 34.64

6.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Johnson" Pcr S r 57.36 kN

(b) fixed-pinned ends 7. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.8 L 8. Leff 80 mm

4-51a-2

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 27.71

9.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Johnson" Pcr S r 58.31 kN

(c) fixed-fixed ends 10. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.65 L Leff 65 mm

11. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 22.52

12. Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Johnson" (d) fixed-free ends 13. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 2.1 L Leff 210 mm Pcr S r 58.9 kN

13. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 72.75

14. Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above. type S r "Johnson" Pcr S r 48.34 kN

4-52a-1

PROBLEM 4-52a

Statement: A solid, circular column, loaded eccentrically, has the dimensions and properties below. Find the critical load: (a) If its boundary conditions are pinned-pinned. (b) If its boundary conditions are fixed-pinned. (c) If its boundary conditions are fixed-fixed. (d) If its boundary conditions are fixed-free. Length of column Outside diameter Eccentricity (t) Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0452a. L 100 mm od 20 mm e 10 mm Material Yield strength Modulus of elasticity Steel S y 300 MPa E 207 GPa

Given:

Calculate the cross-section area, distance to extreme fiber, and the moment of inertia. Area Distance to extreme fiber Moment of inertia A

od

A 314.16 mm c 10 mm I 7854 mm

4

c 0.5 od I

64

od

4.

Calculate the radius of gyration and eccentricity ratio for the column. Radius of gyration k Er I A e c k

2

k 5.00 mm Er 4.0

Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L Leff 100 mm

4.

Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 20.00

5.

Calculate the critical load using the Secant equation. Guess Given P= P 1 kN S y A 1 Er sec S r Pcr Find ( P)

4 E A Pcr 18.63 kN

(b) fixed-pinned ends 6. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.8 L 7. Leff 80 mm

Slenderness ratio 8. S r Leff k S r 16.00

4-52a-2

Calculate the critical load using the Secant equation. Guess Given P= P 1 kN S y A 1 Er sec S r Pcr Find ( P)

4 E A Pcr 18.71 kN

(c) fixed-fixed ends 9. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 0.65 L Leff 65 mm

10. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 13.00

11. Calculate the critical load using the Secant equation. Guess Given P= P 1 kN S y A 1 Er sec S r Pcr Find ( P) (d) fixed-free ends 12. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 2.1 L Leff 210 mm

4 E A

P Pcr 18.76 kN

13. Calculate the slenderness ratio for the column. Slenderness ratio S r Leff k S r 42

14. Calculate the critical load using the Secant equation. Guess Given P= P 1 kN S y A 1 Er sec S r Pcr Find ( P)

4 E A

P Pcr 17.93 kN

4-53-1

PROBLEM 4-53

Statement: Given: Design an aluminum, hollow, circular column for the conditions given below for (a) pinned-pinned ends and (b) fixed-free ends. Length of column Wall thickness Load supported Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0453. Factor of safety L 3 m Yield strength t 5 mm F 900 N Modulus of elasticity FS 3 S yc 150 MPa E 71.7 GPa

Start by calculating the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E S yc S rD 97.136

2.

Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 1 L Leff 3000 mm

3.

To start the iterative process, assume that the final design will be an Euler column with the critical load equal to FS*F. From equation 4.38b, Pcr =

E A k

L

2

and

k =

I A

Substituting for k2

Pcr =

E I

L

2 2

= FS F

Solving for I

Leff FS F

E

The required moment of inertia, assuming an Euler column is I 34339 mm 4.

4

Using the relationships given on the inside cover, solve for the outside diameter of the tube. Guess Given D 20 mm I= 64

4 4 D ( D 2 t)

D 30.64 mm

D Find ( D) 5.

Using this diameter, calculate the slenderness ratio and compare to S rD. If it is greater than S rD the assumption o an Euler column is correct, if not, recalculate using the Johnson equation. Inside diameter Area d D 2 t Ar d 20.64 mm

2

D d

Ar 402.7 mm

Radius of gyration

kr

I Ar Leff kr

kr 9.234 mm

Slenderness ratio

S r

S r 324.9

4-53-2

Since this is greater than S rD, the assumption of an Euler column is correct and the minimum outside diameter is D 30.64 mm (b) fixed-free ends 6. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length. Leff 2.1 L 7. Leff 6300 mm

To start the iterative process, assume that the final design will be an Euler column with the critical load equal to FS*F. From equation 4.38b, Pcr =

E A k

L

2

and

k =

I A

Substituting for k2

Pcr =

E I

L

2 2

= FS F

Solving for I

Leff FS F

E

The required moment of inertia, assuming an Euler column is I 2 10 mm 8.

5 4

Using the relationships given on the inside cover, solve for the outside diameter of the tube. Guess Given D 20 mm I= 64

4 4 D ( D 2 t)

D 47.37 mm

D Find ( D) 9.

Using this diameter, calculate the slenderness ratio and compare to S rD. If it is greater than S rD the assumption of an Euler column is correct, if not, recalculate using the Johnson equation. Inside diameter Area d D 2 t Ar d 37.37 mm

2

D d

Ar 665.6 mm

Radius of gyration

kr

I Ar Leff kr

kr 15.084 mm

Slenderness ratio

S r

S r 417.7

Since this is greater than S rD, the assumption of an Euler column is correct and the minimum outside diameter is D 47.37 mm

4-54-1

PROBLEM 4-54

Statement: Three round, 1.25-in-dia bars are made of SAE 1030 hot-rolled steel but are of different lengths, 5 in, 30 in, and 60 in, respectively. They are loaded axially in compression. Compare the load supporting capability of the three bars if the ends are assumed to be: (a) Pinned-pinned. (b) Fixed-pinned. (c) Fixed-fixed. (d) Fixed-free. Outside diameter Lengths Material d 1.25 in L 5 in

1

Given:

L 30 in

2

L 60 in

3

i 1 2 3

S y 38 ksi E 30 10 psi

6

Solution: 1.

Calculate the slenderness ratio that divides the unit load vs. slenderness ratio graph into Johnson and Euler regions. S rD 2 E Sy S rD 124.8

2.

Calculate the cross-section area, moment of inertia, and the radius of gyration. Area A I

2

4 d d

A 791.73 mm I 49882 mm

4

Moment of inertia

64

Radius of gyration 3.

I A

k 7.938 mm

Define functions to determine column type and critical load. Type type S r "Euler" if S r S rD "Johnson" otherwise Pcr S r return A

Critical load

E

Sr

2

if type S r = "Euler"

2 S S S y 1 y r otherwise A E 2

(a) pinned-pinned ends 4. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length.

Leff 1 L 5.

5 Leff 30 in 60

4-54-2

Slenderness ratio

S r

Leff k

16 S r 96 192

6.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above.

Type type S r

i

Pcr S r lbf

(b) fixed-pinned ends 7. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length.

Leff 0.8 L

8.

Slenderness ratio

S r

Leff k

9.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above.

Type type S r

i

Pcr S r lbf

(c) fixed-fixed ends 10. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length.

Leff 0.65 L

11.

Slenderness ratio

S r

Leff k

4-54-3

12.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above.

Type type S r

i

Pcr S r lbf

(d) fixed-free ends 13. Using Table 4-7, calculate the effective column length.

Leff 2.1 L

14.

Slenderness ratio

S r

Leff k

15.

Determine the type and critical load using the functions defined above.

Type type S r

i

Pcr S r lbf

4-55-1

PROBLEM 4-55

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-19 shows a 1.5-in-dia, 30-in-long steel rod subjected to tensile loads P = 10000 lb applied at each end of the rod, acting along its longitudinal Y axis and through the centroid of its circular cross section. Point A is 12 in below the upper end and point B is 8 in below A. For this bar with its loading, find: (a) All components of the stress tensor matrix (equation 4.1a) for a point midway between A and B. (b) The displacement of point B relative to point A. (c) The elastic strain in the section between A and B. (d) The total strain in the section between A and B. Tensile load Diameter Lengths P 10000 lbf Modulus of elasticity d 1.50 in L 30 in LA 12 in LAB 8 in E 30 10 psi

6

Given:

Solution: 1.

d

4

A 1.767 in

2.

(a) The loading is simple axial tension so all components of the stress tensor are zero except yy, which is found using equation 4.7.

yy

P A

yy 5659 psi

This stress is uniform across the rod and has the same value at any cross section along the longitudinal axis except close to the ends where the load is applied. 3. (b) The displacement of point B relative to A can be found using equation 4.8. P LAB A E

3

sBA

4.

sBA 1.509 10

in

(c) The elastic strain in the rod can be found using Hooke's law (equation 2.2)

yy

E

1.886 10

5.

(d) Assuming that the yield strength of this steel is greater than yy, the strain calculated in step 4 is the total strain.

4-56-1

PROBLEM 4-56

Statement:

_____

The rod in Figure P4-19, with the loading of Problem 4-55, is subjected to a reduction of temperature from 80F to 20F after the load is applied. The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel is approximately 6 in/in/degF. Find: (a) All components of the stress tensor matrix (equation 4.1a) for a point midway between A and B. (b) The displacement of point B relative to point A. (c) The elastic strain in the section between A and B. (d) The total strain in the section between A and B. Temperature scale F 1 Tensile load Diameter Lengths Temperatures P 10000 lbf Modulus of elasticity d 1.50 in L 30 in LA 12 in LAB 8 in T1 80 F T2 20 F E 30 10 psi

6

Units: Given:

Solution: 1.

6 10

d

4

A 1.767 in

2.

(a) The loading is simple axial tension so all components of the stress tensor are zero except yy, which is found using equation 4.7.

yy

P A

yy 5659 psi

This stress is uniform across the rod and has the same value at any cross section along the longitudinal axis except close to the ends where the load is applied. The change in temperature does not affect the stress since the ends are free. 3. (b) The displacement of point B relative to A can be found by summing equation 4.8 for the elastic portion and the thermal expansion equation from elementary mechanics of materials for the thermal portion.

sBA

4.

P LAB A E

T2 T1 LAB

sBA 1.371 10

in

(c) The elastic strain in the rod can be found using Hooke's law (equation 2.2)

5.

yy

E

1.886 10

(d) Assuming that there is no plastic strain in the rod, the total strain is the sum of the elastic strain found in step 4 plus the thermal strain.

tot T2 T1

tot 1.714 10

4-57-1

PROBLEM 4-57

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-20 shows a steel bar fastened to a rigid ground plane with two 0.25-in-dia hardened steel dowel pins. For P = 1500 lb, find: (a) The shear stress in each pin. (b) The direct bearing stress in each pin and hole. (c) The minimum value of dimension h to prevent tearout failure if the steel bar has a shear strength of 32500 psi. Pin diameter Distance between pins Thickness of bar d 0.250 in a 2.0 in t 0.25 in Applied load Shear strength of bar Distance from right pin to load P 1500 lbf S s 32.5 ksi b 4.0 in

Given:

Solution: 1.

Draw a free-body diagram and find the shear forces (reactions) on each pin.

a RL

RR P

Write equations 3.3b for the bar and solve for the reactions.

F:

RL 2.

RL RR P 0 b a P RL 3000 lbf

M:

RL a P b 0 RR 4500 lbf

RR P RL

d

4

A 0.0491 in

3.

(a) Use equation 4.9 to determine the shear stress in each pin. Left pin

L R

RL A RR A

Right pin 4.

(b) Calculate the bearing area from equation 4.10 and use it to determine the bearing stress in each pin. Bearing area Abear d t Abear 0.0625 in

2

RL Abear

L 48.0 ksi

4-57-2

RR Abear

R 72.0 ksi

5.

Atear 2

h d

the outside of the bar. Substitute this area in equation 4.9 for the shear area and substitute the shear strength for xy, solving then for the unknown distance h. Left pin h L RL S s t RR S s t d h L 0.619 in

Right pin

h R

Minimum value of h

h min h R

4-58-1

PROBLEM 4-58

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-20 shows a steel bar fastened to a rigid ground plane with two 0.25-in-dia hardened steel dowel pins. For P = 2200 lb, find: (a) The shear stress in each pin. (b) The direct bearing stress in each pin and hole. (c) The minimum value of dimension h to prevent tearout failure if the steel bar has a shear strength of 32500 psi. Pin diameter Distance between pins Thickness of bar d 0.250 in a 2.0 in t 0.25 in Applied load Shear strength of bar Distance from right pin to load P 2200 lbf S s 32.5 ksi b 4.0 in

Given:

Solution: 1.

Draw a free-body diagram and find the shear forces (reactions) on each pin.

a RL

RR P

Write equations 3.3b for the bar and solve for the reactions.

F:

RL 2.

RL RR P 0 b a P RL 4400 lbf

M:

RL a P b 0 RR 6600 lbf

RR P RL

d

4

A 0.0491 in

3.

(a) Use equation 4.9 to determine the shear stress in each pin. Left pin

L R

RL A RR A

Right pin 4.

(b) Calculate the bearing area from equation 4.10 and use it to determine the bearing stress in each pin. Bearing area Abear d t Abear 0.0625 in

2

RL Abear RR Abear

4-58-2

L R

5.

t , where (h - d)/2 is the distance from the edge of the hole to 2 the outside of the bar. Substitute this area in equation 4.9 for the shear area and substitute the shear strength for xy, solving then for the unknown distance h.

(c) The tearout area is Left pin h L RL S s t RR S s t d h L 0.792 in

Atear 2

h d

Right pin

h R

Minimum value of h

h min h R

4-59-1

PROBLEM 4-59

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-21 shows a rectangular section aluminum bar subjected to off-center forces P = 4000 N applied as shown. (a) Solve for the maximum normal stress in the mid-region of the bar well away from the eyes where the loads are applied. (b) Plot the normal stress distribution across the cross section at this mid-region. (c) Sketch a "reasonable" plot of the normal stress distribution across the cross section at the ends, close to the applied loads. Depth of bar h 40 mm Thickness of bar t 10 mm See Mathcad file P0459. Applied loads Location of eye P 4000 N d 35 mm (from bottom edge)

Given: Solution: 1.

Draw a free-body diagram of the bar, cut at any section along the length of the bar.

FACE OF CUT SURFACE P d 0.5h

M

Equilibrium requires that there be a force directed along the centroidal axis of the cross section that is equal and opposite to the applied force and a bending moment to react the couple formed by the applied force and the reaction force. Thus, since the reaction moment is clockwise, M ( d 0.5 h ) P 2. M 60.000 N m

Calculate the cross-section area, moment of inertia, and distance from the centroid to the outer surface. A h t I t h

3

A 400.0 mm

2 4 4

12

I 5.333 10 mm c 20.000 mm

c 0.5 h 2.

(a) The normal stress on a section well away from the ends is a combination of uniform tension, as given by equation 4.7, and bending, as given by equation 4.11a.

( y )

M y I

P A

(b) Plot the normal stress distribution across the cross section at the mid-region of the bar for y c c 1 mm c

4-59-2

40 30 Stress, MPa 20

( y )

MPa 10 0 10 20 20 10

0 y mm

10

20

30

4.

(c) Sketch a "reasonable" plot of the normal stress distribution across the cross section at the ends, close to the applied loads. Use the "force flow" analogy show in Figures 4-37 and 4-38 as a guide to the stress distribution. Near the applied load the stress will be highly concentrated. As the distance from the point of load application increases the stress will become more evenly distributed.

4-60-1

PROBLEM 4-60

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-22 shows a bracket machined from 0.5-in-thick steel flat stock. It is rigidly attached to a support and loaded with P = 5000 lb at point D. Find: (a) The magnitude, location, and the plane orientation of the maximum normal stress at section A-A. (b) The magnitude, location, and the plane orientation of the maximum shear stress at section A-A. (c) The magnitude, location, and the plane orientation of the maximum normal stress at section B-B. (d) The magnitude, location, and the plane orientation of the maximum shear stress at section B-B. Distance from support to: Section A-A Point D d 8 in Depth of section h 3 in Applied load P 5000 lbf Centroid of B-B b 18.5 in a 10 in Thickness of section t 0.5 in

Given:

Assumptions: The bracket remains flat and does not buckle (out-of-plane) under the applied load. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0460.

Calculate the cross-section area and moment of inertia at sections A-A and B-B, which are the same. A h t A 1.500 in

2

t h

12

I 1.1250 in

2.

For parts (a) and (b), draw a free-body diagram of the portion of the bracket that is to the right of section A-A.

V a A M A h y

P

3. Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the shear force and bending moment on section A-A.

F:

V P 0 V P V 5000 lbf

M:

P ( a d ) M 0 M P ( a d ) M 10000 in lbf

4.

(a) The maximum normal stress in the bracket at section A-A is determined using equation 4.11b. It is located a the bottom of the section and is oriented in the positive x direction, i.e., it is tensile. Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber c 0.5 h c 1.500 in

M c I

4-60-2

max

(b) The maximum shear stress in the bracket at section A-A is either at the neutral axis (due to the transverse shear, which is a maximum at the NA) or it is at the top or bottom of the section (due to the bending stress at those points, which is numerically the same). At the neutral axis, using equation 4.14b

max

3 V 2 A

At the bottom edge the stress state is: x max, y 0 ksi, xy 0 ksi. Using equation 4.6a, the principal stresses are

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

x y

2

1 13.333 ksi

x y

2

2 0.000 ksi

3 0 ksi

And, from equation 4.6b, the maximum shear stress is

max

1 3

2

As seen from the Mohr's Circle in Figure 4-8, this stress is oriented 45 degrees from the positive x axis. 6. For parts (c) and (d), draw a free-body diagram of the portion of the bracket that is below section B-B.

F M

7.

Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the normal force and bending moment on section B-B.

F:

F P 0

M:

P ( b d ) M 0

F P 8. F 5000 lbf M P ( b d ) M 52500 in lbf

4-60-3

(c) The maximum normal stress in the bracket at section B-B is a combination of uniform tension and bending and is determined by summing equations 4.7 and 4.11b. It is located at the left edge of the section and is oriented in the positive y direction, i.e., it is tensile. Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber Maximum normal stress c 0.5 h F A c 1.500 in

max

M c I

9.

(d) The maximum shear stress in the bracket at section B-B is at the left edge of the section (due to the combined tensile and bending stresses). Since there is no transverse shear on this section, the shear stress at the neutral axis is zero. At the left edge the stress state is: x 0 ksi, y max, xy 0 ksi. Using equation 4.6a, the principal stresses are

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

x y

2

1 73.333 ksi

x y

2

2 0.000 ksi

3 0 ksi

And, from equation 4.6b, the maximum shear stress is

max

1 3

2

As seen from the Mohr's Circle in Figure 4-8, this stress is oriented 45 degrees from the positive x axis.

4-61-1

PROBLEM 4-61

Statement: Given: Distance from support to: Point D d 8 in Depth of section h 3 in Applied load P 5000 lbf

_____

For the bracket of Problem 4-60, solve for the deflection of point C. Point C a 18.5 in Thickness of section t 0.5 in Modulus of elasticity E 30 10 psi

6

Assumptions: 1. The bracket remains flat and does not buckle (out-of-plane) under the applied load. 2. The bracket can be modeled using its centroidal axis length dimensions. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0461.

3

12

I 1.1250 in

2.

Draw idealized free-body diagrams of the portions of the bracket from the support to point C and from point C to point D.

P a

MA A

MC

C P

d P C

MC

D P

3. Calculate the magnitude of the moments on segment AC using equilibrium equation 3.3a. MC P ( a d ) MA P d MC 52500 in lbf MA 40000 in lbf

4. From inspection of the FBD, write the load function equation q(x) = -MA<x - 0>-2 + P<x - 0>-1 - P<x - a>-1 - MC<x - a>-2 5. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -MA<x - 0>-1 + P<x - 0>0 - P<x - a>0 - MC<x - a>-1 6. Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -MA<x - 0>0 + P<x - 0>1 - P<x - a>1 - MC<x - a>0 7. Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [-MA<x-0>1 + P<x - 0>2/2 - P<x - a>2/2 - MC<x-a>1 + C3]/EI 8. Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [-MA<x-0>2/2 + P<x - 0>3/6 - P<x - a>3/6 - MC<x-a>2/2 + C3x +C4]/EI 9. Evaluate C3 and C4. At x = 0, = 0 and y = 0, therefore, C3 = 0 and C4 = 0.

4-61-2

1 E I 1

MA a

P 2

C 0.196 deg

yC

MA 2 P 3 a a E I 2 6

yC 0.0465 in

4-62-1

PROBLEM 4-62

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-23 shows a 1-in-dia steel bar supported and subjected to the applied load P = 500 lb. Solve for the deflection at the load and the slope at the roller support. Diameter Applied load Modulus of elasticity d 1.00 in Dimensions: P 500 lbf a 20 in E 30 10 psi L 40 in

6

Given: Solution: 1.

L a R2

M1 R1 P

2.

This is a statically indeterminate beam because there are three unknown reactions, R1, M1, and R2. To solve for these unknowns, follow the method presented in Example 4-7. First, calculate the moment of inertia for the round section. I

d

64

I 0.0491 in

3.

From inspection of the FBD, write the load function equation q(x) = -M1<x>-2 + R1<x>-1 - R2<x - a>-1 + P<x - L>-1

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x>-1 + R1<x>0 - R2<x - a>0 + P<x - L>0

5.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x>0 + R1<x>1 - R2<x - a>1 + P<x - L>1

6.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [ -M1<x>1 + R1<x>2/2 - R2<x - a>2/2 + P<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

7.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [-M1<x>2/2 + R1<x>3/6 - R2<x - a>3/6 + P<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI

8.

Evaluate R1, M1, R2, C3 and C4 At x = 0, y = 0 and = 0, therefore, C3 = 0 and C4 = 0. At x = a, y = 0 At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given M1 1000 in lbf y(a) = 0: M1 2 a

2

3 3

R2 1000 lbf

V(L) = 0:

R1 R2 P = 0 lbf

4-62-2

M(L) = 0:

M1 R1 L R2 ( L a ) = 0 lbf in

M1 R1 Find M1 R1 R2 R 2

9.

M1 5000 in lbf

yL

M1 2 R1 3 R2 3 L L ( L a) E I 2 6 6

1

yL 1.584 in

E I

1

M1 a

R1 2

A 0.0340 rad

4-63-1

PROBLEM 4-63

Statement:

_____

Figure P4-24 shows a 1.25-in-dia solid steel shaft with several twisting couples applied in the directions shown. For TA = 10000 lb-in, TB = 20000 lb-in, TC = 30000 lb-in, find: (a) The magnitude and location of the maximum shear stress in the shaft. (b) The corresponding principal stresses for the location determined in part (a). (c) The magnitude and location of the maximum shear strain in the shaft. Modulus of rigidity Shaft diameter d 1.25 in Torque magnitudes: TA 10 kip in TB 20 kip in Segment lengths: LAB 18 in LBC 12 in See Mathcad file P0463. G 11.7 10 psi TC 30 kip in LCD 10 in

6

Given:

Solution: 1.

Looking at the shaft from the left end (A), TA and TC are clockwise (negative) and TB is counterclockwise (positive). For the shaft to be in equilibrium, the applied torques must sum to zero. Write the equilibrium equation and solve for the unknown reaction TD. TA TB TC TD 0 TD TA TB TC TD 20 kip in

2.

The net torque on each shaft segment is now TAB TA TBC TAB TB TCD TBC TC TAB 10 kip in TBC 10 kip in TCD 20 kip in

3.

Calculate the outside radius and the polar moment of inertia of the shaft. r d 2 r 0.625 in J

d

32

J 0.240 in

4.

(a) Since the shaft is uniform in cross-section, the maximum shear stress will occur in that segment that has the largest absolute value of torque applied to it. In this case, that is segment CD. Use equation 4.23b to calculate the maximum shear stress in segment CD.

max

5.

TCD r J

(b) Mohr's circle for pure shear is centered at 0,0 and has a radius equal to the shear stress on the stress element. Thus, for this case, the two nonzero principal stresses are

1 max

1 52.2 ksi

3 max

3 52.2 ksi

The third principal stress is zero, 2 0 ksi 6. (c) The shear strain in any given segment is proportional to the shear stress so the maximum shear strain will occur in segment CD, where the shear stress is a maximum. Hooke's law for shear is similar to that given in equation 2.2.

max

max

G

max 4.46 10

rad

4-64-1

PROBLEM 4-64

Statement:

_____

If the shaft of Problem 4-63 were rigidly attached to fixed supports at each end (A and D) and loaded only by the couples TB and TC, then find: (a) The reactions TA and TD at each end of the shaft. (b) The rotation of section B with respect to section C. (c) The magnitude and location of the maximum shear strain. Shaft diameter Torque magnitudes: Segment lengths: d 1.25 in TB 20 kip in LAB 18 in Modulus of rigidity TC 30 kip in LBC 12 in G 11.7 10 psi

6

Given:

LCD 10 in

Solution: 1.

Calculate the outside radius and the polar moment of inertia of the shaft. r d 2 r 0.625 in J

d

32

J 0.240 in

2.

(a) Looking at the shaft from the left end (A), TC is clockwise (negative) and TB is counterclockwise (positive). For the shaft to be in equilibrium, the applied torques must sum to zero. Since there are two unknown reactions in the equilibrium equation, we cannot solve for them without another equation. An equation that expresses the fact that the total rotational deflection from A to D is zero is called the compatibility equation. Write the equilibrium and compatibility equations and solve for the unknown reactions TA and TD. TA TB TC TD 0

AB BC CD 0

Guess TA 10 kip in

TA LAB J G

TA TB LBC

J G

TD LCD J G

TD 30 kip in

Given

TA TB TC TD = 0 kip in TA LAB J G

TA TB LBC

J G

TD LCD J G

= 0 rad

TA Find TA TD TD

clockwise counterclockwise

3.

The net torque on each shaft segment is now TAB TA TBC TAB TB TCD TBC TC TAB 3.5 kip in TBC 16.5 kip in TCD 13.5 kip in

4.

(b) Use equation 4.24 to calculate the rotation of section B with respect to C.

TBC LBC J G

4-64-2

BC

5.

BC 0.0706 rad

BC 4.045 deg

(c) Since the shaft is uniform in cross-section, the maximum shear stress will occur in that segment that has the largest absolute value of torque applied to it. In this case, that is segment BC. Use equation 4.23b to calculate the maximum shear stress in segment BC.

max

TBC r J

The shear strain in any given segment is proportional to the shear stress so the maximum shear strain will occur in segment BC, where the shear stress is a maximum. Hooke's law for shear is similar to that given in equation 2.2.

max

max

G

max 3.68 10

rad

4-65-1

PROBLEM 4-65

Statement: Given:

_____

Figure P4-25 shows a pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 lb and l = 1.50 in, what pin diameter is needed to limit the maximum stress in the pin to 50 kpsi? Applied force Total length, l F 100 lbf l 1.50 in Maximum stress 50 ksi Beam length L 0.5 l

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0465.

Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w F L w 133.3 lbf in

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a in the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax w L 2

2

3.

The bending stress in a beam is given in equation 4.11c, which can be solved for the required section modulus, Z. Z Mmax Z 7.500 10 z= I c =

4

in

1

d

32

Solving for d,

d min

32 Z

d min 0.197 in

4-66-1

PROBLEM 4-66

Statement: Given:

_____

Figure P4-25 shows a pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 N and l = 64 mm, what pin diameter is needed to limit the maximum stress in the pin to 250 MPa? Applied force Total length, l F 100 N l 64 mm Maximum stress 250 MPa Beam length L 0.5 l

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0466.

Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w F L w 3.125 N mm

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a in the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax w L 2

2

Mmax 1600.0 N mm

3.

The bending stress in a beam is given in equation 4.11c, which can be solved for the required section modulus, Z. Z Mmax Z 6.400 mm z= I c =

3

1

d

32

Solving for d,

d min

32 Z

d min 4.0 mm

4-67-1

PROBLEM 4-67

Statement: Figure P4-25 shows a pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. Determine the l/d ratio that will make the pin equally strong in shear and bending if the shear strength is equal to one-half the bending strength.

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0467.

The intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the exposed length of the pin is w 2 F l

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a in the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment for a beam of length L occurs at the support and is Mmax = w L 2

2

1 2 F l F l = 2 l 2 4

3.

max =

M Z

F l 32 = 8 F l 4 3 d d 3

4.

Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B shows that the maximum shear occurs at the support and, for a = 0, is Vmax = w L =

2 F l = F l 2

5.

From equation 4.15c, the maximum shear stress due to the transverse loading is

max =

4 V 4 4 16 F = F = 3 A 3 2 2 d 3 d

6.

For equal shear and bending strength, let the shear stress equal one half the bending stress. 16 F 3 d Solving for l/d,

2

1 8 F l 2 3 d l d = 4 3

4-69-1

PROBLEM 4-69

Statement: Figure P4-26a shows a C-clamp with an elliptical body dimensioned as shown. The clamp has a T-section with a uniform thickness of 3.2 mm at the throat as shown in Figure P4-26b. Find the bending stress at the inner and outer fibers of the throat if the clamp force is 2.7 kN. Clamping force F 2.7 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: Solution: 1. ri 63.5 mm Web h 31.8 mm t 3.2 mm

Given:

Flange b 28.4 mm

Determine the location of the CG of the T-section and the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. yCG 0.5 t ( b t) 0.5 ( h t) ( h t) t b t ( h t) t yCG 9.58 mm rc 73.08 mm

rc ri yCG 2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A b t ( h t) t rn A r

ri t

ro ri h A 182.4 mm

2

ro 95.30 mm

t dr dr r r r t

i

ro

rn 71.86 mm

e rc rn

e 1.21 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 1.97 10 N mm

5

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 8.364 mm co ro rn co 23.436 mm

5.

Using equations 4.12d and 4.12e, calculate the stresses at the inner and outer fibers of the throat section.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 132.2 MPa

co F e A ro A

M

o 204.3 MPa

4-70-1

PROBLEM 4-70

Statement: Given: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P4-26a has a rectangular cross section as in Figure P4-26c. Find the bending stress at the inner and outer fibers of the throat if the clamping force is 1.6 kN. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: Solution: 1. ri 63.5 mm Depth h 31.8 mm

Width b 6.2 mm

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h 2 rc 79.40 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A b h rn A r

ro

ro ri h A 197.160 mm

2

ro 95.30 mm

rn 78.33 mm dr

b r

e rc rn

e 1.07 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 1.27 10 N mm

5

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 14.827 mm co ro rn co 16.973 mm

5.

Using equations 4.12d and 4.12e, calculate the stresses at the inner and outer fibers of the throat section.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 148.3 MPa

co F e A ro A

M

o 98.8 MPa

4-71-1

PROBLEM 4-71

Statement: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P4-26a has an elliptical cross section as in Figure P4-26d. Dimensions of the major and minor axes of the ellipse are given. Determine the bending stress at the inner and outer fibers of the throat if the clamping force is 1.6 kN. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat ri 63.5 mm Section dimensions: Solution: 1. Width b 9.6 mm Depth h 31.8 mm

Given:

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h 2 rc 79.40 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area b h A 2 2 rn A o 0.5 r rc 2 2 b 1 4 2 h dr r r

i

ro ri h A 239.766 mm

2

ro 95.30 mm

rn 78.595 mm

e rc rn

e 0.805 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 1.27 10 N mm

5

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 15.095 mm co ro rn co 16.705 mm

5.

Using equations 4.12d and 4.12e, calculate the stresses at the inner and outer fibers of the throat section.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 163.2 MPa

co F e A ro A

M

o 108.7 MPa

4-72-1

PROBLEM 4-72

Statement: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P4-26a has a trapezoidal cross section as in Figure P4-26e. Determine the bending stress at the inner and outer fibers of the throat if the clamping force is 1.6 kN. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat ri 63.5 mm Section dimensions: Solution: 1. Width b i 9.6 mm b o 3.2 mm Depth h 31.8 mm

Given:

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h bi 2 bo 3 bi bo rc 76.75 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A bi bo 2 h A o bi bo r ri bi h dr r r

i

ro ri h A 203.520 mm

2

ro 95.30 mm

rn

rn 75.771 mm

e rc rn

e 0.979 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 1.228 10 N mm

5

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 12.271 mm co ro rn co 19.529 mm

5.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 126.9 MPa

co F e A ro A

M

o 118.4 MPa

4-73-1

PROBLEM 4-73

Statement: We want to design a C-clamp with a T-section similar to the one shown in Figure P4-26. The depth of the section will be 31.8 mm as shown but the width of the flange (shown as 28.4 mm) is to be determined. Assuming a uniform thickness of 3.2 mm and a factor of safety against static yielding of 2, determine a suitable value for the width of the flange if the C-clamp is to be made from 60-40-18 ductile iron and the maximum design load is 1.6 kN. Maximum clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat ri 63.5 mm t 3.2 mm

Given:

Section dimensions: Web h 31.8 mm Factor of safety N 2 Yield strength S y 324 MPa Solution: 1. See Figure P4-26 and Mathcad file P0473.

Determine the location of the CG of the T-section and the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat as functions of the unknown flange width, b. yCG ( b ) 0.5 t ( b t) 0.5 ( h t) ( h t) t b t ( h t) t

rc( b ) ri yCG ( b ) 2. Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e,as functions of b. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A ( b ) b t ( h t) t rn( b ) A (b) i r

i

ro ri h

ro 95.3 mm

r t

o t dr dr r r r t

i

e( b ) rc( b ) rn( b )

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M ( b ) rc( b ) F

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci( b ) rn( b ) ri co( b ) ro rn( b )

5.

i( b )

6.

ci( b ) F A (b) e( b ) A ( b ) ri

M (b)

Set the tensile stress on the inner fiber equal to the yield strength divided by the factor of safety and solve for the flange width, b.

Guess Given b 12 mm

4-73-2

i( b ) =

Sy N

b Find ( b )

b 10.13 mm

7.

Using the calculated value of b, check the stresses at the inner and outer fibers..

i( b )

ci( b ) F e( b ) A ( b ) ri A ( b )

M (b)

i( b ) 162 MPa

o( b )

c o( b ) F A ( b) e( b ) A ( b ) ro

M ( b)

o( b ) 149.4 MPa

4-74-1

PROBLEM 4-74

Statement: A round steel bar is 10 in long and has a diameter of 1 in. (a) Calculate the stress in the bar when it is subjected to a 1000-lb force in tension. (b) Calculate the bending stress in the bar if it is fixed at one end (as a cantilever beam) and has a 1000-lb transverse load at the other end. (c) Calculate the transverse shear stress in the bar of part (b). (d) Calculate the torsional shear stress when the 1000-lb force is displaced 10 inches radially from the centerline (axis) of the cantilever beam. (e) Calculate the maximum bending stress in the bar if it is formed into a semicircle with a centroidal radius of 10/ in and 1000-lb opposing forces are applied at the ends in the plane of the of the ends. Assume that there is no distortion of the cross section during bending. (f) Calculate the direct bearing stress that would result on the bar of (a) if it were the pin in a pin-and-clevis connection that is subjected to a 1000-lb pull if the center part (the eye or tongue) is 1-in wide. (g) Determine how short the bar must be when loaded as a cantilever beam for its maximum flexural bending stress and its maximum transverse shear stress to provide equal tendency to failure. Find the length as a fraction of the diameter if the failure stress in shear is half the failure stress in bending. (h) If the force on the cantilever beam in (f) is eccentric, inducing torsional as well as bending stress, what fraction of the diameter would the eccentricity need to be in order to give a torsional stress equal to the transverse shear stress? Length of bar L 10 in Force F 1000 lbf See Mathcad file P0474. Diameter Load Radius d 1.00 in R 10 in

Given:

Solution:

(a) Use equation 4.7 to calculate the axial stress. Cross sectional area A d

2

A 0.785 in

Axial stress

F A

1.27 ksi

(b) The beam loading diagram is shown in Appendix Figure B-1a with the concentrated load at a = L. The maximum bending stress occurs at x = 0 and is given by Equation 4.11b. Bending moment Radius of bar M L F c d 2 d

4

4

Moment of inertia

64

101.9 ksi

(c) The maximum transverse shear stress occurs at y = 0 and is given by Equation 4.15c and in Figure 4-20b. Maximum transverse shear stress in a solid, round bar

max

4 F 3 A

(d) The maximum torsional shear shear stress occurs at y = d/2 and is given by Equation 4.23b.

Twisting torque Polar moment of inertia T F R J d

4

4-74-2

T 10000 in lbf J 0.098 in

4

32

Td 2 J

50.93 ksi

(e) The maximum bending stress for a curved beam occurs at r = ri and is given by Equation 4.12d. Centroidal radius Inside radius Outside radius Cross section area rc 10 in rc 3.183 in ri 2.683 in ro 3.683 in A 0.785 in

2

ri rc 0.5 d ro rc 0.5 d A d

2

4 A

rn

ro

rn 3.163 in

d r r 2 c 2 dr

r

e rc rn M 3183 in lbf co ro rn

e 0.020 in

Distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers ci rn ri ci 0.480 in co 0.520 in

ci F e A ri A

M l 1 in

i 37.9 ksi

(f) The direct bearing stress is given in Equations 4.7 and 4.10. Given length of bearing contact Projected area of contact Bearing stress

Abearing l d

Abearing 1 in F

bearing

Abearing

(g) Determine how short the bar must be when loaded as a cantilever beam for its maximum flexural bending stress and its maximum transverse shear stress to provide equal tendency to failure. Find the length as a fraction of the diameter if the failure stress in shear is half the failure stress in bending.

M c I 32 F L

4-74-3

Bending stress

Transverse shear

4 F 16 F = 3 A 2 3 d 32 F L = 32 3 F

Equating

= 2

Solving for L

L=

d 3

(h) If the force on the cantilever beam in (f) is eccentric, inducing torsional as well as bending stress, what fraction of the diameter would the eccentricity need to be in order to give a torsional stress equal to the transverse shear stress? Torsional shear stress

tor =

Tc J

16 F e

Transverse shear

trans =

4 F 16 F = 3 A 2 3 d 16 F e 16 F 3 d

2

Equating

tor = trans

d

d 3

e=

4-75a-1

PROBLEM 4-75a

Statement: For a filleted flat bar in tension similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-9 and the data from row a from Table P4-4, determine the nominal stress, the geometric stress concentration factor, and the maximum axial stress in the bar. Widths Thickness Force D 40 mm h 10 mm P 8000 N d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

nom

2.

P h d

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor using Appendix Figure C-9. Width ratio From Figure E-9 SCF D d 2.00 b 0.32077

b

A 1.0966 r Kt A d

Kt 1.838

3.

max Kt nom

4-76a-1

PROBLEM 4-76a

Statement: For a filleted flat bar in bending similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-10 and the data from row a from Table P4-4, determine the nominal stress, the geometric stress concentration factor, and the maximum bending stress in the bar. Widths Thickness Moment D 40 mm h 10 mm M 80 N m d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

3

12

I 6.667 10 mm

nom

2.

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor using Appendix Figure C-10. Width ratio From Figure E-9 SCF D d 2.00 b 0.30304 Kt 1.518

A 0.93232 Kt A

3.

max Kt nom

4-77a-1

PROBLEM 4-77a

Statement: For a shaft, with a shoulder fillet, in tension similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-1 and the data from row a from Table P4-4, determine the nominal stress, the geometric stress concentration factor, and the maximum axial stress in the shaft. Widths Radius Force D 40 mm r 4 mm P 8000 N d 20 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

nom

2.

4 P

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor using Appendix Figure C-1. Width ratio From Figure E-1 SCF D d 2.00 b 0.30035 Kt 1.645

A 1.01470 r Kt A d

b

3.

max Kt nom

4-78a-1

PROBLEM 4-78a

Statement: For a shaft, with a shoulder fillet, in bending similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-2 and the data from row a from Table P4-4, determine the nominal stress, the geometric stress concentration factor, and the maximum bending stress in the shaft. Widths Radius Moment D 40 mm r 4 mm M 80 N m d 20 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

d

64

I 7.854 10 mm

nom

2.

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor using Appendix Figure C-2. Width ratio From Figure E-2 SCF D d 2.00 b 0.28598 Kt 1.44

A 0.90879 Kt A

3.

max Kt nom

4-79-1

PROBLEM 4-79

Statement: A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as shown in Figure 4-1. For x = 850, y = -200, z = 300, xy = 450, yz = -300, and zx = 0; find the principal stresses and maximum shear stress and draw the Mohr's circle diagram for this three-dimensional stress state.

Given:

x 850 xy 450

y 200 yz 300

z 300 zx 0

Solution:

5

C1

x xy x zx y yz xy y zx z yz z

C1 2.675 10

x xy zx C0 xy y yz zx yz z

2. Find the roots of the triaxial stress equation:

3 2

C0 1.882 10

C2 C1 C0 = 0

C0 C1 v C2 1

3. Extract the principal stresses from the vector r by inspection.

r polyroots ( v)

CW

1 r 2 r 3 r

3 2 1

-500

3

1-3

500

2-3 1-2

500 0

2

1000

1

1500

13 12 23

1 3

2

13 751

500

1 2

2

12 322 23 429

2 3

2

CCW

FIGURE 4-79

The Three Mohr's Circles for Problem 4-79

4-80-1

PROBLEM 4 - 80

Statement: Write expressions for the normalized (stress/pressure) tangential stress as a function of the normalized wall thickness (wall thickness/outside radius) at the inside wall of a thick-wall cylinder and for a thin-wall cylinder, both with internal pressure only. Plot the ratio of these two expressions and determine the range of the wall thickness to outside radius-ratio for which the stress predicted by the thin-wall expression is at least 5% greater than that predicted by the thick-wall expression. See Mathcad file P0480.

Solution: 1.

Let the t/p ratio be S' and the t/ro ratio be t', then For the thick-wall cylinder at the inside wall, using equation 4.48a S'thick ( t') 2 2 t' t' 2 t' t'

2 2

and, for the thin-wall cylinder, using equation 4.49a S'thin ( t') 2. 3. 1 t'

Choose a range for the normalized thickness ratio, t' 0.01 0.02 0.99 Plot the difference between the two functions. ( t')

S'thick ( t')

25

20

15

( t')

% 10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 t'

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

4-80-2

4.

( 0.10) 5.0 %

5.

( 0.946 ) 5.1 %

The range of the normalized thickness for which the thin-wall stress is at least 5% greater than the thick-wall stress is from 0.10 to 0.946.

4-81-1

PROBLEM 4 - 81

Statement: A hollow square torsion bar such as that shown in Table 4-3 has dimensions a = 25 mm, t = 3 mm, and l = 300 mm. If it is made of steel with a modulus of rigidity of G = 80.8 GPa, determine the maximum shear stress in the bar and the angular deflection under a torsional load of 500 N-m. Dimensions Modulus a 25 mm G 80.8 GPa t 3 mm Load l 300 mm T 500 N m

Given: Solution: 1.

Calculate the factors K and Q for a hollow square from Table 4-3. 2 t ( a t) 2 a t 2 t Q 2 t ( a t)

2 4 4

K 31944 mm

Q 2904 mm

2.

max

3.

T Q

4-82-1

PROBLEM 4 - 82

Statement: Design a hollow rectangular torsion bar such as that shown in Table 4-3 that has dimensions a = 45 mm, b = 20 mm, and l = 500 mm. It is made of steel with a shear yield strength of 90 MPa and has an applied torsional load of 135 N-m. Use a factor of safety against yielding of 2. Dimensions a 45 mm b 20 mm l 500 mm Modulus G 80.8 GPa Load T 135 N m Shear yield strength S sy 90 MPa Factor of safety N 2 See Table 4-3 Mathcad file P0482.

Given:

Solution: 1.

2.

Calculate the maximum shear stress as a function of thickness, t, using equation 4.26a.

( t)

3.

T Q( t)

Define a function that relates the maximum shear stress to the shear strength divided by the factor of safety and solve for the thickness, t. Guess a value of t t 3 mm f ( t) ( t) S sy N

t root( f ( t) t)

t 1.927 mm

Let t = 2 mm (note that this solution does not check for buckling under the applied load)

4-83-1

PROBLEM 4 - 83

Statement: A pressure vessel with closed ends has the following dimensions: outside diameter, OD = 450 mm, and wall thickness, t = 6 mm. If the internal pressure is 690 kPa, find the principal stresses on the inside surface away from the ends. What is the maximum shear stress at the point analyzed? Dimensions Pressure OD 450 mm p 690 kPa t 6 mm

Given: Solution: 1.

Convert the given dimensions to inside and outside radii. ro 0.5 OD ri ro t ro 225 mm ri 219 mm

2.

Since the wall thickness, t 6 mm, is much less than one tenth the outside radius, use thin wall theory. 3. Calculate the principal stresses using equations 4.49. Tangential (y-direction) Radial (x-direction) Axial (z-direction) The principal stresses are:

p ro t

r 0 MPa a

p ro 2 t

1 t 2 a 3 r

4.

max

1 3

2

4-84-1

PROBLEM 4-84

Statement: A simply supported steel beam of length, l, with a concentrated load, F, acting at midspan has a rectangular cross-section with width, b, and depth, h. If the strain energy due to transverse shear loading is Us and that due to bending loading is Ub, derive an expression for the ratio Us/Ub and plot it as a function of h/l over the range 0 to 0.10. See Mathcad file P0484. 2 3 V Us = dx 5 G A

0 l

Solution:

1.

2.

2 1 M Ub = dx 2 E I

0

3.

Let

U' =

Us Ub

, then:

U' =

0 6 E I 5 G A l 2 M dx 0 3

2 V dx

4.

A = b h

and

I=

b h 12

5.

E G

5 2

therefore

2 V dx 2 0 h U' = l 4 2 M dx

0

6.

For the given loading: For x between 0 and l/2, V= F 2 F 2 and and M= M= F x 2 F x 2 F l 2

V=

Substituting these expressions into the equation for U' and integrating gives:

l 0.5 l 2 2 F F 12.0 2 12.0 2 dx 2 dx h 2 2 2 2 h 0 0.5 l l 6.0 h l 4 4 0.5 l l 2 l 2 2 F x dx F x F l dx 2 2 2 0 0.5 l

8. Let h' = h l then U'( h') 6 h'

2

4-84-2

9.

6

U'( h' ) % 3

0.02

0.04 h'

0.06

0.08

0.1

4-85a-1

PROBLEM 4-85a

Statement: Given: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-27(a). Find the reactions for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to R2 Distributed load magnitude L 1 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m

1

a w

R1

R2

FIGURE 4-85A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-85

R3

Solution: 1.

Consider the reaction force R1 to be redundant and remove it temporarily. The beam will then be statically determinant and will deflect at x = 0. Now consider the reaction force R1 to be an unkown applied load that will force the deflection to be zero. Write an equation for the deflection at x = 0 in terms of the force R1 with the deflection set to zero. Write equation 4.21 for the deflection y1 at the unknown applied load R1 in terms of the strain energy in the beam at that point: y1 =

2.

U R1

M E I

3.

y1 =

R1

M dx

(a)

4.

Write an expression for the bending moment and its partial derivative with respect toR1 as a function of x. For x between 0 and a, M = R 1 x w x 2 w x 2

2 2

M =x R1

R 2 ( x a )

(b)

M = R 1 x

M =x R1

(c)

Substitute equations (b) and (c) into (a), set equal to zero and integrate.

4-85a-2

6.

2 R1 x w x x dx 2

2 R1 x w x R2 ( x a) x dx = 0 2

Solving for R1 and R2 and summing forces and moments about x = 0: R1 3 Summing forces m

3 4 L3 a L2 a 3 a3 R2 w L = 0 2 8 3 2 3

R1 R2 R3 w L = 0 R 2 a R 3 L w L 2

2

Summing moments 7.

=0 R1 65 N R2 70 N R3 65 N

Use these three equations to solve for R1, R2, and R3. Guess Given R1 3 m

3

4 L3 a L2 a 3 a3 R2 w L = 0 2 8 3 2 3

R1 R2 R3 w L = 0 R 2 a R 3 L w L 2

2

=0

R Find R1 R2 R3

R 40.5 N

3

R 10.7 N

1

R 148.8 N

2

4-86a-1

PROBLEM 4-86a

Statement: Given: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P4-27(b). Find the reactions for the data given in row a from Table P4-2. Beam length Distance to R2 Distributed load magnitude Distance to concentrated load Concentrated load L 1.0 m a 0.4 m w 200 N m b 0.6 m F 500 N

1

L b a F w

R1

R2

FIGURE 4-86A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-86

R3

Solution: 1.

Consider the reaction force R1 to be redundant and remove it temporarily. The beam will then be statically determinant and will deflect at x = 0. Now consider the reaction force R1 to be an unkown applied load that will force the deflection to be zero. Write an equation for the deflection at x = 0 in terms of the force R1 with the deflection set to zero. Write equation 4.21 for the deflection y1 at the unknown applied load R1 in terms of the strain energy in the beam at that point: y1 =

2.

U R1

M E I

3.

y1 =

R1

M dx

(a)

4.

Write an expression for the bending moment and its partial derivative with respect toR1 as a function of x. For x between 0 and a, M = R 1 x w x 2 a

2

M =x R1

2

(b)

M = R 1 x w a x

R 2 ( x a )

M =x R1

(c)

M = R 1 x w a x a

4-86a-2

R 2 ( x a ) F ( x b )

M =x R1

(d)

5.

Substitute equations (b), (c) and (d) into (a), set equal to zero and integrate.

a 2 R1 x w x x dx 2 L

R x w a x 1

R2 ( x a ) x dx = 0

6.

R x w a x 1

a 2

R2 ( x a ) F ( x b ) x dx

2 3 L3 3 R1 L a L a R2 =0 2 6 3 3 2 3 a2 L2 a L3 a4 3 w L b L b F 3 2 24 6 6 3

R1 R2 R3 w a F = 0 R 2 a R 3 L w a 2

2

F b = 0 R2 400 N R3 200 N

Use these three equations to solve for R1, R2, and R3. Guess R1 100 N Given

2 3 L3 3 R1 L a L a R2 =0 2 6 3 3 2 3 a2 L2 a L3 a4 3 w L b L b F 3 2 24 6 6 3

R1 R2 R3 w a F = 0 R 2 a R 3 L w a 2

2

F b = 0

R Find R1 R2 R3

R 85.9 N

3

R 81.1 N

1

R 575.2 N

2

5-1a-1

PROBLEM 5-1a

Statement: A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as indicated in row a of Table P5-1. For row a, draw the stress element showing the applied stresses. Find the principal stresses and the von Mises stress.

Given:

x 1000 xy 500

y 0 yz 0

z 0 zx 0

Solution:

1. Draw the stress element, indicating the x and y axes. 2. From Problem 4-1a, the principal stresses are

500 y x 1000

1 1207

2 0

3 207

'

1 1 3 3

' 1323

FIGURE 5-1aA

Stress Element for Problem 5-1a

5-1h-1

PROBLEM 5-1h

Statement: A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as indicated in each row of Table P5-1. For row h, draw the stress element showing the applied stresses, find the principal stresses and the von Mises stress.

Given:

x 750 xy 500

y 500 yz 0

z 250 zx 0

Solution:

z 250

1. Draw the stress element (see Figure 5-1h). 2. From Problem 4-1h, the principal stresses are

1 1140

2 250

3 110

'

1 2

1 2 2 3 1 3

2 2

750 x

500

500

500

y

' 968

FIGURE 5-1h

Stress Element for Problem 5-1h

5-2-1

PROBLEM 5-2

Statement: Given: A 400-lb chandelier is to be hung from two 10-ft-long solid, low- carbon steel cables in tension. Size the cables for a safety factor of 4. State all assumptions. Weight of chandelier Length of cable Design Safety factor Number of cables Young's modulus W 400 lbf L 10 ft Nd 4 N 2 E 30 10 psi

6

L 120 in

Assumptions: The material is AISI 1010 hot-rolled steel with S y 26 ksi Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0502. P W N Nd = Sy P 200 lbf

2. 3.

'

In this case, the only stress in the axial direction is the tensile stress. Therefore, this is the principal stress and also the von Mises stress. 4 P ' = 1 = = 2 d Substitute the equation in step 3 into the design equation in step 2 and solve for the minimum diameter, d.

1

4.

4 P N d d S y

5.

d 0.198 in

Round up to an available size (see Table 13-2) and check the actual factor of safety against static failure.

d 0.207 in

Ns

d S y

4 P

Ns 4.4

5-3-1

PROBLEM 5-3

Statement: For the bicycle pedal-arm assembly in Figure P5-1 with rider-applied force of 1500 N at the pedal, determine the von Mises stress in the 15-mm-dia pedal arm. The pedal attaches to the arm with a 12-mm thread. Find the von Mises stress in the screw. Find the safety factor against static failure if the material has S y = 350 MPa. Distances (see figure) Rider-applied force Pedal arm diameter Solution: a 170 mm Frider 1.5 kN d pa 15 mm b 60 mm Screw thread diameter Material yield strength

z

Given:

d sc 12 mm S y 350 MPa

1. From problem 4-3, the maximum principal stresses in the pedal arm are at point A and are

a Frider b

2 0 MPa

C Mc Arm

Tc

Fc Pedal x

'

1 1 3 3

FIGURE 5-3A

3. The factor of safety for the pedal arm is N Sy N 0.43

'

4. From Problem 4-3 solution, the stresses at the top of the screw where it joins the pedal arm are

A Arm

Section C B

z 0 MPa

x y

FIGURE 5-3B

1 x 3 0 MPa

6. The von Mises stress is

2 0 MPa

Points A and B at Section C

' 1

N Sy

N 0.66

'

5-4-1

PROBLEM 5-4

Statement: The trailer hitch shown in Figure P4-2 and Figure 1-1 (p. 12) has loads applied as defined in Problem 3-4. The tongue weight of 100 kg acts downward and the pull force of 4905 N acts horizontally. Using the dimensions of the ball bracket shown in Figure 1-5 (p. 15) and S y = 300 MPa ductile steel, determine static safety factors for: (a) The shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) Bearing failure in the ball bracket hole. (c) Tearout failure in the ball bracket. (d) Tensile failure in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) Bending failure in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm c 70 mm d 20 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 4.905 kN d sh 26 mm t 19 mm S y 300 MPa Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figure 5-4 and Mathcad file P0504.

W tongue 70 = c

Given:

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 5-4A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-4

1.

From Problem 4-4, the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket are:

1 114 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

2. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static failure at the shank of the ball is

5-4-2

Na 2.6

' 1

3.

Na

Sy

'

From Problem 4-4, the principal stresses at the bearing area in the ball bracket hole are:

1 9.93 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Nb

Sy

'

Nb 30.2

5. From Problem 4-4, the shear stress in the tearout area in the ball bracket is:

Tearout length

4.41 MPa

6. For pure shear, the von Mises stress is ' 3 and the factor of safety against a static tearout failure is Nc Sy Nc 39.3

2

'

7. From Problem 4-4, the principal stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm diameter are:

d

FIGURE 5-4B

8.

y 0 MPa

The von Mises stress and the factor of safety against a static failure in the attachment bolts are:

'

x y x y 3 xy

Nd

Sy

'

Nd 5.6

9.

From Problem 4-4, the principal stresses in the bracket due to bending in the ball bracket as a cantilever are:

1 72.8 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

10. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Ne

Sy

'

Ne 4.1

5-5-1

PROBLEM 5-5

Statement: Repeat Problem 5-4 for the loading conditions of Problem 3-5, i.e., determine the horizontal force that will result on the ball from accelerating a 2000-kg trailer to 60 m/sec in 20 sec. Assume a constant acceleration. From Problem 3-5, the pull force is 6000 N. Determine static safety factors for: (a) The shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) Bearing failure in the ball bracket hole. (c) Tearout failure in the ball bracket. (d) Tensile failure in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) Bending failure in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 6 kN S y 300 MPa Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figures 5-5 and Mathcad file P0505.

W tongue 70 = c

Given:

c 70 mm d 20 mm d sh 26 mm t 19 mm

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 5-5A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-5

1. From Problem 4-5, the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket are:

1 139 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

2. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static failure at the shank of the ball is

5-5-2

Na 2.2

' 1

Na

Sy

'

3. From Problem 4-5, the principal stresses at the bearing area in the ball bracket hole are:

1 12.15 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Nb

Sy

'

Nb 24.7

5. From Problem 4-5, the shear stress in the tearout area in the ball bracket is:

Tearout length

5.4 MPa

6. For pure shear, the von Mises stress is ' 3 and the factor of safety against a static tearout failure is Nc Sy Nc 32.1

2

'

7. From Problem 4-5, the principal stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm diameter are:

d

FIGURE 5-5B

y 0 MPa

8. The von Mises stress and the factor of safety against a static failure in the attachment bolts are:

'

x y x y 3 xy

Nd

Sy

'

Nd 4.7

9. From Problem 4-5, the principal stresses in the bracket due to bending in the ball bracket as a cantilever are:

1 85.1 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

10. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Ne

Sy

'

Ne 3.5

5-6-1

PROBLEM 5-6

Statement: Repeat Problem 5-4 for the loading conditions of Problem 3-6, i.e., determine the horizontal force that will results from an impact between the ball and the tongue of the 2000-kg trailer if the hitch deflects 2.8 mm dynamically on impact. The tractor weighs 1000 kg and the velocity at impact is m/sec. Determine static safety factors for: (a) The shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) Bearing failure in the ball bracket hole. (c) Tearout failure in the ball bracket. (d) Tensile failure in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) Bending failure in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm c 70 mm d 20 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 55.1 kN d sh 26 mm t 19 mm S y 300 MPa Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figures 5-6 and Mathcad file P0506.

Given:

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 5-6A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-6

1. From Problem 4-6, the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket are:

1 1277 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

2. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static failure at the shank of the ball is

5-6-2

Na 0.23

' 1

Na

Sy

'

3. From Problem 4-6, the principal stresses at the bearing area in the ball bracket hole are:

1 111.5 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

4. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Nb

Sy

'

Nb 2.7

5. From Problem 4-6, the shear stress in the tearout area in the ball bracket is:

Tearout length

49.6 MPa

6. For pure shear, the von Mises stress is ' 3 and the factor of safety against a static tearout failure is Nc Sy Nc 3.5

2

'

7. From Problem 4-6, the principal stresses in the attachment bolts if they are 19-mm diameter are:

d

FIGURE 5-6B

y 0 MPa

8. The von Mises stress and the factor of safety against a static failure in the attachment bolts are:

'

x y x y 3 xy

Nd

Sy

'

Nd 0.56

9. From Problem 4-6, the principal stresses in the bracket due to bending in the ball bracket as a cantilever are:

1 635.5 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

10. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.The factor of safety against a static bearing failure in the ball bracket hole is

' 1

Ne

Sy

'

Ne 0.47

5-7-1

PROBLEM 5-7

Statement: Design the wrist pin of Problem 3-7 for a safety factor of 3 and S y = 100 ksi if the pin is hollow and loaded in double shear. Force on wrist pin Yield strength Design safety factor Fwristpin 12.258 kN S y 100 ksi Nd 3 od 0.375 in Fwristpin 2756 lbf

Given:

See Figure 4-12 in the text and Mathcad file P0507. F Fwristpin 2 F 1378 lbf

2. With only the direct shear acting on the plane, the Mohr diagram will be a circle with center at the origin and radius equal to the shear stress. Thus, the principal normal stress is numerically equal to the shear stress, which in this case is also the principal shear stress, so we have = 1 = '. F A 4 F

2 2 od id

= '

Nd =

Sy

'

od id S y

4 F

id

od

4 F Nd

S y

id 0.297 in

id 0.281 in

od id S y

4 F

N 3.5

5-8-1

PROBLEM 5-8

Statement: A paper mill processes rolls of paper having a density of 984 kg/m3. The paper roll is 1.50-m outside diameter (OD) x 0.22-m inside diameter (ID) x 3.23-m long and is on a simple supported, hollow, steel shaft with S y = 300 MPa. Find the shaft ID needed to obtain a static safety factor of 5 if the shaft OD is 22 cm. Paper roll: Density Outside dia. Inside dia. Length Shaft: Strength Outside dia. Factor of safety S y 300 MPa od 220 mm Ns 5

V R L/2 0 L x -R M

Given:

984

kg

3

y w x R L R

Assumptions: 1. The shaft is stiffer than the paper roll so the weight of the roll on the shaft can be modelled as a uniformly distributed load. 2. The bearings that support the shaft are close to the ends of the paper roll and are thin with respect to the length of the roll so we can consider the distance between the shaft supports to be the same as the length of the roll. Solution: See Figure 5-8 and Mathcad file P0508.

wL /8

0 L/2 L

FIGURE 5-8

Load, Shear, and Moment Diagrams for Problem 5-8

OD ID L

V 5.585 m

(1) (2)

W g V

W 53.895 kN

2. From Figure 5-8, we see that the bending moment in the shaft is a maximum at the center of the span. First, determine the magnitude of the distributed load, then find the maximum bending moment using Figure D-2(b) in Appendix B with a = 0 and x = L/2. Distributed load Maximum moment w W L w L 8

2

w 16.686

newton mm

7

(3) (4)

Mmax

3. Using equation 4.11b, find the maximum bending stress as a function of the unkown shaft inside diameter, id. Bending stress at midspan M c I 32 Mmax od

max =

od id

(5)

4. This is the only stress element present at this point on the shaft and there is no shear stress at this point so max = 1 and 2 = 3 = 0. Furthermore, since 2 and 3 are zero, max = '. Equation 5.8a can be used to find the unknown id,

Sy

5-8-2

Factor of safety

Ns =

'

1

(6)

Shaft id

Sy od4 32 Ns Mmax od id S y

id 198 mm

(7)

5-9-1

PROBLEM 5-9

Statement: A ViseGrip plier-wrench is drawn to scale in Figure P5-3, and for which the forces were analyzed in Problem 3-9 and the stresses in Problem 4-9, find the safety factors for each pin for an assumed clamping force of P = 4000 N in the position shown. The pins are 8-mm dia, S y = 400 MPa, and are all in double shear. Pin stresses as calculated in Problem 4-9: Pin 1-2 12 74.6 MPa Pin 1-4 Pin 2-3 Pin 3-4 Yield strength

Given:

S y 400 MPa

Assumptions: Links 3 and 4 are in a toggle position, i.e., the pin that joins links 3 and 4 is in line with the pins th join 1 with 4 and 2 with 3. Solution: 1. See Figure 5-9 and Mathcad file P0509.

The FBDs of the assembly and each individual link are shown in Figure 5-9. The dimensions, as scaled from Figure P5-3 in the text, are shown on the link FBDs.

F 4 P 1

3 F

55.0 = b 50.0 = a 22.0 = d

2 P

F14

39.5 = c

129.2

4 F34 P

F41

F21

28.0 = e

2.8 = g

F43 3 F23 F

F12 F32 2

21.2 = h

26.9 = f

FIGURE 5-9

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 5-9

2.

Pin joining 1 and 2 All other pins

5-9-2

'12 '14

3 12 3 14

3.

Using the distortion-energy failure theory, the factors of safety are Pin joining 1 and 2 N12 Sy N12 3.1

'12

Sy

N14

'14

N14 4.6

5-10-1

PROBLEM 5-10

Statement: An over-hung diving board is shown in Figure P5-4a. Assume cross-section dimensions of 305 mm x 32 mm. Find the largest principal stress in the board when a 100-kg person is standing at the free end. What is the static safety factor if the material is brittle fiberglass with S ut = 130 MPa in the longitudinal direction? Maximum principal stresses due to bending at R2 from Problem 4-10

2000 = L R1 P

Given:

Ultimate strength S ut 130 MPa

700 = a R2

FIGURE 5-10

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-10

Solution: 1.

The diving board will be in tension at the top of the board and compression along the bottom. At the top, over the right-hand support, the nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, the static safety factor is Ns S ut

Ns 5.3

5-11-1

PROBLEM 5-11

Statement: Repeat Problem 5-10 assuming the 100-kg person in Problem 5-10 jumps up 25 cm and lands back on the board. Assume the board weighs 29 kg and deflects 13.1 cm statically when the person stands on it. What is the static safety factor if the material is brittle fiberglass with S ut = 130 MPa i the longitudinal direction? Maximum principal stresses due to bending at R2 from Problem 4-11

2000 = L R1 P

Given:

Ultimate strength S ut 130 MPa FIGURE 5-11

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-11

700 = a R2

Solution: 1.

The diving board will be in tension at the top of the board and compression along the bottom. At the top, ove the right-hand support, the nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, the static safety factor is Ns S ut

Ns 1.7

5-12-1

PROBLEM 5-12

Statement: Given: Repeat Problem 5-10 using the cantilevered diving board design in Figure P5-4b. Maximum principal stresses due to bending at support from Problem 4-12

2000 1300 = L P

Ultimate strength Solution: S ut 130 MPa

M1 700 R1

FIGURE 5-12

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-12

1.

The diving board will be in tension at the top of the board and compression along the bottom. At the top, at the built-in support, the nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, the static safety factor is Ns S ut

Ns 5.3

5-13-1

PROBLEM 5-13

Statement: Repeat Problem 5-11 using the cantilevered diving board design in Figure P5-4b. Assume the board weighs 19 kg and deflects 8.5 cm statically when the person stands on it. Maximum principal stresses due to bending at support from Problem 4-13

2000 1300 = L P

Given:

Ultimate strength Solution: S ut 130 MPa

M1 700 R1

FIGURE 5-13

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-13

1.

The diving board will be in tension at the top of the board and compression along the bottom. At the top, at the built-in support, the nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, the static safety factor is Ns S ut Ns 1.5

5-14-1

PROBLEM 5-14

Statement: Figure P4-5 shows a child's toy called a pogo stick. The child stands on the pads, applying half he weight on each side. She jumps off the ground, holding the pads up against her feet, and bounces along with the spring cushioning the impact and storing energy to help each rebound. Design the aluminum cantilever beam sections on which she stands to survive jumping 2 in off the ground with a safety factor of 2. Use 1100 series aluminum. Define and size the beam shape. Cold rolled 1100 aluminum: Yield strength Safety factor S y 22 ksi Ns 2

Given:

Assumptions: The beam will have a rectangular cross-section with the load applied at a distance of 5 in from the central support. L 5 in Solution: See Figure 5-14 and Mathcad file P0514.

1. From Problem 3-14, the total dynamic force on both foot supports is Fi 224 lbf Therefore, the load on each support is P Fi 2 P 112 lbf

Fi /2

Fi /2

2. To give adequate support to the childs foot, let the width of the support beam be w 1.5 in 3. From Figure B-1(a) in Appendix B, the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is M P L M 560 in lbf FIGURE 5-14

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-14

4. We can now calculate the minimum required section modulus, Z = I/c. Using the distortion-energy failure theor the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Design equation Ns = Sy

'

M Z = ' = Sy Ns Z 834.3 mm

3

Bending stress

=

Z

Solving for Z,

N s M Sy w t 6 Z w

3

I= t

and

12

c=

t 2

so

Z=

w t 6

Solving for t,

t 0.451 in t 0.500 in

5-15-1

PROBLEM 5-15

Statement: Solution: Any part whose stress equals its strength has a safety factor of 1 by definition. What is the safety factor for the shear pin as defined in Problem 4-15?

5-16-1

PROBLEM 5-16

Statement: A track to guide bowling balls is designed with two round rods as shown in Figure P5-6. The rods are not parallel to one another but have a small angle between them. The balls roll on the rods unt they fall between them and drop onto another track. The angle between the rods is varied to cause the ball to drop at different locations. Find the static safety factor for the 1-in dia SAE 1045 normalized steel rods. (a) Assume rods are simply supported at each end. (b) Assume rods are fixed at each end. Yield strength S y 58 ksi

Fball

Given: Solution:

R1 L R2

1. The maximum bending stress will occur at the outer fibers of the rod at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = a. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the rod is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the bottom surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, from Problem 4-16, for a simply supported rod, Maximum principal stress

FIGURE 5-16A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-16(a), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

1 748 psi

'a 1

2. Using the distortion-energy failure theory, the safety factor against a static failure is Nsa Sy Nsa 78

a Fball

'a

3. For the built-in case, the maximum bending stress will occur at the outer fibers of the rod at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = L. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the rod is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the bottom surface where the stress is tensile, x is the principal stress 1 . Thus, from Problem 4-16, for a simply supported rod, Maximum principal stress

M1

R1

R 2 M2

FIGURE 5-16B

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-16(b), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

1 577 psi

'b 1

4. Using the distortion-energy failure theory, the safety factor against a static failure is Nsb Sy Nsb 101

'b

5-17-1

PROBLEM 5-17

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P5-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of the tong is 6 in. The rectangular cross-sectional dimensions are 0.75 x 0.312 in. Find the safety factor for the tongs if their S y = 30 ksi. F Yield strength S y 30 ksi

Given:

C FC O

11.0 = ax 3.5 = cy

See Problem 4-17, Figure 5-17, and Solution: Mathcad file P0517. 1. The maximum bending stress in the tong was found in Problem 4-17 at point A. Vertical direction

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

i 8.58 ksi

FB B

All other components are zero 2. There are no other stress components present so

1 i

and

2 0 ksi ' 1

W/2

FIGURE 5-17

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-17

Sy

'

N 3.5

5-18-1

PROBLEM 5-18

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P5-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of the tong is 6 in. The rectangular cross-sectional dimensions are 0.75 x 0.312 in. Find the safety factor for the tongs if they are made from Class 20 gray cast iron.

F

Given: Tensile strength Compressive strength S ut 22 ksi S uc 83 ksi

C FC O

3.5 = cy

See Problem 4-18, Figure 5-18, and Solution: Mathcad file P0518. 1. The maximum bending stress in the tong was found in Problem 4-17 at point A. Vertical direction

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

11.0 = ax

i 8.58 ksi

B W/2

FB

All other components are zero 2. Therefore, the principal stresses are

1 i

2 0 ksi

3 0 ksi

FIGURE 5-18

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-18

3. The load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, the static safety factor is S ut N N 2.6

5-19-1

PROBLEM 5-19

Statement: Determine the size of the clevis pin, shown in Figure P5-8, needed to withstand an applied force of 130 000 lb. Also determine the required outside radius of the clevis end to not fail in either tear out or bearing if the clevis flanges are each 2.5 in thick. Use a safety factor of 3 for all modes of failure. Assume S y = 89.3 ksi for the pin and S y = 35.5 ksi for the clevis. Applied force Clevis strength Safety factor Solution: 1. P 130 kip S yclevis 35.5 ksi Ns 3 Clevis flange thickness t 2.50 in Pin strength S ypin 89.3 ksi

Given:

Determine the force carried by each of the two flanges of the clevis. F 0.5 P F 65 kip

This force is transmitted through each end of the clevis pin, which is in double shear. 2. The pin is in direct (pure) shear. Therefore, the von Mises stress is

'pin = 3 pin =

4 3 F

d

3. Calculate the minimum required clevis pin diameter using the distortion-energy failure theory. Ns = S ypin =

d S ypin

4 3 F 4 3 F Ns

'pin

S ypin

d 2.194 in

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fraction ( 2 1/4) 4. Check the bearing stress in the clevis due to the pin on one side of the clevis. Bearing stress area Bearing force Bearing stress Ab d t Fb F Ab 5.625 in Fb 65 kip

2

d 2.250 in

Fb Ab

b 11.6 ksi

Tearout length

5. Determine the safety factor against a static bearing failure. Nbear S yclevis Nbear 3.1

Since this is greater than 3, the pin diameter is acceptable. 6. Determine the tearout stress in the clevis. Shear area (see Figure 5-19) Shear force Ftear F Ftear 65 kip Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

d R

FIGURE 5-19

Tearout Diagram for Problem 5-19

5-19-2

tear =

Ftear Atear

Ftear 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

Ns =

S yclevis

'tear

S yclevis 3 tear

R 2.211 in

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fraction ( 2 1/4)

2 2

R 2.250 in

2

Atear 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

Atear 9.743 in

5-20-1

PROBLEM 5-20

Statement: Given: A 100 N-m torque is applied to a 1-m-long, solid, round shaft. Design it to limit its angular deflection to 2 deg and select a steel alloy to have a yielding safety factor of 2. Applied torque Maximum deflection Safety factor T 100 N m max 2 deg Ns 2 Shaft length Modulus of rigidity L 1000 mm G 79 GPa

Assumptions: A ductile steel will be chosen. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0520.

Using the angular deflection requirement and equation (4.24), determine the required polar moment of inertia an the minimum diameter.

TL J G

TL

max G

1 4

J 3.626 10 mm

J =

d

32

32 J d

d 24.653 mm

Round this up to 2.

d 25 mm

Determine the shear stress at the outside diameter of the shaft using equation (4.23b). T

max

3.

2

J

For this case of pure shear, use the distortion-energy theory and equations (5.8) and (5.9) to solve for the minimum required yield strength. Sy Sy 3 max

Ns =

'

S y

3 max Ns

S y 119.4 MPa

4.

Using this value of S y, choose a steel from Table A-9 in Appendix A. Any of the steels listed in Table A-9 will be adequate. The least expensive is AISI 1010, hot rolled.

5-21-1

PROBLEM 5-21

Statement: Figure P5-9 shows an automobile wheel with two common styles of lug wrench being used to tighten the wheel nuts, a single-ended wrench in (a), and a double-ended wrench in (b). The distance between points A and B is 1 ft in both cases and the handle diameter is 0.625 in. What is the maximum force possible before yielding the handle if the material S y = 45 ksi? Distance between A and B Wrench diameter Yield strength d AB 1 ft d 0.625 in S y 45 ksi

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The forces exerted by the user's hands lie in a plane through the wrench that is also parallel to the plane of the wheel. 2. The applied torque is perpendicular to the plane of the forces. 3. By virtue of 1 and 2 above, this is a planar problem that can be described in a 2D FBD. Solution: See Figure 5-21 and Mathcad file P0521.

12" = dAB F

1. From examination of the FBDs, we see that, in both cases, the arms are in bending and the stub that holds the socket wrench is in pure torsion. The maximum bending stress in the arm will occur near the point where the arm transitions to the stub. The stress state at this transition is very complicated, but we can find the nominal bending stress there by treating the arm as a cantilever beam, fixed at the transition point. For both cases the torque in the stub is the same.

Case (a)

6"

12" = dAB F

T

F

Moment of inertia I

d

64

I 0.00749 in

FIGURE 5-21

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 5-21

c 0.5 d

c 0.313 in

x =

Ma c I

4. There are no other stress components present at this point, so x is the maximum principle stress here and

1 = x

2 0 psi

3 0 psi ' = 1 = x =

Ma c I = Fa d AB c I

5. Since there is only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is

6. Using the distortion-energy theory, solve for the maximum applied force. Ns = Sy

'

I Sy Fa d AB c

=1

Fa

I Sy d AB c

Fa 89.882 lbf

Fa d AB c I T 1079 in lbf

5-21-2

'

' 45 ksi

T Fa d AB

9. The shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the stub is found from Polar moment of inertia Shear stress J 2 I J 0.0150 in J

4

xy

Tc

xy 22.5 ksi

10. There are no other stress components present along the outside surface of the stub, so

1 xy

and

1 22.5 ksi

2 2

3 1

'

1 1 3 3

11. Thus, the maximum von Mises stress for case (a) is on the upper surface of the handle (arm) near the point where it transitions to the stub, and the maximum force that can be applied to the handle without yielding is Fa 89.9 lbf Case (b) 12. The bending moment at the transition is Mb = Fb d AB 2 Mb c I

x =

12. There are no other stress components present at this point, so x is the maximum principle stress here and

1 = x

2 0 psi

3 0 psi

Mb c I = Fb d AB c 2 I

13. Since there is only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is ' = 1 = x = 14. Using the distortion-energy theory, solve for the maximum applied force. Ns = Sy = 2 I Sy Fb d AB c =1 Fb 2 I Sy d AB c Fb 179.763 lbf

'

15. The von Mises stress in the handle at the transition point is 16. The torque in the stub is T Fb d AB

'

Fb d AB c 2 I T 2157 in lbf

' 45 ksi

14. The shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the stub is found from Shear stress

xy

Tc J

xy 45 ksi

15. There are no other stress components present along the outside surface of the stub, so

1 xy

1 45.0 ksi

2 0 psi

3 1

5-21-3

and

'

1 1 3 3

16. Since the von Mises stress in the stub due to torsion is greater than the yield strength, the force in the handle will be limited by the shear stress in the stib and by the bending stress in the handle. Ns = Sy = Sy 3 xy = J Sy 3 T c = J Sy 3 Fb d AB c =1

'

Fb

J Sy 3 d AB c

Fb 103.8 lbf

17. Thus, the maximum von Mises stress for case (b) is on the stub, and the maximum force that can be applied to the handles without yielding is Fb 103.8 lbf

5-22-1

PROBLEM 5-22

Statement: A roller-blade skate is shown in Figure P5-10. The polyurethane wheels are 72 mm dia and spaced on 104-mm centers. The skate-boot-foot combination weighs 2 kg. The effective "spring rate" of the person-skate subsystem is 6000 N/m. The axles are 10-mm-dia steel pins in double shear with S y = 400 MPa. Find the safety factor for the pins when a 100-kg person lands a 0.5-m jump on one foot. (a) Assume all 4 wheels land simultaneously. (b) Assume that one wheel absorbs all the landing force. Axle pin diameter d 10 mm Yield strength S y 400 MPa

Given: Solution: 1. 2.

From Problem 4-22, we have the stresses for cases (a) and (b): Using the distortion-energy failure theory, Case (a) all wheels landing Nsa Sy 3 a Sy 3 b

a 5.71 MPa

b 22.9 MPa

Nsa 40.4

Nsb

Nsb 10.1

5-23a-1

PROBLEM 5-23a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P5-11a. For the data given in row a from Table P5-2, find the static safety factor: (a) If the beam is a ductile material with S y = 300 MPa, (b) If the beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa. Ductile yield strength S y 300 MPa

a w L b F

Given:

Solution:

R1

R2

FIGURE 5-23

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-23

1.

The maximum bending stress occurs under the concentrated load F at x = b. It was determined in Problem 4-23a as

x 88.7 MPa

2. Since this is the only stress component present in the given coordinate frame, x is equal to 1 and the other two principal stresses are zero.

1 x

3.

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

For case (a), use the distortion-energy failure theory. With only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is the same as 1. von Mises stress Safety factor, case (a)

' 1

Nsa Sy

Nsa 3.4

'

4.

For case (b), use the Modified Mohr failure theory. The nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the s1-s3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Safety factor, case (b) Nsb S ut Nsb 1.7

5-24a-1

PROBLEM 5-24a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P5-11b. For the data given in row a from Tabl P5-2, find the static safety factor: (a) If the beam is a ductile material with S y = 300 MPa, (b) If the beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa.

L

Given:

S y 300 MPa

a F w

M1

Solution:

R1

FIGURE 5-24

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-24

1.

The maximum bending stress occurs at the support where x = 0. It was determined in Problem 4-24a as

x 410 MPa

2. Since this is the only stress component present in the given coordinate frame, x is equal to 1 and the other two principal stresses are zero.

1 x

3.

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

For case (a), use the distortion-energy failure theory. With only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is the same as 1. von Mises stress Safety factor, case (a)

' 1

Nsa Sy

Nsa 0.73

'

4.

For case (b), use the Modified Mohr failure theory. The nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Safety factor, case (b) Nsb S ut Nsb 0.37

5-25a-1

PROBLEM 5-25a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P5-11c. For the data given in row a from Table P5-2, find the static safety factor: (a) If the beam is a ductile material with S y = 300 MPa, (b) If the beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa.

L

Given:

S y 300 MPa

a

b F w

Solution:

R1

R2

FIGURE 5-25

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-25

1.

The maximum bending stress occurs at the right-hand support where x = b. It was determined in Problem 4-25a as x 151.6 MPa Since this is the only stress component present in the given coordinate frame, x is equal to 1 and the other two principal stresses are zero.

2.

1 x

3.

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

For case (a), use the distortion-energy failure theory. With only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is the same as 1. von Mises stress Safety factor, case (a)

' 1

Nsa Sy

Nsa 2.0

'

4.

For case (b), use the Modified Mohr failure theory. The nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Safety factor, case (b) Nsb S ut Nsb 0.99

5-26a-1

PROBLEM 5-26a

Statement: A beam is supported and loaded as shown in Figure P5-11d. For the data given in row a from Tabl P5-2, find the static safety factor: (a) If the beam is a ductile material with S y = 300 MPa, (b) If the beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa.

L

Given:

S y 300 MPa

a

b F w

Solution: 1.

R1

R2

R3

The maximum bending stress occurs under the concentrated load F, where x = a. It was determined in Problem 4-26a as

FIGURE 5-26

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-26

x 31.5 MPa

2. Since this is the only stress component present in the given coordinate frame, x is equal to 1 and the other two principal stresses are zero.

1 x

3.

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

' 1

Nsa Sy

Nsa 9.5

'

4.

For case (b), use the Modified Mohr failure theory. The nonzero principal stress is positive and the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the 1 axis. Safety factor, case (b) Nsb S ut Nsb 4.8

5-27-1

PROBLEM 5-27

Statement: A storage rack is to be designed to hold the paper roll of Problem 5-8 as shown in Figure P5-12. Determine suitable values for dimensions a and b in the figure. Make the static factor of safety at least 1.5. The mandrel is solid and inserts halfway into the paper roll. (a) The beam is a ductile material with Sy = 300 MPa (b) The beam is a cast-brittle material with Sut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa.

3

Given:

984 kg m

Assumptions: The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the y mandrel. The mandrel's root in the w stanchion experiences a distributed load a over the length of engagement (see the solution to Problem 3-27 for further discussion of this point). The required diameter a of the mandrel root section b (over the length b) will be sized to use the allowable tensile strength in bending. R The length b will be sized to use the FIGURE 5-27 allowable transverse shear strength.

Lm

Solution: 1.

Determine the weight of the roll and the length of the mandrel. Weight Length W

OD ID Lroll g

W 53.9 kN Lm 1.615 m

Lm 0.5 Lroll

2.

The maximum internal shear and moment occur at a section where the mandrel root leaves the stanchion. and are Vmax = 2 W Lm b Mmax W Lm Mmax 87.04 kN m

3.

Part (a) - The bending stress will be a maximum at the top or bottom of the mandrel at a section where the mandrel root leaves the stanchion.

max =

4.

Mmax a 2 I

where

I=

a

64

so,

max =

32 Mmax

1 = max

5.

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

All three of the ductile failure theories have the same fail/safe boundary for this condition (slope of load line is zero) Ns = Sy or Ns 1 = S y

1

5-27-2

6.

Solving for a,

32 Ns W Lm a S y

a 166 mm

a 164.272 mm

Round this to 7.

Using this value of a and equation (4.15c), solve for the shear stress on the neutral axis at the same section.

max =

4 Vmax 3 A

8 W Lm 3

a 2 b 4

2 0 MPa 3 = max

8.

At this point, this is the only nonzero stress component therefore, the principal stresses are

1 = max

9

' = 3 max

Solving for b b

and

Ns =

Sy

'

or

Ns max = b 92.9 mm

Sy 3

8 Ns W Lm

a 2 S y 3 4 3

a 166 mm

b 94 mm

10. Part (b) - The bending stress will be a maximum at the top or bottom of the mandrel at a section where the mandrel root leaves the stanchion.

max =

Mmax a 2 I

where

I=

a

64

so,

max =

32 Mmax

11. At this point the only nonzero stress component is max therefore

1 = max

2 0 MPa

3 0 MPa

12. All three of the brittle failure theories have the same fail/safe boundary for this condition (slope of load line is zero) Ns = S ut = S ut = 2 I S ut Mmax a =

a S ut

32 Mmax

1

max

32 Ns Mmax a Sut

a 208 mm

a 206.97 mm

14. Using this value of a and equation (4.15c), solve for the shear stress on the neutral axis at the same section.

4 Vmax 3 A 8 W Lm 3

5-27-3

max =

a 2 b 4

2 0 MPa 3 = max

15. At this point, this is the only nonzero stress component therefore, the principal stresses are

1 = max

16. Using the Modified Mohr theory, 3 =

Ns =

S ut

S ut

a 2 b S ut 4

8 W Lm 8 Ns W Lm

max

Solving for b

a 2 Sut 3 4

a 208 mm

b 68.3 mm

b 70 mm

5-28-1

PROBLEM 5-28

Statement: Figure P5-13 shows a forklift truck negotiating a 15 deg ramp to to drive onto a 4-ft-high loading platform. The truck weighs 5 000 lb and has a 42-in wheelbase. Design two (one for each side) 1-ft-wide ramps of steel to have a safety factor of 3 in the worst case of loading as the truck travels up them. Minimize the weight of the ramps by using a sensible cross-sectional geometry. Choose an appropriate steel or aluminum alloy. Ramp angle 15 deg Platform height h 4 ft Truck wheelbase Lt 42 in Ramp width Truck weight w 12 in W 5000 lbf

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The worst case is when the truck CG is located at the center of the beam's span. 2. Use a coordinate frame that has the x-axis along the long axis of the beam. 3. Ignore traction forces and the weight components along the x-axis of the beam. 4. There are two ramps, one for each side of the forklift. See Figure 5-28 and Mathcad file P0528. Solution:

L b a CG a

CG b

R1 Fa Wa Fb Wb R2 x

FIGURE 5-28A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-28

1. From Problem 3-28 the maximum bending moment in the ramp occurs at the rear wheel of the truck and is Mmax 8324 ft lbf Mmax 99888 in lbf

2. The bending stress is the only stress component present and is, therefore, also the only nonzero principal stress and is also the von Mises stress. The governing design equations then are

' =

Mmax Z

and

Ns =

Sy

'

3. The approach will be to 1) choose a suitable factor of safety, 2) choose a suitable material and determine its yiel strength, 3) from the equations above determine the required value of the section modulus, 4) choose an appropriate cross-section for the ramp, and 5) determine the dimensions of the cross-section. 4. The following design choices have been made for this problem:

Design factor of safety Material Yield strength Nsd 3 7075 Aluminum, heat treated S y 73 ksi

5-28-2

5. Solve the design equations for the minimum section modulus, Z. Z Nsd Mmax Sy Z 4.105 in

3

This is the minimum allowable value of the section modulus. 6. Assume a channel section such as that shown in Figure 5-28B. To keep it simple, let the thickness of the flanges and web be the same. Choose 1/2-in thick plate, which is readily available. Then, t 0.50 in 7. The cross-sectional area of the ramp is 8. The distance to the CG is cg( h ) A ( h ) w t 2 t ( h t) 1 A (h)

w t 2 2

t h t

Flange Web

3

12

w t cg( h )

2 t

2

Ifl ( h )

t ( h t) 12

h h t cg( h ) 2

I ( h ) Iweb( h ) 2 Ifl ( h ) 11. The maximum stress will occur in the flange at the top and is compressive. The distance from the centroid up to the top of the flange is c( h ) h cg( h ) 12. Using the known section modulus, solve for the unknown flange height, h. Guess h 1 in Given Z= I (h) c( h ) h Find ( h ) h 3.843 in Round this up to h 4.00 in FIGURE 5-28B

Channel Section for Problem 5-28

13. Summarizing, the ramp design dimensions are: Width w 12.00 in Flange height Thickness h 4.00 in t 0.5 in Shape Material channel 7075 aluminum

5-29-1

PROBLEM 5-29

Statement: A differential element is subected to the stresses given below and a ductile material has the strengths given below. Calculate the safety factor and draw 1-3 diagrams of each theory showing the stress state using: (a) Maximum shear-stress theory, and (b) Distortion-energy theory. Principal stresses Material properties Solution:

Given:

1 10 ksi

S ut 50 ksi

2 0 ksi

S y 40 ksi

3 20 ksi

S uc 50 ksi

1. Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

3 1

m 2

2. The safety factor equation for the distortion-enrgy theory is the same regardless of which quadrant the load line falls in. However, the equation for the maximum shear-stress factor of safety is different for each of the three quadrants that the load line (1st, 3rd, or 4th) can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant. The factors of safety are: (a) Maximum shear-stress theory Na Sy Na 1.3

1 3

40

3

2

MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, KSI

'

1 1 3 3

(a) Maximum shear stress boundary 30 (b) Distortion energy boundary 20 10 0 -10 (10,-20) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -40 -sy

Nb Sy Nb 1.5

'

sy

3. Plot the 1-3 diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (10 ksi, -20 ksi) and the load line. Note that if 1 > 3 , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress point. Since the distance from the origin to the distortion-energy boundary is greater than the distance to the maximum shear-stress baoundary, its factor of safety is greater.

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

FIGURE 5-29

1 - 3 Diagram for Problem 5-29

5-30-1

PROBLEM 5-30

Statement: A differential element is subected to the stresses and strengths given below. Calculate the safety factor and draw 1-3 diagrams of each theory showing the stress state using: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory, and (b) Modified Mohr theory. Principal stresses Material properties Solution:

Given:

1 10 ksi

S ut 50 ksi

2 0 ksi

S y 40 ksi

3 20 ksi

S uc 90 ksi

1. Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

3 1

m 2

2. The safety factor equation for both theories is different for each quadrant the load line falls in. The equation for the modified Mohr factor of safety is different for each of the two regions in the 4th quadrant that the load line can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant, below the -1 slope line.. The factors of safety are: (a)Coulomb-Mohr theory Na S uc S ut S uc 1 S ut 3 Na 2.4

MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, KSI

3

50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 (10,-20) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -S uc 0 10 20 30 40 50 Stress states at which failure will occur (b) Modified Mohr boundary -S ut (a) Coulomb-Mohr boundary

S uc S ut S 1 3 ut

Nb 3.2 3. Plot the 1-3 diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (10 ksi, -20 ksi) and the load line. Note that if 1 > 3 , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress point. Since the distance from the origin to the modified Mohr boundary is greater than the distance to the Coulomb-Mohr boundary, its factor of safety is greater.

Load Line

-100 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

FIGURE 5-30

1 - 3 Diagram for Problem 5-30

5-31-1

PROBLEM 5-31

Statement: Design a jack-stand in a tripod configuration that will support 2 tons of load with a safety factor of 3. Use SAE 1020 steel and minimize its weight. This open-ended design problem has many valid solutions that are left to the student.

Solution:

5-32-1

PROBLEM 5-32

Statement: Given: A part has the combined stress state and strengths given below. Choose an appropriate failure theory based on the given data, find the effective stress and factor of safety against static failure. Stresses: x 10 ksi Strengths: Solution: 1. 2.

y 5 ksi

xy 4.5 ksi

S uc 80 ksi

S y 18 ksi

S ut 20 ksi

Because S uc is greater than S ut, this is an uneven material, which is characteristic of a brittle material. Therefore, use the modified Mohr theory. Find the maximum shear stress and principal stresses that result from this combination of applied stresses using equations 4.6.

2 x y 2 max xy 2

Principal stresses

1 2

x y

2

max max

x y

2

3 0 psi

3. Find the Dowling factors C1, C2, C3 using equations 5.12b: C1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1 2

C1 8.898 ksi

C2

2 3

2 3 3 1

C2 1.764 ksi

C3 4.

3 1

C3 9.486 ksi

C 1 C2 C 3 eff max 1 2 3

which is the modified-Mohr effective stress. 5.

S ut

eff

N 1.6

5-33a-1

PROBLEM 5-33a

Statement: Solution: 1. For the bracket shown in Figure P5-14 and the data in row a of Table P5-3, determine the von Mises stresses at points A and B. See Mathcad file P0533a.

1 21.46 MPa

2.

2 0 MPa

3 13.08 MPa

'A

3.

1 1 3 3

1 16.13 MPa

4.

2 0 MPa

3 16.13 MPa

'B

1 1 3 3

y A T M L R B

FIGURE 5-33

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 5-33

5-34a-1

PROBLEM 5-34a

Statement: Calculate the safety factor for the bracket in Problem 5-33 using the distortion energy, the maximum shear stress, and the maximum normal-stress theories. Comment on their appropriateness. Assume a ductile material strength as given below. Yield strength See Mathcad file P0534a. S y 400 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

1A 21.46 MPa

2.

2A 0 MPa

3A 13.08 MPa

Using the two nonzero stresses, the slope of the load line on a 1-3 graph is m

3A 1A

m 0.61

This intersects the failure boundaries in the fourth quadrant. 3. Calculate the von Mises effective stress at point A using equation (5.7c).

'A

4.

1A 1A 3A 3A

Determine the factor of safety at point A Distortion energy NADE Sy NADE 13.2

'A

Sy

NAMS

1A 3A

Sy

NAMS 11.6

NANS

1A

NANS 18.6

5.

1B 16.13 MPa

6.

2B 0 MPa

3B 16.13 MPa

Using the two nonzero stresses, the slope of the load line on a 1-3 graph is m

3B 1B

m 1

This intersects the failure boundaries in the fourth quadrant. 7. Calculate the von Mises effective stress at point A using equation (5.7c).

'B

8.

1B 1B 3B 3B

Sy

5-34a-2

Distortion energy

NBDE

'B

Sy

NBDE 14.3

NBMS

1B 3B

Sy

NBMS 12.4

NBNS

1B

NBNS 24.8

9.

Whichever theory is used, the critical point (lowest factor of safety) is point A. The distortion energy theory should be used because experimental data follows its failure boundary more nearly than the maximum shear stress in all quadrants. Using the maximum normal stress theory would give an overestimate of the actual safety factor.

5-35a-1

PROBLEM 5-35a

Statement: Calculate the safety factor for the bracket in Problem 5-33 using the Coulomb-Mohr and the modified Mohr effective stress theories. Comment on their appropriateness. Assume a brittle material strength as given below. Tensile strength See Mathcad file P0535a. S ut 350 MPa Compressive strength S uc 1000 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

1A 21.46 MPa

2.

2A 0 MPa

3A 13.08 MPa

Using the two nonzero stresses, the slope of the load line on a 1-3 graph is m

3A 1A

m 0.61

This intersects the failure boundaries in the fourth quadrant. For the Coulomb-Mohr diagram (see Figure 5-9 in the text) there is a single, straight line in this quadrant. For the modified-Mohr theory, the load line will intersect the boundary at a point similar to B' in Figure 5-11 in the text. 3. Determine the factor of safety at point A Coulomb-Mohr NACM S ut S uc S uc 1A S ut 3A S ut NACM 13.4

Modified-Mohr

NAMM

1A

NAMM 16.3

4.

1B 16.13 MPa

5.

2B 0 MPa

3B 16.13 MPa

Using the two nonzero stresses, the slope of the load line on a 1-3 graph is m

3B 1B

m 1

This intersects the failure boundaries in the fourth quadrant. For the Coulomb-Mohr diagram (see Figure 5-9 in the text) there is a single, straight line in this quadrant. For the modified-Mohr theory, the load line will intersect the boundary at the point (S ut -S ut) Figure 5-11 in the text. 6. Determine the factor of safety at point B Coulomb-Mohr NBCM S ut S uc S uc 1B S ut 3B S ut NBCM 16.1

Modified-Mohr 7.

NBMM

1B

NBMM 21.7

Whichever theory is used, the critical point (lowest factor of safety) is point A. The modified-Mohr theory should be used because experimental data follows its failure boundary more nearly than the Coulomb-Mohr when the slope of the load line is in the fourth quadrant. Using the Coulomb-Mohr would give an underestimat of the actual safety factor.

8. Calculating factor of safety using Modified Mohr and equations (5.12c, d, and e) Point A C1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1A 2A

5-35a-2

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1A 2A

C1 13.9 MPa

C2

2A 3A

2A 3A

C2 4.6 MPa

C3

3A 1A

3A 1A

C3 18.5 MPa

1 is maximum so

S ut

1A

N 16.3

Point B

C1

1 2 1 2 1 2

1B 2B

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1B 2B

C1 10.5 MPa

C2

2B 3B

2B 3B

C2 5.6 MPa

C3

3B 1B

3B 1B

C3 16.1 MPa

1 is maximum so

S ut

1B

N 21.7

5-36a-1

PROBLEM 5-36a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P5-14 and the data in row a of Table P5-3, redo Problem 5-33 considering the stress concentration at points A and B. Assume a stress concentration factor of 2.5 in both bending and torsion. Factors of safety: Bending See Mathcad file P0536a. Kf 2.5 Torsion Kfs 2.5

Given:

Solution: 1. 2.

From Problem 4-36a the principal stresses at point A are 1 53.6 MPa 2 0 MPa Use equation (5.7c) to find the von Mises stress at point A.

'A

3.

1 1 3 3

From Problem 4-36a the principal stresses at point B are 1 41.3 MPa 2 0 MPa Use equation (5.7c) to find the von Mises stress at point B.

4.

'B

1 1 3 3

F

y A T M L R B

FIGURE 5-36

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 5-36

5-37-1

PROBLEM 5-37

Statement: A semicircular, curved beam as shown in Figure 5-37 has the dimensions given below. For a load pair F = 14 kN applied along the diameter, find the safety factor at the inner and outer fibers: (a) If the beam is a ductile material with Sy = 700 MPa, (b) If the beam is a cast-brittle material with Sut = 420 MPa, Suc = 1200 MPa. (a) Yield strength (b) Tensile strength Solution: 1. S ut 420 MPa

F od id F w

Compressive strength S uc 1200 MPa See Figure 5-37 and Mathcad file P0537.

From Problem 4-37, the stresses at the inside radius and outside radius are: Inside Outside

(a) Entire Beam

These are the only stress components present on their respective surfaces so they are also principal stresses. Thus,

Part (a) 2.

2i 0 MPa 2o 0 MPa

3. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises effective stress,

FIGURE 5-37

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 5-37

'i 1i 'o 3o

4.

The factor of safety against a static failure for this ductile material is Inside surface Nai Nao Sy Nai 1.7 Nao 2.6

'i

Sy

'o

Use the modified-Mohr theory for the brittle material. The load line on the 1-3 graph for the inside surface is along the positive 1 axis. In this case, the factor of safety equation simplifies to Inside surface Nbi S ut Nbi 1.0

1i

7.

The load line on the 1-3 graph for the outside surface is along the negative 3 axis. In this case, the factor of safety equation simplifies to Outside surface Nbo S uc Nbo 4.4

3o

5-38-1

PROBLEM 5-38

Statement: Given: Assume that the curved beam of Problem 5-37 has a crack on its inside surface of half-width a = 2 mm and a fracture toughness of 50 MPa-m0.5. What is its safety factor against sudden fracture? Outside diameter Width of section Half crack length Solution: 1. od 150 mm t 25 mm a 2 mm Inside diameter Load Fracture toughness id 100 mm F 14 kN Kc 50 MPa m

From Problem 4-37, the nominal stress at the inside radius is: Nominal inside stress i 409.9 MPa Calculate the half-width of the beam. b 0.5 t b 12.5 mm

2. 3.

Calculate the geometry and stress intensity factors. a sec 1.016 2 b K i a K 33.01 MPa m NFM

w

4.

Kc K

NFM 1.5

F od id F

FIGURE 5-38

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 5-38

5-39-1

PROBLEM 5-39

Statement: Consider the failed 260-in dia by 0.73-in wall rocket case of Figure 5-14. The steel had S y = 240 k and a fracture toughness Kc = 79.6 ksi-in 0.5. It was designed for an internal pressure of 960 psi but failed at 542 psi. Failure was attributed to a small crack that precipitated a sudden, brittle, fracture-mechanics failure. Find the nominal stress in the wall and the yielding safety factor at the failure conditions and estimate the size of the crack that caused it to explode. Assume b = 1.0. Given: Case diameter Wall thickness Yield strength Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0539. d 260 in t 0.73 in S y 240 ksi Fracture toughness Design pressure Failure pressure Kc 79.6 ksi in p d 960 psi p f 542 psi

Find the nominal stress in the wall. The ratio of the wall thickness to the radius of the case is such that we can use thin-wall theory. Thus Case radius Tangential stress r 0.5 d r 130 in pd r t pd r 2 t

t a

r 0 psi

Find the yielding safety factor at the failure conditions. Since, for these directions, there are no shear stresses present, these are the principal stresses. The von Mises stress is Von Mises stress Factor of safety against yielding

'

Ns

t t a a

Sy

Ns 1.6

'

3.

Estimate the size of the crack that caused it to explode. Tangential stress

t a

pf r t pf r 2 t

Axial stress

(a) Assume that the crack was longitudinal (growing in the axial direction) Nominal stress Stress intensity factor

nom t

K = nom a

Setting the stress intensity factor equal to the fracture toughness of the material and solving for the crack length

Half-length

Kc2 a 2 nom

2 a 0.433 in

a 0.216 in

Crack length

(b) Assume that the crack was tangential (growing in the tangential direction) Nominal stress Stress intensity factor

5-39-2

nom a

K = nom a

Setting the stress intensity factor equal to the fracture toughness of the material and solving for the crack length

Half-length

Kc2 2 nom

a 0.866 in

Crack length

2 a 1.732 in

5-40-1

PROBLEM 5-40

Statement: Redesign the roll support of Problem 5-8 to be like that shown in Figure P5-16. The stub mandrels insert to 10% of the roll length at each end. Design dimension a for a factor of safety of 2. See Problem 5-8 for additional data. (a) The beam is a ductile material with S y = 300 MPa (b) The beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 150 MPa, S uc = 570 MPa. Paper roll dimensions: OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Material properties: Yield strength Comp strength Roll density

Given:

984 kg m

Factor of safety

Assumptions: 1. The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. 2. The base of the mandrel (the portion that inserts into the stanchion) is solid and fits tightly into the stanchion. Therefore, the mandrel can be treated as a cantilever beam. 3. The length of ther mandrel base is b 100 mm. Solution: 1. See Figure 5-40 and Mathcad file P0540.

For the assumptions made, it is not necessary to determine the stress distribution on the mandrel base inside the stanchion. From Figure 5-40, we see that we can determine the diameter a by applying the beam stress equation at the section where the mandrel transitions from the base to the full diameter. Determine the weight of the roll, the load on each support, and the length of the mandrel. W

F y

a M1

2.

OD 4

ID L

2

b R

Lm

roll g

From Figure 5-40, the maximum internal bending moment occurs at x = 0 and is Mmax F Lm Mmax 8.704 kN m

4.

The bending stress will be a maximum at the top or bottom of the mandrel at a section through x = 0.

max =

Mmax a 2 I

where

I=

a

64

2 0 MPa

5.

3 0 MPa

For the ductile material of part (a), the maximum principal stress is also the von Mises stress so

max = ' =

32 Mmax

Sy Ns

1

5-40-2

Solving for a,

32 Ns F Lm a S y

a 84 mm

a 83.922 mm

Round this to 5.

For the brittle material of part (b), the load line on the 1-3 diagram is along the positive 1 axis where both brittle material failure theories have the same boundary, which is 1 = S ut. Thus, for the brittle case of part (b),

max = 1 =

32 Mmax

S ut Ns

a

1

Solving for a,

32 Ns F Lm S ut

a 105.735 mm

Round this to

a 106 mm

5-41-1

PROBLEM 5-41

Statement: A 10-mm ID steel tube carries liquid at 7 MPa. The steel has S y = 400 MPa Determine the safety factor for the wall if its thickness is: a) 1 mm, b) 5 mm. Yield strength S y 400 MPa

The tubing is long therefore the axial stress is zero. See Mathcad file P0541. t 1 mm

From Problem 4-41, this is a thick wall cylinder and the principal stresses are:

1a 38.82 MPa

2.

2a 0 MPa

3a 7.00 MPa

2 2

'a

3.

1a 1a 3a 3a

Na

'a

t 5 mm

Na 9.4

From Problem 4-41, this is a thick wall cylinder and the principal stresses are:

1b 11.67 MPa

5.

2b 0 MPa

3b 7.00 MPa

2 2

'b

6.

1b 1b 3a 3b

Nb

'b

Nb 24.5

5-42-1

PROBLEM 5-42

Statement: A cylindrical tank with hemispherical ends is required to hold 150 psi of pressurized air at room temperature. The steel has S y = 400 MPa. Determine the safety factor if the tank diameter is 0.5 m with 1 mm wall thickness, and its length is 1 m. Yield strength S y 400 MPa

Given: Solution: 1.

From Problem 4-42, the maximum principal stresses in the wall are

1 259 MPa

2. The von Mises stress is

2 2

3.

Using the distortion-energy theory, the factor of safety against a static failure is Ns Sy Ns 1.8

'

5-43-1

PROBLEM 5-43

Statement: The paper rolls in Figure P5-17 are 0.9-m OD by 0.22-m ID by 3.23-m long and have a density of 984 kg/m3. The rolls are transfered from the machine conveyor (not shown) to the forklift truck by the V-linkage of the off-load station, which is rotated through 90 deg by an air cylinder. The paper then rolls onto the waiting forks of the truck. The forks are 38-mm thick by 100-mm wide by 1.2-m long and are tipped at a 3-deg angle from the horizontal and have Sy = 600MPa. Find the safety factor for the two forks on the truck when the paper rolls onto it under two different conditions (state all assumptions): (a) The two forks are unsupported at their free end. (b) The two forks are contacting the table at point A.

F L fork

Given:

Yield strength

S y 600 MPa

Assumptions: 1. The greatest bending moment will occur when the paper roll is at the tip of the fork for case (a) and when it is midway between supports for case (b). 2. Each fork carries 1/2 the weight of a paper roll. 3. For case (a), each fork acts as a cantilever beam (see Appendix B-1(a)). 4. For case (b), each fork acts as a beam that is built-in at one end and simply-supported at the other. Solution: 1. See Figure 5-43 and Mathcad file P0543.

M1

0.5 L fork t

L fork R1 R2

M2

From Problem 4-43, the maximum stresses in the forks are: Case (a)

a 464.8 MPa

FIGURE 5-43

Free Body Diagrams used in Problem 5-43

b 87.2 MPa

Since there are no other stress components present, these are also the maximum principal stresses and the von Mises stresses. Thus, 'a a and 'b b. Case (a) 2. The factor of safety against a static failure is Nsa Sy

'a

Nsa 1.3

'b

Nsb 6.9

5-44-1

PROBLEM 5-44

Statement: Determine a suitable thickness for the V-links of the off-loading station of Figure P5-17 to limit their deflections at the tips to 10-mm in any position during their rotation. Two V-links support the roll, at the 1/4 and 3/4 points along the roll's length, and each of the V arms is 10-cm wide by 1-m long. What is their safety factor against yielding when designed to limit deflection as above? Roll OD Roll ID Roll length Roll density Yield strength OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m

3

Given:

wa 100 mm La 1000 mm

tip 10 mm

E 207 GPa

984 kg m

S y 400 MPa

Assumptions: 1. The maximum deflection on an arm will occur just after it begins the transfer and just before it completes it, i.e., when the angle is either zero or 90 deg., but after the tip is no longer supported b the base unit. 2. At that time the roll is in contact with both arms ("seated" in the V) and will remain in that state throughout the motion. When the roll is in any other position on an arm the tip will be supported. 3. The arm can be treated as a cantilever beam with nonend load. 4. A single arm will never carry more than half the weight of a roll. 5. The pipe to which the arms are attached has OD = 160 mm. Solution: See Figure 5-44 and Mathcad file P0544.

450

1. Determine the weight of the roll and the load on each V-arm. W

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN F 9.32 kN

F 0.5 W

2. From Appendix B, Figure B-1, the tip deflection of a cantilever beam with a concentrated load located at a distance a from the support is ymax = F a

2

6 E I

( a 3 L)

370 = a

1000 = L F

where L is the beam length and I is the cross-section moment of inertia. In this case I= 3. Setting w a t a 12 and a 370 mm

3

M F

ymax = tip

FIGURE 5-44

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 5-44

1

2 F a2 3 La a ta E tip wa

Let the arm thickness be

ta 31.889 mm ta 32 mm

4. The maximum bending stress in the arm will be at its base where it joins the 160-mm-dia pipe. The bending moment, moment of inertia, and distance to the outside fiber at that point are:

5-44-2

M a F I wa ta 12

3

M 3449 N m I 2.731 10 mm c 16 mm

5 4

c 0.5 t a

'

M c I

6. Using the distortion-energy theory, the factor of safety against a static failure is Ns Sy Ns 2.0

'

5-45-1

PROBLEM 5-45

Statement: Determine the safety factor based on critical load on the air cylinder rod in Figure P5-17 if the crank arm that rotates it is 0.3 m long and the rod has a maximum extension of 0.5 m. The 25-mm-dia rod is solid steel with a yield strength of 400 MPa. State all assumptions. Rod length Rod diameter L 500 mm d 25 mm Young's modulus Yield strength E 207 GPa S y 400 MPa

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The rod is a fixed-pinned column. 2. Use a conservative value of 1 for the end factor (see Table 4-7 in text). Solution: 1. 2. 3. See Problems 4-45, 4-47, and Mathcad file P0545. Pcr 134.8 kN F 46.47 kN Nbuck 2.9

From Problem 4-45, the critical load on the air cylinder rod is From Problem 4-47, the maximum load on the air cylinder rod is The factor of safety against a buckling failure is Nbuck Pcr F

5-46-1

PROBLEM 5-46

Statement: The V-links of Figure P5-17 are rotated by the crank arm through a shaft that is 60 mm dia by 3.23 m long. Determine the maximum torque applied to this shaft during motion of the V-linkage and find the static safety factor against yielding for the shaft if its S y = 400 MPa. See Problem 5-43 for more information.

y

Given:

Yield strength

S y 400 MPa

Assumptions: The greatest torque will occur when the link is horizontal and the paper roll is located as shown in Figure P5-17 or Figure 5-46. Solution: P0546. See Figure 5-46 and Mathcad file

W T

2. Using the distortion-energy theory, the factor of safety against static yielding is

60-mm-dia shaft Ry 450.0

Ns

Sy 3 max

Ns 1.2

FIGURE 5-46

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 5-46

5-47-1

PROBLEM 5-47

Statement: Determine the maximum forces on the pins at each end of the air cylinder of Figure P4-17. Determine the safety factor for these pins if they are 30-mm dia and in single shear. S y = 400 MPa. Paper roll dimensions OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Roll density

3

Given:

d 30 mm S y 400 MPa

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The maximum force in the cylinder rod occurs when the transfer starts. 2. The cylinder and rod make an angle of 8 deg to the horizontal at the start of transfer. 3. The crank arm is 300 mm long and is 45 deg from vertical at the start of transfer. 4. The cylinder rod is fully retracted at the start of the transfer. At the end of the transfer it will have extended 500 mm from its initial position. Solution: See Figure 4-47 and Mathcad file P0447.

y

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN 2. From the assumptions and Figure 4-47, the x and y distances from the origin to point A are, Rax 300 cos( 45 deg) mm Ray 300 sin( 45 deg) mm Rax 212.132 mm Ray 212.132 mm

212.1 W Rx x 212.1 A F 450.0 8

Ry

3. From Figure 4-47, the x distance from the origin to point where W is applied is,

FIGURE 4-47

Free Body Diagram at Start of Transfer for V-link of Problem 4-47

Rwx

OD 2

Rwx 450 mm

4. Sum moments about the pivot point and solve for the compressive force in the cylinder rod. W Rwx F Rax sin( 8 deg) F Ray cos( 8 deg) = 0 F W Rwx Ray cos( 8 deg) Rax sin( 8 deg) F 46.469 kN

This is the shear force in the pins 5. Determine the cross-sectional area of the pins and the direct shear stress.

2

5-47-2

Shear area

d

4 F A

A 706.858 mm

Shear stress

65.7 MPa

6. Using the distortion-energy theory, the factor of safety against a static yielding failure is Ns Sy 3 Ns 3.5

5-48-1

PROBLEM 5-48

Statement: Figure P5-18 shows an exerciser for a 100-kg wheelchair racer. The wheel chair has 65 cm dia drive wheels separated by a 70-cm track width. Two free-turning rollers on bearings support the rear wheels. The lateral movement of the chair is limited by the flanges. Design the 1-m-long rollers as hollow tubes of aluminum (select alloy) to minimize the height of the platform and also limit the roller deflections to 1 mm in the worst case. Specify suitable sized steel axles to support the tubes on bearings. Calculate all significant stresses. Mass of chair M 100 kg Wheel diameter d w 650 mm Track width Roller length T 700 mm Lr 1000 mm Maximum deflection Modulus elasticity: Aluminum Steel

Given:

1 mm

Ea 71.7 GPa Es 207 GPa

Assumptions: 1. The CG of the chair with rider is sufficiently close to the rear wheel that all of the weight is taken by the two rear wheels. 2. The small camber angle of the rear wheels does not significantly affect the magnitude of the forces on the rollers. 3. Both the aluminum roller and the steel axle are simply supported. The steel axles that support the aluminum tube are fixed in the mounting block and do not rotate. The aluminum tube is attached to them by two bearings (one on each end of the tubes, one for each axle). The bearings' inner race is fixed, and the outer race rotates with the aluminum tube. Each steel axle is considered to be loaded as a simply supported beam. Their diameter must be less than the inner diameter of the tubes to fit the roller bearings between them. Solution: See Figures 5-48 and Mathcad file P0548.

W/2

F

FIGURE 5-48A

1. Calculate the weight of the chair with rider. Weight of chair W M g W 980.7 N

2. Calculate the forces exerted by the wheels on the rollers (see Figure 5-48A). From the FBD of a wheel, summing vertical forces 2 F cos( ) Let W 2 =0 then F W 4 cos( ) F 260.9 N

20 deg

3. The worst condition (highest moment at site of a stress concentration) will occur when the chair is all the way to the left or right. Looking at the plane through the roller that includes the forces exerted by the wheels (the FBD is shown in Figure 5-48B) the reactions R1 and R2 come from the bearings, which are inside the hollow roller and are, themselves, supported by the steel axle. 4. Solving for the reactions. Let the distance from R1 to F be a 15 mm

5-48-2

700

M1 Fy

R2

R2 Lr F ( a T ) F a = 0 R1 2 F R2 = 0 F (2 a T ) Lr R2 190.5 N

15 R1 1000

R2

R1 2 F R2

Free Body Diagram of One Tube used in Problem 5-48

5. The maximum bending moment will be at the right-hand load and will be Mrmax R2 Lr ( a T ) Lr T 2

Mrmax 54.3 N m

Note, if the chair were centered on the roller the maximum moment would be Mc F Mc 39.1 N m

and this would be constant along the axle between the two loads, F. 6. Note that the bearing positions are fixed regardless of the position of the chair on the roller. Because of symmetry, Ra1 R1 Ra2 R2 Ra1 331.3 N Ra2 190.5 N

R a1 1130 R a2 65 R1 1000 R2

7. The maximum bending moment occurs at R1 and is for b 65 mm Mamax Ra1 b Mamax 21.5 N m

FIGURE 5-48C

Free Body Diagram of One Axle used in Problem 5-48

8. Determine a suitable axle diameter. Let the factor of safety against yielding in the axle be Nsa 3 9. Tentatively choose a low-carbon steel for the axle, say AISI 1020, cold rolled with S y 393 MPa 10. At the top of the axle under the load R1 there is only a bending stress, which is also the von Mises stress. Set th stress equal to the yield strength divided by the factor of safety.

' =

32 Mamax

Sy Nsa

1

d a

d a

32 Nsa Mamax S y

d a 11.875 mm

d a 15 mm

5-48-3

11. Suppose that bearing 6302 from Chapter 10, Figure 10-23, page 684 is used. It has a bore of 15 mm and an OD of 42 mm. Thus, the inside diameter of the roller away from the bearings where the moment is a maximum will be d i 40 mm. This will provide a 1-mm shoulder for axial location of the bearings. 12. The maximum deflection of the roller will occur when the chair is in the center of the roller. For this case the reactions are both equal to the loads, F (see Figure 4-48D). The maximum deflection is at the center of the roller.

150 F 700 F

F 15 F 1000

13. Write the load function and then integrate four times to get the deflection function.

FIGURE 5-48D

Free Body Diagram of Roller with Chair in the Center.

q(x) = F<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 - F<x - b>-1 + F<x - L>-1 y(x) = F[<x>3 - <x - a>3 - <x - b>3 + <x - L>3 + C3x]/(6EI) where C3 = 1 L ( L a ) a L

3 3 3

ymax

L 3 = 6 Ea I 2

F

3 L a 1 ( L a) 3 a3 L3 2 2

15. Set this equation equal to the allowed deflection and solve for the required moment of inertia, I.

Lr 3 I 6 Ea 2

F

3 Lr 1 3 3 3 a Lr a a Lr 2 2

I 6.618 10 mm

16. Knowing the inside diameter of the tube, solve for the outside diameter.

1

4 4 I= do di 64

Round this up to DESIGN SUMMARY Axles Material Diameter Length d o 46 mm

64 I 4 d o di

d o 44.463 mm

Rollers AISI 1020 steel, cold-rolled d a 15 mm 1220 mm Material Outside diameter Inside diameter Length Spacing 2024-T4 aluminum d o 46 mm d i 40 mm 1040 mm c d w d o sin( ) c 238 mm

5-49-1

PROBLEM 5-49

Statement:

_____

A part made of ductile steel with Sy = 40 ksi is subjected to a three-dimensional stress state of 1 = -80 ksi, 2 = -80 ksi, 3 = -80 ksi. What is the maximum shear stress? Will the part fail?

Solution: 1.

This is a case of hydrostatic stress. As explained in Section 5.1, the maximum shear stress is zero. Parts loaded hydrostatically can withstand stresses well in excess of their yield strength. One example of this is that parts on the ocean floor such as those retrieved from the Titanic are intact and undistorted even though they are surrounded by water at great pressure.

5-50-1

PROBLEM 5-50

Statement:

_____

A component in the shape of a large sheet is to be fabricated from 7075-T651 aluminum, which has a fracture toughness Kc = 24.2 MPa-m0.5 and a tensile yield strength of 495 MPa. Determine the largest edge crack that could be tolerated in the sheet if the nominal stress does not exceed one half the yield strength. Fracture toughness Yield strength Kc 24.2 MPa m S y 495 MPa

0.5

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the nominal stress based on the yield strength and the stress level given in the problem statement.

nom

2.

Sy 2

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a plate with an edge crack.

1.12

3. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for this material under the given stress condition.

Kc a nom

1

a 2.4 mm

5-51-1

PROBLEM 5-51

Statement:

_____

A component in the shape of a large sheet is to be fabricated from 4340 steel, which has a fracture toughness Kc = 98.9 MPa-m0.5 and a tensile yield strength of 860 MPa. The sheets are inspected for crack flaws after fabrication, but the inspection device cannot detect flaws smaller than 5 mm. The part is too heavy as designed. An engineer has suggested that the thickness be reduced and the material be heat-treated to increase its tensile strength to 1515 MPa, which would result in decreasing the fracture toughness to 60.4 MPa-m0.5. Assuming that the stress level does not exceed one half the yield strength, is the suggestion feasible? If not, why not. Fracture toughness Yield strength Kc1 98.9 MPa m S y1 860 MPa

0.5

Given:

0.5

Solution: 1.

Calculate the nominal stress for the two material conditions based on the yield strength and the stress level given in the problem statement.

nom1

S y1 2 S y2 2

nom2

2.

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a large plate.

1

3. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for each material condition under the given stress condition.

Kc1 a 1 nom1

1

a 1 16.8 mm

2 a 1 33.7 mm

Kc2 a 2 nom2

1 4.

a 2 2.0 mm

2 a 2 4.0 mm

The suggestion to increase the strength of the material so that its thickness can be decreased to save weight is not feasible because the critical crack size of the material in the second condition is less than that which can be detected by the inspection equipment.

5-52-1

PROBLEM 5-52

Statement:

_____

A large plate is subjected to a nominal tensile stress of 350 MPa. The plate has a central crack that is 15.9 mm long. Calculate the stress intensity factor at the tip of the crack. Nominal stress Crack length

Given:

lcrack 15.9 mm

Solution: 1.

2.

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a plate with an edge crack.

1

3. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the stress intensity factor. K nom a K 55.3 MPa m

0.5

5-53-1

PROBLEM 5-53

Statement:

_____

A movie scene calls for a stuntman to hang from a rope that is suspended 3 m above a pit of poisonous spiders. The rope is attached to a glass sheet that is 3000 mm long by 100 mm wide and 1.27 mm thick. The stuntman knows that the glass sheet contains a central crack with total length of 16.2 mm that is oriented parallel to the ground. The fracture toughness of the glass is 0.83 MPa-m0.5. Should he do the stunt? Show all assumptions and calculations in support of your answer. Fracture toughness Glass dimensions Total crack length Kc 0.83 MPa m

0.5

Given:

t 1.27 mm

Assumptions: Weight of stuntman Desired safety factor Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0553.

Calculate the nominal stress based on the assumed weight of the stuntman and the glass dimensions. Cross-section area Nominal stress A W t A 127 mm

2

nom

Weight A

2.

Determine the value of the geometry factor from equation 5.14c for a plate with a central crack. Crack half-width Glass half-width a 0.5 l crack b 0.5 W a 8.1 mm b 50 mm

sec

2 b

1.017

3.

Using equation 5.14b, calculate the stress intensity factor for the given assumptions. K nom a K 1.149 MPa m

0.5

4.

Using equation 5.15, calculate the safety factor against sudden failure for the given assumptions. NFM Kc K NFM 0.72

5.

The stuntman should definitely not do the stunt since the factor of safety is not only less than the desired value, but is less than one.

5-54-1

PROBLEM 5-54

Statement:

_____

A material has a fracture toughness of 50 MPa-m0.5 and a yield strength of 1000 MPa and is to be made into a large panel. If the panel is stressed to one-half the yield stress, what is the maximum central crack size that can be tolerated without catastrophic failure? Fracture toughness Yield strength Kc 50 MPa m S y 1000 MPa

0.5

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the nominal stress based on the yield strength and the stress level given in the problem statement.

nom

2.

Sy 2

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a large plate with a central crack.

1

3. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for this material under the given stress condition.

Kc a nom

1 lcritical 2 a

a 3.18 mm

lcritical 6.4 mm

5-55-1

PROBLEM 5-55

Statement:

_____

A material that has a fracture toughness of 33 MPa-m0.5 is to be made into a large panel that is 2000 mm long by 250 mm wide and 4 mm thick. If the minimum allowable total crack length is 4 mm, what is the maximum tensile load in the long direction that can be applied without catastrophic failure with a safety factor of 2.5? Fracture toughness Kc 33 MPa m

0.5

Given:

Panel dimensions L 2000 mm Total allow. crack length lcrack 4 mm Safety factor Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0555. NFM 2.5

W 250 mm

t 4 mm

Calculate the allowable stress intensity factor using equation 5.15. Kallow Kc NFM Kallow 13.2 MPa m

0.5

2.

Determine the value of the geometry factor from equation 5.14c for a plate with a central crack. Crack half-width Panel half-width a 0.5 l crack b 0.5 W a 2 mm b 125 mm

sec

2 b

1.00

3.

Using equation 5.14b, calculate the allowable nominal stress in the panel.

allow

Kallow

4.

Calculate the allowable load for the given conditions. Fallow allow W t Fallow 167 kN

5-56-1

PROBLEM 5-56

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-19 shows an SAE 1020 cold-rolled steel bar fastened to a rigid ground plane with two 0.25-in-dia A8 steel dowel pins, hardened to HRC52. For P = 1500 lb and t = 0.25 in, find: (a) The safety factor for each pin. (b) The safety factor for direct bearing stress in each hole. (c) The safety factor for tearout failure if h = 1 in. Pin diameter Applied load Distance between pins Thickness of bar See Mathcad file P0556. d 0.250 in P 1500 lbf a 2.0 in t 0.25 in Depth of section Distance from right pin to load Yield strength of bar Yield strength of pin h 1.0 in b 4.0 in S yb 57 ksi S yp 225 ksi

Given:

Solution: 1.

Draw a free-body diagram and find the shear forces (reactions) on each pin.

a RL

RR P

Write equations 3.3b for the bar and solve for the reactions.

F:

RL 2.

RL RR P 0 b a P RL 3000 lbf

M:

RL a P b 0 RR 4500 lbf

RR P RL

d

4

A 0.0491 in

3.

Use equation 4.9 to determine the shear stress in each pin. Left pin

L R

RL A RR A

Right pin 4.

(a) From equations 5.8c and 5.9b, the safety factor against failure in the pins is 0.577 S yp

Left pin

NL

NL 2.1

5-56-2

Right pin

NR

0.577 S yp

NR 1.4

5.

Calculate the bearing area from equation 4.10 and use it to determine the bearing stress in each hole. Bearing area Abear d t Abear 0.0625 in

2

L R

These are principal stresses 1. 6.

RL Abear RR Abear

(b) Calculate the safety factor for direct bearing from equation 5.8c where 2 and 3 are both zero. Left hole NL S yb NL 1.2

L

S yb

Right hole

NR

NR 0.8

7.

Atear 2

outside of the bar. Substitute this area in equation 4.9 for the shear area and solve for the shear strength xy. Atear 2

t , where (h - d)/2 is the distance from the edge of the hole to the 2

h d

t 2

L

RL Atear RR Atear

h d

Atear 0.187 in

Left hole

L 16.00 ksi

Right hole

R 24.00 ksi

8.

(c) From equations 5.8c and 5.9b, the safety factor against tearout failure in the holes is Left hole NL 0.577 S yb NL 2.1

L

0.577 S yb

Right hole

NR

NR 1.4

5-57-1

PROBLEM 5-57

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-19 shows a class 50 cast iron bar fastened to a rigid ground plane with two 0.25-in-dia A8 steel dowel pins, hardened to HRC52. For P = 1500 lb and t = 0.25 in, find: (a) The safety factor for each pin. (b) The safety factor for direct bearing stress in each hole. (c) The safety factor for tearout failure if h = 1 in. Pin diameter Applied load Distance between pins Thickness of bar d 0.250 in P 1500 lbf a 2.0 in t 0.25 in Depth of section Distance from right pin to load Tensile strength of bar Yield strength of pin h 1.0 in b 4.0 in S utb 52 ksi S yp 225 ksi

Given:

Solution: 1.

Draw a free-body diagram and find the shear forces (reactions) on each pin.

a RL

RR P

Write equations 3.3b for the bar and solve for the reactions.

F:

RL 2.

RL RR P 0 b a P RL 3000 lbf

M:

RL a P b 0 RR 4500 lbf

RR P RL

d

4

A 0.0491 in

3.

Use equation 4.9 to determine the shear stress in each pin. Left pin

L R

RL A RR A

Right pin 4.

(a) From equations 5.8c and 5.9b, the safety factor against failure in the pins is Left pin NL 0.577 S yp NL 2.1

5-57-2

Right pin

NR

0.577 S yp

NR 1.4

5.

Calculate the bearing area from equation 4.10 and use it to determine the bearing stress in each hole. Bearing area Abear d t Abear 0.0625 in

2

L R

These are principal stresses 1. 6.

RL Abear RR Abear

(b) Calculate the safety factor for direct bearing from equation 5.12a where 2 and 3 are both zero. Left hole NL S utb NL 1.1

L

S utb

Right hole

NR

NR 0.7

7.

Atear 2

outside of the bar. Substitute this area in equation 4.9 for the shear area and solve for the shear strength xy. Atear 2

t , where (h - d)/2 is the distance from the edge of the hole to the 2

h d

t 2

L

RL Atear RR Atear

h d

Atear 0.187 in

Left hole

L 16.00 ksi

Right hole

R 24.00 ksi

8.

(c) For pure shear the Mohr circle is centered at 0,0 and has a radius equal to the shear stress. This results in 1 = . Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory and Figure 5-11, we see that we can use equation 5.12a for the safety factor against tearout. NL S utb NL 3.3 NR S utb NR 2.2

5-58-1

PROBLEM 5-58

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-20 shows a bracket machined from 0.5-in-thick SAE 1045 cold-rolled steel flat stock. It is rigidly attached to a support and loaded with P = 5000 lb at point D. Find: (a) The safety factor against static failure at point A. (b) The safety factor against static failure at point B. Distance from support to: Point D d 8 in Depth of section h 3 in Applied load P 5000 lbf Points B and C b 17 in Thickness of section t 0.5 in Tensile yield strength S y 77 ksi

Given:

Assumptions: The bracket remains flat and does not buckle (out-of-plane) under the applied load. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0558.

Calculate the cross-section area and moment of inertia at A, B, and C, which are the same. A h t A 1.500 in

2

t h

12

I 1.1250 in

2.

V A M h B h C d D h x y

P

3. Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the shear force and bending moment at the support.

F:

4.

V P 0 V P V 5000 lbf

M:

The normal stress in the bracket at point A is determined using equation 4.11b. Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber Normal stress at point A MA c I

A 53.33 ksi

5.

(a) The transverse shear stress in the bracket at point A is zero, therefore A is a principal stress. There are no stress components in the y or z directions so this is a case of uniaxial stress. Thus, equations 5.7 reduce to

'

Use equation 5.8a to calculate the factor of safety against a static failure at point A.

NA Sy NA 1.4

5-58-2

'

6.

For part (b), draw a free-body diagram of the portion of the bracket that is below point B.

b F y B M x

P

7. Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the normal force and bending moment on the section shown.

F:

8.

F P 0 F P F 5000 lbf

M:

MB1 P ( b 0.5 h d )

The normal stress in the bracket at point B in the y direction is a combination of uniform tension and bending and is determined by summing equations 4.7 and 4.11b. Normal stress at B in y direction

By

MB1 c I

F A

By 73.33 ksi

9.

The normal stress in the bracket at point B in the x direction is bending and is determined from equation 4.11b, using the FBD from part (a). MB2 V b MA Normal stress at B in x direction MB2 45000 in lbf

Bx

MB2 c I

Bx 60.00 ksi

10. (b) The transverse shear at B due to the shear force V is zero so Bx and By are the only stress components at B. Use equations 5.7d and 5.8a to determine the factor of safety against a static failure at B (ignoring the stress concentration there).

'

NB

Bx By Bx By

Sy

NB 1.1

'

5-59-1

PROBLEM 5-59

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-20 shows a bracket machined from 1-in-thick class 60 cast iron flat stock. It is rigidly attached to a support and loaded with P = 5000 lb at point D. Find: (a) The safety factor against static failure at point A. (b) The safety factor against static failure at point B. Distance from support to: Point D d 8 in Depth of section h 3 in Applied load P 5000 lbf Points B and C b 17 in Thickness of section t 0.5 in Ultimate tensile strength S ut 62 ksi Ultimate comp. strength S uc 187 ksi

Given:

Assumptions: The bracket remains flat and does not buckle (out-of-plane) under the applied load. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0559. t h

3

Calculate the cross-section area and moment of inertia at A, B, and C, which are the same. A h t A 1.500 in

2

12

I 1.1250 in

2.

V A M h B h C d D h x y

P

3. Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the shear force and bending moment at the support.

F:

4.

V P 0 V P V 5000 lbf

M:

The normal stress in the bracket at point A is determined using equation 4.11b. Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber Normal stress at point A MA c I

A 53.33 ksi

5.

(a) The transverse shear stress in the bracket at point A is zero, therefore A is a principal stress. There are no stress components in the y or z directions so this is a case of uniaxial stress. Thus, use equation 5.12a (adapted to a compressive stress state) to calculate the factor of safety against a static failure at point A. NA S uc NA 3.5

5-59-2

6.

For part (b), draw a free-body diagram of the portion of the bracket that is below point B.

b F y B M x

P

7. Use the equilibrium equations 3.3a to calculate the normal force and bending moment on the section shown.

F:

8.

F P 0 F P F 5000 lbf

M:

MB1 P ( b 0.5 h d )

The normal stress in the bracket at point B in the y direction is a combination of uniform tension and bending and is determined by summing equations 4.7 and 4.11b. Normal stress at B in y direction

By

MB1 c I

F A

By 73.33 ksi

9.

The normal stress in the bracket at point B in the x direction is bending and is determined from equation 4.11b, using the FBD from part (a). MB2 V b MA Normal stress at B in x direction MB2 45000 in lbf

Bx

MB2 c I

Bx 60.00 ksi

10. (b) The transverse shear at B due to the shear force V is zero so Bx and By are the only stress components at B. Use equations 4.6 to determine the principal stresses and 5.12a to determine the factor of safety against a static failure at B (ignoring the stress concentration there).

Bx By

2

2 Bx By 2 2 Bx By 2

1 73.333 ksi

Bx By

2

2 60.000 ksi

3 0 ksi

NB

S ut

NB 0.85

5-60-1

PROBLEM 5-60

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-21 shows a 1-in-dia SAE 1040 hot-rolled, normalized steel bar supported and subjected to the applied load P = 500 lb. Find the safety factor against static failure. Diameter Applied load Dimensions: d 1.00 in P 500 lbf a 20 in Modulus of elasticity E 30 10 psi Yield strength S y 54 ksi

6

Given:

L 40 in

Solution: 1.

L a R2

M1 R1 P

2.

This is a statically indeterminate beam because there are three unknown reactions, R1, M1, and R2. To solve for these unknowns, follow the method presented in Example 4-7. First, calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber for the round section. I

d

64

I 0.0491 in

c 0.5 d

c 0.500 in

3.

From inspection of the FBD, write the load function equation q(x) = -M1<x>-2 + R1<x>-1 - R2<x - a>-1 + P<x - L>-1

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x>-1 + R1<x>0 - R2<x - a>0 + P<x - L>0

5.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x>0 + R1<x>1 - R2<x - a>1 + P<x - L>1

6.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [ -M1<x>1 + R1<x>2/2 - R2<x - a>2/2 + P<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

5.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [-M1<x>2/2 + R1<x>3/6 - R2<x - a>3/6 + P<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI

7.

Evaluate R1, M1, R2, C3 and C4 At x = 0, y = 0 and = 0, therefore, C3 = 0 and C4 = 0. At x = a, y = 0 At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given M1 1000 in lbf y(a) = 0: V(L) = 0: M1 2 a

2

3 3

R2 1000 lbf

R1 R2 P = 0 lbf

5-60-2

M(L) = 0:

M1 R1 L R2 ( L a ) = 0 lbf in

M1 R1 Find M1 R1 R2 R 2

8. 9. Define the range for x x 0 in 0.02 L L

M1 5000 in lbf

10. Write the moment equation in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. M ( x) M1 R1 S ( x 0 in) x R2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) P S ( x L) ( x L) 11. Plot the moment equation and determine the maximum bending moment.

As expected, the maximum bending moment occurs under the support at x = a. Mmax M ( a ) Mmax 10.0 kip in

M ( x) kip in

MOMENT DIAGRAM

10

10

20 x in

30

40

12. Use equation 4.11b to calculate the maximum bending stress in the bar.

max

Mmax c I

13. There are no other stress components present (the transverse shear is zero at the extreme fiber) so this is a principal stress and the other two principal stresses are zero. Thus, this is a case of uniaxial stress. Determine the safety factor against static failure using equations 5.7c and 5.8a, which reduce to N Sy N 0.53

max

5-61-1

PROBLEM 5-61

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-21 shows a 1.5-in-dia class 60 cast iron bar supported and subjected to the applied load = 500 lb. Find the safety factor against static failure. Diameter Applied load Dimensions: d 1.50 in P 500 lbf a 20 in Modulus of elasticity E 30 10 psi Tensile strength S ut 54 ksi

6

Given:

L 40 in

Solution: 1.

L a R2

M1 R1 P

2.

This is a statically indeterminate beam because there are three unknown reactions, R1, M1, and R2. To solve for these unknowns, follow the method presented in Example 4-7. First, calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber for the round section. I

d

64

I 0.2485 in

c 0.5 d

c 0.750 in

3.

From inspection of the FBD, write the load function equation q(x) = -M1<x>-2 + R1<x>-1 - R2<x - a>-1 + P<x - L>-1

4.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = -M1<x>-1 + R1<x>0 - R2<x - a>0 + P<x - L>0

5.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = -M1<x>0 + R1<x>1 - R2<x - a>1 + P<x - L>1

6.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [ -M1<x>1 + R1<x>2/2 - R2<x - a>2/2 + P<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

5.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [-M1<x>2/2 + R1<x>3/6 - R2<x - a>3/6 + P<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI

7.

Evaluate R1, M1, R2, C3 and C4 At x = 0, y = 0 and = 0, therefore, C3 = 0 and C4 = 0. At x = a, y = 0 At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given M1 1000 in lbf y(a) = 0: V(L) = 0: M1 2 a

2

3 3

R2 1000 lbf

R1 R2 P = 0 lbf

5-61-2

M(L) = 0:

M1 R1 L R2 ( L a ) = 0 lbf in

M1 R1 Find M1 R1 R2 R 2

8. 9. Define the range for x x 0 in 0.02 L L

M1 5000 in lbf

10. Write the moment equation in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. M ( x) M1 R1 S ( x 0 in) x R2 S ( x a ) ( x a ) P S ( x L) ( x L) 11. Plot the moment equation and determine the maximum bending moment.

As expected, the maximum bending moment occurs under the support at x = a. Mmax M ( a ) Mmax 10.0 kip in

M ( x) kip in

MOMENT DIAGRAM

10

10

20 x in

30

40

12. Use equation 4.11b to calculate the maximum bending stress in the bar.

max

Mmax c I

13. There are no other stress components present (the transverse shear is zero at the extreme fiber) so this is a principal stress and the other two principal stresses are zero. Thus, this is a case of uniaxial stress. Determine the safety factor against static failure using equation 5.12a. N S ut N 1.8

max

5-62-1

PROBLEM 5-62

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-22 shows a pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 lb, l = 2 in, and d = 0.5 in, what is the pin's safety factor against yielding when made of SAE 1020 cold-rolled steel? Applied force Total length, l Pin dia F 100 lbf l 2.00 in d 0.5 in Yield strength Beam length S y 57 ksi L 0.5 l L 1.000 in

Given:

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0562.

Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w F L w 100.0 lbf in

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax w L 2

2

3.

Calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber of the pin. The bending stress in the beam is then found using equation 4.11b. I

d

64

I 3.068 10 c 0.250 in

in

c 0.5 d

Mmax c I

4074 psi

4.

There are no other stress components present (the transverse shear is zero at the extreme fiber) so this is a principal stress and the other two principal stresses are zero. Thus, this is a case of uniaxial stress. Determine the safety factor against static failure using equations 5.7c and 5.8a, which reduce to N Sy N 14

5-63-1

PROBLEM 5-63

Statement:

_____

Figure P5-22 shows a pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 N, l = 50 mm, and d = 16 mm, what is the pin's safety factor against yielding when made of class 50 cast iron? Applied force Total length, l Pin dia F 100 N l 50 mm d 16 mm Tensile strength Beam length S ut 359 MPa L 0.5 l L 25 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0563.

Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w F L w 4.0 N mm

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax w L 2

2

Mmax 1250 N mm

3.

Calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber of the pin. The bending stress in the beam is then found using equation 4.11b. I

d

64

I 3.217 10 mm c 8.000 mm

c 0.5 d

4.

Mmax c I

3.108 MPa

There are no other stress components present (the transverse shear is zero at the extreme fiber) so this is a principal stress and the other two principal stresses are zero. Thus, this is a case of uniaxial stress. Determine the safety factor against static failure using equation 5.12a. N S ut N 115

5-64-1

PROBLEM 5-64

Statement: A differential element is subjected to the stresses (in ksi): x = 10, y = -20, xy = -20. The material is uneven and has strengths (in ksi) of S ut = 50, S y = 40, and S uc = 90. Calculate the safety factor and draw a a-b diagram showing the boundary for each theory with the stress state and load line using: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory, and (b) Modified Mohr theory. Stress components Material properties Solution: 1.

Given:

x 10 ksi

S ut 50 ksi

y 20 ksi

S y 40 ksi

xy 20 ksi

S uc 90 ksi

x y

2

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

a 20 ksi

b

2.

x y

2

b 30 ksi

Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

b a

m 1.5

3.

The safety factor equation for both theories is different for each quadrant the load line falls in. The equation for the modified Mohr factor of safety is different for each of the two regions in the 4th quadrant that the load line can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant, below the -1 slope line.. The factors of safety are: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory Na S uc S ut S uc a S ut b Na 1.4

Nb

S uc

S uc S ut S a b ut

Nb 2

4.

Plot the a-b diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (20 ksi, -30 ksi) and the load line. Note that if a > b , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress poin Since the distance from the origin to the modified Mohr boundary is greater than the distance to the Coulomb-Mohr boundary, its factor of safety is greater. See Figure 5-62 on the following page.

5-64-2

b

50 40 30 MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, KSI 20 10 0 -10 -20 (20,-30) -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -S uc 0 10 20 30 40 50 Stress states at which failure will occur (b) Modified Mohr boundary -S ut (a) Coulomb-Mohr boundary

Load Line

-100 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

FIGURE 5-64

a - b Diagram for Problem 5-64

5-65-1

PROBLEM 5-65

Statement: A differential element is subjected to the stresses (in ksi): x = 10, y = -5, xy = 15. The material is uneven and has strengths (in ksi) of S ut = 50, S y = 40, and S uc = 90. Calculate the safety factor and draw a a-b diagram showing the boundary for each theory with the stress state and load line using: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory, and (b) Modified Mohr theory. Stress components Material properties Solution: 1.

Given:

x 10 ksi

S ut 50 ksi

y 5 ksi

S y 40 ksi

xy 15 ksi

S uc 90 ksi

x y

2

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

a 19.3 ksi

b

2.

x y

2

b 14.3 ksi

Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

b a

m 0.741

3.

The safety factor equation for both theories is different for each quadrant the load line falls in. The equation for the modified Mohr factor of safety is different for each of the two regions in the 4th quadrant that the load line can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant, above the -1 slope line.. The factors of safety are: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory Na S uc S ut S uc a S ut b Na 1.8

Nb

S ut

Nb 2.6

4.

Plot the a-b diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (19.3 ksi, -14.3 ksi) and the load line. Note that if a > b , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress poin Since the distance from the origin to the modified Mohr boundary is greater than the distance to the Coulomb-Mohr boundary, its factor of safety is greater. See Figure 5-63 on the following page.

5-65-2

b

50 40 30 MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, KSI 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -S uc 0 10 20 30 40 50 Stress states at which failure will occur (b) Modified Mohr boundary Load Line -S ut (19.3,-14.3) (a) Coulomb-Mohr boundary

-100 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

FIGURE 5-65

a - b Diagram for Problem 5-65

5-66-1

PROBLEM 5-66

Statement: A differential element is subjected to the stresses (in ksi): x = -20, y = -15, xy = 15. The material is uneven and has strengths (in ksi) of S ut = 50, S y = 40, and S uc = 90. Calculate the safety factor and draw a a-b diagram showing the boundary for each theory with the stress state and load line using: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory, and (b) Modified Mohr theory. Stress components Material properties Solution: 1.

Given:

x 20 ksi

S ut 50 ksi

y 15 ksi

S y 40 ksi

xy 15 ksi

S uc 90 ksi

x y

2

2 x y 2 xy 2 2 x y 2 xy 2

a 2.29 ksi

b

2.

x y

2

b 32.7 ksi

Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

b a

m 14.263

3.

The safety factor equation for both theories is the same when the load line falls in the third quadrant. The factors of safety are:

Na

S uc

Na 2.8

Nb

S uc

Nb 2.8

4.

Plot the a-b diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (-2.29 ksi, -32.7 ksi) and the load line. Note that if a > b , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress point. Since the distance from the origin to the modified Mohr boundary is the same as the distance to the Coulomb-Mohr boundary, its factor of safety is the same. See Figure 5-63 on the following page.

5-66-2

b

50 40 30 MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, KSI 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 (-2.29,-32.7) -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -S uc (b) Modified Mohr boundary Load Line 0 10 20 30 40 50 Stress state at which failure will occur for both theories -S ut (a) Coulomb-Mohr boundary

-100 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

FIGURE 5-66

a - b Diagram for Problem 5-66

5-67-1

PROBLEM 5-67

Statement: Solution: 1.

_____

Derive the von Mises effective stress equation 5.7d for the two-dimensional case. See Mathcad file P0567.

Start with equation 5.7c, which gives the von Mises stress in terms of the two nonzero principal stresses.

'

2.

1 1 3 3

(a)

x y

2

2 x y 2 xy 2 2

(b)

3

3.

x y

2

x y 2 xy 2

(c)

c

4.

x y

2

and

2 x y 2 xy 2

(d)

1 c R

5.

3 c R

(e)

'

c R 2 c R c R c R 2

c 2 R c R c R c 2 R c R

2 2 2 2 2 2

'

(f)

'

6.

c 3 R

Substitute equations d into f, expand, collect terms and simplify to obtain the derived equation.

2 2 x y x y 2 ' 3 3 xy 2 2

'

x y x y 3 xy

(5.7d)

5-68-1

PROBLEM 5-68

Statement: Figure P5-23 shows an oil-field pump jack. The crank drive shaft at O2 is loaded in torsion and bending with maximum values of 6500 in-lb and 9800 in-lb, respectively. The point on the shaft with maximum stress is located away from the key that connects the shaft to the crank. Using a factor of safety of 2 against static yielding, determine a suitable diameter for the shaft if it is to be made of SAE 1040 cold-rolled steel. Yield strength S y 71 ksi Factor of safty Ns 2

Given:

Express the torsional and bending stresses as a functions of the unknown shaft diameter, d 32 M

Bending stress

x( d )

d

Torsional stress

xy( d )

16 T

2.

Use these two stresses in an expression for the von Mises effective stress, equation 5.7d withy = 0.

'( d )

x( d ) 3 xy( d )

Use equation 5.8a as a design relationship to solve for the diameter, d. Design equation

x( d ) 3 xy( d ) =

2

Sy Ns

2 2

32 M 3 16 T = S y 3 3 Ns d d

Solving for d

1

( 32 M ) 2 3 ( 16 T ) 2 d 2 Sy 2 Ns

d 1.480 in

d 1.500 in

5-69-1

PROBLEM 5-69

Statement: Figure P5-24a shows a C-clamp with an elliptical body dimensioned as shown. The clamp has a T-section with a uniform thickness of 3.2 mm at the throat as shown in Figure P5-24b. Find the static factor of safety if the clamping force is 2.7 kN and the material is class 40 gray cast iron. Clamping force F 2.7 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: t 3.2 mm Material properties Solution: 1. ri 63.5 mm Web h 31.8 mm S uc 965 MPa

Given:

Determine the location of the CG of the T-section and the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. yCG 0.5 t ( b t) 0.5 ( h t) ( h t) t b t ( h t) t yCG 9.578 mm rc 73.078 mm

rc ri yCG 2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A b t ( h t) t rn A r

ri t

ro ri h A 182.4 mm

2

ro 95.3 mm

t dr dr r r r t

i

ro

rn 71.864 mm

e rc rn

e 1.214 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 197 N m

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 8.364 mm co ro rn co 23.436 mm

5.

Using equations 4.12d and 4.12e, calculate the stresses at the inner and outer fibers of the throat section. Inner radius

ci F e A ri A

M

i 132.2 MPa

Outer radius

co F e A ro A

M

o 204.3 MPa

6.

Inner radius Outer radius 7.

5-69-2

1i i 1o 0 MPa

2i 0 MPa 2o 0 MPa

3i 0 MPa 3o o

Calculate the factor of safety using equations 5.12c, 5.12d, and 5.12e. Inner radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1i

1i 2i

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1i 2i

C2i

2i 3i

2i 3i

C3i

3i 1i

3i 1i

Ni Outer radius 1 2 1 2 1 2 S ut Ni 2.2

eff

C1o

1o 2o

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1o 2o

C2o

2o 3o

2o 3o

C3o

3o 1o

3o 1o

No S ut No 4.7

eff

5-70-1

PROBLEM 5-70

Statement: Given: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P5-24a has a rectangular cross section as in Figure P5-24c. Find the static factor of safety if the clamping force is 1.6 kN and the material is class 50 gray cast iron. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: Material properties Solution: 1. ri 63.5 mm Depth h 31.8 mm S uc 1131 MPa

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h 2 rc 79.4 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A b h rn A o b dr r r

i

ro ri h A 203.520 mm

2

ro 95.300 mm

rn 78.327 mm

e rc rn

e 1.073 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 127 N m

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 14.827 mm co ro rn co 16.973 mm

5.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 143.7 MPa

o

6.

co F e A ro A

M

o 95.8 MPa

These are the principal stresses so, Inner radius Outer radius

1i i 1o 0 MPa

2i 0 MPa 2o 0 MPa

3i 0 MPa 3o o

5-70-2

7.

Calculate the factor of safety using equations 5.12c, 5.12d, and 5.12e. Inner radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1i

1i 2i

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1i 2i

C2i

2i 3i

2i 3i

C3i

3i 1i

3i 1i

Ni S ut Ni 2.5

eff

Outer radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1o

1o 2o

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1o 2o

C2o

2o 3o

2o 3o

C3o

3o 1o

3o 1o

No S ut No 11.8

eff

5-71-1

PROBLEM 5-71

Statement: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P5-24a has an elliptical cross section as in Figure P5-24d. Dimensions of the major and minor axes of the ellipse are given. Find the static factor of safety if the clamping force is 1.6 kN and the material is class 60 gray cast iron. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: Material properties Solution: 1. ri 63.5 mm Depth h 31.8 mm S uc 1289 MPa

Given:

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h 2 rc 79.4 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area b h A 2 2 rn A o 0.5 r rc 2 2 b 1 4 2 h dr r r

i

ro ri h A 239.766 mm

2

ro 95.300 mm

rn 78.595 mm

e rc rn

e 0.805 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 127 N m

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 15.095 mm co ro rn co 16.705 mm

5.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 163.2 MPa

o

6.

co F e A ro A

M

o 108.7 MPa

Inner radius Outer radius 7.

5-71-2

1i i 1o 0 MPa

2i 0 MPa 2o 0 MPa

3i 0 MPa 3o o

Calculate the factor of safety using equations 5.12c, 5.12d, and 5.12e. Inner radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1i

1i 2i

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1i 2i

C2i

2i 3i

2i 3i

C3i

3i 1i

3i 1i

Ni S ut Ni 2.6

eff

Outer radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1o

1o 2o

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1o 2o

C2o

2o 3o

2o 3o

C3o

3o 1o

3o 1o

No S ut No 11.9

eff

5-72-1

PROBLEM 5-72

Statement: Given: A C-clamp as shown in Figure P5-24a has a trapezoidal cross section as in Figure P5-24e. Find the static factor of safety if the clamping force is 350 lb and the material is class 40 gray cast iron. Clamping force F 1.6 kN Distance from center of screw to throat Section dimensions: Material properties Solution: 1. S ut 290 MPa ri 63.5 mm b o 3.2 mm S uc 965 MPa Depth h 31.8 mm

Width b i 9.6 mm

Determine the distance from the centerline of the screw to the centroid of the section at the throat. rc ri h bi 2 bo 3 bi bo rc 76.75 mm

2.

Using equation 4.12a and Figure 4-16, calculate the distance to the neutral axis, rn, and the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis, e. Distance from the screw centerline to the outside fiber Cross section area A bi bo 2 h A o bi bo r ri bi h dr r r

i

ro ri h A 203.520 mm

2

ro 95.300 mm

rn

rn 75.771 mm

e rc rn

e 0.979 mm

Take a section through the throat area and draw a FBD. There will be a vertical axial force through the section CG (at a distance rc from the screw centerline) which will form a couple of magnitude rc x F. This couple will be balanced by an internal moment of equal magnitude. Internal moment M rc F M 123 N m

4.

Calculate the distances from the neutral axis to the inner and outer fibers. ci rn ri ci 12.271 mm co ro rn co 19.529 mm

5.

ci F e A ri A

M

i 126.9 MPa

o

6.

co F e A ro A

M

o 118.4 MPa

These are the principal stresses so, Inner radius Outer radius

1i i 1o 0 MPa

2i 0 MPa 2o 0 MPa

3i 0 MPa 3o o

7. Calculate the factor of safety using equations 5.12c, 5.12d, and 5.12e. Inner radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

5-72-2

C1i

1i 2i

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1i 2i

C2i

2i 3i

2i 3i

C3i

3i 1i

3i 1i

Ni S ut Ni 2.3

eff

Outer radius 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1o

1o 2o

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1o 2o

C2o

2o 3o

2o 3o

C3o

3o 1o

3o 1o

No S ut No 8.2

eff

5-73-1

PROBLEM 5-73

Statement: The connecting rod (3) on the oil-field pump jack shown in Figure P5-23 is, in fact, made up of two rods, one connecting on each side of the walking beam (4). Determine a suitable width of 1/2-inch-thick SAE 1020 cold-rolled bar stock to use if the maximum tensile load on the bars is 3500 lb each. Use a factor of safety of 4 against static yielding. Yield strength Thickness Solution: 1. S y 57 ksi t 0.50 in Factor of safty Tensile force Ns 4 F 3500 lbf

Given:

Express the tensile stress as a functions of the unknown width, w. Tensile stress

x( w)

F w t

2.

The tensile stress is the only stress present so it is also the von Mises effective stress. F w t

'( w)

Use equation 5.8a as a design relationship to solve for the diameter, d. Design equation F w t = Sy Ns

Solving for w

N s F t Sy

w 0.491 in

w 0.500 in

5-74-1

PROBLEM 5-74

Statement: A work platform is elevated on the end of a boom that has the ability to extend its length and vary its angle with respect to ground. The platform width is large compared to the boom diameter so that it is possible to load the boom eccentrically resulting in a combination of bending, torsion and direct compression in the base of the boom. At the base the boom is a hollow tube with an outside diameter of 8 in and a wall thickness of 0.75 in. It is made from SAE 1030 CR steel. Determine the factor of safety against static failure if the loading at a point at the base of the boom is: M = 600 kip-in, T = 76 kip-in, and an axial compression of 4800 lb. Yield strength SAE 1030 CR steel S y 64 ksi Boom dimensions Loading Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0574. D 8.00 in M 600 kip in twall 0.75 in T 76 kip in F 4800 lbf

Given:

Calculate the bending stress at the point of interest. Inside diameter Moment of inertia Distance to outer fiber Bending stress d D 2 twall I d 6.500 in

4

64

D d

I 113.438 in c 4.000 in

c 0.5 D

bend

M c I

2.

Calculate the axial stress due to the compressive load at the point of interest. Cross-section area Axial stress A

D d F A

A 17.082 in

axial

3.

Combine the bending and axial stresses to get the maximum normal stress on the compressive side of the boom. Max. normal stress

x bend axial

x 21.438 ksi

4.

Calculate the torsional stress at the point of interest. Polar moment Torsional stress J 2 I J 226.876 in J

4

xy

Tc

xy 1.34 ksi

5.

Calculate the von Mises effective stress using equation 5.7d. von Mises stress

'

x 3 xy

6.

'

N 2.97

5-75-1

PROBLEM 5-75

Statement: Given: Repeat Problem 5-74 for a boom that is made from class 20 gray cast iron. At the base the boom is hollow tube with an outside diameter of 10 in and a wall thickness of 1.00 in. Strength Class 20 gray cast iron Boom dimensions Loading Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0575. S ut 22 ksi D 10.00 in M 600 kip in S uc 83 ksi twall 1.00 in T 76 kip in F 4800 lbf

Calculate the bending stress at the point of interest. Inside diameter Moment of inertia Distance to outer fiber Bending stress d D 2 twall I d 8.000 in

4

64

D d

I 289.812 in c 5.000 in

c 0.5 D

bend

M c I

2.

Calculate the axial stress due to the compressive load at the point of interest. Cross-section area Axial stress A

D d F A

A 28.274 in

axial

3.

Combine the bending and axial stresses to get the maximum normal stress on the tensile and compressive sides of the boom. Max compressive Max tensile

4.

Calculate the torsional stress at the point of interest. Polar moment Torsional stress J 2 I J 579.624 in J

4

xy

Tc

xy 0.656 ksi

5.

Calculate the principal stresses on the tensile and compressive sides of the boom.

Compressive side

xc 2 maxc xy 2

1c xc

2 maxc

1c 0.041 ksi

2c 0 ksi 3c xc

2 maxc

3c 10.562 ksi

5-75-2

Tensile side

xt 2 maxt xy 2

1t xt

2 maxc

1t 10.392 ksi

2t 0 ksi 3t

6.

xt

2

maxc

3t 0.210 ksi

Calculate the factor of safety using equations 5.12c, 5.12d, and 5.12e. Compressive side 1 2 1 2 1 2

C1c

1c 2c

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1c 2c

eff 2.829 ksi

C2c

2c 3c

2c 3c

C3c

3c 1c

3c 1c

Nc Tensile side C1t 1 2 1 2 1 2 1t 2t S ut Nc 7.8

eff

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1t 2t

C2t

2t 3t

2t 3t

C3t

3t 1t

3t 1t

Nt S ut Nt 2.1

eff

5-76-1

PROBLEM 5-76

Statement: Assume that the curved beam of Problem 5-70 has a crack on its inside surface of half-width a = 1.5 mm and a fracture toughness of 35 MPa-m0.5. What is its safety factor against sudden fracture? Width of section Half crack length Solution: 1. t 31.8 mm a 1.5 mm Fracture toughness Kc 35 MPa m

Given:

From Problem 5-70, the nominal stress at the inside radius is: Nominal inside stress i 143.7 MPa Calculate the half-width of the beam. b 0.5 t b 15.9 mm

2. 3.

Calculate the geometry and stress intensity factors. a sec 1.006 2 b K i a K 9.92 MPa m NFM Kc K NFM 3.5

4.

5-77-1

PROBLEM 5-77

Statement:

_____

A large aircraft panel is to be made from 7075-T651 aluminum bar. From test data it is found that the nominal tensile stress in the panel is 200 MPa. What is the average maximum central crack size that can be tolerated without catastrophic failure? Fracture toughness Nominal stress Kc 22 ksi in

0.5

Given:

Kc 24.2 MPa m

0.5

Solution: 1.

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a large plate with a central crack.

1

2. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for this material under the given stress condition.

2 Kc nom

a 4.65 mm

lcritical 2 a

lcritical 9.3 mm

5-78-1

PROBLEM 5-78

Statement: Design the connecting rod (link 3) of Problem 3-50 for a safety factor of 4 if the link is made from SAE 1010 hot-rolled steel sheet, the pin hole diameter at each end is 6 mm, and the maximum applied tensile load is 2000 N. There are two links carrying the load. Force on links Yield strength Design safety factor Pin hole diameter Ftotal 2000 N S y 179 MPa Nd 4 d 6 mm w 3 d w 18 mm

Given:

2. With only a tensile force acting on the link, the tensile stress will be the principal stress and it will also be the von Mises effective stress, so we have x = 1 = '. 3. The tensile stress on each link is

x =

F A Sy

F t w

= '

Nd =

'

t w Sy F t 1.241 mm t 2 mm

F Nd w S y

6. Round this up to the next higher integer value, 7. The realized factor of safety against tensile failure is, 8. N t w S y F

N 6.4

Check the factor of safety against bearing failure in the pin holes. Bearing area Abear w t Abear 36.0 mm

2

bear

This is the principal stresses 1. 9.

F Abear

Calculate the safety factor for direct bearing from equation 5.8c where 2 and 3 are both zero. Pin hole Nbear Sy Nbear 6.4

bear

2

Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d ) , where R 0.5 w (see figure below). Substitute this area in

equation 4.9 for the shear area and solve for the shear strength xy.

Tearout length

5-78-2

Shear area

2

Shear stress

xy

F Atear

xy 29.46 MPa

d R

8.

From equations 5.8c and 5.9b, the safety factor against tearout failure in the holes is 0.577 S y

Ntear

xy

Ntear 3.5

This is slightly less than the design FS of Nd 4 so, choose t = 2.5 mm or increase w to 4*d.

5-79-1

PROBLEM 5-79

Statement: Design the compacting ram (link 4) of Problem 3-50 for a safety factor of 4 if the ram is made from SAE 1010 hot-rolled steel bar, the pin hole diameter at the joint where link 3 attaches is 6 mm, and the applied load Fcom = 2000 N. The piston has a diameter of 35 mm. Force at point P Yield strength Design safety factor Pin hole diameter Fcom 2000 N S y 179 MPa Nd 4 d 6 mm

Given:

Assumptions: The points of maximum stress on a plane through point D are sufficiently removed from point D that there is no stress concentration at those points. Solution: See Figure P3-22 and Mathcad file P0579.

1. From Problem 3-51 the forces and reactions on the ram are: F34x 553 N F14E 357 N F34y 2000 N F14F 196 N

42.5

F14E F34x

E D

120.0

2. The maximum bending moment is at point D and is: M 42.5 mm F14E M 15172.5 N mm

Compacting Ram (4)

D

32

A ( D)

D

4

3. Between points D and P there is a compressive force of Fcom 2000 N. Thus, there is a compressive stress due to this force in addition to the bending stress at point D. On the left side of the ram at the section through point D

bL ( D)

M Z ( D)

a( D)

Fcom A ( D)

L ( D) bL ( D) a( D)

bR( D)

M Z ( D)

a( D)

4 Fcom

R( D) bR( D) a( D)

The compressive stress on the right side will be numerically greater than that on the left side. 4. Since the shear stress due to bending is zero at these points, the axial stress will be the principal stress and it will also be the von Mises effective stress, so we have x = 1 = '. 5. Using the distortion-energy failure theory, 6. Solving for the diameter, D, Sy Sy

Nd =

'

R( D)

Guess D 10 mm D root( f ( D) D) D 16.368 mm D 18 mm N 5.2

5-79-2

f ( D) Nd R( D) S y

7. Round this up to the next higher even integer value, say 8. The realized factor of safety against axial yeilding is, N Sy

R( D)

9. The axial stress on each side of the ram on a section through D is:

L ( D) 18.6 MPa

R( D) 34.4 MPa

5-80-1

PROBLEM 5-80

Statement: A differential element is subected to the stresses given below and a ductile material has the strengths given below. Calculate the safety factor and draw 1-3 diagrams of each theory showing the stress state using: (a) Maximum shear-stress theory, and (b) Distortion-energy theory. Principal stresses Material properties Solution:

Given:

1 70 MPa

2 0 ksi

3 140 MPa

S uc 350 MPa

1. Calculate the slope of load line. (The load line is the line from the origin through the stress point.) m

3 1

m 2

2. The safety factor equation for the distortion-enrgy theory is the same regardless of which quadrant the load line falls in. However, the equation for the maximum shear-stress factor of safety is different for each of the three quadrants that the load line (1st, 3rd, or 4th) can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant. The factors of safety are: (a) Maximum shear-stress theory Na Sy Na 1.3

1 3

3

(a) Maximum shear stress boundary

280

'

1 1 3 3

2

210

Nb Sy Nb 1.5

MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, MPa

70

'

3. Plot the 1-3 diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (70MPa, -140 MPa) and the load line. Note that if 1 > 3 , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress point. Since the distance from the origin to the distortion-energy boundary is greater than the distance to the maximum shear-stress baoundary, its factor of safety is greater.

-210

-280

-s y

-350

-420 -280

-210

-140

-70

70

140

210

280

350

FIGURE 5-80

1 - 3 Diagram for Problem 5-80

5-81-1

PROBLEM 5-81

Statement: Given: A part has the combined stress state and strengths given below. Using the Distortion-Energy failure theory, find the von Mises effective stress and factor of safety against static failure. Stresses: x 70 MPa Strengths: Solution: 1.

y 35 MPa

xy 31.5 MPa

S y 126 MPa

Find the maximum shear stress and principal stresses that result from this combination of applied stresses using equations 4.6.

2 x y 2 max xy 2

Principal stresses

1 2

x y

2

max max

x y

2

3 0 psi

2. Find the von Mises effective stress using equation 5.7d:

'

x x y y 3 xy

Sy

3.

'

N 1.5

5-82-1

PROBLEM 5-82

Statement: Given: Repeat Problem 5-78 for the connecting rod made from class 20 cast iron. Force on links Strength Design safety factor Pin hole diameter Ftotal 2000 N S ut 152 MPa Nd 4 d 6 mm w 4 d w 24 mm S uc 572 MPa

2. With only a tensile force acting on the link, the tensile stress will be the principal stress so we have x = 1.

x =

F A

F t w

= 1

Nd =

S ut

t w S ut F t 1.096 mm t 2 mm

F Nd w S ut

6. Round this up to the next higher integer value, 7. The realized factor of safety against tensile failure is, 8. N t w S ut F

N 7.3

Check the factor of safety against bearing failure in the pin holes. Bearing area Abear w t Abear 48.0 mm

2

bear

This is the principal stresses 1. 9.

F Abear

Calculate the safety factor for direct bearing from equation 5.8c where 2 and 3 are both zero. Pin hole Nbear

2

S uc

bear

2

Nbear 27.5

Atear = 2 t R ( 0.5 d ) , where R 0.5 w (see figure below). Substitute this area in

equation 4.9 for the shear area and solve for the shear strength xy.

5-82-2

Tearout length

Shear area

2

Shear stress

xy

F Atear

xy 21.52 MPa

Principal stress 8.

1 xy

For pure shear the Mohr circle is centered at 0,0 and has a radius equal to the shear stress. This results in 1 = . Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory and Figure 5-11, we see that we can use equation 5.12a for the safety factor against tearout. Ntear S ut Ntear 7.1

5-83-1

PROBLEM 5-83

Statement: Given: Repeat Problem 5-79 for the part made from class 20 cast iron. Force at point P Tensile strength Design safety factor Pin hole diameter Fcom 2000 N S ut 152 MPa Nd 4 d 6 mm

Assumptions: The points of maximum stress on a plane through point D are sufficiently removed from point D that there is no stress concentration at those points. Solution: See Figure P3-22 and Mathcad files P0579 and P0583.

1. From Problem 3-51 the forces and reactions on the ram are: F34x 553 N F14E 357 N F34y 2000 N F14F 196 N

42.5

F14E F34x

E D

120.0

2. The maximum bending moment is at point D and is: M 42.5 mm F14E M 15172.5 N mm

Compacting Ram (4)

D

32

A ( D)

D

4

3. Between points D and P there is a compressive force of Fcom 2000 N. Thus, there is a compressive stress due to this force in addition to the bending stress at point D. On the left side of the ram at the section through point D

bL ( D)

M Z ( D)

a( D)

Fcom A ( D)

L ( D) bL ( D) a( D)

bR( D)

M Z ( D)

a( D)

4 Fcom

R( D) bR( D) a( D)

The tensile stress on the left side will be critical for an uneven, brittle material. 4. With only a tensile stress acting on the ram at this point, it will be the principal stress so we have L = 1. 5. Using the modified-Mohr failure theory, 6. Solving for the diameter, D, Guess D 10 mm D root( f ( D) D) D 14.567 mm Nd = S ut = S ut

f ( D) Nd L ( D) S ut

5-83-2

7. Round this up so that 8. The realized factor of safety against axial failure is,

D 3 d N S ut

D 18 mm N 8.2

L ( D)

9. The axial stress on each side of the ram on a section through D is:

L ( D) 18.6 MPa

R( D) 34.4 MPa

5-84-1

PROBLEM 5-84

Statement: A differential element is subected to the stresses and strengths given below. Calculate the safety factor and draw 1-3 diagrams of each theory showing the stress state using: (a) Coulomb-Mohr theory, and (b) Modified Mohr theory. Principal stresses Material properties Solution:

Given:

1 70 MPa

2 0 MPa

3 140 MPa

3 1

m 2

2. The safety factor equation for both theories is different for each quadrant the load line falls in. The equation for the modified Mohr factor of safety is different for each of the two regions in the 4th quadrant that the load line can fall in. In this case, the load line falls in the 4th quadrant, below the -1 slope line.. The factors of safety are: (a)Coulomb-Mohr theory Na S uc S ut S uc 1 S ut 3 Na 2.4

350 280 210 140 MINIMUM NONZERO PRINCIPAL STRESS, MPa 70 0 -70 (a) Coulomb-Mohr boundary

S uc S ut S 1 3 ut

Nb 3.2 3. Plot the 1-3 diagram showing the safe-fail boundaries, the stress state point (70 MPa,-140 MPa) and the load line. Note that if 1 > 3 , then only that area on the graph that is to the right of and below the diagonal line can contain valid stress points. The factor of safety is the distance along the load line from the origin to the intersection of the load line with the failure boundary, divided by the distance from the origin to the stress point. Since the distance from the origin to the modified Mohr boundary is greater than the distance to the Coulomb-Mohr boundary, its factor of safety is greater.

1

(70,-140)

-140 -210 -280 -350 -420 -490 -560 -630 -S uc 0 70 140 210 280 350 Stress states at which failure will occur (b) Modified Mohr boundary Load Line -S ut

-700 -700 -630 -560 -490 -420 -350 -280 -210 -140 -70

FIGURE 5-84

1 - 3 Diagram for Problem 5-84

5-85-1

PROBLEM 5-85

Statement: Given: A part has the combined stress state and strengths given below. Using the Modified-Mohr failure theory, find the effective stress and factor of safety against static failure. Stresses: x 70 MPa Strengths: Solution: 1. 2.

y 35 MPa

xy 31.5 MPa

S y 126 MPa

Because S uc is greater than S ut, this is an uneven material, which is characteristic of a brittle material. Find the maximum shear stress and principal stresses that result from this combination of applied stresses using equations 4.6.

2 x y 2 xy 2

max

Principal stresses

1 2

x y

2

max max

x y

2

3 0 psi

3. Find the Dowling factors C1, C2, C3 using equations 5.12b: C1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc S uc 2 S ut S uc

1 2

C1 62.3 MPa

C2

2 3

2 3 3 1

C2 12.3 MPa

C3 4.

3 1

C3 66.4 MPa

C 1 C2 C 3 eff max 1 2 3

which is the modified-Mohr effective stress. 5.

S ut

eff

N 1.6

6-1a-1

PROBLEM 6-1a

Statement: Given: Solution: 1. For the data in row a in Table P6-1, find the stress range, alternating stress component, mean stress component, stress ratio, and amplitude ratio.

max 1000

min 0

2

1000 a 500

Alternating stress

Mean stress

max min

2

m 500

Stress ratio

min max a m

R0

Amplitude ratio

A1

6-2a-1

PROBLEM 6-2a

Statement: Given: Solution: 1. For the strength data in row a in Table P6-2, calculate the uncorrected endurance limit and draw th strength-life (S-N) diagram for the material, assuming it to be steel. Tensile strength See Mathcad file P0602a. S ut 90 ksi

Using equation (6-5a), calculate the uncorrected endurance limit. S'e return 0.5 S ut if S ut 200 ksi 100 ksi otherwise S'e 45.0 ksi

2. 3. 4.

S m 0.9 S ut

b

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm S'e

b 0.0851

103

a 145.8 ksi

5.

To draw the S-N graph over the range 10 3 <= N <= 10 8, define a piecewise continuous function. S'f ( N ) return a N

b

if N 10

3 5 8

100

S' f ( N ) ksi

10 3 1 10

1 10

1 10

1 10 N

1 10

1 10

FIGURE 6-2a

S-N Diagram for Steel for Problem 6-2a

6-3-1

PROBLEM 6-3

Statement: For the bicycle pedal-arm assembly in Figure P6-1 assume a rider-applied force that ranges from 0 1500 N at the pedal each cycle. Determine the fluctuating stresses in the 15-mm-dia pedal arm. Fi the fatigue safety factor if S ut = 500 MPa. Material yield strength Applied load Pedal arm diameter Solution: 1. S y 350 MPa Fmax 1500 N d 15 mm S ut 500 MPa Fmin 0 N

Given:

From problem 4-3, the maximum principal stresses in the pedal arm due to Fmax are at point A and are

2.

2max 0 MPa

3max 23 MPa

'max

3. 4.

'min 0 MPa

The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are:

'a 'm

5.

'max 'min

2

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

'max 'min

2

a Frider b

C Mc Arm

Tc

A Arm

Section C B

Fc Pedal x

x y

FIGURE 6-3B

Points A and B at Section C

FIGURE 6-3A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-3

6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round beam. Load Cload 1

6-3-2

Size

A95 2.354 mm

d equiv 5.544 mm

0.097

Surface A 4.51

Csize 1.007

Csize 1

b 0.265

b

(machined)

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.869

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 163.56 MPa

8.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Nf S e S ut Nf 0.31

'a S ut 'm S e

6-4a-1

PROBLEM 6-4a

Statement: For the strength data in row a in Table P6-2, calculate the uncorrected fatigue strength at 5E8 cycles and draw the strength-life (S-N) diagram for the material, assuming it to be an aluminum alloy. Tensile strength See Mathcad file P0604a. S ut 90 ksi

Given: Solution: 1.

Using equation (6-5c), calculate the uncorrected fatigue strength at 5E8 cycles. S'f5E8 return 0.4 S ut if S ut 48 ksi 19 ksi otherwise S'f5E8 19.0 ksi

2. 3. 4.

S m 0.9 S ut

b

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 5E8 , z 5.699 b 1 z log Sm

Sm S'f5E8

b 0.1105

103

a 173.772 ksi

5. 6.

To draw the S-N graph over the range 10 3 <= N <= 10 8, Plot the S-N curve over the range

3

S'f ( N ) a N

5 8

N 10 1.01 10 10

100

S' f ( N ) ksi

10 3 1 10

1 10

1 10

1 10 N

1 10

1 10

FIGURE 6-4a

S-N Diagram for Aluminum for Problem 6-4a

6-5a-1

PROBLEM 6-5a

Statement: Given: For the data in row a in Table P6-3, find the corrected endurance strength (or limit), create equations for the S-N line, and draw the S-N diagram. Material Tensile strength Shape Size (diameter) Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0605a. steel S ut 110 ksi round d 2 in Surface finish Loading Temperature Reliability surface "ground" load "torsion" T 72 R 0.999

Using equation (6-5a), calculate the uncorrected endurance limit. S'e return 0.5 S ut if S ut 200 ksi 100 ksi otherwise S'e 55.0 ksi

2.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round rod. Load Cload return 1 if load = "bending" return 1 if load = "torsion" return 0.7 if load = "axial" Size d equiv d Cload 1

Surface A

0.097

return 1.34 if surface = "ground" return 2.70 if surface = "machined" return 2.70 if surface = "cold_rolled" return 14.4 if surface = "hot_rolled" return 39.9 if surface = "forged"

return 0.085 if surface = "ground" return 0.265 if surface = "machined" return 0.265 if surface = "cold_rolled" return 0.718 if surface = "hot_rolled" return 0.995 if surface = "forged"

b 0.085

Csurf Temperature

S ut A ksi

Ctemp

Reliability Creliab return 1.000 if R = 0.50 return 0.897 if R = 0.90 return 0.814 if R = 0.99 return 0.753 if R = 0.999 return 0.702 if R = 0.9999 return 0.659 if R = 0.99999 3. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e 4. Using equation (6.9), calculate the fatigue strength at N = 10 3 cycles. S m return 0.75 S ut if load = "axial" 0.9 S ut otherwise 5. 6. The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a): Sf = a N

b

6-5a-2

Creliab 0.753

S e 30.2 ksi

S m 99.0 ksi

Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm Se

b 0.1717

103

a 324.120 ksi

7.

To draw the S-N graph over the range 10 3 <= N <= 10 8, define a piecewise continuous function. S f ( N ) return a N

b

if N 10

S e otherwise N 10 10 10

3 5 8

8.

100

Sf ( N ) ksi

10 3 1 10

1 10

1 10

1 10 N

1 10

1 10

FIGURE 6-5a

S-N Diagram for Problem 6-5a

6-6-1

PROBLEM 6-6

Statement: For the trailer hitch from Problem 3-6 on p. 169 (also see Figures P6-2 and 1-5), find the infinite-lif fatigue safety factors for all modes of failure assuming that the horizontal impact force of the traile on the ball is fully reversed. Use steel with S ut = 600 MPa and S y = 450 MPa. Determine safety factors for: (a) The shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket. (b) Bearing failure in the ball bracket hole. (c) Tearout failure in the ball bracket. (d) Tensile failure in the 19-mm diameter attachment holes. (e) Bending failure in the ball bracket as a cantilever. a 40 mm b 31 mm Mtongue 100 kg Fpull 55.1 kN S y 300 MPa S ut 600 MPa c 70 mm d sh 26 mm w 64 mm d 20 mm t 19 mm R 32 mm

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The nuts are just snug-tight (no pre-load), which is the worst case. 2. All reactions will be concentrated loads rather than distributed loads or pressures. Solution: See Figures 6-6 and Mathcad file P0606.

W tongue 70 = c

F pull

19 = t 31 = b

Fc2x

FIGURE 6-6A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-6

1.

The dynamic loading in this problem is fully reversed so the mean stresses are zero and the alternating stresses are the same as those calculated in Problem 4-6. From Problem 4-6, the alternating components of the principal stresses in the shank of the ball where it joins the ball bracket are:

a1 1277 MPa

2.

a2 0 MPa

a3 0 MPa

Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.

6-6-2

'a a1

3. 4. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit.

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 300 MPa

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round beam. Load Size Cload 1 (bending load)

2

A95 7.072 mm

d equiv 9.609 mm

0.097

d equiv mm

Csize 0.955

Surface

b 0.265

(machined)

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.828

(R = 99.9%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e Na Se S e 178.54 MPa Na 0.14

6.

'a

7.

From Problem 4-6, the alternating components of the principal stresses at the bearing area in the ball bracket ho are:

a1 111.5 MPa

8.

a2 0 MPa

a3 0 MPa

Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.

'a a1

9.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors that are different from those in step 4. Load Size Cload 0.7 Csize 1 (axial load) (axial load)

10. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e Nb Se S e 130.91 MPa Nb 1.17

'a

12. From Problem 4-6, the alternating components of the von Mises stress at the tearout shear area in the ball bracket hole is:

6-6-3

13. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors that are different from those in step 9. Load Size Cload 1 (simulated bending load)

2 2

0.097

A95 1111 mm

d equiv

d equiv 120.439 mm

14. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

Csize 0.747

'a

16. From Problem 4-6, the alternating components of the von Mises stress in the attachment bolts is:

17. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors that are different from those in step 9. Load Size Cload 0.7 Csize 1 (axial load) (axial load)

18. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e Nd Se S e 130.91 MPa Nd 0.24

'a

20. From Problem 4-6, the alternating components of the principal stresses in the cantilever beam are:

a1 635.5 MPa

a2 0 MPa

a3 0 MPa

21. Since 1 is the only nonzero principal stress, it is also the von Mises stress.

'a a1

22. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors that are different from those in step 17. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.05 w t (bending load) A95 60.8 mm

2

6-6-4

d equiv

A95 0.0766

0.097

d equiv 28.173 mm

23. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

Csize 0.86

'a

6-7-1

PROBLEM 6-7

Statement: Given: Design the wrist pin of Problem 3-7 for infinite life with a safety factor of 1.5 if the 2500-g acceleration is fully reveresed and S ut = 130 ksi. Force on wrist pin Tensile strength Design safety factor Fwristpin 12.258 kN S ut 130 ksi Nd 1.5 od 0.375 in Fwristpin 2756 lbf

See Figure 4-12 in the text and Mathcad file P0607. F Fwristpin 2 F 1378 lbf

With only the direct shear acting on the plane, the Mohr diagram will be a circle with center at the origin and radius equal to the shear stress. Thus, the principal normal stress is numerically equal to the shear stress, which in this case is also the principal shear stress, so we have = 1 = '. The shear stress at each shear plane is

3.

F A

od id

Se =

4 F

2

4. 5. 6.

For fully reversed loading the factor of safety is, Nd = Calculate the unmodified endurance limit.

2 2 od id S

2

= '

'

4 F S'e 65 ksi

S'e 0.5 S ut

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round pin (uniformly stressed). Load Size Cload 1 A95 ( id)

od id

4

0.097

d equiv( id)

Surface A 1.34

b 0.085

b

(ground)

S ut A ksi

Csurf 0.886

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( id) Cload Csize( id) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

8.

od id S e( id)

4 F

6-7-2

id Find ( id) 9.

id 0.299 in id 0.281 in

Nf

od id S e( id)

4 F

Nf 1.8

6-8-1

PROBLEM 6-8

Statement: A paper machine processes rolls of paper having a density of 984 kg/m3. The paper roll is 1.50-m OD x 0.22-m ID x 3.23 m long and is on a simply supported, hollow, steel shaft with S ut = 400 MPa Find the shaft ID needed to obtain a dynamic safety factor of 2 for a 10-year life if the shaft OD is 22 cm and the roll turns at 50 rpm. Paper roll: Density Outside dia. Inside dia. Length Shaft: Strength Outside dia. Design safety factor Design life Shaft speed

y

Given:

984

kg

3

w x R V L R

R L/2 0 L x -R M

Assumptions: 1. The shaft is stiffer than the paper roll so the weight of the roll on the shaft can be modelled as a uniformly distributed load. 2. The bearings that support the shaft are close to x 0 the ends of the paper roll and are thin with respect L/2 L to the length of the roll so we can consider the distance between the shaft supports to be the FIGURE 6-8 same as the length of the roll. Load, Shear, and Moment Diagrams 3. There are no stress concentrations near the for Problem 6-8 point of maximum moment on the shaft. 4. The paper mill operates 3 shifts/day, 365 days/year. 5. The shaft is machined and the material reliabilty is 99.9%. See Figure 6-8 and Mathcad file P0608. Solution: 1. This is a case of fully reversed bending. The FBD for this loading case is shown in Appendix B, Figure B-2b, with the dimension a equal to 0. That is, the distributed load starts at the left support and ends at the right support. Calculate the number of stress cycles to see if we will design for finite or infinite life. Nlife Life Nlife 1.652 10

9

wL /8

2.

cycles

This is well beyond 10 6 cycles, so we will design for infinite life. 3. Determine the weight of the paper roll and the magnitude of the distributed load on the shaft. Roll volume Roll weight Distributed load on shaft 4.

2

OD ID L

W V g w W L

(a

Figure D-2b shows that the maximum bending moment occurs at the center of the shaft and is Mmax w L 8 Mmax 2.176 10 N mm

7

This is fully reversed bending so 5. Ma Mmax and Mm 0 N mm

6-8-2

The stress in the shaft at the point of maximum bending moment will depend upon the, as yet, unknown id. Tha is, Area moment of inertia I ( id)

64

od id

(b)

Alternating stress 6.

a( id)

Ma od 2 I ( id) (c)

Calculate the modified endurance strength of the shaft. Unmodified endurance limit Modification factors: Load Cload 1 Csize 1.189 S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 200 MPa

Size

mm

od

0.097

Csize 0.705

0.265

Surface

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.922

Temperature Reliability

Creliab 0.753

Modified endurance limit S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e 7. S e 97.8 MPa (d)

Use the factor of safety equation as a design equation to solve for the unknown id. For fully reversed bending, the factor of safety is Nf = Se (e)

a

1

4 4 32 Nfd Ma od id od S e

id 191.526 mm

id 190 mm t 1 2 ( od id) t 15 mm

6-9-1

PROBLEM 6-9

Statement: For the Vise Grip plier-wrench is drawn to scale in Figure P6-3, and for which the forces were analyzed in Problem 3-9 and the stresses in Problem 4-9, find the safety factors for each pin for an assumed clamping force of P = 4000 N in the position shown. The pins are 8-mm dia, S y = 400 MP S ut = 520 MPa, and are all in double shear. Assume a desired finite life of 5E4 cycles. Pin stresses as calculated in Problem 4-9: Pin 1-2 12 74.6 MPa Pin 1-4 Pin 2-3 Pin 3-4 Yield strength Pin diameter Desired life S y 400 MPa d 8 mm Nlife 5 10

4

Given:

Assumptions: 1. Links 3 and 4 are in a toggle position, i.e., the pin that joins links 3 and 4 is in line with the pins that join 1 with 4 and 2 with 3. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-9 and Mathcad file P0609.

The FBDs of the assembly and each individual link are shown in Figure 6-9. The dimensions, as scaled from Figure P5-3 in the text, are shown on the link FBDs.

F 4 P 1

3 F

55.0 = b 50.0 = a 22.0 = d

2 P

F14

39.5 = c

129.2

4 F34 P

F41

F21

28.0 = e

2.8 = g

F43 3 F23 F

F12 F32 2

21.2 = h

26.9 = f

FIGURE 6-9 Free Body Diagrams for Problem 6-9 2. The pins are in pure shear, so the principal stresses are

Pin joining 1 and 2 All other pins 3.

6-9-2

'12 '14

3 12 3 14

This is a case of repeated fatigue loading. The alternating and mean von Mises stress components are: Pin joining 1 and 2 All other pins

S'e 0.5 S ut

S'e 260 MPa

4. 5.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a non rotating round pin (uniformly stressed). Load Size Cload 1 A95

d

4

d equiv

0.0766

0.097

d equiv 25.617 mm

Surface A 4.51

Csize 0.868

b 0.265

b

(machined)

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.86

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 194.07 MPa S m 0.9 S ut Sf = a N S m 468 MPa

b

7. 8. 9.

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm S'e

b 0.0851

10

3

a 842.4 MPa

6-9-3

S f 335.49 MPa

11. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Pin joining 1 and 2 Nf S f S ut Nf 3.2

'12a S ut '12m S f

S f S ut

Nf

'14a S ut '14m S f

Nf 4.6

6-10-1

PROBLEM 6-10

Statement: An overhung diving board is shown in Figure P6-4a. A 100-kg person is standing on the free end. Assume cross-sectional dimensions of 305 mm x 32 mm. What is the fatigue safety factor for infinite life if the material is brittle fiberglass with S f = 39 MPa @ N = 5E8 cycles and S ut = 130 MP in the longitudinal direction?

2000 = L

Given:

R1

R2

700 = b

FIGURE 6-10

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-10

Assumptions: 1. The given fatigue strength is fully corrected. 2. There are no stress-concentrations near the point of maximum moment on the diving board. Solution: 1. 2. See Figure 6-10 and Mathcad file P0610.

This is a case of repeated bending. The FBD for this loading case is shown in Appendix B, Figure B-3a, with th dimension a equal to L. That is, the concentrated force F is at the end of the overhung beam. Determine the weight of the person on the end of the board. Weight W M g W 980.7 N (a)

3.

Figure B-3a in Appendix B shows that the maximum bending moment occurs at the right-hand support and is Mmax W ( L b ) This is repeated bending so Ma Mmax 2 w t

3

Mmax 1.275 10 N mm

and

Mm Ma

4.

The stress in the board at the point of maximum bending moment is Area moment of inertia I I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

(b)

12 Ma t 2 I Mm t 2 I

Alternating stress

a m

(c)

Mean stress 5.

(d)

For repeated (fluctuating) bending, the factor of safety for Case 3 loading is Nf S f5E8 S ut Nf 2.4 (e)

a S ut m S f5E8

6-11-1

PROBLEM 6-11

Statement: Repeat Problem 6-10 assuming the 100-kg person in Problem 6-10 jumps up 25 cm and lands back on the board. Assume the board weighs 29 kg and deflects 13.1 cm statically when the person stands on it. What is the fatigue safety factor for finite life if the material is brittle fiberglass with S = 39 MPa @ N = 5E8 cycles and S ut = 130 MPa in the longitudinal direction? Maximum principal stresses due to bending at R2 from Problem 4-11 1max 76.3 MPa

2000 = L R1 P

Given:

Ultimate strength Fatigue strength Fatigue life Solution: 1. S ut 130 MPa S f 39 MPa Ncycle 5 10

8

700 = b R2

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-11

The dynamic loading in this case is repeated, i.e., the stresses go from zero to the maximum values given above. Thus, the minimum and maximum von Mises stresses are:

'max

2. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are:

'min 0 MPa

'a 'm

3.

'max 'min

2

'max 'min

2

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to calculate the factor of safety. S f S ut

Nf

'a S ut 'm S f

Nf 0.79

6-12-1

PROBLEM 6-12

Statement: Repeat Problem 6-10 using the cantilevered diving board design in Figure P6-4b.

2000

Given:

M1 R1

1300 = L P

Assumptions: 1. The given fatigue strength is fully corrected. 700 2. There are no stress-concentrations near the point of maximum moment on the diving board. FIGURE 6-12

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-12

Solution: 1. 2.

This is a case of repeated bending. The FBD for this loading case is shown in Appendix B, Figure B-1a, with the dimension a equal to L. That is, the concentrated force F is at the end of the cantilever beam. Determine the weight of the person on the end of the board. Weight W M g W 980.7 N (a)

3.

Figure B-1a in Appendix B shows that the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax W L This is repeated bending so Ma Mmax 2 w t

3

Mmax 1.275 10 N mm

and

Mm Ma

4.

The stress in the board at the point of maximum bending moment is Area moment of inertia I I 8.329 10 mm

5 4

(b)

12 Ma t 2 I Mm t 2 I

Alternating stress

a m

(c)

Mean stress 5.

(d)

For repeated (fluctuating) bending, the factor of safety for Case 3 loading is Nf S f5E8 S ut Nf 2.4 (e)

a S ut m S f5E8

6-13-1

PROBLEM 6-13

Statement: Repeat Problem 6-11 using the cantilevered diving board design in Figure P6-4b. Assume the board weighs 19 kg and deflects 8.5 cm statically when the person stands on it. Maximum principal stresses due to bending at support from Problem 4-13 1max 87.1 MPa

2000 1300 = L P

Given:

Ultimate strength Fatigue strength Fatigue life Solution: 1. S ut 130 MPa S f 39 MPa Ncycle 5 10

8

M1 700

R1

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-13

The dynamic loading in this case is repeated, i.e., the stresses go from zero to the maximum values given above. Thus, the minimum and maximum von Mises stresses are:

'max

2. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are:

'min 0 MPa

'a 'm

3.

'max 'min

2

'max 'min

2

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to calculate the factor of safety. Nf S f S ut Nf 0.69

'a S ut 'm S f

6-14-1

PROBLEM 6-14

Statement: Figure P6-5 shows a child's toy called a pogo stick. The child stands on the pads, applying half her weight on each side. She jumps off the ground, holding the pads up against her feet, and bounces along with the spring cushioning the impact and storing energy to help each rebound. Design the aluminum cantilever beam sections on which she stands to survive jumping 2 in off the ground with a dynamic safety factor of 2 for a finite life of 5E4 cycles. Use 2000 series aluminum. Define and size the beam shape.

Given:

Heat treated 2024 aluminum: Tensile strength S ut 64 ksi Design safety factor Design life Nfd 2 Nlife 5 10

4

Assumptions: The beam will have a rectangular crosssection with the load applied at a distance of 5 in from the central support. L 5 in Solution: 1. See Figure 6-14 and Mathcad file P0614.

From Problem 3-14, the total dynamic force on both foot supports is Fimax 224 lbf Fimax 2 Fimin 2 Fimin 0 lbf

Fi /2

Fi /2

Therefore, the load on each support is Pmax Pmin 2. 3. Pmax 112 lbf Pmin 0 lbf

To give adequate support to the childs foot, let the width of the support beam be w 1.5 in From Figure B-1(a) in Appendix B, the maximum bending moment at x = 0 is Mmax Pmax L Mmax 560 in lbf

P

FIGURE 5-14

Free Body Diagram for Problem 5-14

Mmin 0 in lbf

4.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the bending moment. Ma Mm Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax Mmin 2 Ma 280 in lbf Mm 280 in lbf S'e 19 ksi @ 5E8 cycles

5. 6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 ( t) 0.05 w t d equiv( t) A95 ( t) 0.0766

6-14-2

0.097

Surface A 2.7

b 0.265

b

(machined)

S ut A ksi

Csurf 0.897

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( t) Cload Csize( t) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

8. 9.

S m 0.9 S ut Sf = a N

S m 57.6 ksi

b

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

10. Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 5E8 , z 5.699 b ( t) 1 z log

Sm Se( t)

a ( t)

Sm

103

b( t )

S f ( t) a ( t) Nlife

b( t )

12. We can now determine the minimum required section depth, t. Using the distortion-energy failure theory with the modified Goodman diagram, the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Guess t 10 mm. Bending stress Given Nfd =

M c I

t 12 6 M = M = 2 3 2 w t w t

2

w t 6

S f ( t) S ut Ma S ut Mm S f ( t) t 0.304 in t 0.375 in

t Find ( t)

Round this up to the next higher decimal equivalent of a common fraction, Using this value of t, the values of the functions of t are: Csize( t) 0.912 The realized safety factor is Nf w t 6

2

S e( t) 15.545 ksi

S f ( t) 38.981 ksi

S f ( t) S ut Ma S ut Mm S f ( t)

Nf 3.0

6-15a-1

PROBLEM 6-15a

Statement: For a notched part having a notch dimension r, geometric stress concentration factor Kt, and material strength S ut as shown in row a of Table P6-4, find the Neuber factor a, the material's notch sensitivity q, and the fatigue stress-concentration factor Kf. Ultimate tensile strength Geometric stress-concentration factor Loading "Bending" Solution: See Mathcad file P0615a.

1

Given:

Notch radius

r 0.25 in

Material is steel

1.

a 0.062 in q 1 1 a r

a 0.062 in q 0.890

2.

3.

6-16-1

PROBLEM 6-16

Statement: A track to guide bowling balls is designed with two round rods as shown in Figure P6-6. The rods are not parallel to one another but have a small angle between them. The balls roll on the rods until they fall between them and drop onto another track. The angle between the rods is varied to cause the ball to drop at different locations. Find the infinite-life safety factor for the 1-in dia SAE 1010 cold-rolled steel rods. (a) Assume rods are simply supported at each end. (b) Assume rods are fixed at each end. Tensile strength Rod diameter Solution: 1. S ut 53 ksi d 1.00 in

a Fball

Given:

R1 L R2

The maximum bending stress will occur at the outer fibers of the rod at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = a. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the rod is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the bottom surface where the stress is tensile, sx is the principal stress 1 . Thus, from Problem 4-16, for a simply supported rod, Maximum principal stress

FIGURE 6-16A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-16(a), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

1 748 psi

2.

The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to 1 for each ball that rolls down the track. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are: Alternating von Mises stress Mean von Mises stress

S'e 0.5 S ut

S'e 26.5 ksi

3. 4.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 d

2 0.097

d equiv

A95 0.0766

Surface A 2.70

Csize 0.957

b 0.265

b

(machined)

S ut A ksi

Csurf 0.943

5. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e 6. S e 15.759 ksi

6-16-2

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Case a Nfa S e S ut Nfa 32

a Fball

'a S ut 'm S e

7.

For the built-in case, the maximum bending stress will occur at the outer fibers of the rod at the section where the maximum bending moment occurs which, in this case, is at x = L. The only stress present on the top or bottom surface of the rod is the bending stress x. Therefore, on the bottom surface where the stress is tensile, sx is the principal stress 1 . Thus, from Problem 4-16, for a simply supported rod, Maximum principal stress

M1

R1

R 2 M2

FIGURE 6-16B

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-16(b), taken on a plane through the rod axis and ball center

1 577 psi

8.

The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to 1 for each ball that rolls down the track. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are: Alternating von Mises stress Mean von Mises stress

9.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Case b Nfb S e S ut Nfb 42

'a S ut 'm S e

6-17-1

PROBLEM 6-17

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P6-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of the tong is 6 in. The rectangular cross-sectional dimensions are 0.75 x 0.312 in. Find the safety factor for the tongs for 5E5 cycles if their S ut = 50 ksi. F Tensile strength Cross-section: Width Depth Life S ut 50 ksi w 0.312 in h 0.75 in Nf 5 10

5

11.0 = ax

Given:

C FC O

3.5 = cy

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

A

Assumptions: The tongs are forged. Use 99.99% reliability. Operating temperature is between 32F and 70F.

FB

Solution: See Problem 4-17, Figure 6-17, and Mathcad file P0617.

B W/2

FIGURE 6-17

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-17

1. The maximum bending stress in the tong was found in Problem 4-17 at point A. Vertical direction

i 8.58 ksi

All other components are zero. 2. There are no other stress components present so

1max i

3.

2max 0 ksi

3max 0 ksi

1min 0 ksi

4.

2min 0 ksi

3min 0 ksi

Even though this is a brittle material, for HCF analysis, determine the von Mises effective stresses. Since there i only one nonzero stress,

5. 6.

'max 8.58 ksi 'min 0 ksi 'a 4.29 ksi 'm 4.29 ksi

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 25 ksi

'max 'min

2

'max 'min

2

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.05 w h d equiv A95 0.0766 A95 7.548 mm

2

d equiv 9.927 mm

6-17-2

0.097

d equiv mm

Csize 0.952

Surface

b 0.995

(forged)

S ut ksi

Csurf 0.814

(R = 99.99%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 13.59 ksi S m 0.9 S ut Sf = a N S m 45 ksi

b

8. 9.

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

10. Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm Se

b 0.1733

103

a 148.991 ksi

S f5E5 a Nf

12. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to calculate the factor of safety. S f5E5 S ut

Nf5E5

Nf5E5 2.7

6-18-1

PROBLEM 6-18

Statement: A pair of ice tongs is shown in Figure P6-7. The ice weighs 50 lb and is 10 in wide across the tongs. The distance between the handles is 4 in, and the mean radius r of the tong is 6 in. The rectangular cross-sectional dimensions are 0.75 x 0.312 in. Find the safety factor for the tongs for 5E5 cycles if they are made of Class 40 gray cast iron. Tensile strength Cross-section: Width Depth Life S ut 42 ksi w 0.312 in h 0.75 in Nf 5 10

5

11.0 = ax

Given:

F C FC O

3.5 = cy

FO

2.0 = cx 12.0 = by 5.0 = bx

Assumptions: The tongs are as-cast. Use 99.99% reliability. Operating temperature is between 32F and 70F. Set Csurf to 1 for a cast finish, which does not need a surface factor. See Problem 4-18, Figure 6-18, and Solution: Mathcad file P0618. 1. The maximum bending stress in the tong was found in Problem 4-17 at point A. Vertical direction All other components are zero. 2. There are no other stress components present so

FB B W/2

FIGURE 6-18

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-18

i 8.58 ksi

1max i

3.

2max 0 ksi

3max 0 ksi

1min 0 ksi

4.

2min 0 ksi

3min 0 ksi

Even though this is a brittle material, for HCF analysis, determine the von Mises effective stresses. Since there is only one nonzero stress,

5. 6.

'max 8.58 ksi 'min 0 ksi 'a 4.29 ksi 'm 4.29 ksi

S'e 0.4 S ut S'e 16.8 ksi

'max 'min

2

'max 'min

2

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.05 w h A95 7.548 mm

2

6-18-2

d equiv

A95 0.0766

0.097

d equiv 9.927 mm

d equiv mm

Csize 0.952

(R = 99.99%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 11.22 ksi S m 0.9 S ut Sf = a N S m 37.8 ksi

b

8. 9.

The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

10. Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm Se

b 0.1758

103

a 127.305 ksi

S f5E5 a Nf

12. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to calculate the factor of safety. S f5E5 S ut

Nf5E5

Nf5E5 2.3

6-19-1

PROBLEM 6-19

Statement: Determine the size of the clevis pin shown in Figure P6-8 needed to withstand an applied repeated force of 0 to 130000 lb for infinite life. Also determine the required outside radius of the clevis end to not fail in either tearout or bearing if the clevis flanges are each 2.5 in thick. Use a safety factor of 3. Assume S ut = 140 ksi for the pin and S ut = 80 ksi for the clevis. Minimum force Maximum force Flange thickness Pmin 0 lbf Pmax 130 kip t 2.5 in Nf 3 Material strength: Pin Clevis S utp 140 ksi S utc 80 ksi

Given:

Assumptions: The parts are machined. Use 90% reliability and room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-19 and Mathcad file P0619.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the forces on the clevis and link. Pa Pm Pmax Pmin 2 Pmax Pmin 2 Pa 65 kip Pm 65 kip

Stress in Pin 2. The pin is in double shear and there is no stress-concentration. The alternating and mean loads at one section on the pin are

a =

1 Pa 2 Apin

m =

1 Pm 2 Apin d 4

2

(1)

3. 4.

Apin ( d )

(2)

The alternating and mean shear stresses and von Mises stresses are

a( d )

Pa 2 Apin ( d ) 3 a( d )

m( d )

Pm 2 Apin ( d ) 3 m( d ) (3)

'a( d )

Pin Strength 5. 6.

'm( d )

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round pin in bending. Load Size Cload 1 A95 ( d ) 0.010462 d Csize( d ) 0.869 Surface A 2.70

2 0.097

d equiv( d )

A95 ( d ) 0.0766

dequiv( d) in

b 0.265

(machined)

6-19-2

S utp A ksi

Csurf 0.729

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S ep( d ) Cload Csize( d ) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'ep (5)

Design Equation 8. Using the modified-Goodman failure criterion and a case 3 load line, the factor of safety is given by equation 6-18e as Nf = S e S ut

'a S ut 'm S e

Guess d 2.0 in

(6)

9.

Substituting equations 4 and 5 into 6 and solving for d yields Given Nf = S ep( d ) S utp

d 2.632 in d 2.750 in

d Find ( d )

Rounding to the next higher eighth of an inch, let With this value of d, we have

and the realized factor of safety against fatigue failure in the pin is Nf S ep( d ) S utp Nf 3.3

Tearout length

Clevis Tearout (See Figure 6-19) 10. Let the outside radius of the clevis be R. Then the tearout area is Atear ( R) 2 t R ( 0.5 d )

2 2

11. The alternating and mean shear stresses and von Mises stresses are

a( R)

Pa 2 Atear ( R)

m( R)

Pm 2 Atear ( R)

(7)

FIGURE 6-19

Tearout Diagram for Problem 6-19

6-19-3

'a( R)

Clevis Strength

3 a( R)

'm( R)

3 m( R)

(8)

S'ec 40 ksi

13. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular shear area (uniformly stressed). Load Size Cload 1 A95 ( R) Atear ( R) d equiv( R)

0.097

A95 ( R) 0.0766

d equiv( R) in

Surface

b 0.265

(machined)

S utc ksi

Csurf 0.845

(R = 90%)

14. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S ec( R) Cload Csize( R) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'ec Design Equation 15. Using the modified-Goodman failure criterion and a case 3 load line, the factor of safety is given by equation 6-18e as S e S ut (10) Nf = 'a S ut 'm S e 16. Substituting equations 8 and 9 into 10 and solving for R yields Given Nf = S ec( R) S utc Guess R 2 in (9)

R 2.624 in R 2.625 in

maxbear

Pa Pm

2 d t

6-20-1

PROBLEM 6-20

Statement: Given: A 100 N-m torque is applied to a 1-m-long, solid round steel shaft. Design it to limit its angular deflection to 2 deg and select a steel alloy to have a fatigue safety factor of 2 for infinite life. Applied torque Shaft length Max deflection Design safety factor Modulus of rigidity Ta 100 N m L 1000 mm max 2 deg Nfd 2 G 80.8 GPa Tm 0 N m

Assumptions: There are no stress-concentrations anywhere on the shaft. The shaft is machined, reliability is 99.9%, and the it is at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0620.

This is a case of fully reversed torsion. We will use the von Mises effective stress so the load factor will be 1. The maximum torque is Tmax Ta Tm Tmax 100 N m

2.

The diameter of the shaft can be found from equations 4.24 and 4.25 with = max.

max =

Tmax L J G

32 Tmax L

d G

1 4

Solving for d,

32 Tmax L d max G

d 24.5 mm

d 24.514 mm

Rounding, let 3.

Now, we can solve for the stress in the shaft. Polar moment of inertia J

32

J 3.537 10 mm

Torsional stress

Ta d 2 J

a 34.632 MPa

'a

3 a

Using the factor of safety equation for reversed loading, calculate the required endurance limit Nf = Se S e Nfd 'a S e 119.967 MPa

'a

5.

This endurance limit is a function of the unknown ultimate tensile strength. Use the endurance limit modificati equation to determine the required S ut. S e = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a solid, round steel shaft.

Load Size Cload 1 Csize 1.189 A 4.51 Csurf = A Temperature Reliability Uncorrected endurance strength 7. Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.753 S'e = 0.5 S ut (R = 99.9%)

6-20-2

mm

d

0.097

Csize 0.872

Surface

b 0.265

(machined)

S ut MPa

Substituting these into the equation above and solving for S ut,

1 b 1

S ut

MPa

S ut 395 MPa

Based on this requirement, choose AISI 1020 cold-rolled steel that will be machined to size. 8. Check the actual factor of safety based on the material chosen. For this material, S ut 469 MPa Csurf A

Sut MPa

S'e 0.5 S ut S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 136.0 MPa Nf Se

Factor of safety

'a

Nf 2.3

6-21-1

PROBLEM 6-21

Statement: Figure P6-9 shows an automobile wheel with two common styles of lug wrench being used to tighten the wheel nuts, a single-ended wrench in (a), and a double-ended wrench in (b). The distance between points A and B is 1 ft in both cases and the handle diameter is 0.625 in. How many cycles of tightening can be expected before a fatigue failure if the average tightening torque is 100 ft-lb and the material S ut = 60 ksi? Distance between A and B Wrench diameter Tensile strength d AB 1 ft d 0.625 in S ut 60 ksi Minimum torque Tmin 0 ft lbf Maximum torque Tmax 100 ft lbf

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The forces exerted by the user's hands lie in a plane through the wrench that is also parallel to the plane of the wheel. 2. The applied torque is perpendicular to the plane of the forces. 3. By virtue of 1 and 2 above, this is a planar problem that can be described in a 2D FBD. 4. The surface is as-forged, the reliability is 50%, and the wrench will not be used in extremely ho or cold environments. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-21 and Mathcad file P0621.

12" = dAB F

From examination of the FBDs, we see that, in both cases, the arms are in bending and the stub that holds the socket wrench is in pure torsion. The maximum bending stress in the arm will occur near the point where the arm transitions to the stub. The stress state at this transition is very complicated, but we can find the nominal bending stress there by treating the arm as a cantilever beam, fixed at the transition point. For both cases the torque in the stub is the same.

F 6"

12" = dAB F

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 6-21

The alternating and mean components of the bending stress at this point are found from Moment of inertia I Dist to extreme fibre Alternating stress

I in

64 c 0.5 d

c 0.313 in

xa xm

Ma c I Mm c I

Mean stress

4.

6-21-2

There are no other stress components present at this point, so x is the maximum principle stress here and

1 = x

5.

2 0 psi

3 0 psi ' = 1 = x

and

Since there is only one nonzero principal stress, the von Mises stress is

'a xa

6.

'm xm

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to solve for the fatigue strength at which the wrench will fail (safety factor of 1). Nf = S f S ut =1 S f

'a S ut

S ut 'm

'a S ut 'm S f

7. 8.

Using equation (6-5a), calculate the uncorrected endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 d

2 0.097

d equiv

A95 0.0766

Csize 0.869 A 39.9 Csurf A Temperature Reliability 9. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e Ctemp 1 Creliab 1.000

d equiv in

Csize 1.002

Surface

b 0.995

(as forged)

S ut ksi

Csurf 0.679

(R = 50%)

b

11. The equation for the S-N curve in the HCF region is given by equation (6.10a):

12. Determine the constants a and b from equations (6.10c) and (6.10a). From Table 6-5, for N = 10 6 , z 3.000 b 1 z log Sm

Sm Se

b 0.1409

103

a 142.955 ksi

6-21-3

13. Calculate the number of cycles to failure using equation (6.10a) Case (b) 14. The bending moment at the transition is M= M c I

Na

Sf a

T 2

Na 5.1 10

F d AB 2 Tc 2 I

x =

16. The bending stress in the handle for case (b) is one half that of case (a). However, the torque in the stub is the same in both cases. The shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the stub is found from Polar moment of inertia Maximum shear stress J 2 I J 0.0150 in Tmax c J Tmin c J

4

xymax xymin a m

xymax xymin

2

xymax xymin

2

17. There are no other stress components present along the outside surface of the stub, so

1a a

1a 12.5 ksi

2a 0 psi

3a 1a

and

'a

1a 1a 3a 3a

'm 'a

18. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to solve for the fatigue strength at which the wrench will fail (safety factor of 1). Nf = S f S ut =1 S f

'a S ut

S ut 'm

1

'a S ut 'm S f

S f 33.944 ksi

Sf Nb a

Nb 2.7 10

6-22-1

PROBLEM 6-22

Statement: A roller-blade skate is shown in Figure P6-10. The polyurethane wheels are 72 mm dia and spaced on 104-mm centers. The skate-boot-foot combination weighs 2 kg. The effective "spring rate" of the person-skate subsystem is 6000 N/m. The axles are 10-mm-dia steel pins in double shear with S ut = 550 MPa. Find the fatigue safety factor for the pins when a 100-kg person lands a 0.5-m jump on one foot assuming infinite life. (a) Assume all 4 wheels land simultaneously. (b) Assume that one wheel absorbs all the landing force. Axle pin diameter d 10 mm Tensile strength S ut 550 MPa

Given:

Assumptions: Pins are machined and reliability is 99.999%. Solution: 1. 2. See Figure P6-10 and Mathcad file P0622.

From Problem 4-22, we have the stresses for cases (a) and (b):

a 5.71 MPa

b 22.9 MPa

The dynamic loading in this case is repeated so the stresses given in step 1 are the maximum and the minimum stresses are zero. Determine the minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean von Mises stresses. Part (a)

3 a

'mina 0 MPa

'maxa 'mina

2

'aa 4.945 MPa 'ma 4.945 MPa 'maxb 39.664 MPa 'minb 0 MPa

'maxa 'mina

2 3 b

Part (b)

'maxb 'minb

2

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 275 MPa

'maxb 'minb

2

3. 4.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating round pin. Load Size Cload 1 A95

d

4

d equiv

0.0766

0.097

d equiv 32.021 mm

Surface A 4.51

Csize 0.849

b 0.265

b

(machined)

Csurf

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.847

Temperature Reliability 5. Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.659 (R = 99.999%)

6-22-2

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 130.42 MPa

6.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Part (a) Nfa S e S ut Nfa 21.3

'aa S ut 'ma S e

S e S ut

Part (b)

Nfb

'ab S ut 'mb S e

Nfb 5.3

6-23a-1

PROBLEM 6-23a

Statement: The beam in Figure P6-11a is subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = -F/2, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-5. Find the stress state in the beam due to this loading and choose a material specification that will give a safety factor of 3 for N = 5E8 cycles. Beam length Distance to concen. load Concentrated load Moment of inertia

8

Given:

L 1 m b 0.6 m F 500 N

L b F

I 2.85 10

8

R1

R2

FIGURE 6-23

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-23

Solution:

1. The minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean components of the loads are: Fmax F Fa 2. Fmax Fmin 2 Fmax 500 N Fa 375 N Fmin Fm F 2 Fmin 250 N Fm 125 N

Fmax Fmin 2

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending moment on the beam using the equati in Figure B-2(a) in Appendix B. Ma Fa b 1 b

L b L

Ma 90 N m Mm 30 N m

Mm Fm b 1

3.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending stress in the beam using equation (4.11b). These are principal stresses and also von Mises stresses.

'a

M a c I Mm c I

'm

4.

Calculate the beam cross-section dimensions from I and c. Beam depth Beam width h 2 c w 12 I h

3

h 40 mm w 5.344 mm

5.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Cload 1

6-23a-2

Size

0.097

A95 10.688 mm

d equiv 11.812 mm

Surface Temperature Reliability 6. Csurf 1 Ctemp 1 Creliab 1

Csize 0.936

(R = 50%)

Determine the modified endurance limit as a function of the unknown endurance limit. S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 0.5 S ut

7.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) as the design equation. S e S ut S ut

Nd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

8.

Solve the equations in steps 6 and 7 simultaneously for the desired S ut. S ut Nd 2 'a Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 'm Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab

S ut 468 MPa 9. Choose AISI 1020, cold-rolled steel (see Appendix A, Table A-9).

6-24a-1

PROBLEM 6-24a

Statement: The beam in Figure P6-11b is subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = F/2, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-5. Find the stress state in the beam due to this loading and choose a material specification that will give a safety factor of 1.5 for N = 5E8 cycles. Beam length Concentrated load Moment of inertia I 2.85 10

8

Given:

L 1 m F 500 N m

4 2

Distance to extreme fiber c 2.00 10 Design safety factor Nd 1.5 Cycle life Solution: Nf 5 10

8

m

M1 R1

FIGURE 6-24 1. The minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean components of the loads are: Fmax F Fa Fmax Fmin 2 Fmax 500 N Fa 125 N

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-24

Fmin Fm

F 2

Fmax Fmin 2

2.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending moment on the beam using the equati in Figure B-1(a) in Appendix B. Ma Fa L Mm Fm L Ma 125 N m Mm 375 N m

3.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending stress in the beam using equation (4.11b). These are principal stresses and also von Mises stresses.

'a

M a c I Mm c I

'm

4.

Calculate the beam cross-section dimensions from I and c. Beam depth Beam width h 2 c w 12 I h

3

h 40 mm w 5.344 mm

5.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.05 w h A95 10.688 mm

2

6-24a-2

d equiv

A95 0.0766

0.097

d equiv 11.812 mm

d equiv mm

Csize 0.936

(R = 50%)

Determine the modified endurance limit as a function of the unknown endurance limit assuming the material is steel. S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 0.5 S ut

7.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) as the design equation. S e S ut S ut

Nd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

8.

Solve the equations in steps 6 and 7 simultaneously for the desired S ut. S ut Nd 2 'a Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 'm Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab

S ut 676 MPa 9. Choose AISI 1060 hot-rolled steel (see Appendix A, Table C-9).

6-25a-1

PROBLEM 6-25a

Statement: The beam in Figure P6-11c is subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = 0, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-5. Find the stress state in the beam due to this loading and choose a material specification that will give a safety factor of 2.5 for N = 5E8 cycles. Beam length L 1 m Distance between supports b 0.6 m Concentrated load F 500 N Moment of inertia I 2.85 10

8

L b F

Given:

4 2

Distance to extreme fiber c 2.00 10 Design safety factor Nd 2.5 Cycle life Solution: 1. Nf 5 10

8

m

R1 R2

FIGURE 6-25

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-25

The minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean components of the loads are: Fmax F Fa Fmax Fmin 2 Fmax 500 N Fa 250 N Fmin 0 N Fm Fmax Fmin 2 Fmin 0 N Fm 250 N

2.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending moment on the beam using the equati in Figure B-1(a) in Appendix B. Ma Fa ( b L) Mm Fm ( b L) Ma 100 N m Mm 100 N m

3.

Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending stress in the beam using equation (4.11b). These are principal stresses and also von Mises stresses.

'a

M a c I Mm c I

'm

4.

Calculate the beam cross-section dimensions from I and c. Beam depth Beam width h 2 c w 12 I h

3

h 40 mm w 5.344 mm

5.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Cload 1

6-25a-2

Size

0.097

A95 10.688 mm

d equiv 11.812 mm

Surface Temperature Reliability 6. Csurf 1 Ctemp 1 Creliab 1

Csize 0.936

(R = 50%)

Determine the modified endurance limit as a function of the unknown endurance limit assuming the material is steel. S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 0.5 S ut

7.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) as the design equation. S e S ut S ut

Nd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

8.

Solve the equations in steps 6 and 7 simultaneously for the desired S ut. S ut Nd 2 'a Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab 'm Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab

S ut 550 MPa 9. Choose AISI 1035 cold-rolled steel (see Appendix A, Table A-9).

6-26a-1

PROBLEM 6-26a

Statement: The beam in Figure P6-11d is subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = -F, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-5. Find the stress state in the beam due to this loading and choose a material specification that will give a safety factor of 6 for N = 5E8 cycles. Beam length L 1 m Distance to concentrated load a 0.4 m Distance to 2nd support b 0.6 m Concentrated load F 500 N Moment of inertia I 2.85 10

8

L b a F

Given:

4 2

R1 R2 R3

Distance to extreme fiber c 2.00 10 Design safety factor Nfd 6 Cycle life Solution: 1. Nlife 5 10

m FIGURE 6-26A

Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-26

To determine the stresses, we must first get the maximum bending moment. From inspection of Figure P6-26, write the load function equation q(x) = R1<x>-1 - F<x - a>-1 + R2<x - b>-1 - R3<x - L>-1

2.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain shear, V(x) V(x) = R1<x>0 - F<x - a>0 + R2<x - b>0 - R3<x - L>0

3.

Integrate this equation from - to x to obtain moment, M(x) M(x) = R1<x>1 - F<x - a>1 + R2<x - b>1 - R3<x - L>1

4.

Integrate the moment function, multiplying by 1/EI, to get the slope. (x) = [R1<x>2/2 - F<x - a>2/2 + R2<x - b>2/2 + R3<x - L>2/2 + C3]/EI

5.

Integrate again to get the deflection. y(x) = [R1<x>3/6 - F<x - a>3/6 + R2<x - b>3/6 + R3<x - L>3/6 + C3x + C4]/EI

6.

Evaluate R1, R2, R3, C3 and C4 At x = 0, x = b, and x = L; y = 0, therefore, C4 = 0. At x = L+, V = M = 0 Guess Given R1 6 R1 6 b

3

R1 100 N

R2 100 N

R3 100 N

C3 5 N m

F 6 F 6

( b a ) C 3 b = 0 N m R2 6

( L a)

( L b ) C3 L = 0 N m

R1 F R2 R3 = 0 N R1 L F ( L a ) R2 ( L b ) = 0 N m

6-26a-2

R1 R 2 Find R R R C 1 2 3 3 R3 C3

R1 111.11 N 7. 8. Define the range for x R2 472.22 N x 0 in 0.002 L L R3 83.33 N C3 5.556 N m

2

For a Mathcad solution, define a step function S. This function will have a value of zero when x is less than z, and a value of one when it is greater than or equal to z. S ( x z) if ( x z 1 0 ) Write the shear and moment equations in Mathcad form, using the function S as a multiplying factor to get the effect of the singularity functions. V ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) F S ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) R3 S ( x L) M ( x) R1 S ( x 0 in) x F S ( x a ) ( x a ) R2 S ( x b ) ( x b )

9.

200

Moment Diagram

60

0 V ( x) N M ( x) Nm

35

200

10

400

15

3

3

FIGURE 6-26aB

11. From Figure 6-26aB, the maximum moment occurs at x = a. The maximum, minimum, alternating and mean bending moments at x = a are: Mmax M ( a ) Ma Mm Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax 44.4 N m Ma 44.444 N m Mm 0 N m Mmin Mmax

6-26a-3

12. Calculate the alternating and mean components of the maximum bending stress in the beam using equation (4.11b). These are principal stresses and also von Mises stresses.

'a

M a c I Mm c I

'm

'm 0 MPa

13. Calculate the beam cross-section dimensions from I and c. Beam depth Beam width h 2 c w 12 I h

3

h 40 mm w 5.344 mm

14. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.05 w h d equiv A95 0.0766

0.097

A95 10.688 mm

d equiv 11.812 mm

Surface Temperature Reliability A 4.51 Ctemp 1 Creliab 1

Csize 0.936

b 0.265

S ut Csurf S ut A MPa

(R = 50%)

15. Determine the modified endurance limit as a function of the unknown endurance limit. S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf S ut Ctemp Creliab 0.5 S ut 16. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) as the design equation and solve for S ut. Guess Given S e S ut S ut S ut Find S ut Csurf S ut 0.895 18. Choose AISI 1020, cold-rolled steel (see Appendix A, Table A-9). S ut 447 MPa S ut 100 MPa

Nfd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

6-27-1

PROBLEM 6-27

Statement: A storage rack is to be designed to hold the paper roll of Problem 6-8 as shown in Figure P6-12. Determine a suitable value for dimension a in the figure for an infinite-life fatigue safety factor of 2. Assume dimension b = 100 mm and that the mandrel is solid and inserts halfway into the paper roll. (a) The beam is a ductile material with S ut = 600 MPa. (b) The beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 300 MPa. Paper roll dimensions OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Ductile tensile strength S uta 600 MPa

W

Given:

984 kg m

Nfd 2

Assumptions: The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. The mandrel's root fits tightly in the stanchion so it can be modeled as a cantilever beam. The mandrel is machined, reliability is 90%, and it operates at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-27 and Mathcad file P0627.

a M1 R1

Lm

FIGURE 6-27

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-27

Determine the weight of the roll and the length of the mandrel. Weight Length W

OD ID Lroll g

W 53.9 kN Lm 1.615 m

Lm 0.5 Lroll

2.

The maximum moment occurs at a section where the mandrel root leaves the stanchion and is Mmax W Lm Mmax 87.04 kN m

3. 4.

The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to Mmax on each stress cycle, thus Mmin 0 kN m Part (a) - Calculate the alternating and mean components of the bending moment. Ma Mm Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax Mmin 2 Ma 43520 N m Mm 43520 N m S'e 0.5 S uta S'e 300 MPa

5. 6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Cload 1 A95 ( a ) 0.010462 a

2 0.097

Size

d equiv( a )

A95 ( a ) 0.0766

Surface A 4.51 b 0.265

b

6-27-2

(machined)

S uta A MPa

Csurf 0.828

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( a ) Cload Csize( a ) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

8.

We can now determine the minimum required diameter, a. Using the distortion-energy failure theory with the modified Goodman diagram, the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Guess a 100 mm. Bending stress Given Nfd =

M c I

a 64 32 M = M = 2 4 3 a a

3

a

32

a Find ( a ) Round this up to the next higher even value Using this value of a, the values of the functions of a are: Csize( a ) 0.787 The realized safety factor is Nfa S e( a ) 175.371 MPa

a

32

Nfa 2.1

9.

10. Calculate the endurance limit size modification factor for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Size A95 ( a ) 0.010462 a

2 0.097

d equiv( a )

A95 ( a ) 0.0766

11. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( a ) Cload Csize( a ) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

6-27-3

12. We can now determine the minimum required diameter, a. Using the distortion-energy failure theory with the modified Goodman diagram, the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Guess a 100 mm. Bending stress Given Nfd =

M c I

a 64 32 M = M = 2 4 3 a a

3

a

32

a Find ( a ) Round this up to the next higher even value Using this value of a, the values of the functions of a are: Csize( a ) 0.766 The realized safety factor is Nfb S e( a ) 68.253 MPa

a

32

S e( a ) S utb Ma S utb Mm S e( a )

Nfb 2.0

6-28-1

PROBLEM 6-28

Statement: Figure P6-13 shows a forklift truck negotiating a 15 deg ramp to to drive onto a 4-ft-high loading platform. The truck weighs 5 000 lb and has a 42-in wheelbase. Design two (one for each side) 1-ft-wide ramps of steel to have a safety factor of 2 for infinite life in the worst case of loading as the truck travels up them. Minimize the weight of the ramps by using a sensible cross-sectional geometry. Choose an appropriate steel or aluminum alloy. Ramp angle 15 deg Platform height h 4 ft Truck wheelbase Lt 42 in Ramp width Truck weight w 12 in W 5000 lbf

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The worst case is when the truck CG is located at the center of the beam's span. 2. Use a coordinate frame that has the x-axis along the long axis of the beam. 3. Ignore traction forces and the weight components along the x-axis of the beam. 4. There are two ramps, one for each side of the forklift. See Figures 6-28 and Mathcad file P0628. Solution:

L b a CG a

CG b

R1 Fa Wa Fb Wb R2 x

FIGURE 6-28A

Dimensions and Free Body Diagram for Problem 6-28

1.

From Problem 3-28 the maximum bending moment in the ramp occurs at the rear wheel of the truck and is Mmax 8324 ft lbf Mmax 99888 in lbf Mmin 0 in lbf

The alternating and mean components of the bending moment are: Ma Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax Mmin 2 Ma 49944 in lbf

Mm 2.

Mm 49944 in lbf

The bending stress is the only stress component present and is, therefore, also the only nonzero principal stress and is also the von Mises stress. The governing design equations then are

S e S ut

6-28-2

'a =

Ma Z

'm =

Mm Z

Nfd =

'a S ut 'm S e

Z S e S ut Ma S ut Mm S e

Nfd =

3.

The approach will be to 1) choose a suitable factor of safety, 2) choose a suitable material and determine its tensile strength and endurance limit, 3) from the equation above determine the required value of the section modulus, 4) choose an appropriate cross-section for the ramp, and 5) determine the dimensions of the cross-section. The following design choices have been made for this problem: Design factor of safety Material Tensile strength Nfd 2 AISI 1095 steel, hot-rolled S ut 120 ksi S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 60 ksi

4.

5. 6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Surface Cload 1 Csize 0.732 A 14.4 Csurf A Temperature Reliability Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.897 (R = 90%) (initially guessed, and then found by iteration) b 0.718 (hot-rolled)

S ut ksi

Csurf 0.463

7.

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 18.237 ksi

8.

Solve the design equation for the minimum section modulus, Z. Z Nfd

Ma Sut Mm Se

S e S ut

Z 6.309 in

This is the minimum allowable value of the section modulus. 9. Assume a channel section such as that shown in Figure 6-28B. To keep it simple, let the thickness of the flanges and web be the same. Choose 5/8-in thick plate, which is readily available. Then, t 0.625 in

10. The cross-sectional area of the ramp is A ( h ) w t 2 t ( h t) 11. The distance to the CG is cg( h ) 1 A (h)

w t 2 2

t h t

6-28-3

12. The moments of inertia of the web and a flange are Iweb( h ) w t

3

Flange Web

12

w t cg( h )

2 t

2

Ifl ( h )

t ( h t) 12

h h t cg( h ) 2

I ( h ) Iweb( h ) 2 Ifl ( h ) 13. The maximum stress will occur in the flange at the top and is compressive. The distance from the centroid up to the top of the flange is c( h ) h cg( h ) 14. Using the known section modulus, solve for the unknown flange height, h. Guess h 1 in Given Z= I (h) c( h ) h Find ( h ) h 4.304 in FIGURE 6-28B

Channel Section for Problem 6-28

Round this to

h 4.25 in

15. Check the size modification factor. A95 0.05 w cg( h ) t ( h cg( h ) ) d equiv A95 0.0766

0.097

A95 2.628 in

d equiv 5.858 in

Csize 0.732

16. Summarizing, the ramp design dimensions are: Width w 12.00 in Flange height Thickness h 4.25 in t 0.625 in Shape Material channel 1095 steel

6-29-1

PROBLEM 6-29

Statement: A bar, 22 mm x 30 mm in cross-section, is loaded axially in tension with Fmin = -8 kN and Fmax = +8 kN. A 10-mm hole passes through the center of the 30-mm side. Find the safety factor for infinite life if the material has S ut = 500 MPa. Bar width Bar thickness Hole diameter Tensile strength w 30 mm h 22 mm d 10 mm S ut 500 MPa Maximum load Minimum load Infinite life Fmax 8 kN Fmin 8 kN

Given:

Assumptions: Machined surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 99.999%. Solution: 1. N = See Figure 6-29 and Mathcad file P0629.

For completely reversed loading, the factor of safety is Se Kf the Since 'a uniform axial stress is the only stress component present,

30

'a = a

2.

and

N =

Se Kf a

10

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

3.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for an axial bar. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.265

b

22

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.869

F

FIGURE 6-29 (R = 99.999%)

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-29

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 100.2 MPa

5.

Determine the nominal (not increased by a stress concentration factor) alternating component of stress at the hole. Area Alternating load A ( w d ) h Fa Fmax Fmin 2 Fa A A 440 mm Fa 8 kN

2

Alternating stress

a 18.182 MPa

6. Determine the geometric stress concentration factor from Appendix C, Figure C-13. Kt 3.0039 3.753

6-29-2

w 4 5 d d 1.8145 2.9684 w w

w

7.9735

9.2659

w

Kt 2.33

7.

Determine the notch sensitivity of the material. Note from Figure 6-35 that the Neuber constant for steel in tension is slightly lower that for torsional loading. However, comparison of values of a 1/2 obtained from the dashed red curve with those in Table 6-6 indicates that, for tension as well as torsion, a value of 20 ksi should be added to S ut to obtain a 1/2 from Table 6-6. Lookup value of S ut Neuber constant Notch radius Notch sensitivity S'ut S ut 20 ksi a 0.068 in r 0.5 d q 1 1 a r

2

0.5

8.

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor from equation (6.11b). Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 2.153

9.

Determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure for the assumptions made. Se Kf a

Nf

Nf 2.6

6-30-1

PROBLEM 6-30

Statement: A bar, 22 mm x 30 mm in cross-section, is loaded axially in tension with Fmin = 0 kN and Fmax = 16 kN. A 10-mm hole passes through the center of the 30-mm side. Find the safety factor for infinite life if the material has S ut = 500 MPa. Bar width Bar thickness Hole diameter Tensile strength w 30 mm h 22 mm d 10 mm S ut 500 MPa Maximum load Minimum load Infinite life Fmax 16 kN Fmin 0 kN

Given:

Assumptions: Machined surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 99.999%. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-29 and Mathcad file P0629.

F

For fluctuating loading, the factor of safety is S e S ut Kf 'a S ut Kfm 'm S e

N =

30

Since the uniform axial stress is the only stress component present,

'a = a

2.

and

'm = m

10

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

3.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for an axial bar. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.265

b

22

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.869

F

FIGURE 6-30 (R = 99.999%)

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-30

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 100.2 MPa

5.

Determine the nominal (not increased by a stress concentration factor) alternating and mean components of stress at the hole. Area A ( w d ) h A 440 mm

2

Alternating load Fa Fm Fmax Fmin 2 Fmax Fmin 2 Fa A Fm A Fa 8 kN Fm 8 kN

6-30-2

Mean load

Alternating stress

a 18.182 MPa

Mean stress 6.

m 18.182 MPa

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor from Appendix C, Figure C-13. Kt 3.0039 3.753

w 4 5 d d 1.8145 2.9684 w w

w

7.9735

9.2659

Kt 2.33

7.

Determine the notch sensitivity of the material. Note from Figure 6-35 that the Neuber constant for steel in tension is slightly lower that for torsional loading. However, comparison of values of a 1/2 obtained from the dashed red curve with those in Table 6-6 indicates that, for tension as well as torsion, a value of 20 ksi should be added to S ut to obtain a 1/2 from Table 6-6. Lookup value of S ut Neuber constant Notch radius Notch sensitivity S'ut S ut 20 ksi a 0.068 in r 0.5 d q 1 1 a r

2

0.5

8.

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factors from equations (6.11b) and (6.17). Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 2.153 Kf m a 78 MPa

Assuming the yield strength for this material is about 400 MPa, we can use the first of equations (6.17) and Kfm Kf 9. Kfm 2.153

Determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure for the assumptions made. S e S ut Kf a S ut Kfm m S e

Nf

Nf 2.1

6-31-1

PROBLEM 6-31

Statement: A bar, 22 mm x 30 mm in cross-section, is loaded axially in tension with Fmin = 8 kN and Fmax = 24 kN. A 10-mm hole passes through the center of the 30-mm side. Find the safety factor for infinite life if the material has S ut = 500 MPa. Bar width Bar thickness Hole diameter Tensile strength w 30 mm h 22 mm d 10 mm S ut 500 MPa Maximum load Minimum load Infinite life Fmax 24 kN Fmin 8 kN

Given:

Assumptions: Machined surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 99.999%. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-29 and Mathcad file P0629.

N =

30

Since the uniform axial stress is the only stress component present,

'a = a

2.

and

'm = m

10

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

3.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for an axial bar. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.265

b

22

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.869

F

FIGURE 6-31

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-31

4. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e 5. S e 100.2 MPa

Determine the nominal (not increased by a stress concentration factor) alternating and mean components of stress at the hole. Area Alternating load A ( w d ) h Fa Fmax Fmin 2 A 440 mm Fa 8 kN

2

Fmax Fmin 2 Fa A Fm A

6-31-2

Mean load

Fm

Fm 16 kN

Alternating stress

a 18.182 MPa

Mean stress 6.

m 36.364 MPa

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor from Appendix C, Figure C-13. Kt 3.0039 3.753

d

7.9735

Kt 2.33

7.

Determine the notch sensitivity of the material. Note from Figure 6-35 that the Neuber constant for steel in tension is slightly lower that for torsional loading. However, comparison of values of a 1/2 obtained from the dashed red curve with those in Table 6-6 indicates that, for tension as well as torsion, a value of 20 ksi should be added to S ut to obtain a 1/2 from Table 6-6. Lookup value of S ut Neuber constant Notch radius Notch sensitivity S'ut S ut 20 ksi a 0.068 in r 0.5 d q 1 1 a r

2

0.5

8.

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factors from equations (6.11b) and (6.17). Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 2.153 Kf m a 117 MPa

Assuming the yield strength for this material is about 400 MPa, we can use the first of equations (6.17) and Kfm Kf 9. Kfm 2.153

Determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure for the assumptions made. S e S ut Kf a S ut Kfm m S e

Nf

Nf 1.8

6-32-1

PROBLEM 6-32

Statement: A bar, 22 mm x 30 mm in cross-section, is loaded axially in tension with Fmin = -4 kN and Fmax = 12 kN. A 10-mm hole passes through the center of the 30-mm side. Find the safety factor for infinite life if the material has S ut = 500 MPa. Bar width Bar thickness Hole diameter Tensile strength w 30 mm h 22 mm d 10 mm S ut 500 MPa Maximum load Minimum load Infinite life Fmax 12 kN Fmin 4 kN

Given:

Assumptions: Machined surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 99.999%. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-29 and Mathcad file P0629.

N =

30

Since the uniform axial stress is the only stress component present,

'a = a

2.

and

'm = m

10

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

3.

b

22

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.869

F

FIGURE 6-32 (R = 99.999%)

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-32

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 100.2 MPa

5.

Determine the nominal (not increased by a stress concentration factor) alternating and mean components of stress at the hole. Area A ( w d ) h Fa Fmax Fmin 2 A 440 mm Fa 8 kN

2

Alternating load

Fmax Fmin 2 Fa A Fm A

6-32-2

Mean load

Fm

Fm 4 kN

Alternating stress

a 18.182 MPa

Mean stress 6.

m 9.091 MPa

Determine the geometric stress concentration factor from Appendix C, Figure C-13. Kt 3.0039 3.753

w 4 5 d d 1.8145 2.9684 w w

w

7.9735

9.2659

Kt 2.33

7.

2

0.5

8.

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factors from equations (6.11b) and (6.17). Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 2.153 Kf m a 59 MPa

Assuming the yield strength for this material is about 400 MPa, we can use the first of equations (6.17) and Kfm Kf 9. Kfm 2.153

Determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure for the assumptions made. S e S ut Kf a S ut Kfm m S e

Nf

Nf 2.3

6-33a-1

PROBLEM 6-33a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P6-14 subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = -F, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-6. Find the stress states at points A and B due to this fully reversed loading and choose a ductile steel material specification that will give a safety factor of 2 for infinite life. Assume a geometric stress-concentration factor of 2.5 in bending and 2.8 in torsion. Outside diameter Geometric stress concentration factors Design safety factor od 20 mm Kt 2.5 Kts 2.8 Nd 2

T M L R y A B T x F

Given:

Assumptions: The finish is machined, reliability is 50%, and the bracket operates at room temperature. The notch sensitivity q = 1 so that Kf = Kt. Solution: 1. 2.

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 6-33

From Problem 4-33a the stress components at point A are x 8.38 MPa Calculate fatigue stresses and principal stresses. Fatigue stresses

zx 16.76 MPa

b Kt x s Kts zx

2

Principal stresses

b 2 1 s 2 2

b

b 2 3 s 2 2

b

3. Calculate the alternating von Mises effective stress (the mean component is zero).

3 37.61 MPa

'a

4. 5. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit

1 1 3 3

S'e S ut 0.5 S ut

Determine the endurance limit modification factors Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 od d eq A95 0.0766

2

d eq 7.391 mm

6-33a-2

0.097

Surface A 4.51 Cs S ut A

b 0.265

S ut MPa

6.

Calculate the modified endurance limit S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf S ut Ctemp Creliab S'e S ut

7.

Use the equation for the factor of safety for fully reversed loading to solve for S ut. Guess S ut 100 MPa S e S ut S ut Find S ut S ut 362 MPa

Given

Nd =

'a

8.

Csurf S ut 0.946

S e S ut 167.88 MPa

6-34a-1

PROBLEM 6-34a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P6-14 subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = 0, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-6. Find the stress states at points A and B due to this repeated loading and choose a ductile steel material specification that will give a safety factor of 2 for infinite life. Assume a geometric stress-concentration factor of 2.8 in bending and 3.2 in torsion. Outside diameter Geometric stress concentration factors Design safety factor od 20 mm Kt 2.8 Kts 3.2 Nd 2

T M L R y A B T x F

Given:

Assumptions: The finish is machined, reliability is 50%, and the bracket operates at room temperature. The notch sensitivity q = 1 so that Kf = Kt. Solution: 1.

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 6-34

2. Calculate the alternating and mean stress components.

xa xm zxa zxm

3.

xmax xmin

2

xa 4.19 MPa xm 4.19 MPa zxa 8.38 MPa zxm 8.38 MPa

xmax xmin

2

zxmax zxmin

2

zxmax zxmin

2

Principal stresses

ba 2 1a sa 2 2

ba

6-34a-2

ba 2 3a sa 2 2

ba bm

2

3a 21.58 MPa

1m

bm 2 sm 2 bm 2 sm 2

2

3m

4.

bm

2

3m 21.58 MPa

Calculate the alternating and mean von Mises effective stress components.

'a 'm

5. 6.

1a 1a 3a 3a

2

2

1m 1m 3m 3m

S'e S ut 0.5 S ut

Determine the endurance limit modification factors Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 od d eq A95 0.0766

0.097 2

d eq 7.391 mm

Surface A 4.51 Cs S ut A

b 0.265

S ut MPa

Csurf S ut if Cs S ut 1 1 Cs S ut Temperature Reliability 7. Calculate the modified endurance limit S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf S ut Ctemp Creliab S'e S ut 8. Use the equation for the factor of safety for repeated loading assuming a Case 3 load line and using equation (6.18e). Guess S ut 100 MPa Ctemp 1 Creliab 1.0 (R = 50%)

6-34a-3

Given

Nd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

S ut 291 MPa S e S ut 142.72 MPa

S e S ut S ut

6-35a-1

PROBLEM 6-35a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P6-14 subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = -F, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-6. Find the stress states at points A and B due to this fully reversed loading and choose a cast iron material specification that will give a safety factor of 2 for infinite life. Assume a geometric stress-concentration factor of 2.5 in bending and 2.8 in torsion. Outside diameter Geometric stress concentration factors Design safety factor od 20 mm Kt 2.5 Kts 2.8 Nd 2

T M L R y A B T x F

Given:

Assumptions: The finish is as-cast, reliability is 50%, and the bracket operates at room temperature. There ia a fillet at the wall with radius r 2 mm. However, set the stress concentration factors and Csurf to 1 since cast iron's internal flaws mask these effects. Solution: 1 2. See Figure 6-35 and Mathcad file P0635a.

FIGURE 6-35

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 6-35

From Problem 4-33a the stress components at point A are x 8.38 MPa Calculate fatigue stress concentration factors and principal stresses. Let Fatigue stresses Kf 1

zx 16.76 MPa

Kfs 1

b Kf x s Kfs zx

Principal stresses

b 2 1 s 2 2

b

1 21.47 MPa

b 2 3 s 2 2

b 2 0 MPa

3. Calculate the alternating von Mises effective stress (the mean component is zero).

3 13.09 MPa

'a

4. 5.

1 1 3 3

S'e S ut 0.4 S ut

Determine the endurance limit modification factors Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 od

2

6-35a-2

d eq

A95 0.0766

0.097

d eq 7.391 mm

Csize 1.189 Surface Temperature Reliability 6. Calculate the modified endurance limit Csurf 1 Ctemp 1 Creliab 1.0

deq mm

(R = 50%)

S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S ut 7. Use the equation for the factor of safety for fully reversed loading to solve for S ut. Guess S ut 100 MPa Given Nd = S e S ut S ut Find S ut S ut 154 MPa

'a

8.

S e S ut 60.43 MPa

6-36a-1

PROBLEM 6-36a

Statement: For the bracket shown in Figure P6-14 subjected to a sinusoidal force-time function with Fmax = F and Fmin = 0, where F and the beam's other data are given in row a of Table P6-6. Find the stress states at points A and B due to this repeated loading and choose a cast iron material specification that will give a safety factor of 2 for infinite life. Assume a geometric stress-concentration factor o 2.8 in bending and 3.2 in torsion. Outside diameter Geometric stress concentration factors Design safety factor od 20 mm Kt 2.8 Kts 3.2 Nd 2

Given:

Assumptions: The finish is as-cast, reliability is 50%, and the bracket operates at room temperature. There ia a fillet at the wall with radius r 2 mm. However, set the stress concentration factors and Csurf to 1 since cast iron's internal flaws mask these effects. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-36 and Mathcad file P0636a.

FIGURE 6-36

Free Body Diagram of Tube for Problem 6-36

2. Calculate the alternating and mean stress components.

xa xm zxa zxm

3.

xmax xmin

2

xa 4.19 MPa xm 4.19 MPa zxa 8.38 MPa zxm 8.38 MPa

xmax xmin

2

zxmax zxmin

2

zxmax zxmin

2

Calculate fatigue stress concentration factors (set 1 for cast iron) and principal stresses Fatigue stress concentration factors Fatigue stresses Kf 1 Kfm 1 Kfs 1 Kfsm 1

Principal stresses

6-36a-2

ba 2 1a sa 2 2

ba

ba 2 3a sa 2 2

ba bm

2

3a 6.54 MPa

1m

bm 2 sm 2 bm 2 sm 2

2

3m

4.

bm

2

3m 6.54 MPa

Calculate the alternating von Mises effective stress (the mean component is zero).

'a 'm

5. 6.

1a 1a 3a 3a

2

2 2

1m 1m 3m 3m

2

0.097

Csize 1.189 Surface Temperature Reliability 7. Calculate the modified endurance limit Csurf 1 Ctemp 1 Creliab 1.0

deq mm

(R = 50%)

S e S ut Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S ut 8. Use the equation for the factor of safety for repeated loading assuming a Case 3 load line and using equation (6.18e). Guess S ut 100 MPa Given Nd =

'a S ut 'm S e S ut

S ut 107 MPa

S e S ut S ut

S ut Find S ut

6-37-1

PROBLEM 6-37

Statement: A semicircular, curved beam as shown in Figure 5-37 has the dimensions given below. For a load pair F = 3 kN applied along the diameter, find the safety factor at the inner and outer fibers: (a) If the beam is steel with S ut = 700 MPa, (b) If the beam is cast-iron with S ut = 420 MPa.

Given:

(a) Tensile strength (b) Tensile strength Maximum load Minimum load

Solution: 1.

From Problem 4-37, the stresses at the inside radius are: Inside

i 409.9 MPa

These are based on a load of 14 kN. Since the stress in a curved beam is directly proportional to the applied load, we can determine the stresses at the inside surface for this problem by applying the ratio 3/14 to this stress. Thus,

max min

3 14 3 14

i i

FIGURE 6-37

Free Body Diagrams for Problem 6-37

These are the only stress components present on their respective surfaces so they are also von Mises stresses. 2.

The dynamic loading in this problem is fully reversed. Determine the alternating stress component.

'a

Part (a) 3. 4.

max min

2

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 0.7 Section dims A95 0.05 w h d equiv A95 0.0766

0.097

2

d equiv 20.198 mm

Surface A 4.51

b 0.265

6-37-2

S uta A MPa

Csurf 0.795

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S ea Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'ea S ea 155.15 MPa

6.

Assuming no stress concentration, the fatigue factor of safety at the inner fiber for fully reversed loading is Nfa S ea Nfa 1.8

'a

Part (b) 7. 8. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit using equation (6.5b). S'eb 160 MPa

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Size Cload 0.7 Section dims A95 0.05 w h d equiv A95 0.0766

0.097

2

d equiv 20.198 mm

Surface A 4.51 Csurf A Temperature Reliability 9. Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.897

b 0.265

S utb MPa

Csurf 0.910

(R = 90%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S eb Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'eb S eb 81.21 MPa

10. Assuming no stress concentration, the fatigue factor of safety at the inner fiber for fully reversed loading is Nfb S eb Nfb 0.92

'a

6-38-1

PROBLEM 6-38

Statement: A 42-mm-dia steel shaft with a 19-mm transverse hole is subjected to a sinusoidal combined loading of = 100 MPa bending stress and steady torsion of 110 MPa. Find the safety factor for infinite life if S ut = 1000 MPa. Shaft diameter Hole diameter Infinite life Assumptions: Stresses given include stress concentration effects. Ground surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 50%. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0638. D 42 mm d 19 mm Max bending stress Min bending stress Steady torsion

Given:

'a 'm

2.

max min

2 3 m

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 500 MPa

3.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, round shaft. Load Size Surface Cload 1 Csize 1.189 A 1.58 D (combined bending and torsion)

mm

0.097

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.878

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 363.37 MPa

5.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure. S e S ut

Nf

'a S ut 'm S e

Nf 2.1

6-39-1

PROBLEM 6-39

Statement: A 42-mm-dia steel shaft with a 19-mm transverse hole is subjected to a combined loading of = 100 MPa bending stress and an alternating torsion of 110 MPa, which are 90 deg out of phase. Find the safety factor for infinite life if S ut = 1000 MPa. Shaft diameter Hole diameter Phase angle D 42 mm d 19 mm Max bending stress Min bending stress Max torsional stress Min torsional stress

Given:

max 100 MPa min 100 MPa max 110 MPa min 110 MPa

90 deg

Assumptions: Stresses given include stress concentration effects. Ground surfaces, temperature of 37C, and reliability of 50%. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0639.

The dynamic loading is fully reversed so both mean stresses are zero. Calculate the alternating SEQA stress component using equation (6.23). Stress ratio Q 2

max max

Q 2.2

1

SEQAa

max

2

3 4

3 2

Q cos( 2 )

9 16

2.

Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 500 MPa

3.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, round shaft. Load Size Surface Cload 1 Csize 1.189 A 1.58 (combined bending and torsion)

mm

D

0.097

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.878

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 363.37 MPa

5.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure. Nf Se SEQAa Nf 1.9

6-40-1

PROBLEM 6-40

Statement: Redesign the roll support of Problem 6-8 to be like that shown in Figure P6-16. The stub mandrels insert to 10% of the roll length at each end. Design dimension a for an infinite-life factor of safety of 2. See Problem 6-8 for additional data. (a) The beam is a ductile material with S y = 450 MPa, S ut = 600 MPa (b) The beam is a cast-brittle material with S ut = 300 MPa Paper roll dimensions OD 1.50 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Ductile tensile strength S uta 600 MPa Brittle tensile strength S utb 300 MPa Roll density Design safety factor

Given:

984 kg m

Nfd 2

Assumptions: The paper roll's weight creates a concentrated load acting at the tip of the mandrel. The mandrel's root fits tightly in the stanchion so it can be modeled as a cantilever beam. The mandrel is machined, reliability is 99.999%, and it operates at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-40 and Mathcad file P0640.

Determine the weight of the roll, the load on each support, and the length of the mandrel. Weight of paper W

OD ID Lroll g

FIGURE 6-40

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-40

W 53.9 kN Load on one mandrel Length of mandrel 2. F 0.5 W Lm 0.1 Lroll F 26.95 kN Lm 0.323 m

The maximum moment occurs at a section where the mandrel root leaves the stanchion and is Mmax F Lm Mmax 8.704 kN m

3. 4.

The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to Mmax on each stress cycle, thus Mmin 0 kN m Part (a) - Calculate the alternating and mean components of the bending moment. Ma Mm Mmax Mmin 2 Mmax Mmin 2 Ma 4352 N m Mm 4352 N m S'e 0.5 S uta S'e 300 MPa

5. 6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Cload 1 A95 ( a ) 0.010462 a

2

Size

d equiv( a )

A95 ( a ) 0.0766

6-40-2

0.097

Surface A 4.51 Csurf A Temperature Reliability 7. Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.659

b 0.265

(machined)

S uta MPa

Csurf 0.828

(R = 99.999%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( a ) Cload Csize( a ) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

8.

We can now determine the minimum required diameter, a. Using the distortion-energy failure theory with the modified Goodman diagram, the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Guess a 100 mm. Bending stress Given Nfd =

M c I

a 64 32 M = M = 2 4 3 a a

3

a

32

a Find ( a ) Round this up to the next higher even value Using this value of a, the values of the functions of a are: Csize( a ) 0.843 The realized safety factor is Nfa S e( a ) 137.942 MPa

a

32

Nfa 2.1

9.

10. Calculate the endurance limit size modification factor for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Size A95 ( a ) 0.010462 a

2 0.097

d equiv( a )

A95 ( a ) 0.0766

11. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e( a ) Cload Csize( a ) Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e

6-40-3

12. We can now determine the minimum required diameter, a. Using the distortion-energy failure theory with the modified Goodman diagram, the bending stress will also be the only nonzero principal stress, which will also be the von Mises stress. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Guess a 100 mm. Bending stress Given Nfd =

M c I

a 64 32 M = M = 2 4 3 a a

3

a

32

a Find ( a ) Round this up to the next higher even value Using this value of a, the values of the functions of a are: Csize( a ) 0.82 The realized safety factor is Nfb S e( a ) 53.672 MPa

a

32

S e( a ) S utb Ma S utb Mm S e( a )

Nfb 2.0

6-41-1

PROBLEM 6-41

Statement: A 10-mm ID steel tube carries liquid at 7 MPa. The pressure varies periodically from zero to maximum. The steel has S ut = 400 MPa Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor for the wall if its thickness is: a) 1 mm, b) 5 mm. Tensile strength S ut 400 MPa

Given:

Assumption: The tubing is long therefore the axial stress is zero. The finish is machined, reliability is 99.999% and the tubing is at room temperature. Solution: See Mathcad file P0641. t 1 mm

From Problem 4-41, this is a thick wall cylinder and the maximum principal stresses are:

2.

2maxa 0 MPa

Calculate the minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean von Mises effective stress using equation (5.7c).

3. 4.

'maxa 'min

2

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 200 MPa

'maxa 'min

2

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for axial loading. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.265

b

Sut A MPa

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 85.04 MPa

6.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, the factor of safety from equation (6.18e) is S e S ut

Na

'aa S ut 'ma S e

Na 3.3

(b) Wall thickness is 7. t 5 mm

6-41-2

From Problem 4-41, this is a thick wall cylinder and the principal stresses are:

8.

2maxb 0 MPa

Calculate the minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean von Mises effective stress using equation (5.7c).

2 2

'maxb

'ab

'maxb 'min

2

'mb

9.

'maxb 'min

2

The endurance limit does not change from part a to b. Assuming a Case 3 load line, the factor of safety from equation (6.18e) is S e S ut

Nb

'ab S ut 'mb S e

Nb 8.6

6-42-1

PROBLEM 6-42

Statement: A cylindrical tank with hemispherical ends is required to hold 150 psi of pressurized air at room temperature. The pressure cycles from zero to maximum. The steel has S ut = 500 MPa. Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor if the tank diameter is 0.5 m with 1 mm wall thickness, and its length is 1 m. Tensile strength S ut 500 MPa

The finish is machined, reliability is 99.999% and the tank is at room temperature. See Mathcad file P0642.

From Problem 4-42, this is a thin wall cylinder and the maximum principal stresses are:

2.

3max 0 MPa

Calculate the minimum, maximum, alternating, and mean von Mises effective stress using equation (5.7c).

2 2

'a

'max 'min

2

'm

3. 4.

'max 'min

2

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 250 MPa

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for axial loading. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.265

b

Sut A MPa

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 100.2 MPa

6.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, the factor of safety from equation (6.18e) is Nf S e S ut Nf 0.74

'a S ut 'm S e

6-43-1

PROBLEM 6-43

Statement: The paper rolls in Figure P6-17 are 0.9-m OD by 0.22-m ID by 3.23-m long and have a density of 984 kg/m3. The rolls are transfered from the machine conveyor (not shown) to the forklift truck by the V-linkage of the off-load station, which is rotated through 90 deg by an air cylinder. The paper then rolls onto the waiting forks of the truck. The forks are 38-mm thick by 100-mm wide by 1.2-m long and are tipped at a 3-deg angle from the horizontal and have S ut = 600MPa. Find the infinite-life safety factor for the two forks on the truck when the paper rolls onto it under two different conditions (state all assumptions): (a) The two forks are unsupported at their free end. (b) The two forks are contacting the table at point A. Tensile strength S ut 600 MPa Fork width Fork thickness w 100 mm t 38 mm

F t L fork

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The greatest bending moment will occur when the paper roll is at the tip of the fork for case (a) and when it is midway between supports for case (b). 2. Each fork carries 1/2 the weight of a paper roll. 3. For case (a), each fork acts as a cantilever beam (see Appendix B-1(a)). 4. For case (b), each fork acts as a beam that is built-in at one end and simply-supported at the other. 5. The forks are machined, the reliability is 90%, and they operate at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-43 and Mathcad file P0643.

M1

0.5 L fork t

L fork R1 R2

M2

FIGURE 6-43 From Problem 4-43, the maximum stresses in the forks are: Case (a) Case (b) Both cases

Free Body Diagrams used in Problem 6-43

Since there are no other stress components present, these are also the maximum principal stresses and the von Mises stresses. This is a repeated load problem.

Case (a) 2. The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to 1 for each paper roll that is transfered. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are: Alternating von Mises stress Mean von Mises stress 3. 4. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit.

S'e 0.5 S ut

S'e 300 MPa

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating rectangular beam. Load Cload 1

A95 0.0766

6-43-2

Size

A95 0.05 w t

d equiv

0.097

Surface A 4.51

Csize 0.814

b 0.265

b

(machined)

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.828

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 181.357 MPa

6.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Case a Nfa S e S ut Nfa 0.60

'a S ut 'm S e

Case (b) 7. The dynamic loading is repeated from 0 to 1 for each paper roll that is transfered. The alternating and mean components of the von Mises stress are: Alternating von Mises stress Mean von Mises stress 8.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.18e) to determine the factor of safety. Case a Nfb S e S ut Nfb 3.2

'a S ut 'm S e

6-44-1

PROBLEM 6-44

Statement: Determine a suitable thickness for the V-links of the off-loading station of Figure P6-17 to limit th deflections at the tips to 10 mm in any position during their rotation. Two V-links support the roll at the 1/4 and 3/4 points along the roll's length and that each of the V-links is 10 cm wide by 1 m long. What is the infinite-life safety factor when designed to limit deflection as above? S ut = 600 MPa. See Problem 4-43 for more information. Roll OD Roll ID Roll length Roll density OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m

3

Given:

Arm width Arm length Max tip deflection Mod of elasticity Tensile strength

wa 100 mm La 1000 mm

tip 10 mm

E 207 GPa S ut 600 MPa

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The maximum deflection on an arm will occur just after it begins the transfer and just before it completes it, i.e., when the angle is either zero or 90 deg., but after the tip is no longer supported b the base unit. 2. At that time the roll is in contact with both arms ("seated" in the V) and will remain in that state throughout the motion. When the roll is in any other position on an arm the tip will be supported. 3. The arm can be treated as a cantilever beam with nonend load. 4. A single arm will never carry more than half the weight of a roll. 5. The pipe to which the arms are attached has OD = 160 mm. 6. The V-links are machined, reliability is 90%, and they operate at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-44 and Mathcad file P0644.

Determine the weight of the roll and the load on each V-arm. W

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN F 9.32 kN

F 0.5 W 2.

From Appendix B, Figure B-1, the tip deflection of a cantilever beam with a concentrated load located at a distance a from the support is ymax = F a

2

6 E I

( a 3 L)

where L is the beam length and I is the cross-section moment of inertia. In this case I= 3. w a t a 12 FIGURE 6-44

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-44 1 3

2 F a2 3 La a ta E tip wa

Let the arm thickness be

ta 31.889 mm ta 32 mm

4.

6-44-2

The maximum bending stress in the arm will be at its base where it joins the 160-mm-dia pipe. The bending moment, moment of inertia, and distance to the outside fiber at that point are: Bending moment Mmax F a Mmin 0 kN m Ma Mm Distance to n.a. 1 2 1 2 Mmax Mmin Mmax Mmin Ma 1.725 kN m Mm 1.725 kN m c 16 mm I 2.731 10 mm

5 4

Mmax 3.449 kN m

c 0.5 t a I wa ta 12 M a c I Mm c I

3

Moment of inertia

anom mnom

5.

Determine the stress concentration factors. Figure E-10 comes the closest to our situation. Assuming that the effective D/d-ratio is 2 and r/d is about 0.25, Kt 1.4. For a material with ksi 10 psi and, for the assumed value of r/d, The notch sensitivity factor is

3

S ut 87 ksi r 0.25 ta q 1 1 a r

a 0.073 in r 8 mm q 0.885

Assuming that Kfm Kf , the actual alternating and mean components of stress at the point where the V-link meets the central hub are

7.

Since there are no other nonzero stress components at this point on the top of the arm, the von Mises stresses are and 'a a 'm m Determine the modified material strength. Unmodified endurance limit Load Size S'e 0.5 S ut Cload 1 A95 0.05 wa ta A95 160 mm

2

8.

A95 0.0766

0.097

6-44-3

d eq

d eq 45.703 mm

Surface Csurf

Csize 0.821

0.265

Csurf 0.828

Ctemp 1 Creliab 0.897 S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e (R = 90%) S e 182.8 MPa

Calculate the factor of safety. Using the distortion energy theory and the modified Goodman theory, the fatigue factor of safety for a V-link thickness of ta 32 mm is Nf S ut S e Nf 1.0

'a S ut 'm S e

6-45-1

PROBLEM 6-45

Statement: Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor based on the tension load on the air-cylinder rod in Figure P6-17. The tension load cycles from zero to maximum (compression loads below the critical buckling load will not affect the fatigue life). The crank arm that it rotates is 0.3 m long and the rod has a maximum extension of 0.5 m. The 25-mm-dia rod is solid steel with S ut = 600 MPa. State all assumptions. Paper roll dimensions OD 0.90 m ID 0.22 m Lroll 3.23 m Roll density

3

Given:

d 25 mm S ut 600 MPa

984 kg m

Assumptions: 1. The maximum force in the cylinder rod occurs when the transfer starts. 2. The cylinder and rod make an angle of 5.5 deg to the horizontal at the end of transfer. 3. The crank arm is 300 mm long and is 45 deg from vertical at the end of transfer. 4. The finish is machined, reliability is 90%, and the cylinder operates at room temperature. 5. The cylinder rod is fully retracted at the start of the transfer. At the end of the transfer it will have extended 500 mm from its initial position. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-45 and Mathcad file P0645.

y

OD ID Lroll g

W 18.64 kN 2. From the assumptions and Figure 6-45, the x and y distances from the origin to point A are, Rax 300 cos( 45 deg) mm Ray 300 sin( 45 deg) mm Rax 212.132 mm Ray 212.132 mm 3. From Figure 6-45, the x distance from the origin to point where W is applied is, Rwx 4. OD 2 Rwx 450 mm FIGURE 6-45

Free Body Diagram at End of Transfer for V-link of Problem 6-45

212.1 A F Rx x Ry 5.5

450.0 W

212.1

Sum moments about the pivot point and solve for the tensile force in the cylinder rod.

W Rwx Fmax Rax sin( 5.5 deg) Fmax Ray cos( 5.5 deg) = 0 Fmax W Rwx Ray cos( 8 deg) Rax sin( 8 deg) Fmin 0 kN Fmax 35.017 kN

tension

5.

6. Determine the alternating and mean components of axial stress in the rod. Area A Fa Fm

6-45-2

d

4

Alternating load

Mean load

Alternating stress

a 35.668 MPa

Mean stress

m 35.668 MPa

7.

'a S ut 'm S e

8.

Since the uniform axial stress is the only stress component present,

'a = a

9.

and

'm = m

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 300 MPa

10. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for an axial bar. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 4.51 b 0.265 (axial loading) (axial loading) (machined)

Csurf A Temperature Reliability 11. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e Ctemp 1

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.828

Creliab 0.897

(R = 90%)

S e 155.95 MPa

12. Determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure for the assumptions made. Nf S e S ut Nf 3.5

a S ut m S e

6-46-1

PROBLEM 6-46

Statement: The V-links of Figure P6-17 are rotated by the crank arm through a shaft that is 60 mm dia by 3.23 m long. Determine the maximum torque applied to this shaft during motion of the V-linkage and find the infinite-life fatigue safety factor for the shaft if its S ut = 600 MPa. See Problem 6-43 for more information.

y

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The greatest torque will occur when the link is horizontal and the paper roll is located as shown in Figure P6-17 or Figure 6-46. 2. The V-links are machined, use a reliability of 90%, and operate at room temperature. Solution: 1. See Figure 6-46 and Mathcad file P0646.

W T

60-mm-dia shaft

Ry 450.0

2.

Although not exactly true, assume that the load is fully reversed, then the minimum torque is min 197.88 MPa

FIGURE 6-46

Free Body Diagram used in Problem 6-46

3.

Calculate the alternating component of the torsional stress in the shaft. Alternating stress

max min

2

a 197.88 MPa

4.

Convert this to the corresponding component of the von Mises stress. Alternating stress

'a

3 a

S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 300 MPa

5. 6.

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a solid, round steel shaft. Load Size Cload 1 d Csize 1.189 mm A 4.51

0.097

Csize 0.799

Surface

b 0.265

b

(machined)

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.828

7. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 178.07 MPa

6-46-2

8.

Nf

'a

Nf 0.52

6-47-1

PROBLEM 6-47

Statement: Determine the maximum forces on the pins at each end of the air cylinder of Figure P6-17. Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor in these pins if they are 30-mm dia and in single shear. S ut = 600 MPa. See Problem 6-43 for more information. Pin diameter d 30 mm Tensile strength S ut 600 MPa

Given:

Assumptions: 1. The maximum force in the cylinder rod occurs when the transfer starts. 2. The dynamic loading is fully reversed. 3. The finish is machined, reliability is 90%, and the pins are at room temperature. Solution: See Figure 6-47 and Mathcad file P0647.

y

Ry

FIGURE 6-47

Free Body Diagram at Start of Transfer for V-link of Problem 6-47

1. 2. 3. 4.

3 max 'a 113.796 MPa

This is the only stress com- ponent so the alternating von Mises stress is 'a Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a nonrotating direct shear. Size Load A95

d

4

A95 706.858 mm

0.097

d equiv 96.062 mm

Surface A 4.51

b 0.265

6-47-2

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.828

Creliab 0.897

(R = 90%)

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 170.12 MPa

6. Assuming a Case 3 load line, use equation (6.14) to determine the factor of safety. Nf Se Nf 1.5

'a

6-48-1

PROBLEM 6-48

Statement: Figure P6-18 shows an exerciser for a 100-kg wheelchair racer. The wheelchair has 65-cm-dia drive wheels separated by a 70-cm track width. Two free-turning rollers on bearings support the rear wheels. The lateral movement of the chair is limited by the flanges. Design the 1-m-lomg rollers as hollow tubes of aluminum (select alloy) to minimize the height of the platform and also limit the roller deflections to 1 mm in the worst case. Specify suitable sized steel axles to support the tubes on bearings. Calculate the fatigue safety factors at a life of 5E8 cycles. Mass of chair M 100 kg Wheel diameter d w 650 mm Track width Roller length T 700 mm Lr 1000 mm Maximum deflection Modulus elasticity Aluminum Steel

Given:

1 mm

Ea 71.7 GPa Es 207 GPa

Assumptions: 1. The CG of the chair with rider is sufficiently close to the rear wheel that all of the weight is taken by the two rear wheels. 2. The small camber angle of the rear wheels does not significantly affect the magnitude of the forces on the rollers. 3. Both the aluminum roller and the steel axle are simply supported. The steel axles that support the aluminum tube are fixed in the mounting block and do not rotate. The aluminum tube is attached to them by two bearings (one on each end of the tubes, one for each axle). The bearings' inner race is fixed, and the outer race rotates with the aluminum tube. Each steel axle is considered to be loaded as a simply supported beam. Their diameter must be less than the inner diameter of the tubes to fit the roller bearings between them. 4. All surfaces are machined, reliability is 90%, and parts are at room temperature. Solution: 1. 2. See Figures 6-48 and Mathcad file P0648.

W/2

F

FIGURE 6-48A

W M g

W 980.7 N

Calculate the forces exerted by the wheels on the rollers (see Figure 5-48A). From the FBD of a wheel, summing vertical forces 2 F cos( ) Let W 2 =0 then F W 4 cos( ) F 260.9 N

20 deg

3.

The worst condition (highest moment at site of a stress concentration) will occur when the chair is all the way to the left or right. Looking at the plane through the roller that includes the forces exerted by the wheels (the FBD is shown in Figure 6-48B) the reactions R1 and R2 come from the bearings, which are inside the hollow roller and are, themselves, supported by the steel axle. Solving for the reactions. Let the distance from R1 to F be a 15 mm

4.

6-48-2

M1 Fy

R2

R2 Lr F ( a T ) F a = 0 R1 2 F R2 = 0 F (2 a T ) Lr R2 190.5 N

700

15

R2 1000

R1 2 F R2 5.

R1 331.3 N

R1

The maximum bending moment will be at the right-hand load and will be Mrmax R2 Lr ( a T ) Lr T 2

FIGURE 6-48B

Free Body Diagram of One Tube used in Problem 6-48

Mrmax 54.3 N m

Note, if the chair were centered on the roller the maximum moment would be Mc F Mc 39.1 N m

and this would be constant along the axle between the two loads, F. 6. Note that the bearing positions are fixed regardless of the position of the chair on the roller. Because of symmetry, Ra1 R1 Ra2 R2 7. Ra1 331.3 N Ra2 190.5 N

R a1 1130 R a2 65 R1 1000 R2

The maximum bending moment occurs at R1 and is for b 65 mm Mamax Ra1 b Mamax 21.5 N m

FIGURE 6-48C

Free Body Diagram of One Axle used in Problem 6-48

8. 9.

Determine a suitable axle diameter. Let the factor of safety against yielding in the axle be Nsa 3 Tentatively choose a low-carbon steel for the axle, say AISI 1020, cold rolled with S y 393 MPa

10. At the top of the axle under the load R1 there is only a bending stress, which is also the von Mises stress. Set this stress equal to the yield strength divided by the factor of safety.

' =

32 Mamax

Sy Nsa

1

d a

d a

32 Nsa Mamax S y

d a 11.875 mm

d a 15 mm

11. Suppose that bearing 6302 from Chapter 10, Figure 10-23, page 684 is used. It has a bore of 15 mm and an OD of 42 mm. Thus, the inside diameter of the roller away from the bearings where the moment is a maximum will be d i 40 mm. This will provide a 1-mm shoulder for axial location of the bearings.

12. Design for a factor of safety of Nra 3. Tentatively choose 2024-T4 aluminum with S ut 440 MPa and S'e5E8 138 MPa 13. A point on the outside diameter of the roller will see completely reversed bending, which will also be the only nonzero principal stress. Thus,

F 15 1000 F

6-48-3

150 F

700 F

FIGURE 6-48D

Free Body Diagram of Roller with Chair in the Center.

x =

Kf Mrmax Z

= ' =

Se Nfr

where Kf is the fatigue stress concentration at the shoulder and S e is the modified endurance limit. 14. Tentatively choose (these values arrived at by iteration): Outside diameter Shoulder diameter Fillet radius d o 45 mm D 54 mm r 5 mm

15. Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor. From Figure E-2 and Table 6-6 for r do 0.111

0.21796

D do

1.2

4

Kt 1.57

q 0.813

Kf 1.46

4 4 do di 64

I 7.563 10 mm c 22.5 mm

c 0.5 d o

'a

Kf Mrmax c I

17. Destermine the endurance limit at 5E8 cycles Load factor Cload 1

6-48-4

Size factor

do Csize 1.189 mm

Csurf 4.51

0.097

Csize 0.822

0.265

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.899

Creliab 0.897

S e5E8 Cload Csize Csurf Creliab S'e5E8 18. Determine the factor of safety for repeated loading. Nfr S e5E8

'a

Nfr 3.87

19. The maximum deflection of the roller will occur when the chair is in the center of the roller. For this case the reactions are both equal to the loads, F. Using Figure B-2(a) in Appendix B, the maximum deflection is at the center of the roller and is for a 150 mm E 71.7 GPa ymax 2 a 3 3 x ( x a ) 6 E I Lr a 2 2 a 3 a Lr 2 Lr x Lr F 1 x 0.5 Lr x 500 mm

ymax 0.875 mm

This design meets the deflection requirement and has a reasonable factor of safety against fatigue failure while allowing sufficient space for the bearings. DESIGN SUMMARY Axle Material Diameter Length AISI 1020 steel, cold-rolled d a 15 mm 1220 mm Roller Material Outside diameter Inside diameter Shoulder dia Fillet radius Length Center line spacing 2024-T4 aluminum d o 45 mm d i 40 mm D 54 mm r 5 mm 1040 mm c d w d o sin( ) c 238 mm

6-49-1

PROBLEM 6-49

Statement:

_____

Figure P6-19 shows a machined pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 lb, l = 2 in, and d = 0.5 in, what is the pin's safety factor against fatigue when made of SAE 1020 cold-rolled steel? The loading is fully reversed and a reliability of 90% is desired. There is a bending stress concentration factor Kt = 1.8 at the section where the pin leaves part A on the right-hand side. Applied force Total length, l Pin dia F 100 lbf l 2.00 in d 0.5 in Material strength S y 57 ksi Beam length L 0.5 l S ut 68 ksi

Given:

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0649. Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w 2. F L w 100.0 lbf in

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a in the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is w L 2

2

Mmax 3.

Calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber of the pin. The nominal alternating bending stress in the beam is then found using equation 4.11b. I

d

64

I 3.068 10 c 0.250 in

in

c 0.5 d

anom

4.

Mmax c I

1

a 0.096 in 5.

a 0.096 in

6.

The fatigue stress-concentration factor for Kt 1.8, from equation 6.11b, is Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.67

6-49-2

7.

Because the stress state in the pin is simple, uniaxial stress, the alternating principal stress is equal to the alternating tensile stress and is also equal to the alternating von Mises stress. Thus,

a Kf anom ' a

8. 9. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit.

a 6.81 ksi

S'e 0.5 S ut

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a non rotating round pin in bending. Load Size Cload 1 A95 0.010462 d A95 0.0766

2

A95 2.615 10

in

d equiv

d equiv 0.185 in

Surface

This is less than the lower limit in equation 6.7b, so use Csize 1 (machined) A 2.7 b 0.265 Csurf A

S ut ksi

Csurf 0.883

Temperature Reliability

10. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 26.9 ksi

11. Using equation 6.14, calculate the factor of safety against a fatigue failure for this case of fully reversed bending. Se

Nf

'

Nf 4.0

6-50-1

PROBLEM 6-50

Statement:

_____

Figure P6-19 shows a machined pivot pin that is press-fit into part A and is slip fit in part B. If F = 100 N, l = 50 mm, and d = 16 mm, what is the pin's safety factor against fatigue when made of class 50 cast iron? The loading is fully reversed and a reliability of 90% is desired. There is a bending stress concentration factor Kt = 1.8 at the section where the pin leaves part A on the right-hand side.

Given:

F 100 N l 50 mm

Assumptions: 1. Since there is a slip fit between the pin and part B, part B offers no resistance to bending of the pin and, since the pin is press-fit into part A, it can be modeled as a cantilever beam of length l/2. 2. Part B distributes the concentrated force F so that, at the pin, it is uniformly distributed over the exposed length of the pin. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0650.

Calculate the intensity of the uniformly distributed load acting over the length of the pin. w F L w 4.0 N mm

2.

A cantilever beam with uniform loading is shown in Figure B-1(b) in Appendix B. In this case, the dimension a in the figure is zero. As shown in the figure, when a = 0, the maximum bending moment occurs at the support and is Mmax w L 2

2

Mmax 1250 N mm

3.

Calculate the moment of inertia and distance to the extreme fiber of the pin. The nominal alternating bending stress in the beam is then found using equation 4.11b. I

d

64

I 3.217 10 mm c 8.000 mm

c 0.5 d

anom

4.

Mmax c I

Since this is a brittle material, so the full value of the geometric stress concentration factor Kt 1.8 will be applied to the nominal stress using equation 4.31.

5.

Because the stress state in the pin is simple, uniaxial stress, the alternating principal stress is equal to the alternating tensile stress and is also equal to the alternating von Mises stress. Thus,

a Kt anom ' a

6. 7. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit.

a 5.60 MPa

S'e 0.5 S ut

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a non rotating round pin in bending. Load Cload 1

6-50-2

Size

A95 2.678 mm

d equiv

d equiv 5.913 mm

Surface

This is less than the lower limit in equation 6.7b, so use Csize 1 (machined) A 4.51 b 0.265

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.949

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 152.7 MPa

9.

Using equation 6.14, calculate the factor of safety against a fatigue failure for this case of fully reversed bending Nf Se Nf 27

'

6-51-1

PROBLEM 6-51

Statement:

_____

A component in the shape of a large sheet is to be fabricated from 7075-T651 aluminum, which has a fracture toughness Kc = 24.2 MPa-m0.5 and a tensile yield strength of 495 MPa. Determine the number of loading cycles that can be endured if the nominal stress varies from 0 to one half the yield strength and the initial crack had a total length of 1.2 mm. The values of the coefficient and exponent in equation 6.4 for this material are A = 5 x 10 -11 (mm/cyc) and n = 4. cycle 1 Fracture toughness Yield strength Initial crack length Coeff. and exponent Kc 24.2 MPa m S y 495 MPa lo 1.2 mm A 5 10

11 0.5

Units: Given:

mm cycle

n 4

Solution: 1.

Calculate the minimum and maximum nominal stresses based on the yield strength and the stress level given in the problem statement.

2. Sy 2

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a plate with a central crack.

1

3. Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for this material at the maximum stress condition.

Kc a c max

1 4.

a c 3.0 mm

5.

Using equations 6.3, write the stress intensity factor range as a function of crack half-length.

K ( a ) a max min

6. Integrate equation 6.4 to find the number of cycles to failure. 1 Nc A

ac

K ( a ) 0.5 MPa m

da

Nc 7.2 10 cycle

ao

6-52-1

PROBLEM 6-52

Statement:

_____

A component in the shape of a large sheet is to be fabricated from 4340 steel, which has a fracture toughness Kc = 98.9 MPa-m0.5. The sheets are inspected for crack flaws after fabrication, but the inspection device cannot detect flaws smaller than 5 mm. Determine the minimum thickness required for the sheet to have a minimum cycle life of 10 6 cycles (using fracture-mechanics criteria if its width is 400 mm and the load normal to the crack varies from 20 to 170 kN. The values of th coefficient and exponent in equation 6.4 for this material are A = 4 x 10 -9 (mm/cyc) and n = 3. cycle 1 Fracture toughness Width of sheet Load Coeff. and exponent Cycles to failure Kc 98.9 MPa m W 400 mm Fmin 20 kN A 4 10

6 9 0.5

Units: Given:

Fmax 170 kN

1

mm cycle

n 3

Nf 10 cycle

Assumption: Solution: 1.

Write equations for the minimum and maximum nominal stresses as a function of the unknown thickness.

min( t)

2.

Fmin W t

max( t)

Fmax W t

Determine the value of the geometry factor from the discussion in Section 5.3 for a plate with a central crack.

1

3. Using equation 5.14b, write an equation for the critical crack length as a function of t for this material at the maximum stress condition.

Kc a c( t) max( t)

1 4. a o 0.5 l o 5.

Using equations 6.3, write the stress intensity factor range as a function of crack half-length and sheet thickness

K ( a t) a max( t) min( t)

6. Use equation 6.4 to find the minimum sheet thickness. First, guess a value: t 4 mm Nf A =

ac( t )

Given

K ( a t) 0.5 MPa m

da

t Find ( t)

t 3.2 mm

ao

6-53-1

PROBLEM 6-53

Statement:

_____

A closed, thin-wall cylinder is made from an aluminum alloy that has a fracture toughness of 38 MPa-m0.5 and has the following dimensions: length = 200 mm, OD = 84 mm, and ID = 70 mm. A 2.8-mm-deep semicircular crack is discovered on the inner diameter away from the ends, oriented along a line parallel to the cylinder axis. If the cylinder is repeatedly pressurized from 0 to 75 MPa, how many pressure cycles can it withstand? The values of the coefficient and exponent in equation 6.4 for this material are A = 5 x 10 -12 (mm/cyc) and n = 4. (Hint: the value of the geometry factor for a semicircular surface flaw is = 2/and the crack grows in the radial direction). cycle 1 Fracture toughness Initial crack depth Cylinder dimensions Internal pressure Coeff. and exponent Geometry factor Kc 38 MPa m L 200 mm p min 0 MPa

12 0.5

Units: Given:

1

A 5 10 mm cycle 0.6367

n 4

Solution: 1.

Calculate the nominal hoop stress (tangential direction, normal to cylinder axis) using equation 4.49a based on the pressure levels given in the problem statement. r 0.5 ID r 35.0 mm r t r t t 0.5 ( OD ID) t 7.0 mm

min p min

max p max

2.

Using equation 5.14b, calculate the critical crack length for this material at the maximum stress condition.

Kc a c max

1 a c t 3.

a c 8.1 mm

However, since this is larger than the wall thickness, failure will occur when the crack reaches the OD so a c 7.0 mm

Using equations 6.3, write the stress intensity factor range as a function of crack depth.

K ( a ) a max min

4. Integrate equation 6.4 to find the number of cycles to failure. 1 Nc A

ac

K ( a ) 0.5 MPa m

da

Nc 1.34 10 cycle

ao

6-54-1

PROBLEM 6-54

Statement:

_____

A non rotating, hot-rolled, steel beam has a channel section with h = 64 mm and b = 127 mm. It is loaded in repeated bending with the neutral axis through the web. Determine its corrected fatigue strength with 90% reliability if it is used in an environment that has a temperature that is below 450C and has an ultimate tensile strength of 320 MPa. Ultimate tensile strength Reliability Dimensions S ut 320 MPa R 0.90 h 64 mm b 127 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the uncorrected endurance limit using equation 6.5a. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 160.0 MPa

2.

3.

Determine the size factor from equations 6.7b and 6.7d, and Figure 6-25. Area stressed above 95% of max A95 0.05 b h d equiv

0.097

A95 406.4 mm

Equivalent diameter

A95 0.0766

d equiv 72.8 mm

Size factor

Csize 0.784

4.

Determine the surface factor from equation 6.7e and Table 6-3. From Table 6-3 A 57.7 Csurf A b 0.718

Surface factor

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.917

5. 6. 7.

Determine the temperature factor from equation 6.7f. Since T < 450C, Ctemp 1. Determine the reliability factor from Table 6-4, Creliab 0.897. Using equation 6.6, calculate the corrected endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 103.3 MPa

6-55-1

PROBLEM 6-55

Statement:

_____

A non rotating, machined, steel rod has a round section with d = 50 mm. It is loaded with a fluctuating axial force. Determine its corrected fatigue strength with 99% reliability if it is used in an environment that has a temperature below 450C and has an ultimate tensile strength of 480 MPa. Ultimate tensile strength Reliability Dimensions S ut 480 MPa R 0.99 d 50 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the uncorrected endurance limit using equation 6.5a. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 240.0 MPa

2.

3. 4.

The size factor for an axially loaded member is Csize 1 Determine the surface factor from equation 6.7e and Table 6-3. From Table 6-3 A 4.51 b 0.265

b

Surface factor

Csurf

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.878

5. 6. 7.

Determine the temperature factor from equation 6.7f. Since T < 450C, Ctemp 1. Determine the reliability factor from Table 6-4, Creliab 0.814. Using equation 6.6, calculate the corrected endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 120.1 MPa

6-56-1

PROBLEM 6-56

Statement:

_____

A non rotating, cold-drawn, steel rod has a round section with d = 76 mm. It is loaded in repeated torsion. Determine its corrected fatigue strength with 99% reliability if it is used in an environment that has a temperature of 500C and has an ultimate tensile strength of 855 MPa. Ultimate tensile strength Reliability Dimensions Temperature S ut 855 MPa R 0.99 d 76 mm T 500 C

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the uncorrected endurance limit using equation 6.5a. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 427.5 MPa

2.

3.

Determine the size factor from equation 6.7b. Size factor Csize 1.189

mm

d

0.097

Csize 0.781

4.

Determine the surface factor from equation 6.7e and Table 6-3. From Table 6-3 A 4.51 b 0.265

b

Surface factor

Csurf

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.754

5.

T 450 C C

Ctemp 0.710

6. 7.

Determine the reliability factor from Table 6-4, Creliab 0.814. Using equation 6.6, calculate the corrected endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 145.5 MPa

6-57-1

PROBLEM 6-57

Statement:

_____

A non rotating, ground, steel rod has a rectangular section with h = 60 mm and b = 40 mm. It is loaded in repeated bending. Determine its corrected fatigue strength with 99.9% reliability if it is used in an environment that has a temperature that is below 450C and has an ultimate tensile strength of 1550 MPa. Ultimate tensile strength Reliability Dimensions S ut 1550 MPa R 0.999 h 60 mm b 40 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

Calculate the uncorrected endurance limit using equation 6.5a (S ut exceeds 1400 MPa). S'e 700 MPa

2.

3.

Determine the size factor from equations 6.7b and 6.7d, and Figure 6-25. Area stressed above 95% of max A95 0.05 b h d equiv A95 0.0766 A95 120.0 mm

2

Equivalent diameter

d equiv 39.6 mm

Size factor

Csize 1.189

d equiv mm

0.097

Csize 0.832

4.

Determine the surface factor from equation 6.7e and Table 6-3. From Table 6-3 A 1.58 b 0.085

b

Surface factor

Csurf

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.846

5. 6. 7.

Determine the temperature factor from equation 6.7f. Since T < 450C, Ctemp 1. Determine the reliability factor from Table 6-4, Creliab 0.753. Using equation 6.6, calculate the corrected endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 371.2 MPa

6-58-1

PROBLEM 6-58

Statement:

_____

A steel, grooved shaft similar to that shown in Figure C-5 (Appendix C) is to be loaded in bending Its dimensions are: D = 57 mm, d = 38 mm, r = 3 mm. Determine the fatigue stress- concentration factor if the material S ut = 1130 MPa. Dimensions: D 57 mm Tensile strength S ut 1130 MPa See Figure C-5 and Mathcad file P0658. d 38 mm r 3 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

The geometric stress-concentration factor is found from the equation in Figure C-5. For D d Kt A 1.500 r

b

A 0.93894 Kt 2.14

b 0.32380

and

2.

The Neuber constant is found by linear interpolation of the values in Table 6-6. S ut 163.9 ksi a 1 0.031 in a S ut S 2 S1 S2

2

S 1 160 ksi

a 2 0.024 in a 0.030 in

0.5

S 2 180 ksi

a 1 a 2 a 2

3.

4.

The fatigue stress-concentration factor can now be found from equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 2.05

6-59-1

PROBLEM 6-59

Statement:

_____

A steel shaft with a transverse hole similar to that shown in Figure C-8 (Appendix C) is to be loaded in torsion. Its dimensions are: D = 32 mm, d = 3 mm. Determine the fatigue stressconcentration factor if the material S ut = 808 MPa. Dimensions: Tensile strength D 32 mm S ut 808 MPa d 3 mm

Given:

Solution: 1.

The geometric stress-concentration factor is found from an equation in Figure C-8. Although the maximum torsional stress is on the surface, it will be almost a maximum just below the surface so it will be conservative to use curve B. Kt 3.9702 9.292

D

27.159

30.231

Kt 3.34

2.

The Neuber constant is found by linear interpolation of the values in Table 6-6. However, since the loading is torsional, 20 ksi must be added to the value of S ut that is used in the table (see the text in Figure 6-36, Part 1). S utt S ut 20 ksi a 1 0.044 in a S utt S 2 S1 S2

2

0.5 2

S 2 140 ksi

a 1 a 2 a 2

3.

Calculate the notch sensitivity using equation 6.13. Let r 0.5 d q 1 1 a r q 0.857

4.

The fatigue stress-concentration factor can now be found from equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 3.00

6-60-1

PROBLEM 6-60

Statement:

_____

A hardened aluminum filleted flat bar similar to that shown in Figure C-9 (Appendix C) is to be loaded axially. Its dimensions are: D = 1.20 in, d = 1.00 in, r = 0.10 in. Determine the fatigue stress-concentration factor if the material S ut = 76 ksi. Dimensions: Tensile strength D 1.20 in S ut 76 ksi d 1.00 in r 0.100 in

Given:

Solution: 1.

The geometric stress-concentration factor is found from the equation in Figure C-9. For D d Kt A 1.200 r

b

A 1.03510 Kt 1.84

b 0.25084

and

2.

The Neuber constant is found by linear interpolation of the values in Table 6-8. a 1 0.144 in a S ut S 2 S1 S2

2

S 1 70 ksi

a 2 0.131 in a 0.136 in

0.5

S 2 80 ksi

a 1 a 2 a 2

3.

4.

The fatigue stress-concentration factor can now be found from equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.59

6-61-1

PROBLEM 6-61

Statement: A rotating shaft with a shoulder fillet seated in the inner race of a rolling contact bearing with the shoulder against the edge of the bearing is shown in Figure P6-20. The bearing has a slight eccentricity that induces a fully reversed bending moment in the shaft as it rotates. Measurements indicate that the resulting alternating stress amplitude due to bending is a = 57 MPa. The torque on the shaft fluctuates from a high of 90 N-m to a low of 12 N-m and is in phase with the bending stress. The shaft is ground and its dimensions are: D = 23 mm, d = 19 mm, and r = 1.6 mm. The shaft material is SAE 1040 cold-rolled steel. Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor for the shaft for a reliability of 99%. Strength SAE 1040 CR Fluctuating torque Shaft dimensions Solution: 1. S ut 586 MPa Alternating bending stress xa 57 MPa Tmax 90 N m Tmin 12 N m D 23 mm d 19 mm r 1.6 mm

Given:

Determine the mean and alternating components of the fluctuating torsional stress. Distance to outside fiber c J d 2 c 9.5 mm

4

d

32

Torsional stress

xymax 66.827 MPa xymin 8.91 MPa xym 37.869 MPa xya 28.958 MPa

xymax xymin

2

xymax xymin

2

2.

Using Appendix C, determine the geometric stress concentration factors for the bending and torsional stresses. Bending (Fig. C-2): For D d 1.211 r d

b

0.084

A 0.97098

b 0.21796

Kt 1.665 r d

b

0.084

A 0.83425

b 0.21649

Kts A 3.

Kts 1.425

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material for bending and torsion using Table 6-6.

6-61-2

Bending: Neuber constant (for S ut 586.0 MPa) Notch sensitivity q b 1 1 Torsion: Neuber constant (for S ut 20 MPa 606.0 MPa) Notch sensitivity q s 1 1 4. a r a 0.0585 in q s 0.811

2

a 0.075 in q b 0.77

a r

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and torsion using equation 6.11b. Bending Torsion Kf 1 q b Kt 1 Kfs 1 q s Kts 1 Kf 1.512 Kfs 1.345

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean torsional stress. Yield strength SAE 1040 CR Evaluate S y 490 MPa which is less than S y so

6.

Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors. Bending Torsion

a 86.188 MPa

7.

Find the mean and alternating von Mises stresses using equations 6.22b (with y = 0). Mean Alternating

'm 'a

3 m

2

2 2

a 3 a

8. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 293 MPa

9. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, round shaft. Load Cload 1 (combined bending and torsion)

Csize 1.189 A 1.58

6-61-3

Size

mm

d

0.097

Surface

(ground)

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.919

10. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 196 MPa

11. Assuming a Case 2 load line, determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure. Se

Nf

'a

'm

S ut

Nf 1.5

6-62-1

PROBLEM 6-62

Statement: A tension member in a machine is filleted as shown in Figure P6-21. The member has a manufacturing defect that causes the fluctuating tension load to be applied eccentrically resulting in a fluctuating bending load as well. Measurements indicate that the maximum bending stress is 16.4 MPa and the minimum is 4.1 MPa. The tensile load fluctuates from a high of 3.6 kN to a low of 0.90 kN and is in phase with the bending stress. The member is machined and its dimensions are: D = 33 mm, d = 25 mm, h = 3 mm and r = 3 mm. The material is SAE 1020 cold-rolled steel. Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor for the member for a reliability of 90%. Strength SAE 1020 CR Fluctuating tension Dimensions Solution: 1. S ut 380 MPa xmax 16.4 MPa Fmax 3.6 kN Fmin 0.90 kN h 3 mm r 3 mm d 25 mm

Given:

D 33 mm

Determine the mean and alternating components of the fluctuating stresses. Bending

mb ab

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2 Fmax h d Fmin h d

Tension

xtmax

xtmin mt at

xtmax xtmin

2

xtmax xtmin

2

2.

Using Appendix C, determine the geometric stress concentration factors for the bending and tensile stresses. Bending (Fig. C-10): For D d 1.32 r d

b

0.12

A 0.95880

b 0.27269

Ktt A

Ktt 1.87

3.

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material for bending and tension using Table 6-6.

Bending and tension: Neuber constant (for S ut 55.1 ksi) Notch sensitivity q 1 1 a r a 0.118 in q 0.744

2

6-62-2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and tension using equation 6.11b. Bending Tension Kfb 1 q Ktb 1 Kft 1 q Ktt 1 Kfb 1.528 Kft 1.648

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean stresses. Yield strength SAE 1040 CR Evaluate S y 207 MPa which is less than S y so

6.

Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors. Bending

mb Kfb mb ab Kfb ab

Tension

mt Kftm mt at Kft at

7.

Find the mean and alternating von Mises stresses using equations 6.22b (with y = 0). Mean Alternating

'm mb mt 'a ab mb

8. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut S'e 190 MPa

9. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, round shaft. Load Size Surface Cload 0.70 Csize 1 A 4.51 Csurf A b 0.265 (machined)

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.934

6-62-3

Temperature Reliability

10. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 111.48 MPa

11. Assuming a Case 3 load line, determine the factor of safety against fatigue failure. S e S ut

Nf

'a S ut 'm S e

Nf 2.5

6-63a-1

PROBLEM 6-63a

Statement: For a filleted flat bar in tension similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-9 and the data from row a from Table P6-7, determine the alternating and mean axial stresses as modified by the appropriate stress concentration factors in the bar. Strength SAE 1020 CR Widths Thickness Force Solution: 1. S ut 469 MPa d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm Pmax 32000 N D 40 mm h 10 mm Pmin 8000 N

Given:

Determine the nominal mean and alternating components of the fluctuating stresses.

xmax xmin

Pmax h d Pmin h d

xm xa

2.

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2

Using Appendix C-9, determine the geometric stress concentration factor. For D d 2 r r d

b

0.2

A 1.09960

b 0.32077

Kt A 3.

Kt 1.843

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material using Table 6-6. Neuber constant (for S ut 68 ksi) Notch sensitivity q 1 1 a r a 0.096 in q 0.805

2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factor using equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.679

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean stress. Yield strength SAE 1020 CR Evaluate S y 393 MPa

6-63a-2

Kfm

xm

6.

Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors.

m Kfm xm a Kf xa

6-64a-1

PROBLEM 6-64a

Statement: For a filleted flat bar in bending similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-10 and the data from row a from Table P6-7, determine the alternating and mean bending stresses as modified by the appropriate stress concentration factors in the bar. Strength SAE 1020 CR Widths Thickness Moment Solution: 1. S ut 469 MPa D 40 mm d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm h 10 mm Mmin 80 N m Mmax 320 N m

Given:

Determine the nominal mean and alternating components of the fluctuating stresses. c d 2 Mmin c I Mmax c I c 10 mm I h d

3

12

I 6.667 10 mm

xmin xmax

xm xa

2.

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2

Using Appendix C-10, determine the geometric stress concentration factor. For D d 2 r r d

b

0.2

A 0.93232

b 0.30304

Kt A 3.

Kt 1.518

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material using Table 6-6. Neuber constant (for S ut 68 ksi) Notch sensitivity q 1 1 a r a 0.096 in q 0.805

2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factor using equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.417

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean stresses. Yield strength SAE 1020 CR S y 393 MPa

6-64a-2

xm

0 otherwise Kfm 0.460 6. Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors.

m Kfm xm a Kf xa

6-65a-1

PROBLEM 6-65a

Statement: For a shaft, with a shoulder fillet, in tension similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-1 and the data from row a from Table P6-7, determine the alternating and mean axial stresses as modified by the appropriate stress concentration factors in the shaft. Strength SAE 1020 CR Widths Thickness Force Solution: 1. S ut 469 MPa d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm Pmax 32000 N D 40 mm h 10 mm Pmin 8000 N

Given:

Determine the nominal mean and alternating components of the fluctuating stresses.

xmax

4 Pmax

d xmin

4 Pmin

d xm xa

2.

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2

Using Appendix C-1, determine the geometric stress concentration factor. For D d 2 r d

b

0.2

A 1.01470

b 0.30035

r Kt A d 3.

Kt 1.645

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material using Table 6-6. Neuber constant (for S ut 68 ksi) Notch sensitivity q 1 1 a r a 0.096 in q 0.805

2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factor using equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.52

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean stress. Yield strength SAE 1020 CR S y 393 MPa

6-65a-2

Evaluate

Kfm

xm

0 otherwise Kfm 1.520 6. Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors.

m Kfm xm a Kf xa

6-66a-1

PROBLEM 6-66a

Statement: For a shaft, with a shoulder fillet, in bending similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-2 and the data from row a from Table P6-7, determine the alternating and mean bending stresses as modified by the appropriate stress concentration factors in the shaft. Strength SAE 1020 CR Widths Thickness Moment Solution: 1. S ut 469 MPa D 40 mm d 20 mm Radius r 4 mm h 10 mm Mmin 80 N m Mmax 320 N m

Given:

Determine the nominal mean and alternating components of the fluctuating stresses. c d 2 Mmin c I Mmax c I c 10 mm I

d

64

I 7.854 10 mm

xmin xmax

xm xa

2.

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2

Using Appendix C-2, determine the geometric stress concentration factor. For D d 2 r r d

b

0.2

A 0.90879

b 0.28598

Kt A 3.

Kt 1.44

2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factor using equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.354

5.

Determine what, if any, fatigue stress concentration factor should be applied to the mean stress. Yield strength SAE 1020 CR S y 393 MPa

6-66a-2

Evaluate

Kfm

xm

0 otherwise Kfm 0.731 6. Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors.

m Kfm xm a Kf xa

6-67-1

PROBLEM 6-67

Statement: A machine part is subjected to fluctuating, simple, multiaxial stresses. The fully corrected nonzero stress ranges are: xmin = 50 MPa, xmax = 200 MPa, ymin = 80 MPa, ymax = 320 MPa, xymin = 120 MPa, xymax = 480 MPa. The material properties are: S e = 525 MPa and S ut = 1200 MPa. Using a Case 3 load line, calculate and compare the infinite-life safety factors given by the Sines and von Mises Methods. Material properties: Stresses: S ut 1200 MPa S e 525 MPa

Given:

Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0667.

xa xm

xmax xmin

2

xmax xmin

2

ya ym xya xym

(a) Sines Method 2.

ymax ymin

2

ya 120 MPa ym 200 MPa xya 180 MPa xym 300 MPa

ymax ymin

2

xymax xymin

2

xymax xymin

2

Calculate the equivalent alternating and mean stresses using equations 6.21b.

2 2 2

'a

xa ya xa ya 3 xya

'm xm ym

3. The factor of safety for the Sines Method, using equation (6.18e) is Nfs S e S ut

'a S ut 'm S e

Nfs 1.11

(b) von Mises Method 4. Calculate the equivalent alternating and mean stresses using equations 6.22b.

2 2 2

'a

xa ya xa ya 3 xya

6-67-2

'm

5.

xm ym xm ym 3 xym

The factor of safety for the von Mises Method, using equation (6.18e) is Nfvm S e S ut Nfvm 0.92

'a S ut 'm S e

6.

This example shows that the von Mises method is more conservative when the endurance limit is modified by such factors as surface finish and when there is a high mean shear stress.

6-68-1

PROBLEM 6-68

Statement: A cylindrical tank with hemispherical ends has been built. It was made from hot rolled steel that has S ut = 380 MPa. The tank outside diameter is 300 mm with 20 mm wall thickness. The pressure may fluctuate from 0 to an unknown maximum. For an infinite-life fatigue safety factor of 4 with 99.99% reliability, what is the maximum pressure to which the tank may be subjected? Ultimate strength Tank dimensions Reliability & FS Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0668. S ut 380 MPa OD 300 mm R 0.9999 t 20 mm Nf 4

Given:

Determine the maximum principal stresses as functions of the unkown pressure, which occur at the inside wall, for this thick-wall cylinder: Outside radius Inside radius ro 0.5 OD ri ro t ri p

2

ro 150 mm ri 130 mm

Tangential

2 1 ro t( p ) 2 2 2 ri ro ri 2 1 ro 2 2 2 ri ro ri

Radial

r( p )

ri p

Axial

a( p )

ri p ro ri

2 2

'( p )

t( p ) r( p ) a( p ) t( p ) a( p ) a( p ) r( p ) t( p ) r( p )

'min 0 MPa

2. Determine the alternating, and mean von Mises effective stress using equations 6.1.

'a( p )

3. 4.

'( p ) 'min

2

'm( p )

S'e 0.5 S ut

'( p ) 'min

2 S'e 190 MPa

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for axial loading. Load Size Surface Cload 0.7 Csize 1 A 57.7 (axial loading) (axial loading) b 0.718

b

Csurf Temperature

Sut A MPa

Ctemp 1

Reliability 5. Creliab 0.702 (R = 99.99%)

6-68-2

Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 75.7 MPa

6.

Assuming a Case 3 load line, solve equation (6.18e) for p max Guess Given S e S ut Nf 4.00 p 1 MPa

Nf =

'a( p ) S ut 'm( p ) S e

6-69-1

PROBLEM 6-69

Statement: A rotating shaft has been designed and fabricated from SAE 1040 HR steel. It is made from tubing that has an outside diameter of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm. Strain gage measurements indicate that there is a fully reversed axial stress of 68 MPa and a torsional stress that fluctuates from 12 MPa to 52 MPa in phase with the axial stress at the critical point on the shaft. Determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor for the shaft for a reliability of 99%. Strength SAE 1040 HR Torsional stress Shaft dimensions S ut 524 MPa Alternating bending stress xa 68 MPa

Given:

xymax 52 MPa

OD 60 mm

xymin 12 MPa

t 5 mm

See Mathcad file P0669. Solution: 1. Calculate the alternating, and mean components of the given stresses.

2.

2 xymax xymin 2

Find the mean and alternating von Mises stresses using equations 6.22b (with y = 0). Mean Alternating

'm 'a

3 xym

2

2 2

xa 3 xya

3. Calculate the unmodified endurance limit. S'e 0.5 S ut Cload 1 Csize 1.189 A 57.7 S'e 262 MPa

4. Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, round shaft. Load (combined bending and torsion)

Size Surface

mm

OD

0.097

Sut A MPa

Csurf 0.644

5. Calculate the modified endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 110 MPa

6. Assuming a Case 3 load line, determine the infinite-life fatigue safety factor. Nf S e S ut

'a S ut 'm S e

Nf 1.25

6-70a-1

PROBLEM 6-70a

Statement: Given: For the data in row a in Table P6-8, find the safety factor for each of the four loading cases based on the Modified-Goodman diagram if S e = 100, S y = 150, and S ut = 200. S e 100 S y 150 S ut 200

'm 50

Solution: 1.

'a 30

Calculate the coordinates of point D in Figure 6-46 using equations (6.16). Dm S ut S y S e S ut S e Dm 100 Da 50

Da S y Dm 1.

Use equations (6.18) and (6.16) to calculate the required quantities. Case 1: Nf1

'm

Sy Se

Sy

'a

Nf1 2.40

Case 2: Nf2 1

'm

if 'm Dm

Nf2 2.50

otherwise

Case 3: S e S ut Se

Nf3

'a S ut 'm S e

S y 'a

if

'a 'm

Se S ut

Dm

Nf3 1.82

'm

Case 4:

2

otherwise

'mSut

S ut S e S e 'a S ut 'm S e S ut

2 2

'aSut S e

OZ

2

Se S ut

'mSut

2

'a 'm

6-70a-2

ZSut

2

if 'm

Se

'a 'm

Se S ut

otherwise

'mSy

S y 'a 'm

ZSy

if 'mSut Dm otherwise

if 'm

Sy 1

'a 'm

otherwise

Nf4

OZ ZSut OZ OZ ZSy OZ

Nf4 1.69

6-70h-1

PROBLEM 6-70h

Statement: Given: For the data in row h in Table P6-8, find the safety factor for each of the four loading cases based on the Modified-Goodman diagram if S e = 100, S y = 150, and S ut = 200. S e 100 S y 150 S ut 200

'm 80

Solution: 1.

'a 80

Calculate the coordinates of point D in Figure 6-46 using equations (6.16). Dm S ut S y S e S ut S e Dm 100 Da 50

Da S y Dm 1.

Use equations (6.18) and (6.16) to calculate the required quantities. Case 1: Nf1

'm

Sy Se

Sy

'a

Nf1 0.50

Case 2: Nf2 1

'm

if 'm Dm

Nf2 0.75

otherwise

Case 3: S e S ut Se

Nf3

'a S ut 'm S e

S y 'a

if

'a 'm

Se S ut

Dm

Nf3 0.83

'm

Case 4:

2

otherwise

'mSut

S ut S e S e 'a S ut 'm S e S ut

2 2

'aSut S e

OZ

2

Se S ut

'mSut

2

'a 'm

6-70h-2

ZSut

2

if 'm

Se

'a 'm

Se S ut

otherwise

'mSy

S y 'a 'm

ZSy

if 'mSut Dm otherwise

if 'm

Sy 1

'a 'm

otherwise

Nf4

OZ ZSut OZ OZ ZSy OZ

Nf4 0.84

6-71-1

PROBLEM 6-71

Statement: A rotating shaft with a shoulder fillet, in torsion similar to that shown in Appendix Figure C-3 is made from SAE 1020 CR steel and has dimensions D = 40 mm, d = 20 mm, and r = 4 mm. The shaft is ground and is subjected to a fully reversed torque of +/- 80 N-m. Determine the infinite life safety factor for the shaft for a reliability of 99.9%. Strength SAE 1020 CR Dimensions Torque Solution: 1. S ut 469 MPa d 20 mm Tm 0 N m r 4 mm D 40 mm Ta 80 N m

Given:

2. 16 Ta

Using Appendix C-3, determine the geometric stress concentration factor. For D d Kt A 2 r

b

r d

0.2

A 0.86331

b 0.23865

Kt 1.268

3.

Calculate the notch sensitivity of the material using Table 6-6 adding 20 ksi to S ut because of the torsional load Neuber constant (for S ut 20 ksi 88 ksi) Notch sensitivity q 1 1 a r a 0.072 in q 0.846

2

4.

Calculate the fatigue stress concentration factor using equation 6.11b. Kf 1 q Kt 1 Kf 1.226

5.

Calculate the mean and alternating components of the stresses increased by the appropriate fatigue stress concentration factors.

m xym a Kf xya

6. Calculate the von Mises normal stress. von Mises stress 7.

'a

3 a

Calculate the endurance limit modification factors for a rotating, solid, round steel shaft. Load Cload 1 (pure torsion)

6-71-2

Size

mm

d

0.097

Csize 0.889

Surface

b 0.085

(ground)

Sut MPa

Csurf 0.937

Temperature Reliability

8.

Calculate the endurance limit. S e Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Creliab S'e S e 147.1 MPa

9.

Nf

'a

Nf 1.4

7-1-1

PROBLEM 7-1

Statement: Given: Two 3 x 5 cm blocks of steel with machined finish Ra = 0.6 mm are rubbed together with a normal force of 400 N. Estimate the true area of contact between them if their S y = 400 MPa. Length of block Width of block L 5 cm w 3 cm Normal force Yield strength F 400 N S y 400 MPa

Assumptions: The compressive yield strength is the same as the tensile yield strength. Then, S yc S y. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0701.

2 3

cm

2.

3.

Aa Ar

4500

7-2-1

PROBLEM 7-2

Statement: Estimate the dry coefficient of friction between the two pieces in Problem 7-1 if their S ut = 600 MPa. Length of block Width of block Normal force L 5 cm w 3 cm F 400 N Yield strength Ultimate strength S y 400 MPa S ut 600 MPa

Given:

Assumptions: The compressive yield strength is the same as the tensile yield strength. Then, S yc S y. Solution: See Mathcad file P0702.

Using equations 7.3 and 7.4, the coefficient of friction is estimated as S us 0.80 S ut S us 480 MPa

S us 3 S yc

0.40

7-3-1

PROBLEM 7-3

Statement: For the bicycle pedal-arm assembly in Figure P7-1 assume a rider-applied force that ranges from 0 to 400 N at the pedal each cycle. Determine the maximum contact stresses at one sprocket tooth-chain roller interface. Assume that the one tooth takes all the applied torque, that the chain roller is 8-mm dia, the sprocket has a nominal (pitch) dia of 100 mm, and that the sprocket tooth is essentially flat at the point of contact. The roller and sprocket are made of SAE X1340 steel, induction hardened to HRC 45-58. The roller and sprocket contact over a length of 8 mm. Assuming rolling plus 9% sliding, estimate the number of cycles to failure for this particular tooth-roller combination. Roller radius Sprocket radius Sprocket width Pedal force R1 4 mm R2 mm w 8 mm Frider 400 N The parts are steel. Therefore: E 207 GPa

Given:

d p 100 mm

Pedal arm length len 170 mm Assumptions: The coefficient of friction is 0.33 Solution: 1. See Figure P7-1 and Mathcad file P0703.

Determine the maximum contact force. Torque on sprocket Contact force Tmax Frider len Fcmax 2 Tmax dp Tmax 68 N m Fcmax 1.36 kN

2.

2

m1 4.452 10

1 MPa

m2 m1 Geometry constant B 1 2 1 1

R1

R2

1 2

B 125 m

2 m1 m2 Fcmax a B w

Fcmax 2 a w 2 Fcmax

a 0.0878 mm

The average and maximum contact pressure can now be found from equations 7.14b and c. Average pressure p avg p max p avg 968.1 MPa p max 1233 MPa fmax 406.8 MPa

a w

fmax p max

With m = 0.33, the principal stresses in the contact zone will be maximal on the surface (z = 0) at x = 0.3a from th centerline as shown in Figures 7-20 and 7-22. The applied stress components are found from equation 7.23a for the normal force and equation 7.23b for the tangential force. For x 0.3 a

x

2 2

7-3-2

xn p max 1

x a

xn 1176 MPa

xt 2 fmax

xt 244.05 MPa

x

2 2

5.

2 2

Equations 7.24a and 7.24b can now be solved for the total applied stresses along the x, y, and z axes.

x xn xt z zn zt xz xzn xzt

6.

Assuming the rollers are short, we expect a plane stress condition to exist. The stress in the third dimension is then:

y 0 MPa

7.

also,

xy 0 MPa

yz 0 MPa

Unlike the pure-rolling case, these stresses are not principal because of the applied shear stress. The principal stresses are found from equation 4.4 using a cubic root finding solution. C2

x y z

MPa

C2 2.596 10

xz yz x xy x y MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa C1 xy xz z yz z y MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

C1 1.519 10

f ( ) C2 C1 C0

3 2

C0 0

7-3-3

C0 C1 v C2 1

Principal stresses:

r polyroots ( v) MPa

1 0 MPa 2 891.1 MPa 3 1704.6 MPa

1 r 2 r 3 r

3 2 1

8.

The maximum normal stress calculated in step 7 is 1705 MPa, compressive. Its K-factor can be calculated from equation 7.25d. K-factor K m1 m2 3

2

K 81.3 MPa

9.

From Table 7-7, Part 1, Line 4 the slope and intercept factors of this cast iron for rolling with 9% sliding are

8.51

41.31

10. These are used in equation 7.26 along with the value of K from above to find the number of cycles that can be expected at this load before pitting begins. log ( K) =

log Nlife

log

Nlife 10

K psi

Nlife 4.6 10

cycles

7-4-1

PROBLEM 7-4

Statement: For the trailer hitch from Problem 3-4 on p. 169, determine the contact stresses in the ball and ball cup. Assume that the ball is 2-in dia and the ill-fitting cup that surrounds the it is an internal spherical surface 10% larger in diameter than the ball.

F

Given: Ball diameter Cup diameter Pull force Tongue weight Poisson's ratio Modulus of elasticity Solution: d 2 in D 2.2 in Fpull 4.905 kN Wtong 0.981 kN

0.28

E 30.0 10 psi

6

Total force

Fpull Wtong

FIGURE 7-4

Diagram Showing Contact Force for Problem 7-4

F 1125 lbf Ball radius Cup radius Geometry constant R1 0.5 d R2 0.5 D B 1 2 1

R1 1.000 in R2 1.100 in

2

R1

E

R2

1

B 0.045 in

Material constants

m1

m1 3.072 10

8 1

psi

m2 m1

1 3

3 m1 m2 a F B 8

A a p avg p max

2

a 0.0829 in A 0.022 in

2

F A 3 2 p avg

1 2 2 p max

In-plane

ymax xmax

p max 2 1 2 2 2 9 ( 1 ) 2 ( 1 )

7-4-2

yzmax

Depth at max shear stress zmax a 2 2 7 2 zmax 0.05228 in

7-5-1

PROBLEM 7-5

Statement: For the trailer hitch from Problem 3-5 on p. 169, determine the contact stresses in the ball and ball cup. Assume that the ball is 2-in dia and the ill-fitting cup that surrounds the it is an internal spherical surface 10% larger in diameter than the ball. Ball diameter Cup diameter Trailer mass Terminal velocity Time to reach vel. Tongue weight Poisson's ratio Modulus of elasticity Solution: d 2 in D 2.2 in mtrail 2000 kg v 60 m sec t 20 sec Wtong 0.981 kN

1

Given:

0.28

E 30.0 10 psi

6

See Figure 7-5 and Mathcad file P0705. Acceleration Pull force a v t a 3.00 m sec

2

FIGURE 7-5

Diagram Showing Contact Force for Problem 7-5

Fpull Wtong

R1 0.5 d R2 0.5 D B 1 2 1

R1

E

R2

1

B 0.045 in

Material constants

m1

m1 3.072 10

8 1

psi

m2 m1

1 3

3 m1 m2 a F B 8

A a p avg p max

2

a 0.0885 in A 0.025 in

2

F A 3 2 p avg

zmax p max

In-plane

7-5-2

p max

xmax

1 2 2

ymax xmax

Max shear stress

yzmax

p max 2

1 2 2

2 9

( 1 ) 2 ( 1 )

Depth at max shear stress zmax a 2 2 7 2 zmax 0.05579 in

7-6-1

PROBLEM 7-6

Statement: For the trailer hitch from Problem 3-6 on p. 169, determine the contact stresses in the ball and ball cup. Assume that the ball is 2-in dia and the ill-fitting cup that surrounds the it is an internal spherical surface 10% larger in diameter than the ball.

Given:

Ball diameter Cup diameter Trailer mass Tongue weight Poisson's ratio Modulus of elasticity

0.28

E 30.0 10 psi

6

Solution:

From Problem 3-6, the impact (pull) force is Pull force Total force Fpull 55.1 kN F Fpull Wtong

2 2

FIGURE 7-6

Diagram Showing Contact Force for Problem 7-6

F 12389 lbf Ball radius Cup radius Geometry constant R1 0.5 d R2 0.5 D B 1 2 1 R1 1.000 in R2 1.100 in

2

R1

E

R2

1

B 0.045 in

Material constants

m1

m1 3.072 10

8 1

psi

m2 m1

1 3

3 m1 m2 a F B 8

A a p avg p max

2

a 0.1845 in A 0.107 in

2

F A 3 2 p avg

zmax p max

1 2 2

In-plane

xmax

p max

ymax xmax

7-6-2

yzmax

p max 2

1 2 2

2 9

( 1 ) 2 ( 1 )

Depth at max shear stress zmax a 2 2 7 2 zmax 0.11632 in

7-7-1

PROBLEM 7-7

Statement: For the 12-mm dia steel wrist pin of Problem 3-7, find the maximum contact stress if the 2500 g acceleration is fully reversed. The aluminum piston has a hole for the wrist pin that is 2% larger than the pin and an engagement length of 20 mm. Wrist pin dia Piston hole multiplier Acceleration Piston mass Length of contact Solution: See Mathcad file P0707. Contact force Pin radius Hole radius F M a R1 0.5 d R2 k R1 B 1 2 1

2

Given:

Material properties: Steel wrist pin 1 0.28 E1 206.8 GPa Aluminum piston 2 0.34 E2 71.7 GPa

F 12.26 kN R1 6 mm R2 6.12 mm 1

Geometry constant

R1

E1

R2

B 1.63399 10

mm

Material constants

m1

1 1

m1 4.456 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

1 2 E2

m2 1.233 10

1

2 m1 m2 F a B L

A 2 L a p avg p max F A 2 F

a 2.002 mm A 80.10 mm

2

a L

Wrist pin 1. The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface of the steel wrist pin are found using equations 7.17a. Axial In-plane 2.

The maximum shear stress and its location under the surface are found from equations 7.17b. Max shear stress Depth at max shear stress

zmax 0.786 a

zmax 1.57 mm

Piston hole 3.

7-7-2

The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface of the aluminum piston hole are found using equations 7.17a. Axial In-plane

4.

The maximum shear stress and its location under the surface are found from equations 7.17b. Max shear stress Depth at max shear stress

zmax 0.786 a

zmax 1.57 mm

7-8-1

PROBLEM 7-8

Statement: A paper mill processes rolls of paper having a density of 984 kg/m3. The paper roll is 1.50 m outside dia (OD) by 0.22 m inside dia (ID) by 3.23 m long and has an effective modulus of elasticity in compression of 14 MPa and n = 0.3. Determine the width of its contact patch when it sits on a flat steel surface, loaded by its own weight. Paper properties

Given:

1 984 kg m

E1 14 MPa

Roll dimensions: Outside diameter OD 1.50 m Inside diameter Lemgth ID 0.22 m L 3.23 m

1 0.3

Steel properties E2 207 GPa

2 0.28

Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0708.

The weight of the paper roll is equal to its volume times the paper density times g. Wroll

OD ID L 1 g

Wroll 53.895 kN

2.

Determine the radii of the contacting bodies. Roll Plate R1 0.5 OD R2 mm R1 750 mm

3.

R1

R2

1

B 0.667 m

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 0.065

1 MPa

6

m2

m2 4.452 10

1 MPa

4.

1

2 m1 m2 Wroll B L

width 2 a

7-9-1

PROBLEM 7-9

Statement: For the ViseGrip plier-wrench for which the forces were analyzed in Problem 3-9, find the force in link 4 needed to create a 0.25-mm-wide flat on each side of a 2-mm dia aluminum pin squeezed in its 5-mm-wide jaws. Pin radius Anvil curvature Contact patch Contact length R1 1 mm R2 mm a 0.125 mm L 5 mm Material properties: Steel anvil E2 206.8 GPa Aluminum pin E1 71.7 GPa Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0709.

Given:

2 0.28 1 0.34

R1

R2

B 500 m

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 1.233 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 4.456 10

2.

2 m1 m2

a B L

F 3.654 kN

3.

Get the geometry from Problem 3-9 and calculate the pin force.

21.0 deg

F4 sin( 180 deg )

129.2 deg

F cos( 180 deg ) cos( 180 deg) sin( 180 deg)

F4 4.65 kN

7-10-1

PROBLEM 7-10

Statement: An overhung diving board is shown in Figure P7-4a. A 100-kg person is standing on the free end. The board sits on a fulcrum that has a cylindrical contact surface of 5-mm radius. What is the size of the contact patch between the board and the fulcrum if the board material is fiberglass with E = 10.3 GPa and n = 0.3? Fulcrum radius Board curvature Mass of person Material properties: Aluminum fulcrum Fiberglass board R1 5 mm R2 mm M 100 kg

R1 2000 = L P

Given:

1 0.34

E1 71.7 GPa

2 0.30

E2 10.3 GPa

700 = a

R2

Board dimensions: Width (Prob 4-10) w 305 mm Distance to right support a' 0.7 m Contact length L 2 m Solution: See Figure 7-10 and Mathcad file P0710. Weight of person P M g

FIGURE 7-10

Free Body Diagram for Problem 7-10

P 0.981 kN P L F b = 0 F 2.802 kN 1 1

Summing moments about the support on the left end of the board, Fulcrum reaction F P B 1 2 L a'

Geometry constant

R1

R2

B 0.100 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 1.233 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 8.835 10

1

2 m1 m2 F a B w

a2 2 a

a 0.0767 mm a2 0.153 mm

7-11-1

PROBLEM 7-11

Statement: Repeat Problem 7-10 assuming the 100-kg person in Problem 7-10 jumps up 25 cm and lands back on the board. Assume the board weighs 29 kg and deflects 13.1 cm statically when the person stands on it. What is the size of the contact patch between the board and the 5-mm-radius aluminum fulcrum if the board material is fiberglass with E = 10.3 GPa and n = 0.3? Fulcrum radius Board curvature Mass of person Material properties: Aluminum fulcrum Fiberglass board R1 5 mm R2 mm M 100 kg

R1 2000 = L P

Given:

1 0.34

E1 71.7 GPa

2 0.30

E2 10.3 GPa

700 = a

R2

Board dimensions: Width (Prob 4-10) w 305 mm Distance to right support a' 0.7 m Contact length L 2 m Solution: 1. See Figure 7-11 and Mathcad file P0711.

FIGURE 7-11

Free Body Diagram for Problem 7-11

From Problem 3-11, the dynamic load resulting from the impact of the person with the board is P 3.056 kN Summing moments about the support on the left end of the board, Fulcrum reaction F P B 1 2 L a' 1 P L F b = 0 F 8.731 kN

Geometry constant

R1

R2

1

B 0.100 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 1.233 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 8.835 10

1

2 m1 m2 F a B w

a2 2 a

a 0.1355 mm a2 0.271 mm

7-12-1

PROBLEM 7-12

Statement: Estimate the volume of adhesive wear to expect from an HB270 steel shaft of 40-mm diameter rotating at 250 rpm for 10 years in a plain bronze bushing if the transverse load is 1000 N. (a) For conditions of poor lubrication. (b) For conditions of good lubrication. rpm 2 rad min Journal diameter Journal speed Journal hardness

1

Units: Given:

Assumptions: The bushing is softer than the journal (shaft) so the wear will take place predominately on the bushing. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0712.

From Figure 7-6 in the text we see that iron (the principal ingredient of steel) is metalurgically compatible with copper and tin, the principal ingredients of bronze. From Figure 7-7 we have the following values of adhesive wear coefficient for metalurgically compatible and poor and good lubrication, respectively. Adhesive wear coefficients Ka 10 Kb 10 The length of sliding is L

4 5

8

d

rev

n Life

L 1.176 10 m

2.

Using equation 7.7a we can estimate the volume of wear for each lubrication condition (a) poor lubrication Va Ka F L HB F L HB Va 4.4 10 mm

6 3

Vb Kb

Vb 4.4 10 mm

3.

These numbers are entirely too large. The bushing will fail long before the ten years have gone by.

7-13-1

PROBLEM 7-13

Statement: Estimate how long it will take to file 1 mm off a 2-cm cube of HB150 steel if the machinist applies 100 N over a 10-cm stroke at 60 strokes per minute. (a) If done dry. (b) If done lubricated. kilo kg g Cube dimension Depth of wear Force on file a 2 cm d 1 mm F 100 N Stroke rate Stroke Steel hardness n 60 min s 10 cm kilo HB 150 2 mm

1

Units: Given:

Assumptions: Only one face will be filed. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0713.

This is a two-body abrasion problem. From Table 7-2, the wear coefficients for dry and lubricated abrasion using a file are Wear coefficients Ka 5 10 Kb 1 10

2 1

dry lubricated

2. 3. 4.

The length of sliding is L = s n t where t is the time required. The area of a face is Aa = a , and the depth is d = K

2

F L HB Aa

2

(a) dry

ta

Ka F s n

strokesa ta n d HB a

2

(b) lubricated

tb

Kb F s n

strokesb tb n

7-14-1

PROBLEM 7-14

Statement: Figure P7-5 shows a child's toy called a pogo stick. The child stands on the pads, applying half her weight on each side. She jumps off the ground, holding the pads up against her feet, and bounces along with the spring cushioning the impact and storing energy to help each rebound. Estimate the abrasivbe wear rate for the tip, which impacts the ground assuming a condition of dry, loose abrasive grains (sand). Express the wear rate in number of jumps to remove 0.02 in from the 1-in-dia aluminum tip if its S ut = 50 ksi. kilo kg g Tip diameter Wear depth Tensile strength d 1.00 in a 0.02 in S ut 50 ksi

Units: Given:

Assumptions: The tip slides a distance of one tip diameter per jump. Solution: See Figure 7-14 and Mathcad file P0714.

1. From Problem 3-14, the impact force for each jump is P 224 lbf 2. Use equation (2.10) to estimate the Brinell hardness of the steel tip. HB

Fi /2

Fi /2

1

3

HB 94

kilo mm

2

3. This is a two-body abrasion problem. From Table 7-2, the wear coefficient for dry abrasion using loose abrasive grains is K 1 10

L = d Njumps

P

FIGURE 7-14

Free Body Diagram for Problem 7-14

d

4

Aa 0.785 in

a = K

7-15-1

PROBLEM 7-15

Statement: Create a table of acceptable materials to run against a steel shaft based on their metallurical compatibility. Rank them as to suitability. See Figure 7-6 in text.

Solution:

7-16-1

PROBLEM 7-16

Statement: Determine the size of the contact patch and the maximum contact stresses for a 20-mm-dia steel ball rolled against a flat aluminum plate with 1 kN. Ball radius Plate curvature Load R1 10 mm R2 mm F 1 kN Aluminum plate Material properties Steel ball

Given:

1 0.28

E1 206.8 GPa

2 0.34

E2 71.7 GPa

Solution:

1. Calculate geometry and material constants, contact patch dimension, and pressures. Geometry constant B 1 2 1

R1

R2

1

B 0.05 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 4.456 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 1.233 10

1

3 m1 m2 a F B 8

A a p avg p max

2

a 0.501 mm A 0.789 mm

2

F A 3 2 p avg

Maximum pressure

1 2 1 2 p max

In-plane

ymax1 xmax1

3. Determine the stresses in the ball below the surface Max shear stress

yzmax1

p max

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 9 2 2

2 2 1 7 2 1

7-16-2

zmax1 a

zmax1 0.316 mm

1 2 2 2 p max

In-plane

ymax2 xmax2

5. Determine the stresses in the plate below the surface p max

yzmax2

1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 9 2 2

Depth at max shear stress 2 2 2 7 2 2

zmax2 a

zmax2 0.326 mm

7-17-1

PROBLEM 7-17

Statement: Determine the size of the contact patch and the maximum contact stresses for a 20-mm-dia steel ball rolled against a 30-mm diameter aluminum ball with 800 N. Steel ball radius Aluminum ball radius Load R1 10 mm R2 15 mm F 0.8 kN Aluminum ball Material properties: Steel ball

Given:

1 0.28

E1 206.8 GPa

2 0.34

E2 71.7 GPa

Solution: 1.

Calculate geometry and material constants, contact patch dimension, and pressures. Geometry constant B 1 2 1

R1

R2

B 0.083 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 4.456 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 1.233 10

1

3 m1 m2 a F B 8

A a p avg p max

2

a 0.392 mm A 0.484 mm

2

F A 3 2 p avg

Maximum pressure

2.

1 2 1 2 p max

In-plane

ymax1 xmax1

3. Determine the stresses in the steel ball below the surface p max

yzmax1

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 9 2 2

7-17-2

zmax1 a

2 2 1 7 2 1

zmax1 0.247 mm

4.

1 2 2 2 p max

In-plane

ymax2 xmax2

5. Determine the stresses in the aluminum ball below the surface p max

yzmax2

1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 9 2 2

Depth at max shear stress 2 2 2 7 2 2

zmax2 a

zmax2 0.256 mm

7-18-1

PROBLEM 7-18

Statement: Given: Determine the size of the contact patch and the maximum contact stresses for a 40-mm-dia steel cylinder, 25-cm long, rolled against a flat aluminum plate with 4 kN. Cylinder radius Plate curvature Load Contact length R1 20 mm R2 mm F 4 kN L 250 mm Material properties: Steel cylinder

1 0.28

E1 206.8 GPa

Solution: 1.

Calculate geometry and material constants, contact patch dimension, and pressures. Geometry constant B 1 2 1

R1

R2

1

B 0.025 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 4.456 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 1.233 10

1

2 m1 m2 F a B L

A 2 L a p avg p max F A 2 F

a 0.0827 mm A 41.36 mm

2

Maximum pressure 2.

a L

Determine the stresses in the cylinder at the surface. The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface of the steel cylinder are found using equations 7.17a. Axial In-plane

3. Determine the stresses in the cylinder below the surface. The maximum shear stress and its location under the surface are found from equations 7.17b. Max shear stress Depth at max shear stress 4.

zmax 0.786 a

zmax 0.0650 mm

Determine the stresses in the plate at the surface. The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface of the aluminum plate are found using equations 7.17a. Axial

zmax p max

7-18-2

In-plane 5.

y2max 2 2 p max

Determine the stresses in the plate below the surface. The maximum shear stress and its location under the surface are found from equations 7.17b. Max shear stress Depth at max shear stress

zmax 0.786 a

zmax 0.0650 mm

7-19-1

PROBLEM 7-19

Statement: Given: Determine the size of the contact patch and the maximum contact stresses for a 40-mm-dia steel cylinder, 25-cm long, rolled against a parallel 50-mm-dia steel cylinder with 10 kN. Cylinder radius Cylinder radius Load Contact length R1 20 mm R2 25 mm F 10 kN L 250 mm Steel cylinder Material properties: Steel cylinder

1 0.28

E1 206.8 GPa

2 0.28

E2 206.8 GPa

Solution: 1.

Calculate geometry and material constants, contact patch dimension, and pressures. Geometry constant B 1 2 1

R1

R2

1

B 0.045 mm

Material constants

m1

1 1 E1 1 2 E2

m1 4.456 10

1 MPa 1 MPa

m2

m2 4.456 10

1

2 m1 m2 F a B L

A 2 L a p avg p max F A 2 F

a 0.0710 mm A 35.51 mm

2

Maximum pressure 2.

a L

Determine the stresses in either cylinder at the surface. The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface of the steel cylinder are found using equations 7.17a. Axial In-plane

3.

Determine the stresses in either cylinder below the surface. The maximum shear stress and its location under the surface are found from equations 7.17b. Max shear stress Depth at max shear stress

zmax 0.786 a

zmax 0.0558 mm

7-20-1

PROBLEM 7-20

Statement: Given: Determine the size of the contact patch and the maximum contact stresses for a 20-mm-dia steel ball rolled against a 40-mm-dia steel cylinder, 25-mm long with 10 kN force. Ball radii Cylinder radii R1 10.00 mm R'1 10.00 mm R2 20.00 mm (radial) R'2 mm (axial) The parts are steel. Therefore: E 206.8 GPa 0.28

(normal to contact plane) Radial load F 10 kN Angle between planes of R1 and R2 0 deg Assumptions: The relative motion is rolling with < 1% sliding. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0720. 1 E

2

Find the material constants from equation 7.9b. Material constants m1 m1 4.456 10

6

1 MPa

m2 m1 2. Two geometry constants are needed from equations 7.19a. Geometry constants A 1 2 1 1 R'1 1 R2 1

R1

R'2

1

A 0.1250 mm

B 0.0250 mm

0.86215

78.46

ka 1.167

2

5 9

3.7418 10

5

kb 0.875

Determine the contact patch dimensions using the material and geometry constants in equations 7.19d.

1

3 3 m1 m2 a ka F A 4 1

a 0.947 mm

3 3 m1 m2 b kb F A 4

b 0.710 mm

Contact area 4. A a b A 2.11354 mm

2

7-20-2

The average and maximum contact pressure can now be found from equations 7.18b and c. Average pressure Maximum pressure p avg p max F A 3 2 p avg p avg 4731 MPa p max 7097 MPa

5.

The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface are then found using equations 7.21a. In-plane

x 2 ( 1 2 )

a b a a b

p max p max

y 2 ( 1 2 )

Axial

z p max

1 x

2 y

3 z

13

6.

1 3

2

13 892 MPa

The maximum shear stress under the surface on the z-axis is approximately Max shear stress

7.

All of the stresses found so far exist on the centerline of the patch. At the edge of the patch, at the surface, there will also be a shear stress. Two constants are found from equation 7.21b for this calculation. k3 b a 1 a a b

2 2

k3 0.75

k4 8.

k4 0.662

These constants are used in equations 7.21c and d to find the shear stresses on the surface at the ends of the major and minor axes. k3 k4 Minor axis

2

Major axis

xy ( 1 2 )

k4

atanh k4 1 p max

xy 1084 MPa

xy ( 1 2 )

k3 k4

2

k3 k4

atan

k4 pmax k3

xy 966 MPa

7-21-1

PROBLEM 7-21

Statement: A cam-follower system has a dynamic load of 0 to 2 kN. The cam is cylindrical with a minimum radius of curvature of 20 mm. The roller follower is crowned with radii of 15 mm in one direction and 150 mm in the other. Find the contact stresses if the follower is steel and the cam is nodular iron. Roller radius Crown radius Cam curvature Cam curvature R1 15.00 mm R'1 150.00 mm(90 deg to roller rad) R2 20.00 mm (radial) R'2 mm (axial)

Given:

(normal to contact plane) Radial load F 2 kN Angle between planes of R1 and R2 0 deg Material properties E1 206.8 GPa 1 0.28 E2 172.4 GPa 2 0.30 Assumptions: The relative motion is rolling with < 1% sliding. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0721. steel cast iron

2 2

m1 4.456 10

1 GPa 1 GPa

m2 2.

m2 5.278 10

Two geometry constants are needed from equations 7.19a. Geometry constants A 1 2 1 1 R'1 1 R2

R1

R'2

1

1

A 0.0617 mm

B 0.0550 mm

Angle

0.86215

26.89

ka 2.939

2

5 9

3.7418 10

5

kb 0.477

3. Determine the contact patch dimensions using the material and geometry constants in equations 7.19d.

1

7-21-2

3 3 m1 m2 a ka F A 4 1 3

a 1.818 mm

3 m1 m2 b kb F A 4

A a b

b 0.295 mm

Contact area 4.

A 1.68582 mm

The average and maximum contact pressure can now be found from equations 7.18b and c. Average pressure p avg F A 3 2 p avg p avg 1186 MPa

Maximum pressure

p max

5.

The maximum normal stresses in the steel follower at the center of the contact patch at the surface are then found using equations 7.21a. In-plane

x 2 1 1 2 1

a b a a b

p max p max

y 2 1 1 2 1

Axial

z p max

1 x

2 y

3 z

13

6.

1 3

2

13 337 MPa

The maximum shear stress under the surface on the z-axis is approximately Max shear stress

7.

All of the stresses found so far exist on the centerline of the patch. At the edge of the patch, at the surface, there will also be a shear stress. Two constants are found from equation 7.21b for this calculation. k3 k4 b a 1 a a b

2 2

k3 0.162 k4 0.987

7-21-3

8.

These constants are used in equations 7.21c and d to find the shear stresses on the surface at the ends of the major and minor axes.

Major axis

xy 1 2 1

k3 k4

2

k4

atanh k4 1 p max

xy 201 MPa

Minor axis

xy 1 2 1

k3 k4

2

k3 k4

atan

k4 p max k3

xy 100 MPa

9.

The maximum normal stresses in the nodular iron cam at the center of the contact patch at the surface are then found using equations 7.21a. In-plane

x 2 2 1 2 2

a b a a b

p max p max

y 2 2 1 2 2

Axial

z p max

1 x

2 y

3 z

13

1 3

2

13 306 MPa

10. The maximum shear stress under the surface on the z-axis is approximately Max shear stress

11. All of the stresses found so far exist on the centerline of the patch. At the edge of the patch, at the surface, there will also be a shear stress. Two constants are found from equation 7.21b for this calculation. k3 k4 b a 1 a a b

2 2

k3 0.162 k4 0.987

12. These constants are used in equations 7.21c and d to find the shear stresses on the surface at the ends of the major and minor axes. Major axis

xy 1 2 2

k3 k4

2

k4

atanh k4 1 p max

xy 183 MPa

Minor axis

xy 1 2 2

k3 k4

2

k3 k4

atan

k4 p max k3

xy 91 MPa

7-22-1

PROBLEM 7-22

Statement: An "inline" skate is shown in Figure P7-10. The polyurethane wheels are 72 mm dia. by 12-mm thick with a 6-mm crown radius and are spaced on 104- mm centers. The skate-boot-foot combination weighs 2 kg. The effective "spring rate" of the person-skate subsystem is 6000 N/m. Find the contact stresses in the wheels when a 100-kg person lands a 0.5-m jump on one foot on concrete. Assume the urethane wheels and concrete have the properties below. (a) Assume that all 4 wheels land simultaneously. (b) Assume that one wheel absorbs all the landing force. Force per wheel (from Problem 3-22): Case (a) Fa 897 N Material properties: Urethane E1 600 MPa Concrete E2 21 GPa Wheel dimensions Concrete dimensions Contact angle Fb 3.59 kN

Given:

Case (b)

1 0.4 2 0.2

R'1 6 mm R'2 mm

R1 36 mm R2 mm

0 deg

Assumptions: The relative motion is rolling with < 1% sliding. Solution: 1. See Mathcad file P0722.

2 2

m1 1.400

1 GPa 1 GPa

m2 2.

m2 0.0457

Two geometry constants are needed from equations 7.19a. Geometry constants A 1 2 1 1 R'1 1 R2

R1

R'2

1

1

A 0.0972 mm

B 0.0694 mm

Angle

0.86215

44.42

ka 1.906

2

5 9

3.7418 10

5

kb 0.593

7-22-2

Part (a) 3. Determine the contact patch dimensions using the material and geometry constants in equations 7.19d.

1

3 m1 m2 a ka Fa A 4

a 4.108 mm

1

3 3 m1 m2 b kb Fa A 4

b 1.278 mm

Contact area 4.

Ac a b

Ac 16.49024 mm

The average and maximum contact pressure can now be found from equations 7.18b and c. Average pressure p avg Fa Ac 3 2 p avg p avg 54.4 MPa

Maximum pressure

p max

5.

The maximum normal stresses in the center of the contact patch at the surface are then found using equations 7.21a. In-plane

x 2 1 1 2 1

a b a a b

p max p max

y 2 1 1 2 1

Axial

z p max

1 x

2 y

3 z

13

6.

1 3

2

13 6.22 MPa

The maximum shear stress under the surface on the z-axis is approximately Max shear stress

7.

All of the stresses found so far exist on the centerline of the patch. At the edge of the patch, at the surface, there will also be a shear stress. Two constants are found from equation 7.21b for this calculation. k3 b a k3 0.311

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