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C PROGRAMMING DATA TYPES, EXPRESSION EVALUATION AND CONDITION STATEMENTS AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE OF CIRCLE AIM To write a program

to find the area and circumference of circle. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program. Step 2: Get user input for radius of circle. Step 3: Calculate area of circle by using formula, area = 3.14*radius* radius. Step 4: Calculate circumference of circle by using formula, circum = 2*3.14*radius. Step 5: Display area and circumference. Step 6: Stop the program.

PSEUDOCODE BEGIN INITIALIZE PI as 3.14, area, circum, r READ radius r CALCULATE area := PI*r*r CALCULATE circum :=2*PI*r PRINT area, circum END

FLOWCHART

Start

Read radius

Area = 3.14 * radius * radius Circum = 2 *3.14 * radius Print area Print circum

Stop

PROGRAM #include<stdio.h> #define Pi 3.14159 main() { float radius,area, circum; printf("Enter radius: "); scanf("%f",&radius); area= Pi * radius * radius; circum = 2 * Pi * radius; printf("\nArea=%0.2f",area); printf("\nCircumference=%0.2f } OUTPUT: Enter radius: 5 Area=78.54 Circumference=31.42

\n",circum);

RESULT Thus, program to calculate area and circumference of circle is executed and output is verified

FACTORIAL OF A GIVEN NUMBER AIM To write a program to find the factorial of a given number. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program. Step 2: Get user input for the factorial number. Step 3: Set loop to find factorial of given number using formula fact = fact*i. Step 4: Display the factorial of the given number. Step 5: Stop. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN INITIALIZE i as 1, fact as 1 READ num REPEAT fact := fact*i INCREMENT i UNTIL i <= num PRINT fact END

FLOWCHART Start

Initialize i=1, fact=1

Read number

fact= fact * i i++ Yes Is i <= num No Print factorial

Stop PROGRAM #include <stdio.h> int main() { int i=1, fact=1; int num; printf("Enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &num); while(i <= num) { fact *= i; i++; } printf("Factorial: %d\n", fact); } OUTPUT Enter a number: 5 Factorial: 120 RESULT Thus, program to find factorial of given number is executed and output is verified.

GENERATING FIBONACCI SERIES AIM To write a program to generate Fibonacci series up to a given number. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program. Step 2: Enter the limit Step 3: Check whether the number is zero or not. If zero print zero, exit. Step 4: Set loop up to given number. Step 5: Calulate fib= fib + a, set a=b and b=c for every iteration in the loop. Step 6: Print the Fibonacci number in every iteration of the loop. Step 7: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN DECLARE lim, a, b INITIALIZE a=0, b=1, lim=1 fib = a + b READ num IF num == 0 PRINT 0 REPEAT a=b b= fib fib = a + b INCREMENT lim PRINT fib UNTIL lim < num END

FLOWCHART

Start

a=0, b=1 fib = a+b Read number

Is num == 0

Yes

Print 0 No

a=b; b=fib; fib = a+b; lim++; Print fib

Yes

Is lim < num No Stop

PROGRAM #include <stdio.h> int main() { int fib=1; int a=0, b=1; int num, i=0; int lim =0; fib =a+b; printf("Enter the limit: "); scanf("%d", &num);

printf("** Generating Fibonacci series..."); if(num == 0) printf("%d", num); while(lim < num) { a=b; b=fib; fib = a+b; lim++; printf(" %d", fib); } printf("\n"); } OUTPUT Enter the limit: 5 ** Generating Fibonacci series... 2 3 5 8 13

RESULT Thus, program to generate Fibonacci series is generated and output is verified.

CHECK WHETHER A GIVEN NUMBER IS EVEN OR ODD AIM To write a program to find out whether a given number is even or odd. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the Program. Step 2: Enter integer value. Step 3: Determine rem = value modulo 2. Step 4: Check if rem is 0. Step 5: If rem is 0, print the given value is even. Step 6: If rem is not 0, print the given value is odd. Step 7: End. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN DECLARE READ val DETERMINE rem = val%2 IF rem == 0 PRINT Value is Even ELSE PRINT Value is ODD END rem

FLOWCHART Start Enter value

rem = val % 2

Is rem == 0

Print even

Print odd

Stop PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main() { int num,rem; printf("Enter a number: "); scanf("%d",&num); rem=num%2; if(rem==0) printf(" \n The entered number is EVEN \n"); else printf(" \n The entered number is ODD \n"); } OUTPUT Enter a number: 5 The entered number is ODD Enter a number: 2 The entered number is EVEN RESULT Thus program to find whether a given number is even or odd is executed and output is verified.

AREA OF TRIANGLE AIM To write a C program to find the area of triangle ALGORITHM Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the input values of a,b,c; Step 3: Compute s=(a+b+c)/2; Step 4: Compute d=(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)) Step 5: Find the area of triangle with the formula area=sqrt(d) Step 6: Print area Step 7: Stop PSEUDOCODE DEFINE AS int a,b,c DEFINE AS float s,d,area Input a, b, c CALCULATE s= (a+b+c)/2 CALCULATE area=(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)) PRINT area PROGRAM #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> main() { float a,b,c; double s,d,area; printf("Enter 3 sides"); scanf("%f %f %f",&a,&b,&c); s=(a+b+c)/2; //d=4; d =(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)); area=sqrt(d); printf("Area of triangle= %f sq units\n",area); }

FLOWCHART Start Read a,b,c

Read s,d,area s=(a+b+c)/2

d=(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c))

Print area stop

OUTPUT Enter 3 sides 5 10 8 Area of triangle= 19.810035 sq units

RESULT Thus a C program to find the area of triangle was executed and output was verified.

FINDING DISCRIMINANT OF QUADRATIC EQUATION AIM To write a C program to find the discriminant of a quadratic equation. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start Step 2: Read a,b,c Step 3: Calculate sqroot=sqrt(b*b-4*a*c) Step 4: Calculate x1=((-b+sqroot)/2*a) Step 5: Calculate x2=((-b-sqroot)/2*a) Step 6: Display x1,x2 Step 7: Stop PSEUDOCODE BEGIN DEFINE AS int a,b,c DEFINE AS int sqroot, x1,x2 READ a, b, c CALCULATE sqroot = sqrt(b*b - 4*a*c) CALCULATE x1 = ((-b + sqroot) / 2*a) CALCULATE x2 = ((-b - sqroot) / 2*a) PRINT x1, x2 END PROGRAM #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> main() { int a,b,c,sqroot,x1,x2; printf("Enter the values of a,b,c : "); scanf("%d%d%d",&a,&b,&c); sqroot = sqrt(b*b-4*a*c); x1=(-b + sqroot) / (2*a); x2=(-b - sqroot) / (2*a); printf(First root is %d, x1 printf("Second root is %d", x2); } OUTPUT

RESULT Thus a C program to find the square root of a given number was executed and the output was verified.

C PROGRAM TO CALCULATE SIMPLE INTEREST AIM To write a C program to calculate simple interest using while condition ALGORITHM 1. Start 2. Read the values of amount,inrate 3. Read the values year,period 4. Check the condition whether year<=period 5. Calculate the value by using the formula a. value=amount +inrate +amount 6. Assign the amount to value and increment the year by 1 7. Stop. PSEUDOCODE Define : int year,period Float amount,inrate,value Input : amount,rate and period. Condition : while(year<=period) Calculate : value=amount+inrate+amount Output : display result PROGRAM main() { int year,period; float amount,inrate,value; printf("input amount,interest rate and period\n\n"); scanf("%f%f%d",&amount,&inrate,&period); printf("\n"); year=1; while(year<=period) { value=amount+inrate+amount; printf("%d%f\n",year,value); amount=value; year=year+1; } }

RESULT Thus a C program to calculate simple interest using while condition was executed and the output was verified.

C PROGRAMMING ARRAYS SUM AND AVERAGE OF NUMBERS IN ARRAY AIM To write a program to initialize an array of 5 numbers and print sum and average ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program Step 2: Declare and initialize array of size 5. Step 3: Set loop up to size of array Step 4: Find sum of array Step 5: After execution of loop, find average. Step 6: Print sum and average of array Step 7: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN DEFINE N AS 5 INITIALIZE integer array to size 5, i=0, and sum = 0 REPEAT Sum = sum+arr[i] UNTIL i < size CALCULATE avg = sum/N PRINT sum, avg END

PROGRAM
#include<stdio.h> #define N 5 int main() { int arr[] = {10,2,5,1,25}; int i, temp, j; printf("\n\t Before Sorting: "); for(i=0; i<N; i++) printf("%d ",arr[i]); for(i=0; i<N; i++){ for(j=i+1; j<N; j++){ if(arr[i]>arr[j]) { temp = arr[i]; arr[i] = arr[j]; arr[j] = temp; } // end if }// end inner for loop }// end outer for printf("\n\n** Sorting the array in Descending order...\n"); printf("\n\tAfter Sorting: "); for(i=0; i<N; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); printf("\n\n\t** Max Number: %d", arr[0]); printf("\n\t** Min Number: %d\n", arr[N-1]); printf("\n"); return } 0;

OUTPUT Before Sorting: 10 2 5 1 25 ** Sorting the array in Descending order... After Sorting: 1 2 5 10 25 ** Max Number: 1 ** Min Number: 25 RESULT Thus, program to initialize an array of 5 numbers and print sum and average is executed and output is verified.

DYNAMIC INITIALIZATION OF ARRAY DURING RUNTIME AIM To write a program to initialize array dynamically during runtime to calculate sum and average for a given number of values specified by user. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program Step 2: Enter the number of array

Step 3: Enter the elements of array Step 4: Set loop up to size of array Step 5: Find sum of array Step 6: After execution of loop, find average of array. Step 7:Print sum and average of array Step 8: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN INITIALIZE integer array to size 100, val, num, i=0, and sum = 0 PRINT number of values to enter READ number into num REPEAT PRINT enter value i+1 READ value into arr[i] DETERMINE sum = sum+ arr[i] UNTIL i < num CALCULATE avg = sum/num PRINT sum, avg END

PROGRAM
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int arr[100]; int sum=0, val, num; float avg; int i; printf("How many values do you wanna enter?" ); scanf("%d",&num); for(i=0; i<num; i++) { printf("\n Enter Value: "); scanf("%d", &val); arr[i] = val; } for(i=0; i<4; i++){ printf("\n Value %d: %d: ", i+1, arr[i]); sum +=arr[i]; } avg=sum/4; printf("\n\t Sum = %d", sum); printf("\n\t Average = %.2f \n", avg); return 0;
}

OUTPUT How many values do you wanna enter?5 Enter Value: 45 Enter Value: 98 Enter Value: 85 Enter Value: 79 Enter Value: 65 Value 1: 45: Value 2: 98: Value 3: 85: Value 4: 79: Sum = 307 Average = 76.00 RESULT Thus, program to initialize array dynamically and print sum and average is executed and output is verified.

SORT ARRAY ASCENDING AND DESCENDING AIM To write a program to sort a given array of variables in ascending and descending order. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program Step 2: Initialize size of array as N Step 3: Initialize elements of array to N numbers Step 4: Set loop to array size minus 1 Step 5: Set inner loop to array size Step 6: Check whether next array element si greater than current element Step 7: If greater exchange position. Step 8: If not greater, then go to loop Step 9: After execution of inner loop, inner loop is executed. Step 10: Print ascending order of given array. Step 11: Print descending order of given array Step 12: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN INITIALIZE integer array to size N REPEAT REPEAT IF arr[i] > arr[j] THEN SET temp = arr[i] STORE arr[i] = arr[j] SET arr[j] = temp INCREMENT j UNTIL j < N INCREMENT i UNITIL i<N-1 PRINT array in ascending order PRINT array in descending order PRINT max Num AS arr[N-1] PRINT minNum AS arr[0] END

PROGRAM
#include<stdio.h> #define N 5 int main() { int arr[] = {10,2,5,1,25}; int i, temp, j; printf("\n\t Before Sorting: "); for(i=0; i<N; i++) printf("%d ",arr[i]); for(i=0; i<N; i++){ for(j=i+1; j<N; j++){ if(arr[i]>arr[j]) { temp = arr[i]; arr[i] = arr[j]; arr[j] = temp; } // end if }// end inner for loop }// end outer for printf("\n\n** Sorting the array in Ascending order...\n"); for(i=0; i<N; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); printf("\n\n** Sorting the array in Descending order...\n"); for(i=N-1; i>=0; i--) printf("%d ", arr[i]); printf("\n\n\t** Max Number: %d", arr[0]); printf("\n\t** Min Number: %d\n", arr[N-1]); printf("\n"); return } 0;

OUTPUT Before Sorting: 10 2 5 1 25 ** Sorting the array in Ascending order... 1 2 5 10 25 ** Sorting the array in Descending order... 25 10 5 2 1 ** Max Number: 1 ** Min Number: 25 RESULT Thus, program to sort a given array of variable size in ascending and descending order is executed and output is verified.

MULTIPLICATION TABLE USING 2D ARRAY AIM To write a program to display multiplication table using 2 dimensional array ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program Step 2: Define ROWS, COLUMNS Step 3: Declare a 2D array, Product Step 4: Set loop to size of COLUMNS Step 5: Set inner loop to size of ROWS Step 6: Calculate and print product Step 7: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN DEFINE ROWS AS 5, COLUMNS AS 5 INITIALIZE array Product to ROWS and COLUMNS SET i=0, j=1 REPEAT PRINT COLUMNS label UNTIL i<= COLUMNS REPEAT PRINT ROWS label SET row = i+1 REPEAT SET column=j CALCULATE product[i][j] = rows*columns PRINT product[i][j] UNTIL j<= COLUMNS UNTIL i<= ROWS END

PROGRAM
#include <stdio.h> #define ROWS 5 #define COLUMNS 5 int main() { int row, column; int product[ROWS][COLUMNS]; // result of multiplication int i,j; printf("\n\n** Multiplication Table **\n\n"); printf(" "); for(j=1; j<= COLUMNS; j++) printf(" %4d", j); printf("\n"); printf("________________________________\n"); for(i=0; i<+ROWS; i++) { row = i+1; printf("%2d |", row); for(j=1; j <= COLUMNS; j++) { column = j; product[i][j] = row * column; printf(" %4d", product[i][j]); } // end inner for - COLUMNS printf("\n"); } // end outer for - ROWS return 0; }

OUTPUT

** Multiplication Table ** 1 2 3 4 5 ________________________________ 1| 1 2 3 4 5 2 | 2 4 6 8 10 3 | 3 6 9 12 15 4 | 4 8 12 16 20 5 | 5 10 15 20 25

RESULT Thus, program to display multiplication table using 2D array is executed and output is verified.

C PROGRAMMING STRUCTURES AND UNIONS AIM To write a program using structures and unions store student details and find average and grade for a set of students. ALGORITHM Step 1: Start the program Step 2: Initialize the structure and union variable. Step 3: Set a loop up to the number of students. Step 4: Enter name, register number and marks for 3 tests and store in the structure variable. Step 5: Calculate average and grade and store in the union variable. Step 6: print the student name, register number, marks for 3 tests, average and grade for all the students. Step 7: Stop the program. PSEUDOCODE BEGIN INITIALIZE structure student as stud[50] and union result as res[50] READ number of students AS no REPEAT READ name and reg no, test 1, test 2, test 3 marks of student STORE in structure variable CALCULATE res[i].avg = (stud[i].test1 +stud[i].test2+stud[i].test3)/3 DETERMINE grade IF res[i].avg>50 AND res[i].avg<60 SET grade AS D ELSE IF res[i].avg>=60 AND res[i].avg<70 SET grade AS C ELSE IF res[i].avg>=70 AND res[i].avg<80 SET grade AS B ELSE IF res[i].avg>=80 AND res[i].avg<=100 SET grade AS A ELSE SET grade AS F INCREMENT i by 1 UNTIL i<no PRINT details of students. END

PROGRAM #include <stdio.h> main(){ struct student{ char name[25]; char regno[25]; int test1, test2, test3; }stud[50]; union result{ char grade; float avg; }res[50]; int i, no; int test1, test2, test3; printf("Enter number of students:"); scanf("%d", &no); for(i=0; i<no; i++) { printf("-- Enter details of student %d--\n", i+1); printf("Enter name: "); scanf("%s", &stud[i].name); printf("Enter regno: "); scanf("%s", &stud[i].regno); /* Enter 3 marks and find average */ printf("Enter 3 test marks: "); scanf(" %d %d %d", &stud[i].test1, &stud[i].test2, &stud[i].test3); res[i].avg = (float) (stud[i].test1+stud[i].test2+stud[i].test3)/3; if(res[i].avg>=50 && res[i].avg<60) res[i].grade = 'D'; else if(res[i].avg>=60 && res[i].avg<70) res[i].grade = 'C'; else if(res[i].avg>=70 && res[i].avg<80) res[i].grade = 'B'; else if(res[i].avg>=80 && res[i].avg <=100) res[i].grade = 'A'; else res[i].grade = 'F'; } // end for printf("\n** Printing from structure and union **\n"); printf("\n Name Reg No. Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Grade\n"); for(i=0; i<no; i++) { printf("\n%s \t %s\t\t %d \t %d \t %d", stud[i].name, stud[i].regno, stud[i].test1, stud[i].test2, stud[i].test3); /* printing from union */ printf("\t %.2f \t %c", res[i].avg, res[i].grade);

} printf("\n"); } // end main function OUTPUT Enter number of students:3 -- Enter details of student 1-Enter name: Max Enter regno: CS01 Enter 3 test marks: 45 68 95 -- Enter details of student 2-Enter name: Dan Enter regno: CS02 Enter 3 test marks: 45 86 54 -- Enter details of student 3-Enter name: Maria Enter regno: CS03 Enter 3 test marks: 77 85 56 ** Printing from structure and union ** Name Reg No. Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Grade Max CS01 Dan CS02 Maria CS03 45 68 45 86 77 85 95 54 56 69.33 61.67 72.67 C C B

RESULT Thus, program to store student details using structures and unions is executed and output is verified.

C PROGRAMMING FUNCTIONS AIM To write a program to use function for a simple calculator. ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Start the program Read the value of x. Display menu Use switch case statements to call functions corresponding to the menu item. Perform operation in each function and display result Stop the program.

PSEDOCODE BEGIN READ value of x REPEAT DISPLAY menu GET choice IF choice is 1 CALL square function DETERMINE square of x = x*x PRINT value of square. IF choice is 2 CALL cube function DETERMINE cube of x = pow(x, 3) PRINT value of cube IF choice is 3 CALL root function DETERMINE root of x = sqrt(x) PRINT value of root IF choice is 4 EXIT UNTIL choice is 4 END

FLOWCHART Start

Read x

Display Menu

Read choice

If choice =1

square = x*x

Print square

If choice =2

cube = pow(x,3) Print cube

If choice =3

root = sqrt(x)

Print root If choice =4

Stop

PROGRAM #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> /* function Declarations */ void square(int); void cube(int); void root(int); main(){ int choice; int x; printf("Enter value of x:"); scanf("%d", &x); printf("\n ** MENU **"); printf("\n[1] Square"); printf("\n[2] Cube"); printf("\n[3] Square root"); printf("\n[4] Exit"); input: printf("\n-- Enter choice: "); scanf("%d", &choice); switch(choice) { case 1: square(x);/* function call */ break; case 2: cube(x); break; case 3: root(x); break; case 4: exit(1); default: printf("Invalid goto input; break; }// end switch goto input; } // end main

Choice");

void square(int x){ printf("x square = %d", x*x); } // end function square. void cube(int x){ int cubeVal; cubeVal = pow(x, 3); printf("x cube = %d", cubeVal); } // end function cube void root(int x){ float sqVal; if(x<0) printf("enter positive value!"); else { sqVal = sqrt(x); printf("Square root of x: %.2f", sqVal); } // end else }// end function root. OUTPUT Enter value of x: 5 ** MENU ** [1] Square [2] Cube [3] Square root [4] Exit -- Enter choice: 1 x square = 25 -- Enter choice: 2 x cube = 125 -- Enter choice: 3 Square root of x: 2.24 -- Enter choice: 4

RESULT Thus, program to use C functions for simple calculator is executed and output is verified.