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Experimental

Modal
Analysis
Problem Set # 1
Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi
Kashani
(89301567)


Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Problem 1:
a) Since the system is flying, it contains a rigid-body-motion mode. Hence, we should predict a zero
natural frequency for the system. Using MATLAB and solving for eigenvalues and eigenvectors, we
get:
 
And:

  

Where is the rigid-body-motion mode; explains the cross-movement of the wings and
explains the co-movement of the wings in the opposite direction of the fuselage.
b) From the previous part we have:

Applying the initial conditions:


  
  
The following plot, shows the time-response of the system for the first 25 seconds.

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Note that the black curve shows the movement of the fuselage and the red and blue curves depicts
the movement of the wings.
Associated MATLAB code:
m = 2500;
E = 7.5e9;
I = 5.2e-6;
l = 2;
M = m * [1 0 0;0 4 0;0 0 1];
K = E * I / (l^3) * [3 -3 0;-3 6 -3;0 -3 3];
[V,D] = eig(K,M)
% Initial Conditions:
x0 = [0.2 ; 0 ; 0];
xdot0 = [0 ; 0 ; 0];
X_0 = [x0 ; xdot0];
B = [1 0 0
-1.41 0
-1.15
;...
100
0
0
0.58
;...
100
+1.41 0
-1.15
;...
0 1 -1.41*D(2,2)^.5 0
-1.15*D(3,3)^.5 0
;...
010
0
0.58*D(3,3)^.5 0
;...
0 1 1.41*D(2,2)^.5
0
-1.15*D(3,3)^.5 0
];
syms c1 c2 c3 d1 d2 d3;
C = [c1 ; d1 ; c2 ; d2 ; c3 ; d3];
C = inv(B) * X_0
t = 0:.2:25;
plot(t , C(1) - 1.41*C(4)*cos(D(2,2)^.5*t) - 1.15*C(6)*cos(D(3,3)^.5*t),'r')
hold on;
plot(t , C(1) + 0.58*C(6)*cos(D(3,3)^.5*t),'k')
hold on;
plot(t , C(1) + 1.41*C(4)*cos(D(2,2)^.5*t) - 1.15*C(6)*cos(D(3,3)^.5*t),'b')

Problem 2: a) using elementary vibration principles we may easily express the equations as:

b) Solving the eigenvalue problem, the eigenvectors and eigenvalues are found as follows:

Raising the left mass (that is, putting a displacement i.c. on the x2 coordinate) yields the following
response. Note that the equation for x2 is completely independent of the rest of the system.

c) Now, we are to find the point and transfer FRF functions and the left mass in the X-direction, that
is:  .

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Prior to that, we calculate the modal mass, stiffness, and mass normalized eigenvectors:

and

Nothing that:

We have:

And for the cross FRF of the left mass: 



The plot of receptance in terms of frequency is given below:

Associated MATLAB code


m = 12;
k = 150;
M = m * [1 0 0 0;0 1 0 0;0 0 1 0;0 0 0 1];
K = k * [5 0 -1 0; 0 4 0 0; -1 0 5 0; 0 0 0 6];
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M);
Mr = transpose(Psi) * M * Psi;
Kr = transpose(Psi) * K * Psi;
Phi = Psi * Mr^(-0.5);

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

syms w;
ajk = 0;
j = 1;
k = 1;
for r = 1:4
ajk = ajk + Phi(j,r)*Phi(k,r)/(Omega(r,r)-w^2);
end
ajk
w1 = 2:.1:10;
plot(2*pi*w1 , 20*log10(-1./(24*(w1.^2 - 50)) - 1./(24*(w1.^2 - 75))))
xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
ylabel('Receptance [dB]')
title('Frequency Response Function')

Problem 3: a) the following system (similar to that of


the previous problem) has two identical natural
frequencies. The mode shapes are:

 

b) Natural frequencies, mode shapes and M-normal mode shapes are found to be:

The complete response of the system consists of the transient and steady-state responses.

 

Applying the initial conditions yields and solving for C1, C2, D1, and D2:
 

c) The damping matrix C can be expressed in terms of mass and stiffness matrixes as follows:
   
We know that in such case ; that is, the mode shapes are similar to the
undamped system given in part b.

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Associated MATLAB code


clc
M = [1 0; 0 2];
K = [2 -1;-1 4];
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M)
Mr = transpose(Psi) * M * Psi
Kr = transpose(Psi) * K * Psi
Phi = Psi * Mr^(-0.5)
x0 = [1 ; 1];
xdot0 = [0 ; 0];
X_0 = [x0 ; xdot0];
B = [0
Phi(1,1) 0
Phi(1,2);...
0
Phi(2,1) 0
Phi(2,2);...
Omega(1,1)^.5*Phi(1,1) 0
Omega(1,1)^.5*Phi(1,2) 0
Omega(2,2)^.5*Phi(2,1) 0
Omega(2,2)^.5*Phi(2,2) 0
syms c1 c2 d1 d2;
Cons = [c1 ; d1 ; c2 ; d2 ; c3 ; d3];
Cons = inv(B) * (X_0 - [[0 ; 0];[(K-9*M)*[2*3 ; 0]]])

;...
]

Problem 4: a) The natural frequencies are the same as modal stiffnesss. Hence, we have:

It is obvious that the system includes a rigid-body-motion mode, corresponding to the zero natural
frequency.
b)



c)

d) The mass and stiffness matrixes are found to be:

e) The modal damping matrix is:


Nothing the proportional damping, the relation between the damping ratio and the rest of system
parameters is:

Fall 2010







Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Calculating the right-hand-side:


Hence:

f) Since the system has a non-diagonal mass matrix, it can be a rotating system. On the other hand,
when modeling systems using auxiliary (non-absolute) coordinate systems, such kind of mass
matrixes can appear.
Associated MATLAB code
clc
syms g l;
Psi = [0.5 3^.5/2;0 2/3^.5]
Mr = [1 0; 0 1]
Kr = [0 0; 0 50]
Phi = Psi * Mr^(-0.5)
M = inv(Psi') * Mr * inv(Psi)
K = inv(Psi') * Kr * inv(Psi)
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M)
2*Omega*[0 0; 0 0.1]* (Psi')*M*Psi
inv(Psi')*(2*Omega*[0 0; 0 0.1]*(Psi')*M*Psi)*inv(Psi)

Problem 5: 1 & 2) The spatial model of system is given below. It is formed from the preliminary
equations of motion:

3) The mass-normalized eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the system are found to be:


, and

 

 






Hence, the modal mass and stiffness matrixes would be equal to and respectively.
4) Applying a proportional damping with , the equation of motion would be:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Working with a proportional damping, the modal mass, stiffness and eigenvectors will remain
unchanged. The modal damping .
5)

6) 








Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

The frequency response for the and are given below:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Fall 2010

Problem Set # 1




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

7) Drawing the imaginary parts of the FRFs in a single graph takes the following shape. Here, it is
easier to guess the resonance and anti-resonances of the modes; and as a result the nodes of the
mode-shapes.

8) The modal model of the system with the given hysteresis damping are:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

 

 




, and 




Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

The main differences between the 2 damping modes, is that in the hysteresis damping mode, the
resonance picks are sharper. But, more important is the direction of sign change which is vice-versa
in the two cases.
9) Removing the fifth row and column, we have:









Yes! The response of the reduced system is very similar to that of the main system.

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Assosiated MATLAB code


clc
M = [2 0 0 0 0; 0 1 0 0 0; 0 0 2 0 0; 0 0 0 1 0; 0 0 0 0 2];
K = 1000*[2 -1 0 0 0;-1 10 -1 -3 0; 0 -1 2 -1 0; 0 -3 -1 12 -1; 0 0 0 -1 2];
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M)
Omega^0.5
Mr = transpose(Psi) * M * Psi;
Kr = transpose(Psi) * K * Psi;
Phi = Psi * Mr^(-0.5);
syms w;
ajk = 0; amn=0;
j = 3; m=1;
k = 3; n=4;
for r = 1:5
ajk = ajk + Phi(j,r)*Phi(k,r)/((Omega(r,r)-w^2)+(1i)*(w*0.5*0.005*Omega(r,r)^0.5));
amn = amn + Phi(m,r)*Phi(n,r)/((Omega(r,r)-w^2)+(1i)*(w*0.5*0.005*Omega(r,r)^0.5));
end
w1 = 20:0.01:120;
figure('Name','ABS')
plot(2*pi*w1 , 20*log10(abs(subs(ajk,w1))))
xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
ylabel('Receptance [dB]')
title('H33-FRF Magnitude')
figure('Name','Phase')
plot(2*pi*w1 , 180/3.1415*(angle(subs(ajk,w1))))
xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
ylabel('Phase [degree]')
title('H33-FRF Phase')

Problem 6: a) The equations of motion for each of the masses are as follows:
For m1:
For m2:
For m3:
For m4:  

For I4:  



Where r is the gyration radius of the beam (m4) and equal to 2m. Putting the equations into the
matrix form, we have:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)


 
 

Problem Set # 1


































b) Solving for the mode shapes and natural frequencies in both damped and undamped cases, the
natural frequencies are found as:



 
 






And in the damped case, we have:


  

  







The higher frequencies are reduced to a large amount which is natural due to the effects of damping
on the system. Smaller frequencies are also reduced in magnitude. This effect is also acceptable as
we remember the effects of damping on SDOF systems.
c) Assuming real modes for the system, we can find the mode shapes from the undamped system
mass and stiffness matrixes.

 






Generally speaking, the mode shapes cant be a good approximation of the system modes, because
of the large and non-proportional nature of the system damping. But, the mode shapes seems to be

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

good approximations, because the damping matrix and stiffness matrix have similar structures and
(similar non-zero element, hence a similar realistic parallelism) and their structre is close to the
proportional damping condition.
Assosiated MATLAB code
clc
k1 = 10; k2 = 10; k3 = 20; k4 = 300; k5 = 300;
c1 = 0.5; c2 = 0.5; c3= 0.3; c4 = 0.1; c5 =0.1;
l1 = 1; l2 = 1.5; l3 = 2; r = 2;
M = [50 0 0 0 0; 0 50 0 0 0; 0 0 150 0 0; 0 0 0 2500 0; 0 0 0 0 2500*r^2];
C = 1000*[c1+c4 0 0 -c1 -c1*l1;0 c2+c5 0 -c2 c2*l2;...
0 0 c3 -c3 -c3*l3; -c1 -c2 -c3 c1+c2+c3 c1*l1-c2*l2+c3*l3;...
-c1*l1 c2*l2 -c3*l3 c1*l1-c2*l2+c3*l3 c1*l1^2+c2*l2^2+c3*l3^2];
K = 1000*[k1+k4 0 0 -k1 -k1*l1;0 k2+k5 0 -k2 k2*l2;...
0 0 k3 -k3 -k3*l3; -k1 -k2 -k3 k1+k2+k3 k1*l1-k2*l2+k3*l3;...
-k1*l1 k2*l2 -k3*l3 k1*l1-k2*l2+k3*l3 k1*l1^2+k2*l2^2+k3*l3^2];
Z = zeros(5)
VM = [[C] [M] ; [M] [Z]]
VK = [[K] [Z] ; [Z] -[M]]
[UnDPsi, UnOmega] = eig(K,M)
[DPsi,DOmega] = eig(VK,VM)

Problem 7: a) The mass and stiffness matrixes are:



b) The natural frequencies and mass-normalized mode shapes are:




The plot below is a schematic of the relative motion of masses in each mode. Note that we have
normalized the mode shape element so that the largest element of each of them is equal to unity.

Relative Motions of the


Masses

Chart Title

Fall 2010

1.5
1
0.5

1st Mode Shape


2nd Mode Shape

0
-0.5
-1

3rd Mode Shape

Mass Number




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

c) Converting the units of the analytic natural frequencies and reading the experimental natural
frequencies from the given graph, we have:



The natural and experimental natural frequencies are similar to a very good extent. These slight
errors may arise from many different sources such as modeling and experiment errors, friction and
damping, and . We will consider zero damping for the third mode (where the experimental natural
frequency is higher than the analytic undamped system frequency) and the differences in the first
and second mode due to damping effects. Hence:
 



 

d) Using the resultant damping values as the modal values and calculating the spatial damping
matrix, we may recalculate the natural frequencies. In this case, we find the following values for the
natural frequencies of the damped system.

Assosiated MATLAB code


clc
M = [2.45 0 0; 0 2.50 0; 0 0 2.2];
K = [420085 -175575 0; -175575 384555 -208980; 0 -208980 208980];
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M)
Omega^0.5/2/pi
Cr = 2*[0.1938 0 0; 0 0.1412 0; 0 0 0]*(Omega)^.5
C = inv(Psi')*Cr*inv(Psi)
Z = zeros(3)
VM = [[C] [M] ; [M] [Z]]
VK = [[K] [Z] ; [Z] -[M]]
[UnDPsi, UnOmega] = eig(K,M)
[DPsi,DOmega] = eig(VK,VM)
(-DOmega^2)^.5/2/pi

Problem 8: For a rotating shaft, we have:

Where

  

For our overhung rotor:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

 




Plotting these frequencies:

Assosiated MATLAB code


clc
L = 0.5;
d = 0.06;
m = 15;
dDisk = 0.2;
k = 3*210e9*(pi*(d)^4 /64)/L^3 ;
J = m*dDisk^2/8 ;
I0 = m*dDisk^2/16 + m*L^2 ;
gamma = J/I0 ;
Omega0 = (k * L^2 / I0)^0.5;
BigOmega = 0:0.1:1000 ;
SmallOmega = (Omega0^2 + (gamma * BigOmega).^2) .^ 0.5;
Omega1 = SmallOmega-0.5*(gamma * BigOmega);
Omega2 = SmallOmega+0.5*(gamma * BigOmega);
plot (BigOmega, SmallOmega)
hold on;
plot (BigOmega, Omega1, 'k')
hold on;
plot (BigOmega, Omega2, 'k')
xlabel('\Omega')

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

ylabel('\omega')
title('Natural Frequency of a Rotating Shaft')

Problem 9: a) The mass and stiffness matrixes are:



The un-damped natural frequencies and mass-normalized mode shapes are:



Now we add the modal damping ratios to the de-coupled one degree of freedom systems to have:





In order to find the components of the modal forcing function (g(t)), we note that the real force
component, f1 is an impulsive force and f2 = f3 = 0. Left-multiplying the real forcing function with the
mode shape matrix, we have:

In this case the time responses of the three degrees of freedom are:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Taking the Fourier transformation of the responses, we may get the frequency response of the
system. Hence we have the diagonal elements of the FRF as follows. We may call these functions as
the modal FRFs:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

Each element of the FRF, would be a combination of the given expressions, using an inverse
transformation with the help of mode shape vectors. For example:

Fall 2010




Seyyed Mostafa Mostafavi Kashani (89301567)

Problem Set # 1

b) In this part we have to find the response of the system to a random excitation with a PSD equal to 
. We know that . Hence, for the excitation and response on the first
mass we have:

So, the ratio of the excitation and response PSDs is equal to H(w) .
Assosiated MATLAB code
clc
syms t
M = [400 0 0; 0 2000 0; 0 0 8000];
K = 1000*[300 -300 0;-300 380 -80; 0 -80 880];
f = [1000*dirac(t-0) ; 0 ; 0];
[Psi,Omega] = eig(K,M)
Omega^0.5
Mr = transpose(Psi) * M * Psi;
Kr = transpose(Psi) * K * Psi;
Cr = [0.1 0 0; 0 0.01 0; 0 0 .2]
g = Psi' * f
sol1 = dsolve('D2x1 + 0.20*5.390*Dx1 + 29.020*x1 = -20.581*dirac(t)','x1(-1) = 0','Dx1(-1) = 0')
sol2 = dsolve('D2x2 + 0.02*10.68*Dx2 + 113.97*x2 = -5.103*dirac(t)','x2(-1) = 0','Dx2(-1) = 0')
sol3 = dsolve('D2x3 + 0.40*30.12*Dx3 + 907.01*x3 = -45.281*dirac(t)','x3(-1) = 0','Dx3(-1) = 0')
t1 = 0:.01:25;
figure('Name','1')

Fall 2010