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The Nizam-I Cedid Army under Sultan Selim III 1789-1807 Author(s): Stanford J.

Shaw Reviewed work(s): Source: Oriens, Vol. 18/19 (1965/1966), pp. 168-184 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1579734 . Accessed: 01/12/2011 06:13
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THE NIZAM-I CEDID ARMY UNDER SULTAN SELIM III 1789-1807


by

J. Stanford Shaw
Cambridge(Mass.)

The termNizdm-i-Cedid, "New Order",is generally or appliedto the of entire and reforms introfinancial, military spectrum administrative, duced into the OttomanEmpirein the almosttwo decades of rule of used synonymously the with Sultan SelimIII 1. The termis sometimes Yet itself. in fact,it was appliedby theSultan and his contemporeign the rariesonlyto one part of his reforms, new armycreatedentirely of from oldercorps, the and it was onlybecause outside and independent that its name later of the spectacular natureof this particular reform the was applied also to the efforts whichthis Sultan made to reform sense as olderinstitutions well. But it is in the limited, contemporary, of the term thatit is used here. in The Nizam-iCedidarmywas, as we will see, largelya failure its an owntime.Yet it represented important forward theevolution in step even the most"modern"and of Ottoman reform. Untilit was created, conceived reform no morethanan of as "liberal"ofOttoman statesmen of and effort restore purity old institutions practices, to make to the and to which had brought themoperatein the manner greatness the Empire of in the fifteenth sixteenth Even the most perceptive and centuries. how Ottoman "reformers" not reallyunderstand did eighteenth century muchEurope had changedsincethe timeof Suleimanthe Magnificent howgreattheOttoman and thatno matter wayshad beentwocenturies instieven at theirbest,theycouldbe no matchforthe modern before, of tutions stateand war whichhad been evolvedin the West.But with to theNizam-i Cedidthere camethefirst Ottoman awakening therealities ofthemodern a the of world, newconceptofreform, creation newinstiin tutions on and practices modelled thosedeveloped the West, directly from and theirintroduction place of thosewhichhad been inherited in thepast.Thiswas theidea ofreform which characterized nineteenththe
1 B. Lewis, The Emergence Modern Turkey (London of 1961) p. 56-58; Enver Ziya Karal, OsmanlzTarihi. V. Cilt. Nizam-i Ceditve Tanzimatdevirleri (1789-1856)
(Ankara 1947) p. 63-64.

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

169

whichwas to bringthe OttomanEmpire Tanzimatmovement century worldon a largescale forthe first into the modern time. of cameintobeingon a smallscale The nucleus thenewarmyactually the sometimebefore Sultanknewaboutit or made a definite decision to of the oldercorps.In late 1791, such a new force independent organize whilethe GrandVezirYfisuf Pasa was stillin the fieldagainstthe Rusin of in sians,he assembled his campa smallnumber renegades captured at least one Turk who had been the courseof the campaign, including and had servedforsometimein by captured the Russiansyearsbefore in Russianarmy.These renegades, cooperation witha fewmembers the oftheGrandVezir'spersonal withcaptured Russian guard, beganto train exercisesand maneuvers,and they weapons, using European-style in of master's tentas a kindofenterperiodically front their performed divertthe army'sleadersfrom tainment orderto in theirincreasingly At thisnewgroup no more was than difficult military problems. thisstage, oftheGrandVezir.No effort madeto force a toy,a personal was caprice the othercorpsto accept or even observethe infidel practicesof war, sincesucha revolutionary had notyetbeenauthorized theSultan, step by and the oldercorpsin the past had demonstrated violentreactions to new to introduce wayswhich undermine position the might any attempts in of of society virtue their by theyhad secured Ottoman monopoly the and military techniques weaponsofthepast. Newwayswouldundermine theirposition Ottoman so in society, theywerevigorously opposed,and so sucha reaction couldnotbe risked longas theenemy readyto take was in disorder the Ottomanarmy,howeverinadvantageof any internal be effective that armymight 1. However,Yisuf Pasa did reportto the of Sultan on the activities this smallgroup,and through thesereports, the Sultan finally to was influenced developsuch a guard on a larger 2 scale oncepeace was restored Whenthe Treatyof Jassyfinally peace in 1792,the Imperial brought to armyreturned Istanbul,and withit came YtisufPasa and his new it the he the corps.However, left outside cityso he coulddiscover Sultan's before viewson thesubject himself thewrath thesupporters to of exposing of the old corps. It turnedout that Selim's reactionwas extremely shown the favorable. weakness The against enemy theoldercorpshad by
referred as TKS), Yeni Gelenler 1376, to 1 Top Kapz Saray archives(hereafter fol. 4oa-5oa; W. Eton, A Survey of the TurkishEmpire (London 1799, 2nd ed.) archives(hereafter London, ForeignOffice referred p. 98-99; Public Record Office, of the French Foreign Ministry, Quai d'Orsay, Correspondance politique: Turquie,
to as FO), 78/20, no. 7 (I March 1792). 2 FO 78/13, no. 8 (io April 1792); FO 78/15, no. 31 (25 December 1794); Archives

hereafter referred to as AE, 184, fol. 284 (26 March 1793).

170

Stanford Shaw J.

the convinced Sultanthattheycouldnot be reformed, thatonlyan and new to created and tactics, entirely army, especially use thenewweapons and unhindered the ways of the past, could successfully the defend by its enemies. whenhe learnedof the presence the So of Empireagainst new corps,he wentto see it perform, was extremely and In impressed. withthesuperiority themassedfirepower of which fact,he was so struck it was able to assemble, thathe decidedto createsuch a newarmyand to use thisgroupas its nucleus. In late March,1792,the Britishambassadorto Istanbulprovideda fewnewmuskets bayonets theGrandVeziron an informal and for basis, whileinquiring his government to the replyhe shouldgive to the of as Sultan'srequests largescale assistance thiskind In themeantime, for of 1. the Grand Vezir enrolled one Turks fromthe approximately hundred streets Istanbulto man the new corps,and the German of and Russian back fromthe war became its officers and drill renegadesbrought an masters In April,the district Levend ?iftlik, isolatedspot ten of 2. milesnorthof the capital on the plateau overlooking Besiktason the used cannonforce trained a small on Bosporus, formerly by therapid-fire scalebyBaronde Totttwodecadesbefore, chosen thedrill was as grounds of the new corpsso that it wouldbe farenoughaway from people the of Istanbuland from oldercorpsthat it wouldexciteneither the their northeiranxiety untilit was readyto meetany opposition disapproval withforce In addition, muchto thechagrin theBritish of ambassador, 3. fourFrenchinfantry officers wereappointed adviseon its operations to and assist in the drills,Lieutenant-General Menant,and Lieutenants and PierceLaroque-Monteil Luzin,Ranchoup, 4. But up to thispoint,all ofthisactivity had beenundertaken secretly by the Sultan and the Grand Vezir, withoutobtainingany formal it the approvalfrom ImperialCouncilor publicizing in any way. It was
1 FO 78/20, I March 1792; FO 78/13,no. 8 (io April 1792); AE 184, fol. 284 (26 March 1793). Ahmed Vislf, Mahasin al-AAsrve al-Ahbar,vol. IV .Haqaiyiq (MS TY 5979, Istanbul UniversityLibrary, Istanbul), fol. I29a-I3oa.
2

of TiirkeiII corresStaatsarchiv, Vienna, Archivesof the Ministry ForeignAffairs, referred as HHS, Tiirkei II, vol. Ioo, no. 33 (io October to pondence, hereafter Levend ?2iftlik was given by Sultan CAbd I to O(AziIHasan originally as an estate in rewardforhis long and meritorious service.O(Yzi ul-.Hamid 1Hasan,since he was Grand Admiral of the Ottoman fleet,used sailors (called levends)fromthe Pa.a fleetto farmand maintainthis estate, and so it came to be called Levend9iftlik. Construction the Nizam-i Cedid barracks began here in August of 1792. HHS, of Tiirkei II - ioo, no 33 (io October 1792); FO 78/14, no. 14 (25 May 1793). Istanbul, hereafter Arfivi(Archivesof the Prime Minister'sOffice, 4 Baf Vekalet
3

Eton, Turk. Empire, p. 99; FO 78/14, no. 14 (25 May 1793); Haus-, Hof- und

1792).

referred to as B VA), Hatt-z Humayun 12193; AE 184, fol. 285-288 (26 March 1793).

under Cedid TheNizam-i Sultan III Selim Army

171

in onlyin late Apriland earlyMay thatthiswas undertaken, a seriesof held on the subject in the roomsof the ImperialCouncil'. meetings Sincethe Sultan'sviewsweremade clearright from start, the therewas to littleopen opposition the new armyas such. The proponents the of new forcewere led by the Seyhul-Isldm,Mehmed'ArifEfendi,the influential Molla Tatarcik 'Abdullah Efendi,and the Sultan's former and slaveand closefriend advisor, who became Mustafd ResidEfendi, later of the director the Nizam-iCedidand its chief in proponent the councils of state. Differences betweenthesemen and the othermembers the of Councilarose mainlyon the questionof how the new armywould be and financed. Wouldit be partofthe old corpsor wouldit be organized Would the old ImperialTreasury independent? (Hfazine-i 'Amire)have to pay forit, or would new sourcesofrevenue found support ? be to it that an entirely new corpscompletely outsidethe YfisufPapa argued established wouldneedlessly excitetheJanissaries and military hierarchy the vested interests associatedwith them and incite them to revolt before newarmy the was strong to itself force. felt He enough defend by that if the new corpswas in someway made part of the old system at least in form, opposition the wouldbe deludedor appeaseduntilit was too late. But Tatarcik 'Abdullah Efendirepliedby pointing out the burden thatsuchan armywouldplace on the Imperial and Treasury the oldercorpsifit wereattached them. to Newbarracks, uniforms, weapons, and schoolswouldbe expensive provide. to New menand officers would have to be paid. The neededforeign and technicians advisorswouldbe to The and revenues especially expensive employ. Treasury itsestablished werealreadybeingtappedto thelimit.Each itemofrevenue already was The oldercorpswouldvigorously assignedto a specific purpose. protest ifanyoftheir revenues werediverted suchpurposes. onlysolution for The was to create new taxes, to findnew sourcesof revenuepreviously older sourcesto an energetic new untapped,or to turnover neglected much betterable to administer themthan the Treasuryorganization He established Treasury. wantedthe new armycorpsand its financial the separatedfrom old in the fearthat the latter organization entirely would hindertheirefforts everyturn.These werethe two principal at led thosewho supported Efendi's Mustafd 'Abdulldh arguments. Redid new corps, while the position and wanted an entirely independent
Enver Ziya Karal, Selim III'un Hatt-s Humayunlars - Nizam-i Cedid The debates at these meetingsare summarizedin I789-1807 (Ankara 1946), p. 49. Vislf IV, fol. I4oa-I5oa; Halil Nfir, Nilrf Tda'rh (Asir Efendi collection,Siiley1

maniye library, Istanbul, MS 239), fol. 15ib-i54b; no. 6 (ii March 1793).

also HHS

- Tiirkei II -

102,

172

Stanford J. Shaw

the Treasurer Serif (Defterddr) Pasa led thosewhosupported GrandVezir, to shouldexpanditsrevenues meetthenew thattheold Treasury stating and military of and that the creation another Treasury corps expenses, and duplicationof effort, an would cause even further inefficiency merit(Nilri,fol. 154b-I55a). Finally,on not entirely without argument a for Cedid.To provide itsexpenses newtreasury under nameNizam-i the wereassigned it. to whatever revenues to wouldbe organized administer boththenewarmyand its treasury But to appease the vestedinterests, in institutions the Ottoman were clothedin the garb of established system. new of Because the creation an entirely force priorprovision required for latter camefirst. MarchI, On for offunds itsoperation, legislation the for was independent treasury established thenewarmy, 1793,an entirely and it was giventhenameIrdd-iCedid,the "New Revenue"1. Direction was Nizam-iCedidorganization givento Mustafd oftheentire ResidPasa titlesofIrdd-iCedidDefterddrf withtheformal as Supervisor, (Treasurer his dutiesas head ofthenewtreasury, oftheNew Revenue)for financial of and of Ta'limli 'AskeriNdziri (Supervisor the TrainedSoldiers)for withan annualsalaryof50,000piasters his military duties, plus rations. Ottoman himwithrankand prestige theregular To provide in hierarchy, of the nowhonorific of $iqq-iSdni Defterddri post (SecondTreasurer the as ImperialTreasury)was set aside for him and for his successsors himan equal withthe other of Director theNizam-iCedid,thusmaking Council. of officers statein the Imperial
was The Siqq-i Sani Defterdarlik createdafterthe conquest of the Arab provinces in the early i6th centuryto deal with their financial affairsand also those of Anatolia. In the middle of the same century,these two areas were divided, with the second Defterdarthereafter dealing primarilywith the financialproblemsof Anatolia. However, by the time of Selim III, this post no longerhad any formal duties, and was no more than an honorific position given to provide its holders with rank and revenues. See B. Lewis, Daftardar, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam in: (New Ed.) II, 83; Mehmed Zeki, Te~kildt-icAtiqada Defterddr, Tiirk Tarih
Encumeni Mecmucasi VIII
(1926)

May 14, 1792, a compromisewas reached. A new army was to be created

no. 14/91, P. 96-102, no. 16/93, p. 234-244;

(Istanbul 1213/1798) p. 9-14; Nilri, fol. 155a-I64a; Karal, Nizam-i Cedit, p. 49-59, 81-93; Ahmed Cevdet, Tdrih-i Cevdet (12 vols., Istanbul 1301-1309) VI, 47-52; FO 78/14, no. 6 (II March 1793); HHS - Turkei II - 102, no. 6 (ii March 1793).

1 The regulationsestablishingand organizingthe new Irad-i Cedid treasuryare given in full in Qavanin-i Sultan Selim, MS Y-534 in the libraryof the Turkish HistoricalSociety (TiirkTarih Kurumu) in Ankara,fol.42a-45b; Vasif IV, 72b-8ob; Ahmed Cevdd, Tdarh-icAsker-icOsmani,vol. II (TY 3208, MS in Istanbul Universitylibrary,Istanbul), p. 14-19. They are summarizedand discussed in Ismail Hakki Uzungarilih, DevletininMerkezve Bahriye Teqkilat (Ankara 1948) Osmannh p. 368-9; Mahmud Rayf, Tableau des nouveaux riglemensde l'empire Ottoman

under Sultan Selim Cedid TheNizam-i III Army


Istanbul 1946-1955) I, 411-418.

173

MehmedZeki Pakaln, OsmanliTarih Deyimleri Terimleri ve Sdzligii (3 vols.,

Duringthe next fewmonths, MustafaResid and otherhighofficials of the Imperial examined ofits revenues see whichcould all to Treasury bestbe givenup to thenewTreasury. for Specifically, werelooking they tax in potentially profitable sourceswhichhad not been fully exploited the past, so that theirloss wouldnot harmthe old Treasury much, too whiletheywouldat thesametimeprovide newTreasury the witha good tax base. Finallytheydecidedto givetheIrdd-iCedidas itsmainsource 1 of revenueall the tax farms(Muqd.ta'a,Iltizdm) of the Treasury, with those belonging the Holy Cities foundations, to which together annualprofits morethantenpurseseach to thetax farmers of produced to whomtheywereassigned.To lighten the effect the loss of these of on revenues the ImperialTreasury and its tax farmers, Sultan also the decreedthat this transfer shouldtake place onlywhenthe holdings in were vacated by their currentfarmers, and that afterthe question Irdd-iCedidtreasury tookthem it over, should pay theImperial Treasury the regularpurchaseprices previously paid for these farmsby the of and privatetax farmers, equal to fiveyears'profits the tax farmers, that in additionit shouldpay the regular annual taxes whichthe tax farmers had to for previously delivered theImperial Treasury thesefarms. In essence, itself becamethe tax farmer thus,the Irid-i Cedidtreasury of these holdingsfor the ImperialTreasury, them and administering theirtaxes by sub-farming themto its owntax farmers. collecting In addition, fiefs all set of (Timdr)previously aside formembers the fiefs more Humbaraci corpsand thenavy,and all military worth (Mortar) than fifteen thousand whoseholders werefoundto be piasters year per absentfrom their landsorfailing their in in duties anywaywere beseized to forthe new treasury and administered it. Finally,variousold and by taxeswereassigned it fordirect to collection itsagents: newly-created by thevery tax oftwoparasperokke wine,three of profitable Zecriyye paras of of per okke raki,and fourper okke spirits (BVA, CevdetMaliye,2800 and 30980; PakalinIII, 649); theResm-i Penbetax ofone para per okke collectedby the Imperial Mint (Darbjhdne) sellersof from previously cotton clothand oftwoparas perokke cotton of levied thread, previously
1 Imperial possessions were alienated from the possession of the Imperial Treasuryas Muqatacas, and these Muqa.tacaswere assigned to agents as tax farms (Iltizdms) or to salaried employees (Emins) as agencies (Emdnets)for collection. See Uzungarsili,Merkez ve Bahriye Teqkilatz,p. 383-384; Pakalin II, 578-579; Suleymdn Sfidi,Defter-i Muqtesid (3 vols., Istanbul 1890) II, 47; H. A. R. Gibb

and Harold Bowen, Islamic Society and the West (i vol., 2 pts., London 1950-57) in: JAOS, vol. 83 (1963), 447-452.

Archivesas a Sourcefor Egyptian History, 1/2,p. 2In; S. J. Shaw, The Ottoman

174

J. Stanford Shaw

and to examine all his accounts at least once a month. Thus were the financialfoundationsof the "new order" laid.

of forthebenefit theArsenal(Tersine)ofIstanbul;theDuhhlin Giimriik tax of six per centon all imports customs of and exports tobacco; the of of soldin thepublic Resm-i Palamad charge one para perokke walnuts tax of threeparas per okkeon all sales of markets;the Resm-iTiftik the Bunn tax of eightparas Angorawoolin the publicmarkets; Resm-i in the markets Istanbul; the Resm-i of sold per okkeof coffee Istifilof twoparas per okke Moreagrapes;theResm-i of Boya-iKiakoftwoaqces of 30826; HHS, TurkeiII-ioi, no. per okke dyes (BVA, CevdetMaliye, of December theResm-i 39 [IO 1792]); Yapdagofone para perokke wool and the 'Adet-i tax of one para per head of sheep and woolens; Agndm all and soldin themarkets overtheEmpire(B VA, CevdetMaliye bought wouldprovide new the 2881 and 2815). It was hopedthatthesesources witha steadyannualrevenue aboutonemillion of aside piasters, treasury to from Zecriyye whichwas to be used exclusively pay offthe the tax, newtreasury's debtsto the Imperial Treasury. To further the latterforthe loss of these revenues, a compensate numberof its expenditure associatedwith the established obligations to corpswerealso transferred the new Irdd-iCedid treasury. military to Fromthestartofthefinancial year1793,it was required pay notonly the salaries and expensesof the Nizam-iCedid army,its basic raison barracksand salaries but also the cost of the new equipment, d'dtre, and Sapping)and Tdpci of the Humbaracf (Mortar), Lagimdc(Mining of of corps,thesalariesand expenses themenand officers the (Artillery) fleetand dockyard, all expensesabove thosenormally and provided by for the Imperial corpsin thecourseof Treasury the established infantry was Thus the Imperial expeditions againsttheenemy. Treasury required the to pay onlythoseexpenditures incumbent it in peace timebefore on wereinaugurated. surpluses All Nizam-iCedid and othernew reforms leftin thenewtreasury theendofeach yearhad to be sentto a sepaat rateplacein the Mintand theresaved forspecialwartime expenditures, thus like something a "war chest" to be used onlyin emergencies, to of the thenewand old treasuries alikefrom heavyburden war. spare a for TheIrdd-i was Cedid building itsoperations treasury given separate its in theOrtaKaptstquarter theTop Kapi Saray palace. To register of to a specialscribe assigned it by the was and dailyrevenues expenditures, of the ImperialTreasury Rfizndme with a Vezneddr along department made to it in cash and kind.Whilethe to payments (Weigher) measure the was of Irid-i CedidDefterddrf made the director the new treasury, his of was to Defterddr theImperial Treasury required supervise activities

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

175

set his MustafaRegidEfendiimmediately about to organize Treasury to and arrange collectits revenues. the end ofAugust,1792,he had By alone1. By the end fiefs alreadyseized fifty-one in Karaman province overfour hundred bringing fiefs reveofthesame year,he had assembled was collecting and he nues of seventhousand about piasters month, per
435,000 piasters monthlyfromall the revenues assigned to his treasury, out of which only 124,000 piasters were paid to the Imperial Treasury

and to the collecting agents(BVA, Ali Emiri-III Selim 17665). Steps also were taken to expand the military corps. The French Menantand Lieutenants Lieutenant-General Ranchoupand Luzin came of Francealongwithsix sergeants sentby theFrench from Ministry War rifles wereimported increasing in to trainthe new corps,and new-style the first, size ofthecorpswas deliberately small,withno morethan kept men and officers enrolled at two hundred and training the end of May, to at principally providebarracksand drillgrounds Levend (iftlik,to for officers equipment and from import Europe,to make new uniforms bonuses and salariesforthosewhowereenrolled. themen,and to provide
Between April, 1793 and March, I795, Mustafi Resid managed to collect 1793. Most of the Irdd-i Cedid revenues in 1793 and 1794 were used quantities from France, England and Sweden (BVA, HH 12193). At

was a total of 1,356,541 piastersforthe corps,ofwhich three-quarters spentat thetimewiththebalanceput aside forthewar chest2. and preparaat Whilethe nucleusof the corpstrained Levend?iftlik tions were made forsubsequentexpansion, also were made to efforts popularizethe new ways among the people and the men of the older so corps,or at least to break the news gradually, that when the esof was tablishment thenewcorpsitself publicly proclaimed, theywould not be taken by surprise and goaded into any sudden,violentaction. The Sultanand his ministers wentto Levend?iftlik to inspect regularly the drillsand, by theirpresence, publicizethe existence the corps to of sanction its activities to and lend official 3. It was onlyin the late summer 1794 thatthe Sultanwas satisfied of was preparedforthe public announcement the of that public opinion
list of fiefsseized forthe Irad-i Cedid treasurybetween 1793 and 18oo are found B in the following VA registers: Tapu 941; Kepeci 615; Cevdet Maliye 4567; Cevdet
Maliye 310o6; Cevdet Maliye 7082; Muhasebe 6094. 2 B VA, Ali Emiri - III Selim 16264 and 16551; TKS, E 343; Cheni6, Apperqu 71-73 (19 Vendemiaire an III); E 7016, E 3786, E 8421. HHS, Turkei 11-1o3, no. 18 (28 June 1793); TKS 1 B VA, Cevdet Maliye 31o6; Cevdet Dahiliye 8750; TKS, E 2053. Complete

de la situationmilitairedes Turcs,AE 191, p. 355. 3 AE 184, fol. 284 (26 March 1793); AE 189, fol. 159 (5 Frimaire an III), fol.

176

Stanford Shaw J.

was sufficiently new corps,and that the corpsitself developedso that it could resistany opposition whichits open proclamation mightstir. its military So the official organization finally regulations establishing on wereproclaimed September ofthatyear,almosttwoyearsafterit 18 1. actuallybegan its work In orderto fitthe Nizam-iCedid armyinto and as Ottoman theestablished hierarchy attract littleattention military it as possible, was officially attachedto the old-established Bostiniydn-i the branch, Bostdni corps2 as its infantry-rifle (Bostdni Tiifenkcisi Hjdssa Veli To assistMustafaResid in its military operations, corps. riflemen) was appointedas its firstColonel (~gd). While the regulation Aga3 that the fullcorpswould eventually declaredthe hope and intention a menand officers, themoment single for have twelve thousand regiment of 1,602 officers men was organized Levend ?iftlikas a at and (Orta) to as and menbecameavailmodelforlatergroups be organized money was able. Actual military of the regiment givento a Binbdyi direction Yemin(Majorof (,,headof one thousand")and two majors,the Agd-ys the Right)and Agd-yi Yesdr(Majorofthe Left),each ofwhomwas put The in chargeof a division menofofficers. two (tablr)of eighthundred divisions werefurther dividedinto a total of twelvesmallercompanies and led by a (b61ik),each composedof ninetymen and ten officers of later called Yiizbds~(,,chief one commander company Bdsi) (B61iik and these were divided into platoons of nine men each hundred"), also of commanded an by Onbds (,,chief ten"). Each company was given one cannon (T5p), eightcannonmen (TJpci)and one CannonMaster fivecannonwagon men ('ArabacI),six orderlies (Q5lluqcfi) (T(p Ustdsi), and variousother minor officials Table I). (see uniforms in withcomplete Common soldiers the corpswereprovided when theyenlistedand once everyyear thereafter, with the fullcost Officers wereexpectedto meet the paid by the rdd-iCededtreasury,
The fulltext of the regulationsestablishingand organizingthe Nizam-i Cedid Sultan Selim, corps,dated 21 Safar 1208/17 September1794,are foundin Qavdnfn-i fol. 52b-56b; Anon. and untitled MS in Istanbul UniversityLibrary, TY 3208, n fol. 33b-37a; Ahmed Cevdd, Trfih-i cAsker-i cOsm~ II, 23-31. It is summarized in Cevdet VI, 58-61, 304-305; Karal, Osmanh Tarihi V, 67-68. 2 The Bostaniydn (Gardeners),also called Bostanci, corps, led by the Bostanci Badi (ChiefGardener)werewatchmenand guardsforthe pavilionsin the Top Kapi Saray palace grounds,and also at many gates and walls of the palace. They also provided personal guardians for the Sultan himself. Gibb and Bowen I1, 84; Pakalm I, 239-240; Uzungarsllh, Bostandji, EI (new ed.) I 1277-1278, and BostandjiBashi, El (newed.) I 1278-1279. The Bostani TiifenkczsT corps,whichwas the name but givento the Nizam-iCedidby Selim, did not exist before, was createdespecially forthis purpose. 3 See Ismail Hami Danismend, Izahls Osmanlz Tarihi Kronolojisi (4 vols.,
1

Istanbul 1947-1955) IV, 72.

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III


TABLE

177

ORGANIZATION

OF THE NIZAM-I CEDID AT LEVEND QIFTLIK Annual Number Salary of Men Each (piasters)

REGIMENT Daily Total Bread (okkes)


10 25
3 1/2

Daily Annual Bread Total Each Salary (okkes) (piasters)


IO 3 1/2 12,000

I. CHIEF

OFFICERS

I.
2.

4. Katib Yamcfi
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Katib (Scribe) 3. Muderris (Chief Instructor) (Assistant Scribe) Nefer Katibi (Salary Scribe) Binbadi (Major) Kethodd (Lieutenant) Topfi Badi (Chief Cannoneer) CArabacbidb

AF

I I 2 2 I I I
I

I2,000

--

4,000

25

--

4,000

I,ooo 500
4,000 1,250

I,ooo

I I 5 2 1/2 2

2,000

I,ooo 4,000
1,250

I,ooo

2 2 5 2 1/2 2

(Cannon-WagonChief) io. Cebecibfi (Chief

I
I I I I I 2

8oo
500 300 6oo I,ooo I,ooo 750

2
I 1/2 I I 1/2 2 2 I I/2

8oo
500 300 6oo I,ooo I,ooo 1,500

2
I 1/2 I I 1/2 2 2 3

of Ammunition Stores) II. Cebeci!dviifu (Ammunition stores Assistant) 12. Mehterbdi (Band Chief) 13. Aga-yz Yemin (Chief of the Right Division) 14. X a-yz Yesar (Chief of the Left Division) Mulzim Agd (Chief I5. of Apprentices)

OF II. OFFICERS MEN AND


I. Bdliik Bad 2. Muldzim

EACH COMPANY (Boliik) 12

3. CAlemdar (Standard-Bearer) 4. -adviiz (Sergeant)

24 12
12

400 350 300

500

I 1/2

I I I

6,ooo 9,600 4,200 3,600

18 24 12
I2

AND III. OFFICERS MEN


IN THE REGIMENT

Men per Total in Company Regiment


i. Onbdsi (Corporal)
120

Total Daily Daily Salary plus Money Salary forfood plus Money for Food (aqfes) (aqfes)
70 (40+30) 50 (20+ 30)

3. Tap Ustasz (Cannon Master) 4. T#pHalifest (Cannon Assistant) Oriens18-19

2. Neferat (Riflemen)

io 90go I
I

8,400
5,400

I,o8o

12
12

78 (48 + 30) 66 (36+30)

926
792

12

178
5. TopcG (Cannoneers)

J. Stanford Shaw
8 96 12 58 (28+30) 5,568

6. cArabaci Halifesi WagonAssistant) (Cannon 7. cArabacd Neferati (Cannon WagonMen) 8. Sornazen (Trumpeteers) 9. Tablzen (Drummers) io. Saqqd (Water-bearers)
(Apprentices) I I. Qara qiilluqpli

I 5 I I 2
6

66 (36+30)

792

60 50o (20+30) 12 66 (36+30) 12 66 (36+30) 24 50 (20+30)


72

3,000 792 792


1,200 3,600

50 (20 +30)

and cost of theiruniforms otherpersonalexpensesfromtheirregular of was established salaries.A regularhierarchy promotion withinthe the corps,withvacanciesfilledby the personsoccupying posts immeelse beneaththemand everyone moving one notch.However, up diately of was menout provision made forthe advancement unusually qualified in if in battle. oforder specialcases,especially theyshowedtheir ability of had however, preference to be givento Amongpersons equal ability, The men wererequired remainin theirbarracks to age and seniority. and and day, to forgoall outsideemployment residence, and to night were made forone out of However,arrangements practiceconstantly. to for five up every mento return hisfamily periods to six months during for wereestablished thosewhoreturned the winter. Heavy punishments of of late from suchleave and forall members suchgroups fiveofwhom morethanone man was absentat a giventime.In thesummer months, all the men had to be at theirposts except those excusedbecause of in illness.Men had to remain the corpsat least threeyearsso that the that timethey state wouldbenefit from training the giventhem.After to theirformer could leave and return but if occupations theywished, to sinceentering received onlyifthey agreed paybackall thesalaries they the corps! Those who retired because of illnessor old age weregiven to one-half their activesalariesat the timeofretirement. pensions equal If theyretired the resultof battlewoundsincurred the courseof in as activeduty, weregivenpensions full and they equal to their salaries, even morein certain cases. At the timethe regulation was issued,therewereonly468 menand in at and theywerelivingin flimsy 20 officers training Levend ?iftlik, wooden shacksand tents barracks under construction becausetheregular HH 9759). But during nextyear had notyetbeen completed the (BVA, recruits came rapidly,mainlyfromamong unemployed youthsfound of thestreets Istanbuland from private the of armies theleading roaming 1 and the notablesof Anatolia soon reachedits fullstrength. regiment
In some cases, the notables contributedmen to the new armyforspecific
1

HHS - TiirkeiII - 103, no. 14 (io May 1793), no. 20 (25 July 1793).

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

179

and weapons periodsof two or threeyears,so theywouldget training the and hometo bolster the from central government, couldthenreturn forces (BVA, HH I2O87). Most of the permanent provincial buildings were completed the end of 1796, including threebarracks, rifle a by two mosquesand a school (BVA, HH 7137). Members the of factory, in withblue berets, breeches red corpsweredressed the Frenchmanner, and red jackets. The main difference the uniforms the men between of were and theofficers theswords and thebuttons sewnabove thepockets ofthelatter wentahead II, 'Asker-i 'Osmdni, 31). Training (Cevad,Tdrih-i of rapidlyunderthe direction Ranchoup,Luzin and Menant,and the visitedby the Sultan and his chiefofficials. drillswerefrequently of The revenues the Irdd-iCedidtreasury expandedrapidlyas more and morevacated tax farms and fiefs wereturnedover to it, reaching about one million werepaid annuallyto the ImperialTreasury piasters for as compensation its lostrevenues, a similar and sumwentto pay the of salariesand expenses the menand officers at training Levend?iftlik, whilethebalancewentto the "war chest"to pay fortheexpenses the of in progress mountain rebelsbothin Europe campaigns currently against and Anatolia(BVA, Kepeci 2381). With this veryfavorable financial and underthe stimulus situation, of the Frenchinvasionof Egypt,the Sultan finally feltthat the new and an entirely regiment created couldbe safely new was corps expanded, were differences betweenthe regiments, however.The older Levend of ?iftlikforcewas composedentirely infantry men,whereasthe new was to have cavalryas well as infantry. forthe newregiMen regiment mentwereto be providedentirely the variousprovincial by governors, who wereordered recruit to men locallyand trainthemin the Nizam-i Cedidway underthe direction officers from of sent Levend ?iftlik. The salariesof trainees and officers alike wereprovided the Irad-i Cedid by to Whilethesemenwereto continue servewiththegovernors, treasury. in almostas provincial local order, central a militias, orderto maintain for was established themat tskiidar (Scutari), acrossthe Bosbarracks their and their Istanbul,to control porusfrom operations. training direct forthe new regiment wereset aside for Barracksand training grounds the it at whichsurvived barracks, including famous Selimiyye Q.dikby, of into modern times1. The internal was organization the newregiment
1 Mehmed RA'if, Mir'at-i E 3752; BVA, HH 3732.

3,033,894 piasters in the financial year 1795 (BVA, Cevdet Maliye 19808) and 6,500,000 piasters in 1798 (BVA, Kepeci 2381). Of this sum,

on the model of that at Levend ?iftlik on November 23, 1799. There

Istanbfil (Istanbul

1314) I, 80-84; TKS,

I13;

I80

Stanford Shaw J.

withthe exception that its exactlythe same as that of Levend ?iftlik, total number was without limit.To coordinate activities the two the of Nizam-iCedidregiments, newpost was created, a OcdqKetjhoddsi (Lieutenantof the Corps),and it was usuallygivento the ablestof the Binof the two regiments. of Overall direction both remained the in bdass handsoftheholderofthe combined and postsofIrid-i CedidDefterddri was Ta'limli 'AskeriNdziri.Finally,the new regiment giventhe color to its lightblue forits jacketsand breeches, distinguish menand officers thoseofLevend?iftlik from 1. In May, 1797, the Nizam-iCedid army,witha singleregiment, had enrolled and paid (B VA, HH 7137, 2,536men and 27 officers officially the of and increasing 9559),butwith addition thenewregiment continued
revenues,this numberrose rapidly. In September,1799 there were 4,317

in were6,029menand 27 officers, menand 30 officers, April,18oo there and in July,18oi, therewere 9,263 men and 27 officers VA, HH (B In the summer 18oo, the wealthyfeudaldistricts of 6768). (sancdq)of and Karaman wereseized forthe Irdd-i (Bursa), B0li, Huddvendigdr of and Cedidtreasury, thoseof the entire province Anadoluunderwent one a similar transformation yearlater.In theend,notall theprovincial recruited and trainedNizam-iCedidmen,but nine of them governors did, including'Abdurrahman Pasa, Governorof Karaman, who in rewardforhis serviceswas appointedColonelof the entireVYskiidar Startingin 18o2, he developed a systemof militaryconscription Anatolia to provideregularcontingents men for the of throughout Nizam-i Cedid. Each provincial and district official and notable was to senda certain of in number mento Vtskiidar training the for required new armyforperiodsof between months and one year.Abouthalf six were as for Levend these in contingents trained infantry service theregular The and iskiidar ?iftlik half as so regiments. other wastrained cavalry they to could return form local militiasof the provincial the and governors In notables. return thisservice, recruits their for district the and families were exemptedfromall local taxes, and they were paid the regular Nizam-iCedidsalarieseven whiletheystillwereonlyin training. In addition this,after1804 an effort made to graduallytransto was form the old Timdrfeudalsystem into the new financial base forthis Nizam-iCedidmilitia. Fiefswereseizedfrom on theirholders theflimsiest of pretexts and administered the Irdd-iCedidtreasury tax farms as by to providerevenue support recruitment training the same to the and of
1

regimentin 18oi (TKS, E 1113).

fol. 57b.

B VA, Cevdet Maliye 4327; Cevdet Askeri 34197; Qavdnin-i Sultan Selim,

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

181

of number menfortheNizam-iCedidmilitiaas wereformerly supported of was preserved on a feudalbasis. The fiction feudalorganization by but of the application the name SancdqBey to theirofficers, thesewere sent in factsalariedofficers to the provinces the Levend ?iftlikand by the werebuiltfor newprovincial militia corps.Regularbarracks Uskiidar of at at theexpense theIrdd-iCedidtreasury, Ankara, Bolu,Kastamonu, and Izmir,while ?orum,Mentese, Kayseri,Nigde,Kirsehir, Kiitahya, were housed in buildings used by the local elsewhere they previously Nizam-iCedid forces. Between18O2and I8o6, theseprovincial security six in mencameto (skiidar for month periods numbers training approacha of ingfivethousand year.By theendofI8o6, as theresult theseefforts, werea totalof22,685menand 1,590officers in there enrolled theNizam-i of half Cedidarmy, whomapproximately werestationed Anatoliaand in the balance in Istanbul and the Balkans1. The relativesuccessof this venture a causedtheSultanto attempt similar Anatolian corpsin Europe, base at Edirne(Adrianople), the Europeanportions withits central but of the Empire by this time were entirely too far removedfromthe effective controlof the centralgovernment this sort of levy to be for and the effective, as before, Ottomanarmyin Europe underSelimcontinued depend menprimarily the contributions theindependto for on of entlocal notables. The rapid increasein the numberof men enrolledin the Nizam-i in the Cedid creatednew problems, particular same sort of disorderly, behavior which had brought oldercorpsintodisrepute. the undisciplined In the earlydays oftheNizam-iCedid,the nucleusofits force consisted and intoOttoman handsduring Austrian the ofrenegades whohad fallen in The bulk of the enlistedmen enrolled the first Russian campaigns. few years were Turks comingmainlyfromIstanbul, fromthe large who to groupof unemployed, joined as the onlyalternative starvation. Both of thesegroupsconsisted persons of who wereaccustomed the to and in the residence methods restraint, sanitary discipline, required by in of closeproximity largenumbers persons citiesand camps.However, of after1796 came fromthe villagesand most of the new men enrolled menin tribalareas ofAnatolia.By I8oo, ninety centofthe enlisted per the armywere Turkishpeasants and tribesmen fromAnatolia (B VA, HH 9125). Manyofthesejoinedfortheweaponsand plunder theycould to morethan anything else. Resistent discipline, to unaccustomed gain thekindofliferequired thecorps, turbulent by theybecameincreasingly
and disorderly,often coming down from Levend ?iftlik to ravage the
HHS,
1 B VA, Cevdet Maliye 28741; TKS, E 3404; B VA, HH 10731, 9125; Tiirkei 11-1o4, no 24 (24 August 1793), io6, no. 16 (16 May 1794).

182

Stanford Shaw J.

villages along the Bosporus,with Tarabya, Yeni Kdy and Begikta? of most suffering in thisway (TKS, E 3752). The officers thecorpsfound it increasingly to difficult trainsuchmenin Europeantacticsand organization.Manyofthe menfledfrom campsshortly the after theyreceived was too hard,the their uniforms weapons, and that complaining thework too severe,and the pay too low (TKS, E 3404). Forming discipline into powerful new robberbands, they began to plague themselves and governors alike in western notables Anatoliaand the Balkans,with the superior themby the Sultangivingthema great weaponsprovided overtheir opponents (BVA, CevdetAskeri, 3876). advantage To combatthesedifficulties, weremade in the corps. variouschanges for of were appointed.Punishments infractions the Additional officers the rulesweremade moresevere.Efforts weremade to supervise men at when they were not actuallyin the fieldor training the practice in The rapidincrease the number men in the corpshad far of grounds. at the drillfacilities Levend ?iftlikand Oskiidar,so that outstripped as and drilldaily, was origfor it was impossible all the mento practice Those unable to practicewere in their regulations. inally envisaged leftwithnothing do formuchof the time,sincesuch a contingency to The had not been provided in the regulations. resulting for idlenessand lack ofsupervision a majorcause forthedifficulties was whichthearmy was now experiencing. as part of the solution, new revisedtraining So wereintroduced and decreedon April6, 18oi 1. A regular regulations of training rotation was set up forthe use ofthe drillfields. Six system wereordered traineach day, witheach companyof two to companies at Levend?iftlikthusbeingable to traineveryfourth day, regiments whileFridaysand Tuesdayswerekeptaside as vacationdays as before. on Whenthemenwerenot scheduled thedrillfields, theywererequired to practicewithout and to clean and powdernear or in theirbarracks theirweapons.As an additionalmeasureto relievethe pressure repair caused by idleness,those members the corps wishing engagein of to outsidetradeswhentheywerenot requiredat the practicefieldwere theirotherdutiessatisfactorily allowedto do so if theyhad performed with and in full,if their workwas considered be "a tradein keeping to thehonor theCorps", of barracks and ifthey worked nearenough their to so theycould return nightand also could be called forinstantduty at were now allowed to marryforthe when theywere needed. Officers first time,but themenweresupposedto remain singleso theycouldbe
1

Istanbul University Library,TY 3208.

1215/6 April 18oi, are given in Qavanmn-i Sultan SelIm, fol. 71b; and Anon. MS in

The supplementaryregulationsof the Nizam-i Cedid corps, dated

21

QAda

The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

183

subjected to the severe disciplineof the corps. However,those men to their werenot required divorce alreadyin the corpswhohad married as thosewhosefamilies neededthemwere wives.On thecontrary, before allowedto form themselves into groupsof fivemen of whomone could return homeduring winter. the In addition,to secure more sufficient commandof the corps, the united in the person of the financialand military duties originally wereseparated late 80oI, in withthepostof Ta'liml 'Askerf Supervisor of Training) to transferred the man who was Na-ziri being (Supervisor the Supervisor the Tpyci (Cannon) and 'Arabacd(Cannon-Wagon) of whiletheNizam-iCedidSupervisor leftonlywith financial was his corps, and administrative as Irdd-iCedidDefterddri, the rank of with duties, 1. $iqq-iSdnfDefterddrf Thesereforms someeffect had 18oi and 1802,butperiodic cases during on of ofindiscipline thepartofmembers thetskiidar corpsin particular continued be reported, to an declinein the discimanifesting increasing of and efficiency thecorps, and also inflictingfinal, a blow pline crushing effort popularizethe Nizam-iCedid among to againstthe government was thenewarmy.By theend ofSelim'sreign numbered it This,then, almost ten thousandmen, who were armed with modernweapons, and and trainedby Europeanofficers, praisedfortheirefficiency good almost all the Europeans who observedthem Together 2. bearingby with the reformed corps,it shouldhave providedthe Sultan artillery force the withan effective capable not onlyof meeting enemy military but also forprotecting Sultanand itself on equal terms, the againstthe attacks of enemies.On the occasionsin whichit was employed, the Nizam-i Cedid armyeffectively over the demonstrated superiority its In and elements theold army. 1799,approximateof Janissaries theother of ly sevenhundred its menweresentby sea to Gaza, wheretheyperformed services assisting governor, in its AhmedCezzdr important Papa, in his stalwartdefenseof that fortress the advancingFrench against 3. army led by Napoleon Bonaparte In I8oo, when the Britishfleet in blockaded French Alexandria, thousand the two Nizam-iCedidsoldiers werelandedalongwith6,000regular and theymanaged Ottoman troops, a to maintain successful blockadeagainstthe Frenchat Rosetta,eventSul.t~n a Ch6ni6, Appergu, p. 362-363; HHS, Tiirkei 11-1o7, no. 29 (io September 1794), io8, no. 32 (25 October 1794); Olivier I, 95-96. 8 Cevdet VII, 58; Cevad, Tarh II, 43; TKS, E 3404, E 7014; BVA, HH 13828; HHS, Tiirkei-12o, no. 13 (25 February 1799), no. 14 (2 March 1799), no. 33 (18 May i799), no. 37 (3 June 1799). 1 Qavanin-i Selim, fol. 46a; Cevid, Tarh-i cAsker-icOsmaniII,
18-20.

the people (BVA, HH 10731).

184

S. J. Shaw, The Nizam-i Cedid Armyunder Sultan Selim III

in themto surrender April,18OI 1. Duringthe next six ually forcing of soldiers thenewarmy somewhat years, performed important, although serviceagainstmountain limited in banditforces the Balkan and Rho2. dope mountains But in the end, the Nizam-iCediddid not achieveits objectives.It a withtheIoo,ooo menfrom stillremained smallforce comparison in the old regiments who composedthe bulk of the Ottomanarmy.And the old corps absolutely refused accept the new training to and weapons, The theirevidentsuperiority. Janissaries refused servewith to despite the new troops,so in the most important campaignsduringthe last decade of Selim'srule,the Nizam-iCedidtroopsperformed onlytoken to and continued be composed services, themainOttoman army primarily with disastrousresults of the unruly and ineffective Janissaries, 3. the In 1807,whenthe opposition the Janissaries, Ulema,and others of of withvestedinterests the preservation the old institutions to led in overwhelmed its openrevoltagainstSelim,thenewarmywas simply by were able to escape. The and only a few of its members opponents, influence Ottoman Nizam-iCedid,however, have an important did on For its reform laterin the 19thcentury. one thing, fateshowedclearly the necessity destroying military the the of armofreaction, Janissaries, were attempted, and the impactof beforereallyfundamental reforms and thislessonon MahmudII is evident.Moreover, manyofficers men the which its in followed trained theNizam-iCedidsurvived suppression in weredestroyed 1826,theyproand destruction, once the Janissaries II videdthenucleusforthenewarmycreated Mahmud on themodel by the the of the Nizam-iCedid.Selim'snew armythusprovided example, whichwereto follow. lesson,the modeland the nucleusforthe reforms
1

March 1800oo).

TKS,

E 2320,

4241;

B VA, Kepeci 3247; HHS,

Tiirkei

11-122,

no.

II

(26

older militarycorps,see S. J. Shaw, The TraditionalOttoman military corpsunder


Sultan Selim III, in: Der Islam, vol. 40 (1964).

2 TKS, E 3752; HHS, Tiirkei 11-113, no. 31 (31 October 1796), 122, no. II (29 March 18oo). 2 FO 78/25 in (25 May 1799); FO 78/28(29 January18oo); on Selim's reforms the