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# Dpartement de gnie mcanique

## Ramy Mohamed et Patrice Masson

Jun 2011

1. Ansys Tutorial
Before you start your simulation, you need to determine the main parameters of your simulation, as have been mentioned in the lecture. The main set of parameters that need to be determined prior to the simulation: The minimum wavelength for the propagating modes, which in turn depends on the maximum resolvable frequency fmax.

Figure 1: The maximum resolvable frequency determination. Figure 1, shows the time trace of the excitation signal, 5.5 cycles sinusoidal modulated 450 kHz tone burst and the corresponding Fourier transform (using the timeFreq.m file). Based on the frequency selected, you can determine the minimum wavelength from the dispersion curves as shown in Fig. 2; the wavelength S0, and A0 can be determined from the slope of the line connecting the origin of the dispersion curves of the material and the intersection of the fmax with the curve. So, for example A0=d*tan(A0) x 10-3 ( in m) at the frequency fmax, where d is the thickness of the plate in mm.

Figure 2: The minimum wavelength to be determined from the dispersion curves. Determine the approximate element size; the main guiding rule is to have 20 points per minimum wavelength. Which for a 4 noded plane element amounts to hx = A0/20. Since we have chosen to dimension our geometry in m, we have to make sure that the rest of the units are consistent with that choice. For example Youngs modulus should be in (Pa), CL or CS in (m/s), in (kg/m3). Since we have determined the approximate element size, we can determine the stable time step using the following equation for rectangular elements

t =

cp 1 2 + 1 2 hy hx

where cp is the phase velocity of the fastest propagating mode. After having determined the stable time step, we have an idea about how many time steps (in Ansys terms substeps) are going to be produced, so we can proceed with the simulation using Ansys.

1.2.1 Start ANSYS and set the general configuration parameters of the simulation

Message Area

Figure 1: The Ansys mechanical APDL GUI. After each of the following steps, you have to save your work; this could be done by pressing the Save_DB button in the Ansys toolbar. If your work was interrupted or closed for any reason, you can start the Ansys using the same procedure and Resume_DB will give you the last saved changes. In the command input type (/config,nres,5000) where 5000 is the number of substeps that could be written to the results file. The default is 1000 which is by no means sufficient for a Lamb waves simulation. Remember this

step has to be taken at the begin level. So, it is not saved with the data base, every time you want to increase the nres in an ANSYS session you have to do that, whether you start a new database or resume an existing one. To have a remark saved regarding the units used in the model, it is preferred to have (/units, SI) in order to have a reminder attached to the DB. It does not mean there is any unit conversion is done.

1.2.2 Create the geometry, select element types and create materials
1- Main menu >> Preferences Select Structural then Press OK This is done for customization of the future options and GUI only for structural applications. 2- Main Menu >> Preproccessor >> Modeling >> Create >> areas >> rectangle >> By 2 Corners Fill in the dimensions WP x is the origin of the working plane in x direction WP x is the origin of the working plane in x direction Width is the length of the plate; Height is the thickness of the plate 3- Main menu >> Preproccessor >> Element Type >> Add/Edit/Delete A new window Element Types will appear click on Add button Select from the left list Structural >> solid Select from the right list Quad4node 182 then click OK Now the defined element types should reflect your choice (Type 1 Quad4node 182) Click the options button, then in the pop up window set Element Behavior K3 from the drop down list to plane strain then OK.

Close the element type window. 4- Main Menu >> Preproccessor >> Material Props >> Material Models In the Define Material Model Behavior Window, click on the Structural>> Linear >> Elastic >> Isotropic In the Linear Isotropic Properties for Material 1 window input the value of Youngs modulus in EX, and Poissons ratio in PRXY, then click OK. In the Define Material Model Behavior Window, click on the Structural>> Density In the Density for Material 1 window input the value of materials density in DENS, then click OK Exit the Define Material Model Behavior window from menu item material >> Exit or click the upper right x. Now; having defined the geometry, the element type and the materials props, you are ready to start meshing your geometry.

1.2.4 Set boundary conditions, initial conditions and start the analysis

Item Item to be controlled select from the drop down list Nodal DOF solu For setting the frequency for output, in the FREQ file write frequency select Every Nth substep and put the value of N as suitable. Press OK.

13- In the command input type Check and see if there are any warnings or errors in the output window. 14- Main Menu >> Solution >> Solve >> Current LS The status of your simulation will pop up, read it and close it, then press OK in the Solve Current Load Step and watch the progress of your simulation in the output window. If every thing was done as in this tutorial you should receive a message (Note) saying that Solution is done press Close.

1.2.5 Postprocessing
15- Utility Menu >> Parameters >> Scalar Parameters In the selection window type Sensor_pt = node(x, y, z), the Sensor_pt is a name that you can choose feely. While the (x, y, z) provide the coordinates of the required node. Then Press Accept. This method of naming points or nodes could be used instead of all the picking steps that was used previously by selection from the Graphics window.

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## 16- Main menu >> TimeHist PostPro

In the Time History Variables window click on the plus sign. Select in the Add Time History Variable, select Nodal Solutions >> DOF solutions >> X Component (or Y component of Displacement). OK. Then after the variable appears in the variable list, you can press on the graphing icon to show the results.

Finally, you can consult the Utility Menu >> Help >> Ansys Tutorials to increase your familiarity with the software.

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2. Assignments
For Assignment spend some time with the Ansys help and find out how the fixing of one point on the boundary could be avoided using axisymmetric boundary conditions. If successfully understood you can use axisymmetric BC for the assignments. Otherwise, you have to select the points of fixation wisely and mention in each of the assignments how you chose it.

## 2.1 Assignment (1):

Use the same procedures that was provided in the tutorial to model a symmetric excitation using the geometry shown 10 N 1 mm 10 N 700 mm

The forces have amplitude 10 N, and the time dependence is Sinusoidally modulated 5.5 Cycles, at three different frequencies of your choice. Provide the results (time history of the Ux and Uy displacments) at the same location (which you should chose), and explain the results. Correlate your results with the group velocity, and check if there is a difference between the theoretical value and the numerical one. If there is any difference explain why. The material is Glass, with the same values used in obtaining the dispersion curves for Lab2. Provide a detailed account of the effect of the frequency on the dispersion the numerical signal witness. [Hint: For the correlation with the group velocity you will need to record the time history at to distant points at least and find out the time of flight between the two signals).

## 2.2 Assignment (2):

This is the last assignment, try to model the geometry used in Lab 2 (dimensions should be taken form the experimental setup), selecting the location of the measurement corresponding to the center of the sensor used experimentally. (Use PACSHARE for obtaining the material properties and the dispersion curves for the Glass) Explain how you could select the point of fixation in order to not interfere with the results in each assignment.

10 N 4 mm 10 N

[Hint: To model the geometry, you can use two rectangles, followed by Boolean operations to glue the two prior to meshing, Main Menu >> Modeling >> Operate >> Booleans >> glue >> Areas]. This should give ideal bonding results, (i.e. as if the two plates were made from the same material from the start). Explain the results.

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