BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

Put a space between each host name.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading.P.3. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. If the current directory is on the local host. by design. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host. By default. You can also specify the names or I. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host.160 solarishost SunOS 5. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that.0.160 NSH 1 .4.0. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6. use either the ncpu or nover commands. You can turn off the header line with the -H option. hostname The names or I. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format..agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6. agentinfo displays a message to that effect. With no arguments.P. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents. List one host per line. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading. the CSV file includes a header line.3. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. Put a space between each host name.P.0. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6. Do not output a header.. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.3.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. Inc.

3. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6.0. version(1) NSH 2 . SEE ALSO ncpu (1). Inc.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5. nover (1).agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5.

-c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request.. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service.dat file. Inc.. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. do not use this option. You can specify more than one option. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . Login to the BladeLogic support website. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. If you do not include any of these four options. autolic processes all the hosts you specify. regardless of their license status. In most cases. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information. and then download the generated license. License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. License hosts that are currently un-licensed. Debug output. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 . The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing. Apply the licenses with the putlic command... host1 . Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. List one host per line. upload the license file created by the getlic command. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website.

the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent). agentinfo(NSH).mycompany. based on the your current customer/prospect status. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required. Inc.mycompany. For autolic to function properly.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. by a firewall). NSH 2 . the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type. do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example.com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy.conf (from the NSH install directory). Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic. putlic(NSH). Instead. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH). you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic.

This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . print >>). Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . Normally. process creation (cmd | getline. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. while $0 refers to the entire line. An action is a sequence of statements. If FS is null. or ‘while’ statement. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. If RS is null. or by the regular expression FS. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). Inc. any number of -v options may be present. .cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement.. or 1 if n is not specified. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’.. print |. -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. -safe Disable file output (print >. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. nawk . a logical OR (‘||’). The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’.. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. Set debug level to n... A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. ‘for’. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode.. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input. or by the value of RS.’). -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. $2. see the section on variables below). Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit. A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. Additionally. expression. not a filename. a logical AND (‘&&’).. after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. an open brace (‘()’). any number of blanks separate fields. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . This is convenient when working with multi-line records. the input line is split into one field per character. The fields are denoted $1. a missing pattern always matches.

not necessarily numeric. and terminated by the output record separator...cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . A conditional is an arithmetic expression. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present). and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. using the operators ˜ and !˜. in this case. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [. String constants are quoted "". or a Boolean combination of these. non-null members are taken as filenames.j. Argument array. The operators ! ++ -. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file. Array subscripts may be any string. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression.. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last.+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). separated by the current output field separator. assignable. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)).. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file.. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)). Inc. /re/ is a constant regular expression. . the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second.k] are permitted.) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. this allows for a form of associative memory. expr. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these).. An empty expression-list stands for $0. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match). newlines or right braces. open next. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions.. a relational expression. the constituents are concatenated. Multiple subscripts such as [i. Variables may be scalars. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate. assignable. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement . file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. Variables are initialized to the null string. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions.

where x is in radians. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. Ordinal number of the current record. Output field separator (default blank). String Functions gsub(r. NSH 3 . x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. also settable by option -F fs. Return the natural logarithm of x. where x is in radians.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. index(s. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. string. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. Return the sine of x. gsub() returns the number of replacements. n. ENVIRON Array of environment variables. FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. Return a random number. the time of day is used instead. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. Input record separator (default newline). If expr is omitted. or 0 if it does not. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034). FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. Inc. subscripts are names. Regular expression used to separate fields. such that 0<=n<1. Output record separator (default newline). srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. Return the exponential of x. Return the square root of x. t. FILENAME The name of the current input file. Output format for numbers (default "%.6g"). Return x truncated to an integer value. input/output and general.6g"). RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record.

If n is omitted.) The string resulting from formatting expr. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’).. or of $0 if no argument is given. . or 0 if it does not. If the stream is not open. getline returns 1 for a successful input. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). 0 for end of file. If s is not given. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. according to the printf(3) format fmt.. the variables $0 and NF are set. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. it is opened. If file is not open. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file. Otherwise var is set. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents.. As long as the stream remains open. sub(r. m. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. If var is omitted. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs. split(s.. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close().cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. If var is omitted. $0 is used. Inc. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. or -1 if no match is found.. a[2]. and -1 for an error. t. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. NSH 4 . NR. Otherwise var is set. The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. and FNR. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. As long as the stream remains open.. and -1 for an error. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. a[n] and returns n. it is opened. cat(1) match(s. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. . . The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. 0 for end of file. sprintf(fmt. substr(s. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. sub() returns the number of replacements. a. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character. This form of getline sets the variables NF. expr. getline returns 1 for a successful input.. the variables $0 and NF are set. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents.

/stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is". ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). lex(1). modify. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. c) { . The AWK Programming Language.. s. b. functions may be called recursively. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . copy. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. J. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. Kernighan. Addison-Wesley. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. i++) printf "%s ". " average is". with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". Weinberger. the syntax is worse. and by reference if array name... W. printf(3) A. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. $1 } Add up first column. sed(1). i < ARGC. printf(1). $1 } Same. 1988. Parameters are local to the function. Aho. Inc. all other variables are global.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. B. Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. and P. V. BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings.

Inc. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. written prior permission. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 . LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. DATA OR PROFITS.

Inc.pem. Inc. Once a certificate is created on a client. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.Property of BladeLogic. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. id.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. id. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. On UNIX.bladelogic. such as /home/johnk. the user is prompted for a private key password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. In Windows.509 certificate in a file named id.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. NSH 1 .

bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. If you do not use this option. the system prompts for a user ID. and role. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. password. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. When you run bl_srp_agent. NSH 1 . To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. After you provide this information.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. Inc. After entering your user information.

Inc. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server. and trusted certificates. Application Server. a Kerberos TGT). which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service.509 certificates. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. session credentials. And. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. To use blcred on a client machine.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. and trusted certificates. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. you must provide an authentication profile and other information. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. Provisioning Manager. add. Network Shell. and delete authentication profiles. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. If you are using SRP authentication. Using the information you provide. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. a BladeLogic client application (i. The utility lets you show. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X.e. To log into a BladeLogic system. you must also provide a user name and password. Configuration Manager.. or Network Shell Proxy Server.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file.xml NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles. session credentials. Using that session credential. you must have Operations Manager installed. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info.

This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified. If an authentication profile name is not specified. the user is prompted for a name. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. When selecting an SRP profile. If the time option is present. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. NSH 2 . cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile. and expiration time of session credentials. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. the user is prompted for a user name and password. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info. which holds trusted X. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining.dat) using the -i parameter. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache.conf file. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. Default credential caches are unique per user. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. If the username option is present.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. including the client IP address. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. Default trust keystores are unique per user. issuing service URL.509 certificates. To acquire a session credential. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore. the default keystore file is used. authentication type. Inc. Alternatively. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/.bladelogic/client_keystore. the default credential cache file is used. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/.pkcs12 for Windows. and service ticket. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. destination service URLs. If a name is not specified.

Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. The profile name. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. cert –list Lists all X.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). Cached credential issued to user is different than named user. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. Authentication Service. NSH 3 . ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). Cached credential did not match named authentication profile.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. Inc. Users are prompted for omitted information.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. Additionally.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. -host. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store. and -type parameters. AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. such as -acquire -profile profile_name. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option. cache contained credential with desired properties. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. The -all parameter deletes all certificates. Named authentication profile did not exist.

OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators.. It prints the result to stdout.mm 0xABC a. TAB.d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I.c. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function. DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. LF) as optional operand/operator separators. It takes all of its arguments as input. then creates and evaluates an expression. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 .b. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr .P. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. You can use whitespaces (SPACE.. Inc. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. An expression consists of operands and operators. If you do not specify any arguments. CR.

5.. . hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. arg1. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero).5") * 2. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer. 1.14)’ 12 equals_any (val. 2. blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail.. In the case of the three numeric types. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. then proceeds with the operation. with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. 3.) Return the average of all arguments given. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer. The supported functions are: average (arg1.0. Inc.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value. blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary. If it is. 3.. 4)’ 2. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). it returns 0 (false). with the resulting value also being a floating point value. 3. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1. .5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types. blexpr adds the arguments. If the argument is a string. and floating point numbers. decimal numbers. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world"). then divides by the number of arguments. blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type.14"). 7. arg2.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value. then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. 2. max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value.. min_val.

it returns true_val.. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME". Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system.30.P.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I.20. true_val.%s %s --\n".blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -.. Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val.40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n". 10. 27)’ 14 printf (format. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string. The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970).m]. args . Inc. args ..) Both these functions generate a formatted output. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12. The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles.9s". The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -. false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP". otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3").) sprintf (format. NSH 3 . If val is true. 14. $FIRSTNAME. "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME". address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional ..

If you do not specify a format.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. $IP).40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. val) strstr can be used in one of two ways.30. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. $IP.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . you should use the respective macros supported by the call. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). You define the name of the variable with string.20. The optional format arguments specifies output format. "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string. and you define the value of the variable with expr. Once you have created a variable this way. format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". If you supply a value that is not a string. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. strlen returns a length of 0. Inc.

Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. such as /home/johnk. Inc. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic.pem. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.509 certificate in a file named id. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. id. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. the user is prompted for a private key password. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. Inc. id. NSH 1 .Property of BladeLogic. On UNIX. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. Once a certificate is created on a client.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. In Windows.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.bladelogic.

[TARGET]. "Inconsistent".. [TARGET]." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host. If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. Inc.. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed. or "Unknown. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman.. as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host. e. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent"." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile..Property of BladeLogic.. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. and TARGETS NSH 1 . e.g... //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. COMMAND_OPTIONS. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing.. the status displays as "Unknown. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status.g. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]..

e.g.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data).log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp". Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared. Exercising the p option. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list.Property of BladeLogic.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. As a result. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp". Inc.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 .mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.

Inc.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 . Inc.Property of BladeLogic.

logman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file. [TARGET]. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman.. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 .. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands.. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. Inc. COMMAND_OPTIONS. Use only when copying a signature file... DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks... [TARGET].. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions.. bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS...Property of BladeLogic.

logfile Full path to local log file.log" to "rscd.Property of BladeLogic. certificate file. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. To execute this command. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. and private key file on the local host.log. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. "Inconsistent". Inc." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. Use only when rotating a signature file. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent". For example. this option returns a status as "Unknown. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host. You can request the status of all the log files on a host. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd." assuming "rscd.log. or "Unknown. This command is intended to be used for client side verification.1. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed. you must have the corresponding signature file.log NSH 2 . or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status. Note: All files needed for this command should be local. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host.1" does not already exist.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file.

log.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 .log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd.Property of BladeLogic.log. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles.0 release. Inc.3.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.pem All files need to be on the local host.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.log. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future. Inc.log.

To query the local host. In addition to specifying host names on the command line. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file.. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. or against any number of remote servers. To create comment lines. host1 .. otherwise it returns 0. hostN The hosts you want to query. output only the resulting value. If you do not specify a host name. Do not include the hostname as part of the output. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment.. Inc. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. Instead. blquery will query the local server. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. otherwise it returns 0. NSH 1 .then blquery reads input from stdin.. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers. If file is a .Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 . To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. Expression to run against the given hosts. and the subsequent escaping thereof. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. If you specify server names. A file containing the expression you want to run. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. just omit any server names. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. otherwise it returns 0. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout.

file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. and bundles. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. they mostly support the general concept of software installations. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. patches.Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . otherwise it returns 0. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o".

so the values are not guaranteed to be set. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data.Property of BladeLogic.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. which does not support patches. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry. with the exception of Linux. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). These functions take an expression as their argument. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. The NSH 3 .

To do this. if (DATE <= 0. NAME.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". these functions return a zero length string.Property of BladeLogic. you can also use them for reporting. DESCRIPTION.blq cracklib-2. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software. Inc. By using these functions. show_date (DATE. you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions. Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. $ blquery solaris8 -E patch.7-8 .A password-checking library. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines. "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr.blq NSH 4 .blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s . In this case. these functions may still have a universal appeal. making it seem like two different patches are installed. "Unknown install date". patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number. Not all software has a version number. include the printf call inside of the given expression.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n". Example: $ cat patch.7-8 . The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field). Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2. patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches.The standard CrackLib dictionaries. NAME)’). Because these functions scan through all entries.

$1 . Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. For Windows systems. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. If you use it. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for.. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. If you omit the expression.Property of BladeLogic. The first record/field is 0. $0)"). As its second parameter. it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. The expr argument is optional. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. The skip parameter is optional. "/"). For UNIX and Linux systems. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. expr. The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record.. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. Inc. "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". $N for each respective field in the current record. The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0. the function returns the total number of records. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. NSH 5 . config_record_count ("/etc/passwd".

0)’ bin NSH 6 . 0) = $CUSTDB)"). $RECORD. config_record_number ($PASSWD. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. Inc. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". In many cases. config_record_number ($INI. record. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD.Property of BladeLogic. 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". "$5 = $USRBIN"). If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". records occur in a config file in no particular order. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. 0.

"connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. FULLNAME The configured name of the user. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. record. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. config_record_number ($INI. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. and returns the value of field field. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. If the function returns a negative number (-1). The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). then the record does not have a parent record. however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. Inc. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument. Details are included below.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. but ones that do include Windows . Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". Although config files are generally treated as flat files. 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS".BNI". Not all config files have a hierarchy. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. $RECORD. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific.Property of BladeLogic. The numeric UID of the user. On its own this function has limited value. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record. the following dynamic variable are supported.

Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. If the date and time is not known this value is 0.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . NAME. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. On Windows systems. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). \"Normal Account\"). accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account. UID)"). accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". expr.Property of BladeLogic. \"Super User Account\". On Windows systems. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. . This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. Inc. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. On Windows systems. EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration.

Inc. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. If the user does not exist. that field is returned. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. On Windows. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. the function returns an error message. On Windows. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. When it is set. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. the function returns an error message. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. that field is returned. the function refers to a start script. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. If the user does not exist.

The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values.3. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user. For Windows systems. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. these are inherent attributes of a user account. and guest. Otherwise it is a normal account. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. There are three types of possible accounts: . The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. administrator. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0. use the show_date () function. normal. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs.2.5.")’ 1. Inc.6.8. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. The default separator is a SPACE character. the function returns 0.9. or 3.4. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 .12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs. otherwise it returns 0. For UNIX systems. with respective return values of 1.Property of BladeLogic.7. If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. ". For Windows. To display the date of last login in human readable form. 2. the function returns an error message. The default separator is a SPACE character.0.

Example: NSH 11 .blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . the following dynamic variables are supported. GID)’). The default separator is a SPACE character.Property of BladeLogic. The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. $ cat showgroups. NAME. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. The numeric GID of the user. Inc. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account. Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). printf ("-----------------\n"). group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. . Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n".

P. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings. ". The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.255. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp". The adapter’s I. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10. Inc. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address.")’ root.255. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation.20. Within these expressions.40\"")’ 255. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10.20. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters.30. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group.Property of BladeLogic. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. address in the standard 4 octet notation. All of these functions take an expression as an argument.20.30.30. This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query.0 NSH 12 . and returns the I.P. you can use the following dynamic variables.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.

1. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. if ($FLAGS & 32.blq set_variable ("FLAGS". if ($FLAGS & 64. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr.Property of BladeLogic. If you do not specify expr. The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. The return value is a 64 bit integer. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. "Half Duplex". Example: $ cat speed. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The interface is running in half duplex mode. and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. "Auto"))).40\"")’ 10. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. "NA"))). The interface is running in full duplex mode. 2. "10 Mb". Inc. "100 Mb". the function matches all adapters. "Full Duplex". "1Gb".30.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. NSH 13 . The return value is a 64 bit integer. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.30.20.20. 4. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec). Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.

2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information.0 hme0 10.0.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n"). the function returns the kernel release number.1 255.101 255.0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 . SUBNET)’).1 win2k: 5. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).20. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2.8 linux: 7.21. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". followed by the generic functions.4.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127. Inc. NAME.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host. On Linux.11. The wrapper functions are described first.255. $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters.0. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5. On Windows. Other platforms. On AIX. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways.Property of BladeLogic. IP. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters. the function returns the Service Pack.255.0.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. the function returns the maintenance release.0 hpux11: B.

4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value. Not all systems return a value. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS.0300 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.5100 linux: 0.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Inc.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.0800 win2k: 0.Property of BladeLogic.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system.9100 win2k: 0.

Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. "DF". or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition.3800 linux: 0. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". use the first word of the name to identify the column. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".Property of BladeLogic. "/C". "/C".2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. ntop_value (type. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".8000 win2k: 0. NSH 16 . "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. column. In this case. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. Some columns have a two word name. "STATS". Inc. "OVER". "NET". Check the individual ntop commands for more details. "/C". the first line of output consists of the column names. "/C". expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS".

the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. column. a value of -1 means the last record).1480 linux2: 0. If you do not specify an expression. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). "CAPACITY". Inc. "FREE") / 1024. Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. If you specify an expression as a string.1200 linux: 0.0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911.0560 linux3: 0. Example: # # For each server. The first record is 0. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as. the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access.Property of BladeLogic. $HOSTNAME. "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0. If the expression is a numeric.0890 # # For each server. "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0.1f MB". "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". it returns a value of -1. Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example. "DF" and "PS"). "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME". ntop_sum ("DF". the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). the function returns the field value of the first record. You may use column names to construct the expression. Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above).0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF".3800 ntop_sum (type. "MEM". the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record.2 MB NSH 17 . If the function does not find any matching records.

reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists.4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 .6% ntop_record_count (type.1f%%". Inc. If expr is not given. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE"). within an expression string. column. Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example. otherwise it returns 0. "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated.8 MB 36208. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE". Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. Therefore. $HOSTNAME. you need to escape it. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45. ntop_average ("DF".0 MB ntop_average (type. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". then it return the total number of entries.

Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. REG_SZ. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples). The supported types are: REG_DWORD.Property of BladeLogic. REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. Inc. int. etc. REG_BINARY. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. otherwise it returns 0. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1. There are no NSH 19 . REG_LINK.) depends on the registry value type. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. string. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values.

WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. the function returns the total number of configured services. if you specified an out of range record number. "AUTO_START". "DISABLED") NSH 20 . Display name of service (long name). Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service. "STOPPED". DESCRIPTION Description of service.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. If you do not specify expr. One of "RUNNING".Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0. Inc. the function returns 0. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). Account name service is run as. In the case of a string. or "PENDING".exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". "SYSTEM_START". or "DISABLED". There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. "MANUAL". if it is not running. If the service does not exist. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). service can be either a string or an integer. One of "BOOT_START". service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". If service is an integer. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). "*\\mysqld-nt.

# $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". service_record_count ()). This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with.Property of BladeLogic. service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". Once you get this record number. $STOPPED). to access particular service records. Returns the account name service is run as. Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING".exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service.blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. Inc. The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records. service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. you can use it in other services functions. $PENDING). (" PENDING: %d\n".blq set_variable ("RUNNING". or "PENDING". (" STOPPED: %d\n". (" RUNNING: %d\n". "MANUAL". Returns the display name of service (long name).exe" is running or not. service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". or "DISABLED". NSH 21 . skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. "STOPPED". "SYSTEM_START". "AUTO_START". "*\\mysqld-nt. $ blquery win2k -E expr. field should be one of the following string values. field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). $RUNNING).

exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". nover (NSH). "MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). The argument service can be either a string or an integer. nstats (NSH). nps (NSH). it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql". NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. ndf (NSH). If service is an integer.exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name).Property of BladeLogic. nmem (NSH). "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. ntop (NSH). "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. Returns zero length string. Inc. nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). In the case of a string. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API.

EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. After entering your user information. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. the system prompts for a user ID. and role. If you do not use this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. When you run bl_srp_agent. password. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. Inc. NSH 1 . OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. After you provide this information.

password. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. and role. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. After entering your user information. After you provide this information. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. Inc. When you run bl_srp_agent. the system prompts for a user ID. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. NSH 1 . Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. If you do not use this option.

when possible. ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm. In this case. permissions. permissions. bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files.tbz. and. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . .bz2 becomes filename filename...out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. and Huffman coding. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames . ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames . Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. v1. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. specify the −f flag.out appended. and a warning issued. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip.. such as MS-DOS. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file.bz2". bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files. but they are not identical. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors. As with compression. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored. 1 .tbz2 or . ownership as the corresponding original. . File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names. bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. If you want this to happen. as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless..bz2.tbz becomes filename.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout. Each compressed file has the same modification date.bz. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal.tar anyothername becomes anyothername. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.tbz2 becomes filename.bz becomes filename filename. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself.. or have serious file name length restrictions. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. If no file names are specified. Inc. with the name "original_name. and uses the original name with . ..tar filename.

bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. In short. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream.5%. Inc. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. for compression. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. Normally. at the expense of your compression ratio. −s --small Reduce memory usage. Compression is always performed. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. invalid flags. This flag overrides that mechanism. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. decompression and testing. Be aware. bzip2. and forces bzip2 to decompress. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. use −s for everything.0 or later. which limits memory use to around the same figure. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. regardless of the invokation name. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. −f --force Force overwrite of output files. During compression. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. but don’t decompress them. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. As a self-check for your protection. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. that the check occurs upon decompression. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger.5 bytes per block byte. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). I/O errors. −d --decompress Force decompression. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2. Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. in that order. albeit at about half the normal speed. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. though. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. −s selects a block size of 200k. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less).9. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. giving an expansion of around 0. &c). 3 for an internal consistency error (eg.05 bits per byte. 2 . and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used.

bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size.show the compression ratio for each file processed. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. or 100k + ( 2. since that maximises the compression achieved. so you should use this option only where necessary. At decompression time. which was sometimes useful. 200 k . spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes. 0.9. Similarly.9.−myfilename. Inc. Decompression speed is also halved. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. −L --license -V --version Display the software version. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. −v --verbose Verbose mode -.5 and above. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. 900 k when compressing. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine. in bytes. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file. The relevant flag is -s. Compression and decompression requirements. Since block sizes are stored in compressed files.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. for example: bzip2 −.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. license terms and conditions. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). compressing a file 20. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. In general. Has no effect when decompressing.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. about 2300 kbytes. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress.000 bytes (the default) respectively. since the file is smaller than a block. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. 3 .000 bytes through 900. For files compressed with the default 900k block size. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0.. even if they start with a dash.

This means that performance.bz2 file to become damaged. both for compressing and decompressing. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size.bz2 files. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. "rec0002file. and writes a number of files "rec0001file. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -. as these will contain many blocks.for example. usually 900kbytes long. and decompress those which are undamaged. Inc. For previous versions. containing the extracted blocks. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols. Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. small changes to the 4 . Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3. Because of this. "bzip2 -dc rec*file. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks.bz2". Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones..bz2".141. It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large . since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. since a damaged block cannot be recovered. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. Versions 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size.. Each block is handled independently.9. Because of this. The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern.bz2 > recovered_data" -. and write each block out into its own .bz2 files. the name of the damaged file. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. if you want. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . like "aabaabaabaab .bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.bz2 file." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal.lists the files in the correct order.622 bytes. this figure was more like 100:1. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. etc. bzip2recover takes a single argument.

See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation.0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip). and many refinements). Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements. http://sourceware. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance.0 of bzip2.5. Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip. This manual page pertains to version 1. gave advice and were generally helpful. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading.demon.co.muraroa.0 and 0.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation).bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. versions 0. but with the following exception: 0.1pl2.org.9. jseward@acm. Inc. for the Huffman coder). so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases.com/bzip2 http://www. so as to speed up compression. helped with portability problems.1pl2 cannot do this. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches. support and advice. lent machines. David Wheeler (again. 0. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream.9. I am much indebted for their help. 0. AUTHOR Julian Seward. This could easily be fixed. 5 .cygnus. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms. Many people sent patches. and Alistair Moffat. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be.9.

EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. can be made visible via the −t option. read and output contents of the standard input again. 1995 1 . with the exception of the tab and EOL characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . writing them to the standard output. more(1). The file operands are processed in command-line order. starting at 1. The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. See the manual page for your shell (e. truncating file3 if it already exists. sh(1)) for more information on redirection. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line.g. $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. cat reads from the standard input. vis(1). sh(1). Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. "UNIX Style. STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). less(1). . control-I. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X.CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic.2-1992 (“POSIX. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. The tab character. BSD May 2.. . which are displayed normally. since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. then finally output the contents of file3.2”) specification. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. 1983. $ cat file1 . The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. tail(1). print the contents of file2. Inc. Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines.file2 . or cat -v Considered Harmful". USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. pr(1). causing the output to be single spaced.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. Number the output lines.

BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection.CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2. Inc. 1995 2 .

one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password. To determine which password to use. To this end.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password.. In addition. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content. In addition. When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges.. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. If a password was not specified with the -p option. the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . Inc. The name of the hosts to be updated.. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly. If the registry location is not found/set. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 .. -r -q host . By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. With this option only error messages are output.

and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris.group file . chgrp [-fhRv?] user.’). This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes.. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. By default. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. use the -l option. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). Instead. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. Inc. DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files.. To turn it off.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . and consequently a GID is not available for this group. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. However. chgrp changes only the group ownership.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . See the -r option. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin. By default. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. New owner of the file (user name or UID).. this option is turned on.

Inc. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change. you may not achieve the ownership change you want. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. NSH 2 . chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). Unknown option or missing file argument. and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). You specified an unknown GID or UID. Unable to get a license to use the software. chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership.

This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . The permissions changes you want to make. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who . since directories usually have different permissions than files. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory. etc). DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode.. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . or a series of comma separated instructions. mode can be an absolute octal value.. chmod silently skips it. Inc. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change. See the DESCRIPTION section above. special files. regular files. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. chmod silently skips it.e. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. File whose mode you want to change.. If chmod encounters a directory. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory.. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. .

Unknown option or missing file argument. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. execute permissions for the owner of the file.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Inc.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. write. execute for user. and read. NSH 2 . chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. execute for both the group and other users). write. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected. Unable to get a license to use the software. chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions.

-R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. this command changes only the user ownership. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively.’) and a group name to the user name. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. See the -r option. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system.. New owner of the file (user name or UID). Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file .group file . the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes.. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename. NSH 1 . then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. this option is turned on. and consequently a UID is not available for this user.. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). Inc. Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. By default. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. You can turn it off with the -l option. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status.. Instead. However. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. without changing any ownerships. By default.

NSH 2 . chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc. Unknown option or missing file argument.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Consequently. the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. Unable to get a license to use the software. chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)).

when you have an existing connection. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. provided the active user is authorized for that role. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections. NSH 1 . the role selection is ignored. and then reconnect. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. Inc.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. Your current role is role1. you must disconnect. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. you must specify a new role preference. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session.

sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1. The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. If no file name is specified. NSH 1 . cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. Inc. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. The cksum utility exits 0 on success. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence.. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. This is a 16-bit checksum. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. the total number of octets in the file and the file name. with a right rotation before each addition. These n bits are the bits from the file. Using this interface. the standard input is used and no file name is written.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division.e. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes... Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. Partial blocks are rounded up. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used. For historic reasons. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. least significant octet first. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum.. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. See description below. This is a 32-bit checksum. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option. and >0 if an error occurs. These fields are a checksum CRC. overflow is discarded. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i. Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility..

Inc. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. algorithm 2 is used. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. cksum(1). SEE ALSO sum(1). With the P_ATT variable set. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. NSH 2 . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. A system error message follows the output of the error message. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. algorithm 1 is used. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible.

cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option.rhosts chown root. The second file in the comparison. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’). If it has. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference.master //oslo/.rhosts file on host oslo has changed. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. When this happens.master //oslo/.rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. By default. and the two different character values found in the files. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other. Instead. checking to see if they are identical. NSH 1 . cp rhosts. then the offset is read instead of being seeked over. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships. then cmp uses the standard input. If file1 is ’-’. For each difference it finds. The first file in the comparison. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file.root //oslo/. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/. Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. cmp always considers the files not to be identical.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. find all differences in the files. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . even with the -l option. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code.

NSH 2 . cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. One of the files was not accessible. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. Unable to get a license to use the software.

Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. Column numbering starts with one.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file. Inc. Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight. columns numbered less than the start column will be written. If only the start column is specified. A column is defined as a single character in a line. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. Berkeley and its contributors. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written. SEE ALSO column(1). Input is read from the standard input.8 Last change: NSH 1 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If both start and stop columns are specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . cut(1). not zero. paste(1) SunOS 5. Output is written to the standard output. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

and lines in both files. sort(1). The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. lines only in file2. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Comm exits 0 on success. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . For example. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1. Suppress printing of column 2. if column number two is being suppressed. and lines printed in column number three will have one. which should be sorted lexically. lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. SEE ALSO cmp(1). uniq(1) SunOS 5. all characters participate in line comparisons.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2. and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. Inc. Suppress printing of column 3. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. >0 if an error occurred.

and the attributes of the input file are not retained. “-Z”. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. . . uncompress. No files are modified (force zcat mode). . but is relatively slow. instead they are converted to “tar”. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. “-tgz”. Additionally.gz”.Z”. “-gz”. Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode). with compression factor of −1 to −9. By default. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . If either the input or output files are not regular files. The default is −6. “_gz”.. user ID. −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. Compression factor −1 is the fastest. access time. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. file flags.Z”. even if it is not actually reduced in size. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. “_Z”. file mode. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. The options are as follows: −1. in compress mode. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. Force compression of file. “-taz”.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . This option implies −g. As many of the modification time. Instead. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file.] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . “_tgz”. . If invoked as compress −g. zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file . These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. If no files are specified. described below.taz”. but provides a poorer level of compression. “. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. Inc. see gzip(1) for more information. . the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation.. . copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding. the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. the deflate mode of compression is chosen.tgz”. the input file is not removed. “. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g). renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). If compression would not reduce the size of a file. Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. the files are not overwritten. and “_taz”. recognising the following extensions: “. “.9 Use the deflate scheme. this information is not used. When uncompressing. 2008 1 . It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1).Property of BladeLogic.

−g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. However. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. If the −v option is specified. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name.Property of BladeLogic. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories. BSD April 3. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size. if any. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). Print the license. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. compress periodically checks the compression ratio. the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. List information for the specified compressed files. Print a short help message. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. if the compression ratio decreases. the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. Inc. 2008 2 . −N When uncompressing or listing. After the bits limit is reached. for the uncompressed version. Use compress mode (the default). Size of the file when uncompressed. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. When compressing. If it is increasing. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). When code 512 is reached.

and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success. The compress. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. IEEE Computer. 2008 3 . and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack). June. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. 1984. SEE ALSO Welch.. STANDARDS The compress. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. Terry A. or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact).Property of BladeLogic. BSD April 3. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output. and the distribution of common substrings. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. the number of bits per code. Inc.1. uncompress. uncompress. pp.3 BSD. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". or 2 if a warning occurred. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. 17:6. Typically. 1 if an error occurred. and takes less time to compute. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. 8−19.

so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. If the destination directory does not exist. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . Don’t actually make any changes. By default. If a target file already exists.. cp creates it and copies the content into it. use the -b command. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. This also applies to new directories being created. Inc. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. so that. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. By default. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships.. cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. To turn on the file backup feature. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". and copies the content into it. When copying to a directory. When the destination directory does exist. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). With this option. Synchronize file ownerships. cp overwrites it. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. then cp will create the directory as required. With his option. With the -P option.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. This option turns off the -i option. By default. If the target directory does not already exist. permissions. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. if it exists. cp copies multiple files into a directory. Synchronize file permissions. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. If the target directory does already exist. By default. If the destination directory does exist. before copying over the new source file. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. If the target file already exists. if the target file already exists. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo.c becomes foo. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. when cp copies a directory. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. when cp creates a new file. In the second form. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. Preserve parent. and access and modification times as the source file. In the first form. then cp overwrites the file. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files. for example. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. and is consequently overwritten. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file .

and execute. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. Output a message for each file being copied. should it be a symbolic link. Conditional copy. then the backup will not be overwritten. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. See the -u option. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. Conditional copy. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. -S and -C. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. follow symbolic links. especially on a large file. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. Conditional copy. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. When recursing through directories. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. except that it applies only to the top level file. This option can be very resource intensive. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. If the file sizes are the same. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. NSH 2 . The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. With the -P option. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. They are -T. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. This is the no parent option. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. If you use this option with the -p option. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. This option is the same as the -r option. write. See the -u option. This option implies the -S option.

cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. indicating that cp cannot copy directories. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. NSH 3 . ncp(1). the -i option will override the -f option. cp was unable to copy all files requested. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. then this message appears. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. Unknown option or missing file argument. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . With the P_ATT variable set. Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. SEE ALSO dsync (1). it will display this message. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. cp will display this message. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. this message will appear.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. this message will appear. If cp is not able to create one of these directories. uncp(1). EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. the -f option will override the -i option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).

EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. OPTIONS -<number> By default. in the format of column-<record number>.21-4. csv2xml generates column names. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter.’) character as the field separator. Do not output the XML header entry. With this option. and in turn XML tags.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. With this option.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name. Do not output the root node tag. It uses this header line to name the columns of input. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter.4. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option.

ncpu(1). it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. NSH 2 . nmem(1). ndf(1). ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1). csv2xml will not display these additional fields. If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record. nstats(1). nnet(1).csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. Inc. nover(1). Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters.

SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 .cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. -s The arguments following the options -c. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . a dash (-).. Number ranges consist of a number. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option.. Column numbering starts from 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash. -d. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges. delimited in the input by a single tab character. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. that character is used to separate output fields. lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second.. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number.. Inc. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. inclusively. and in any order. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter. overlapping. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. Berkeley and its contributors. If you do. and writes them to the standard output. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character. 1 if an error occurred. Unless specified.

if any. notrunc or sync are specified. If no conversion values other than noerror. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. value . a lseek(2) operation is used. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point. a lseek(2) operation is used. Read input from file instead of the standard input.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . The number of truncated input records. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. On non-tape devices..) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. For all other devices. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. Copy n input files before terminating. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. Otherwise. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. On input which supports seeks. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size.3BSD-reno systems. ascii. Write output to file instead of the standard output. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. Any trailing newline character is discarded. input data is read and discarded. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified. the correct number of bytes is read. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. When finished. If the user does not have read permission for the tape. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. superseding the ibs and obs operands. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. For pipes. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output... The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. NSH 1 . are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. If input reads are short.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Otherwise. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries.. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. If the seek operation is past the end of file. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. Inc. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd .] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output.

) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. After the end of input is reached. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. Normally. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. respectively. the rest of the block will be written. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. If the sync conversion is also specified. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. ibm. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. Where sizes are specified. any remaining output is written as a block. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters.3BSD-reno systems. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. When finished. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4. the input block is omitted from the output. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. Inc. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). If dd receives a SIGINT signal. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. If the sync conversion is not specified. 1024 (1K). the last byte will be ignored during swapping.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. oldebcdic. Do not stop processing on an input error. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. a decimal number of bytes is expected. When an input error occurs. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. NSH 2 . dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. the number is multiplied by 512. Otherwise. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. otherwise NUL bytes are used. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. ‘‘k’’. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. Swap every pair of input bytes.

2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. SEE ALSO cp(1). The files operand and the ascii. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. Inc. NSH 3 . Berkeley and its contributors. oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. oldascii. ibm. tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. ebcdic.

] DESCRIPTION For each named target. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. which may be a directory or host name. The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory. Inc. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report.. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . If you do not specify any targets. OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options. paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. this header line will be included for each named target..df(1) Property of BladeLogic. If one of the targets is a directory name only. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command. df again uses the current host.

The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. differ” if files contain binary characters. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. but in reverse order. Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. while defining string will yield file2. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . −e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. No output is produced if the files are identical. ed(1).’. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. However. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. . BSD July 21. Does not output a list of changes. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. It cannot be digested by ed(1). −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. unlike with −c. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. . Just print a line when the files differ. Produces a script similar to that of −e. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. Inc. 2003 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility.

−p With unified and context diffs.g. common subdirectories. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. If a file is found in only one directory. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. Multiple −x options may be specified. beginning with file name. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. 2003 2 . an underscore or a dollar sign. Binary files which differ. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. producing a change list. If both arguments are directories. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file.g. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3). −L label Print label instead of the first (and second. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns.. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. If a file is found only in dir2. Long output format. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. E. “A” will compare equal to “a”. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern.. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. Will expand tabs in output lines. E. Multiple −X options may be specified. context or unified output formats. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. Inc. this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. on text files which are different. For C source code following standard layout conventions. Causes diff to report files which are the same. −I pattern Ignores changes. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. insertions. which are otherwise not mentioned. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size.

This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21. the standard input is used in its place. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. Inc.YY from file1 with the range ZZ. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. XX.QQ Replace the range XX. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. fnmatch(3). where XX. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. SEE ALSO cmp(1). ZZ. −w or −i options specified. An error occurred. diff3(1). HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Differences were found. XX. comm(1). As in ed(1). XX. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. Thus. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. −c. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. FILES /tmp/diff. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1.QQ from file2. XXaYY. but append the range of lines. pr(1).DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.1-2001 specification. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. those after pertain to file2. XXdYY At line XX delete the line.ZZ Same as above. At (the end of) line XX of file1. a diagnostic message is printed.YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003.YYcZZ. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered. XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. 2003 3 . The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. ed(1). append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. YY. Output Style The default (without −e.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input.

2003 4 .DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. BSD July 21. Inc.

The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. it leaves it alone. however when running dsync. -f. By default. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. because the security models for file permissions may differ. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. By default. When you run cp as dsync. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". then cp overwrites the file. before copying over the new source file. (The -P option is not turned on by default. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. -d Use this option with care. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. while preserving the file ownerships. by default. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. Also. turned on the following options: -r. All options are described here. -p. If a target file already exists. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. and access times. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. it leaves it alone. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. then it will be created.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. if it exists. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. -b -i Backup the target file. By default. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. -m NSH 1 . if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. and -u. permissions. changing the target file’s permissions if necessary.

See the -u option. With this option. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. If the target directory does not already exist. Conditional copy.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. If you use this option with the -p option. and execute. Don’t actually make any changes. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. This option can be very resource intensive.c becomes foo. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. This option implies the -S option. especially on a large file. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. Output a message for each file being copied. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. and access and modification times as the source file. See the -u option. write. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. -S and -C. With the -P option. -L -P When recursing through directories.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. then cp will create the directory as required. Conditional copy. If the file sizes are the same. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). follow symbolic links. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. Inc. permissions. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. Conditional copy. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. If the target directory does already exist. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. This also applies to new directories being created. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. if the target file already exists. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. They are -T. This is the no parent option. This option turns off the -i option. With this option. This option is the same as the -r option. NSH 2 . cp does not create or remove any files or directories.

dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. NSH 3 . along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. dsync outputs this message. indicating that it cannot copy directories. Unknown option or missing file argument. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. then dsync outputs this message. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. indicating that the copy may not be complete. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). Unable to get a license to use the software. With the P_ATT variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Inc. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. the -i option will override the -f option. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r).dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. it will output this message. it outputs this message. it will output this message. the -f option will override the -i option. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. it outputs this message. The second example does the same as the first. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options.

Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1). Inc.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 4 .

findings are already reported in KB. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. Report the directories that du cannot search. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. With this option. du searches directories recursively. Same as -d. When the P_BSD variable is set. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename .. By default. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. Inc. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. (By default. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. while traversing a directory. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. du counts files with multiple links only once.. output only a summary for all directories searched. du counts linked files only once. Same as -d. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size. NSH 1 . Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks.) If. du ignores all files with more than one link.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not specify any files or directories.

du does not report errors. ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. du assumes that a block is 1K large. With the P_ATT variable set. NSH 2 . du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Furthermore. du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. the universe flag determines the size of a block. unless you specify the -r option. With the P_ATT variable set.du(1) Property of BladeLogic.

DEC 9.echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. HEX D).. Form feed (OCT 014. HEX C). Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. carriage return (OCT 015. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. HEX 8). DEC 13. DEC 11. new line (OCT 012. DEC 8. HEX A). HEX 5C). If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. HEX B).. Do not output a new-line at the end. backslash (OCT 0134. Unable to get a license to use the software. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. NSH 1 .old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character. DEC 12.] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. HEX 9). You specified an unknown option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. tab (OCT 011. File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only. Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. Argument to be echoed. DEC 10. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. DEC 92. vertical tab (OCT 013. ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus.

. Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output.) that contain tabs. unexpand [-a] file .. DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters. If the -a option is given... ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California. looking at specific columns. then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8.. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default. If a single tabstop argument is given. Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns.expand(1) Property of BladeLogic. etc. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc.. Berkeley and its contributors. NSH 1 . and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1.tab2. Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. unexpand .tabn] file ...expand tabs to spaces.

the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. If you specify a negative field number. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row. such as -2. such as 5. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. Inc. the entire data row is extracted. If this option is not provided. If the field number is 0. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. If you specify a positive field number. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character.

fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.

just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another).h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a.h〉 and possibly 〈exec. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. symbolic links. Inc. Don’t do as Berkeley did. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. . For each magic number file.out(5). This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data.out file. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. the keyword . These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. . 2004 1 . file attempts to guess its language. or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). preserve these keywords. Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files.h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. or if it’s some sort of special file.h〉. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it.out. so they are performed last. and language tests. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file . Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets. magic number tests. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. performed in this order: filesystem tests. The program checks to see if the file is empty. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names. The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”. People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. For example. and which of several types thereof. write a magic. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). There are three sets of tests. whose format is defined in 〈a. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats. BSD December 4.

use ‘-’ as a filename argument. of files containing magic numbers. od(1). Normally. as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. This version knows more magic. because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. a. If a compiled magic file is found alongside. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). −m magiclist Specify an alternate list.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. This is only useful if checking a list of files. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). ls(1). It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. For example. file adds “. 2004 2 . keep going. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. This prevents problems. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). magiclist. to test the standard input. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files.out(5). Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. Defaults to ‘:’. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1). Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). BSD December 4. separated by colon characters. which are block special files. however. −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. hexdump(1). Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. it will be used instead. Inc. strings(1). Print the version of the program and exit. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. Cause symlinks to be followed.

but with some extensions.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. if a pattern string contains a backslash. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. thank you. 1973). Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries. based on the System V version. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition. 2000. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic. Inc. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. Darwin. mainly USENET. Toronto. Depending on what system you are using. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. in this version. If your old file command uses a magic file. The files tar. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. 1986-1999.h and is_tar. BSD December 4. used as.com〉. making it better than the first version. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth.NOTICE in the distribution. 1989.com〉. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. see the file LEGAL. The order of entries in the magic file is significant. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas. for example.com〉. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. July. and are not covered by the above license. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. John Gilmore revised the code extensively.ac. it must be escaped. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically. was written by Ian F. This program. Canada. and contributed by various authors.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types. 2004 3 . You know who you are.uk〉.orig).

etc. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte.. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir. if the others don’t pan out. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is. Regular expression support would make this easy. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files.g. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e.. but is entrenched. first word. once we have fetched it. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. Still.gz. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. with the flexibility of the System V version.astron. Inc. Regular expression support would make this easy. 2004 4 . better yet.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. it should be possible to use the first guess. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.YY. What is it? Better yet..g. It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). inefficient and requires recompilation to update. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup. This manual page. is too long. and particularly this section. BSD December 4. first long. ndbm(3) or. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy.g.tar. We end up removing guesses (e. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e.

-print is assumed. −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. allowing all file names to be processed safely. 1999 1 . and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. not the link itself. is n minutes. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. If the referenced file does not exist.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. and the file is skipped. An alias for the −L option. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. rounded up to the next full minute. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. the file information and type will be for the link itself. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. find visits directories in pre-order i. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. Inc. This option exists for backwards compatibility. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. rounded up to the next full minute. The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. before their contents. space. tab. is n 24-hour periods. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). is n minutes. the file information and type will be for the link itself.e.e. not the link itself. Alternatively. BSD December 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path . [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . By default. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. If the referenced file does not exist. In the absence of an expression..

The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. . BSD December 4. -execdir utility [argument . owner. .’ ) . the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. 1999 2 . rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. If the file is a block or character special file. is n minutes. Case insensitive. size in 512-byte blocks. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”. -inum n True if the file has inode number n. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. If the file is a symbolic link. and pathname. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n.]. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. is n 24-hour periods. group. These do not describe actual file system types. -links n True if the file has n links. . -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. number of hard links. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. rounded up to the next full minute. Inc. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”. the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes.]. last modification time. True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. . size in bytes. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name. -exec utility [argument . then gname is treated as a group ID. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. file permissions. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -follow Follow symbolic links.

If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . If the mode is not preceded by a dash. BSD December 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -ok. Note. Note. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. ‘∗’. ‘]’. -print This primary always evaluates to true. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. . rounded up. -ok utility [argument . -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group. -ls. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If the mode is octal. is n 24-hour periods. ‘∗’. It causes find to not descend into the current file. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. 1999 3 . Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. in 512-byte blocks is n. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If neither -exec. followed by a null character. If the mode is symbolic. Inc. this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. nor -print0 is specified. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output.]. . Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. If n is followed by a ‘c’. ‘]’.

The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. and neither means “exactly n”. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”. Inc. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. then uname is treated as a user ID. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. 1999 4 .c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. It evaluates to true if the expression is false.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4.

-cmin. and ‘. and -xdev. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.’ may have to be escaped from the shell. ‘\’. As −print always evaluates to true. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. ‘?’.[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). Inc. -iname. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. strmode(3). These primaries always evaluated to true. -maxdepth. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.2”) standard. ‘(’.2 (“POSIX. Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. which(1). the −d. getpwent(3). locate(1). -inum. -follow. BSD December 4. This is not the case.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. The options and primaries -amin. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗. chmod(1). ‘!’. -empty. whereis(1). and the operator -and was implemented as −a. the characters ‘∗’. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began. -links. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. -fstype. -ls. −H. xargs(1). -mmin. -execdir. but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. stat(2). getgrent(3). and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. -follow.2”). The operator -or was implemented as −o. This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. ‘)’. 1999 5 . Historically. In particular. -mindepth. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”. ‘[’. ‘]’. fts(3). As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression.2 (“POSIX.

Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold . expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding. ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. Inc. breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. Berkeley and its contributors.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present. DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files..fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. or the standard input if no files are specified..8 Last change: NSH 1 . OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters. SunOS 5.

<local> .conf like file on the operating system.conf like file. <dns> host2....Property of BladeLogic. No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch....com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts). EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1..domaincomponent1.. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. <local> . Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host. <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered. This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <nis> . <nis> .conf like file... <dns> . -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch..domaincomponent2.conf like file. <dns> . If multiple hostnames are specified. OPTIONS -u Print usage... DNS. in that particular sequence.domaincomponent2..conf like file... Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database.domaincomponent1. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> . Inc. in that particular sequence. <local> <dns> . and NIS..com <nis> . <nis> NSH 1 .

. Inc. SEE ALSO hostname(1)..domaincomponent1.. <dns> host4.. <dns> .. <local> .domaincomponent2.domaincomponent2..com host4..domaincomponent3.com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra.domaincomponent1.. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> . <dns> . <local> .....Property of BladeLogic. <local> host4 host4.domaincomponent2.com loghost <dns> . NSH 2 .

zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. unzip(1L). run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. .] funzip [–password] input.z i p .]  funzip [–password]  [. ps(1) under Unix). i n f o . zipnote(1L).zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash.gz  [. DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting..] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. .z i p. See DESCRIPTION for more details. This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. If there is an argument. Decryption may not be supported at some sites. zipcloak(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [. . A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode. | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p.93) 1 . . that is. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console. EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. . In the case where the first member is a directory. .Misc. i nf o. .zip  [. for example. after prompting again for the password.] funzip [–password] input. and command-line histories can be read.zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . Given the limitation on single-member extraction.zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. zip(1L).g. This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state. The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release). To recover. nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive). There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive. SEE ALSO gzip(1L). or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . funzip will reset the terminal properly. . unzipsfx(1L). zipinfo(1L). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). funzip simply creates the directory and exits. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line. then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin. or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. Inc.

Misc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.93) 2 .

hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. and writes this data to a file called license.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. a product code. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command.dat to license the remote agents. a license key. Each entry consists of a hostname.raw. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed. Do not create a license.. one entry per line. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . See the -v option for more details. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license..dat. Verbose output. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. Inc. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information. and an optional expiration key. host1 .. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. The license.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed. The putlic command uses license. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license. regardless of license status. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. If you do not specify any of these four options.raw file.dat file can contain multiple entries. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 .. You can specify multiple options. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data. Displays the status of each host. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify.

Inc. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. Display version information. Force grep to behave as grep. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns. You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. If grep searched the standard input. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. and write the names of these files to standard output. If you specified the -R option.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. fgrep . Treat all files as text. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Search binary files. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. Ignore binary files. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. Perform case insensitive matching. If you specified the -R option. egrep. NSH 1 . Force grep to behave as egrep. List the pathname for each file. it writes the pathname ‘-’. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match.. in front of the matching line. but do not attempt to print them. When displaying a matching line.file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . An empty expression matches every line. By default. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. Force grep to behave as fgrep. grep does not follow symbolic links. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. Write only a count of matching lines. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. follow all symbolic links. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match.. If you specified -R. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern.

or -q. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’). grep uses the standard input.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. An error occurred. Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines. Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. No lines were selected. and write the names of these files to standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). The first line of each file is 1. Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . Always print filename headers with output lines. Add another pattern (see example below). Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. List the pathname for each file. Suppress normal output. Align the match from the beginning of the line. ‘$. Inc. it writes the pathname ‘-’.’ which would otherwise match any character. Silent mode. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. If grep searched the standard input.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. -l. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. grep ignores this option if you specify -c.

20 or 25. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. NSH 3 .grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19. Inc.

head displays the first few lines from the standard input. Inc. $ head -20 *. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . If you do not specify any file names. Measure quantities in lines. Unable to get a license to use the software. -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output.. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. When you specify the -B option. display count number of characters. This is done for compatibility purposes.. head displays the first few lines from the standard input.c files.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default. head outputs the file "as is. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems. File whose first few lines you want to display. You specified an unknown option. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna. if you are using the -c option) to be count. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. if you are using the -c option) to be n. This is the default." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output. Instead of displaying count number of lines.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. If you do not specify any files. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.head(1) Property of BladeLogic.

characters of input data per line. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. respectively. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. in unsigned decimal. space separated. zero-filled. two-byte quantities of input data. space-filled. per line. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. followed by sixteen space-separated. One-byte character display. The byte count is an optional positive integer. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . k. two byte quantities of input data. or the standard input. in octal. in octal. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). per line. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. three column. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). followed by eight space-separated. in a user specified format. any number of groups of output lines. in the order that they were specified. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. hexadecimal. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. three column. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. per line. which defaults to one. or 1048576. Two-byte decimal display. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. By default. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. separated by whitespace. and a format. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. Appending the character b. in hexadecimal. if no files are specified. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. otherwise. offset is interpreted as an octal number. followed by eight. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. Display the input offset in hexadecimal.ascii. Without the -v option.. a byte count. Inc. six column. decimal. Two-byte hexadecimal display. per line. followed by eight space-separated. with a leading 0. With a leading 0x or 0X. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . zero-filled. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. bytes of input data. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks.. xd . Display the input offset in hexadecimal. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. five column. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. four column. -o Two-byte octal display. two-byte units of input data. od. Each format is applied iteration count times. For each input file. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. zero-filled. 1024. zero-filled. Display the input offset in hexadecimal.

%_p. Four byte default. %g One byte counts only. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). names. Characters greater than 0xff. ‘‘n’’. which is the iteration count times the byte count. one. %o. hexadecimal. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. zero-padded octal. %_u. ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. two and four byte counts supported. %x %E. _c Output characters in the default character set. when all of the input data has been processed. %G. Eight byte default. %i. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. o. %f.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. Output characters in the default character set. and x specify the display base as decimal. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. ‘‘l’’. Output US ASCII characters. The appended characters d. %X. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). %c %d. %e.’’. of the next byte to be displayed. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. %u. four byte counts supported. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. lower-case. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. octal or hexadecimal respectively. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. which are displayed as two character strings. cumulative across input files. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’. Inc.

an iteration count is greater than one. ‘‘ ’’. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. If no format strings are specified.7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed. Berkeley and its contributors. the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option. If. input data only partially satisfies a format string. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. Inc. EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. If.7_Ax\n" "%07. and referencing a NULL string. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 .e. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07.

but cute.8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 . front-end for grep. Inc. It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep . Quoting is not handled.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SunOS 5.highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial.

NSH 1 . Inc. This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). OPTIONS hostname has no options. Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic.

Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. In file 2. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. join uses the standard input. Inc. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. For example. The join utility exits 0 on success. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. Many of the options use file and field numbers. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. When you are using the default field delimiter characters.field’. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join .’’) or whitespace separated. join on the field specified by field. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. join on the field specified by field. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. join may not report all field matches. -j1 field In file 1. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. on the fields on which they are to be joined.using the -b option. -e string Replace empty output fields with string.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. For example. The first field in each line is used by default. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields. Otherwise. join on the field specified by field. join on the field specified by field. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. -1 field -2 field In file 1.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. For example. NSH 1 . and >0 if an error occurs. For example. Each output line consists of the join field. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output. -j2 field In file 2. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. The default output field separator is a single space character. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output.

Inc. These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification. comm(1). SEE ALSO awk(1). uniq(1) NSH 2 . ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California..2’’. sort(1). This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1. These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number.field_number’’ as described for the current -o option. paste(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. join(1) -o list . In general.join(1) Property of BladeLogic.. do not use these options. join on the field specified by field. Berkeley and its contributors. Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option.

The options are described below.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. –f min. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active. Berkeley and its contributors. This option may appear after the last file.max Print line fragments according to the format string min. pr(1). Inc. and if it begins with a ‘–’. SunOS 5. The name ‘–’ means the standard input. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline. If min begins with a zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min.max Like –f.. zeros will be added to make up the field width. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). SEE ALSO join(1).max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . each option affects only the file after it.max. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. –p min.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Normally. and may be repeated.. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width.

. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file. but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines.. default one window (see option -z below).] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines. The number is used by some commands. as indicated. only the final screenful is displayed. If you forget all the other commands. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less.. it becomes the new window size. h | H Help: display a summary of these commands.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). z Like SPACE. COMMANDS In the following descriptions. remember this one. lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. but if N is specified. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. In this mode. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. then "v". so it can run on a variety of terminals. 2003 1 . Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. If N is specified. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. even if N is more than the screen size. ˆX means control-X. but scrolls a full screensful.) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. (On a hardcopy terminal. Inc. BSD January 17. Also. ESC stands for the ESCAPE key.. called N in the descriptions below. If N is more than the screen size. default 1. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. . default one half of the screen size. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The entire N lines are displayed.

Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. default half the screen width (see the -# option). w Like ESC-v. While the text is scrolled. Like }. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. default one half of the screen size. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. If a number N is specified. default half the screen width (see the -# option). If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. Scroll forward. is being read. even if N is more than the screen size. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. default one window (see option -z below). it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket. If a number N is specified. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. discarding any buffered input. Like {.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. default 1. N should be between 0 and 100. 2003 2 . If N is specified. The entire N lines are displayed. but if N is specified. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. only the final screenful is displayed. } ( ) BSD January 17. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. it becomes the new window size. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. default 1 (beginning of file). y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines. Inc. If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. rather than a file. or if N is not specified and standard input. default the end of the file. If N is more than the screen size. R F Repaint the screen. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.

Like }. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. marks the current position with that letter. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. That is. For example. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. Certain characters are special. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. acts like {. 2003 3 . Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). that is. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. do a simple textual comparison. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. Search multiple files. Inc. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. acts like }. Search multiple files. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. The pattern is a regular expression. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. respectively. as recognized by ed(1). BSD January 17. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. That is. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. For example. which change this). N defaults to 1. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. Followed by another single quote. ˆXˆX Same as single quote. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match. (Single quote. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files.) Followed by any lowercase letter. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. Followed by a ˆ or $. respectively.

two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line). N ESC-n Repeat previous search. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. 2003 4 . A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. but crossing file boundaries. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". As in forward searches. If the filename consists of several files. turn highlighting back on. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". If the previous search was modified by ˆN. Similarly. If a number N is specified. the N-th previous file is examined.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If the filename contains one or more spaces. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. As in forward searches. If the filename is missing. If a number N is specified. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. Inc. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. you may not be able to use ˆV. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. On such systems. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. for N-th line containing the last pattern. the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. the N-th next file is examined. ESC-N Repeat previous search. Examine the previous file in the command line list. However. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. but in the reverse direction. n Repeat previous search. Repeat previous search. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. ESC-u Undo search highlighting. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. BSD January 17. the search is done without using regular expressions. If the previous search was modified by ˆE.

(The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. For example. Go to the previous tag. Like the −! command. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Remove the current file from the list of files. Examine the first file in the command line list. If possible. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. (Underscore. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. the N-th file in the list is examined. (Double underscore. BSD January 17.) This does not work for string-valued options. it also prints the length of the file. V Prints the version number of less being run. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. Go to the next tag. or a string value (such as -P or -t). Like the − command.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. The following four commands may or may not be valid. If a number N is specified. 2003 5 . = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. depending on your particular installation. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed.) Like the _ (underscore) command. The setting of the option is not changed. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. a new value may be entered after the option letter. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. If no new value is entered. as in the − command. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. Followed by one of the command line option letters. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. See the −t option for more details about tags. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). if defined. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). Like the −+ command.

thus: "-\?". By default. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. If an option appears in the LESS variable. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. Some long option names are in uppercase. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. Most options may be changed while less is running. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. "!!" repeats the last shell command. so command line options override the LESS environment variable. via the "−" command. to avoid typing "less -options . Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. For example. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. 2003 6 . but not --qui. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. For example.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. the remainder of the name may be in either case. thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. For example. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. or newline. the current screen is piped. not an ordinary file. s filename Save the input to a file. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. For example. For options like -P which take a following string. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. as distinct from --quit-at-eof. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or defaults to "sh". or two dashes followed by a long option name. see the -j option). This only works if the input is a pipe. If <m> is . you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". Inc. in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). The BSD January 17.. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. see the -B option)." each time less is invoked. OPTIONS Command line options are described below.

−e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. By default. lacks some important capability. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe. ’q’ to quit.) BSD January 17. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. −g | −-hilite-search Normally. If n is -1. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. This option is on by default when invoked as more. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. buffer space is unlimited. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. By default. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. buffers are allocated automatically as needed.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. that is. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. the entire file is read into memory. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. any earlier data is lost. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. By default. 2003 7 . that is. (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file.]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. less will refuse to open non-regular files. −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. when data is read from a pipe. the bell is rung). This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. -h0 is implied.]’’. Inc.

LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. Inc. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. and so on. If the -j option is used. tag search. By default. not an ordinary file. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). less prompts with a colon. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. jump to a file percentage. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. A target line is the object of a text search. not to the file which is currently open. and so on. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. the next is 2. uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. the second to the bottom is -2. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. This option can be set from within less. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. or jump to a marked position. it is also used as a lesskey file. with the percent into the file. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. This applies only when the input file is a pipe. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. For example. BSD January 17. If the file already exists. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. in other words. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. When invoked as more. if "-j4" is used. jump to a line number. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). especially with a very large input file. 2003 8 . Multiple -k options may be specified. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. then that search does not ignore case. that is.

The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. Thus." is zero or more characters other than "m". Inc. The default is to fold long lines. BSD January 17. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. that is. That is. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. display the remainder on the next line. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. Without a file name. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. Warning: when the -r option is used. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference.. −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ .. but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. or be terminated by a dollar sign. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command). less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). If the terminal has a "visual bell". m where the ". This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. they will simply report the name of the log file. −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". See the section on PROMPTS for more details. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. rather than being typed in with each less command. that is. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung. such as typing an invalid character. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. 2003 9 . various display problems may result. it is used instead... The bell will be rung on certain other errors. for example. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less.

−-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. they are handled as specified by the -r option... along with the preceding character. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. 25. If only one n is specified.org/software/global/global. Other backspaces are deleted. -x9. −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags". BSD January 17. for example.. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command.. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. followed immediately by a TAG. Also. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. Sets tab stops. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. 2003 10 . if neither -u nor -U is given. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. etc.17 will set tabs at positions 9. 33. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. 17. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags". tab stops are set at those positions. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. unless the -J option is in effect. tag information must be available. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. like clearing the screen. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line. Inc. By default. tab stops are set at multiples of n.gnu. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. will edit the file containing that tag. and that command is executed to find the tag. −xn. (See http://www. in which case only the status column is highlighted. that is. that is. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. For this to work. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. For example. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted. If multiple values separated by commas are specified.html). it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global... | −-tabs=n. The entire line is highlighted. The default for n is 8.

a filename for the :e command. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. the screen is repainted instead. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. By default. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. +<number> acts like +<number>g. Followed by two characters. Inc. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. any forward movement causes scrolling. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. If the option starts with ++. it starts the display at the specified line number (however. BSD January 17. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right. If a command line option begins with +. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. or the pattern for a search command). This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. this changes the quote character to that character. and the close quote to the second character. either ˆV or ˆA. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. If the number specified is zero. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. that is. This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. If the number n is negative. The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. For example. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. For example. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. changes the open quote to the first character. if the screen is 24 lines. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. As a special case. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). Note that even after the quote characters are changed. Followed by a single character. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. 2003 11 . Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. not just the first one. LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. The default is one screenful. see the caveat under the "g" command above).

but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line.) Delete the word under the cursor. less uses that as the name of the lesskey file. 2003 12 . BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames.) Move the cursor one word to the left. If it matches more than one filename. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. that character is used instead of ˆU. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. a "/" is appended to the filename.) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. If the completed filename is a directory. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. Delete the entire command line. and to set environment variables. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. Otherwise. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line.less". CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. BSD January 17.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. Otherwise. the first match is entered into the command line. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. or cancel the command if the command line is empty.) Move the cursor one word to the right. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. If it matches more than one filename.

that is.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. but still let less view them directly: lessopen.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. and so on.$$ ]. When less closes a file opened in such a way. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. as normal. and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files. An input pipe. esac lessclose.. To use an input pipe. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename. then echo /tmp/less.sh %s %s". rather than putting the data into a replacement file. as entered by the user.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. To set up an input preprocessor. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen. the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. the original filename as entered by the user. less uses the original file. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. This program receives two command line arguments.$$ fi .sh %s".sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts. called the input postprocessor. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. the original filename. which was output by LESSOPEN. To set up an input postprocessor. called the replacement file. it will call another program. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. Before less opens a file. It should create the replacement file. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. 2003 13 . these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. However. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. which writes the contents of the file to a different file. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. and the name of the replacement file. This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less. as normal. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument. Inc.

2 and 3 are control. esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. "c" for control. Inc. "bccc4b. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set. For example. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up. Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal. Same as iso8859. A decimal number may be used for repetition.sh %s". the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. 6 and 7 are binary. and formfeed are control characters. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. 2003 14 . put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. Should not be displayed directly. CR. Selects an EBCDIC character set." would mean character 0 is binary. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. 5. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. When an input pipe is used. Same as iso8859. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. This is the same as ASCII." is used for a normal character. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. In this case. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. control. and all others are binary. 4. In this case. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and binary. and "b" for binary.. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used.Z) uncompress -c $1 . Selects an ISO 8859 character set. 1. TAB. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. (This is an example. and 8 is normal. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last. NL. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen. The character ".) BSD January 17. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. Selects a Russian character set.

7b9. Otherwise. then the default character set is utf-8. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. an "m" means use the middle line.b. 8bcccbcc18b95.7b 9. The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set. Finally.g. or equivalently.17b3. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable.3b9. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used. d. the page number of the last line in the input file. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets. X. as with the %b option. If the character is a "t".8b6..). etc. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility.b. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". the default character set is latin1. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables.b128. 8bcccbcc18b95. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking. but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings. as specified by the -j option. if the setlocale interface is also not available.8b8. 8bcccbcc18b95. "∗u" is underlined. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line. and a "j" means use the "target" line.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file.9b7.33b. Replaced by the size of the current input file.9b5. ˆA for control-A). A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file. "∗s" is standout. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file. less will use setlocale to determine the character set.b 8bcccbcc18b95. and "∗n" is normal. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.b. The line to be used is determined by the X. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17.33b. normal attribute is assumed. "∗d" is bold.b9.6b10.8b8. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e. but your system supports the setlocale interface. o. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.b. Inc. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]". If that string is not found. a "b" means use the bottom line. 2003 15 . For example.b.bb125.10b6. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen.

the file size if input is a pipe). True if the percent into the current input file. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. Replaced by the total number of input files. True if there is more than one input file. True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). based on byte offsets. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. such characters are not included. of the specified line is known. Same as %B. as with the %b option. Inc. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. based on line numbers. BSD January 17. based on byte offsets. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. If any item is unknown (for example. True if the percent into the current input file. if input is not a pipe). If the condition is false. True if the size of the current input file is known. but may appear anywhere. any characters following the question mark and condition character. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. The line used is determined by the X. True if there is an input filename (that is. based on line numbers. if and only if the IF condition is false. True if the line number of the specified line is known. Usually used at the end of the string. of the specified line is known. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. If the condition is true. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. are included in the prompt. True if at end-of-file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The line used is determined by the X. as with the %b option. as with the %b option. Replaced by the name of the current input file. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. up to a period. The line to be used is determined by the X. a question mark is printed instead. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). True if the page number of the specified line is known. a condition is evaluated. 2003 16 .

The pipe command. This is the default prompt. Finally. The filename is followed by the line number.. followed by the file name.. otherwise the byte offset if known.Next\: %x. : byte %bB?s/%s. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.?m(file %i of %m) . if we are at end-of-file. Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input.?e(END) ?x. if known. %f Note that this expands to the editor name. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash..%t ?f%f . otherwise the string "Standard input". ?f%f .. Inc..LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Notice how each question mark has a matching period. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1. Otherwise. ?n?f%f .%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f . This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command.%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. True if there is a next input file (that is. . period.Next\: %x. If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. otherwise the percent if known. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file.%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined. the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. 2003 17 . less runs in a "secure" mode. any trailing spaces are truncated..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. percent.. ..Next\: %x. or has other differences in invocation syntax. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default. if known. followed by a + and the line number. byte %bB?s/%s. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark. Then.?e(END) ?x. ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) . if known. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L..?m(file %i of %m) . Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. This prompt prints the filename.. For reference. if there is one. if the current input file is not the last one). This prompt would print the filename. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B". colon.?e(END) ?x.?n?m(file %i of %m) .: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%. BSD January 17.:?pB%pB\%. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively). a dash is printed. The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm.

The editing command. global tags are not used. Use of tags files. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. such as "∗". Language for determining the character set. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or in a lesskey(1) file. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. Metacharacters in filenames. LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. Use of lesskey files.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). Filename completion (TAB. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. BSD January 17. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. If not set. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. ˆL). Log files. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. See discussion under PROMPTS. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. non-control characters. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. Inc. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. 2003 18 . LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m").

Inc. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file. see the less homepage at http://www. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. 2003 19 . LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. more text than the matching string may be highlighted. On such terminals. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. See discussion under SECURITY. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).org〉. For more information. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen. TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. If the :e command is used to name more than one file. as well as to expand filenames. In certain cases. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell.com/less.) BSD January 17. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order.com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu.greenwoodsoftware.

2003 20 . Inc. setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text. searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. On some systems. BSD January 17. See http://www.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. non-binary files. This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary. To workaround this problem. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option.greenwoodsoftware. Also.

Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys.lesskey . lesskey will overwrite it.less is used. by default $HOME/. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. If the input file is ‘-’. or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. this line may be omitted. Otherwise. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. except for the special section header lines. standard input is read. The string may be a single command key. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . If −V or −−version is present. If no input file is specified. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. Otherwise. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. #env Defines environment variables. If no output file is specified. The action is the name of the less action. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. other options and arguments are ignored. by default $HOME/. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. from the list below. If the output file already exists. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1).LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). The input file consists of one or more sections. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. The characters in the string may appear literally. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file.

see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below. tab and the backslash itself. An action may be followed by an "extra" string. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. the action is performed. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. space. When such a command is entered while running less. just as if it were typed in to less. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. and then the extra string is parsed. For example.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. Alternatively. Since all default commands are disabled. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". For example. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. one per line as in the example below. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. In addition. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file.LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands. but not for a "noaction" command.

FILES $HOME/. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. $HOME/. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. Each line consists of an environment variable name. /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. such as uparrow. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. in a keyboard-independent manner.less Default lesskey file. NSH 5 .lesskey Default lesskey input file.

Newly created link file. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. do not use it except in exceptional cases. links to files on different partitions. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. Existing file to be linked. only the super user can use the link command. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. If you want this behavior. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. link always exits with an exit code of 0. Normally. Inc. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. NSH 1 . This is not the default for link. Links to directories. Unable to get a license to use the software. OPTIONS link has only one option.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. and links across hosts will not work. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. you should use the ln command instead.

The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. consist of a special file. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. With this option. if the target file already exists. In the output of the ls command. then the target file must be a directory.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column). ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. With this option.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. and you can make symbolic links to directories. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-. Newly created link file. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. Symbolic links however. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. ln does not ask for this confirmation. Existing file to be linked. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. Inc. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. if the target file already exists. if the target file of a link already exists. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. If you use the -f option with the -i option. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. With this option. NSH 1 .] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case.. ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links.. Furthermore. In the second case. and it does not have appropriate write permissions. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file. OPTIONS -f By default. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 .

4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. You should normally use the ln command.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created. and the target file already exists. NSH 2 . ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. This is not possible to do. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. Inc. it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software. SEE ALSO link(1). This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. avoid using it except in exceptional cases. An unknown option was given. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. The target file is not a directory. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. then the target file must be a directory. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command.

then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. or if it has a value less than 20. it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically. ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable. For each file argument. however it does not include the directories ". then the default universe behavior determines the output format. ls is the standard program. ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). With this option. The remaining programs are derivatives of ls..] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information. If you do not specify an output format. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. If the COLUMNS variable is not set. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 . ls does not display files beginning with a period (.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. -x. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. With the P_ATT variable set. if it is being redirected or piped). Inc.. Consequently. By default. ls displays the contents of the directory.). and -1 options)." and ". l. it uses the default value of 80. -o. This often includes the directories ". lr. a multi-column listing (see the -C.). ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option).) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). then the default format depends on two things." (current directory) and ". If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls. This may be the default. if a file contains special characters in the name. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory.. or a stream listing (see the -m option).".. When using a multi-column output. lf. lc. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen. (This is the default behavior. Before ls displays a listing. then ls uses the current directory (. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. If the output is going to a terminal. This option is similar to the -a option. By default. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). then ls outputs the listing in a single column." (parent directory). and -g options). See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column. If you do not specify any file arguments. If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). Each derivative has a specific option turned on. depending on the universe setting. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . With the P_BSD variable set. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. With this option. then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification.

then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. Directories are marked with a ’/’. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. If ls comes across a directory. putting a comma and a space between file names. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). -s. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . etc. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format.) When outputting a long listing. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. By default. When used with the -u option. With the P_BSD variable set. This option is similar to the -l option. With this option. the options -l. This makes it easy to identify directories. The default time stamp is date of last modification. With the P_ATT variable set. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. does a reverse sort by user name. ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]).. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting.. if a file contains special characters in the name. ls sorts the listing by file name. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. Each line contains detailed information about the file. This option tells ls to output a long listing. This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. ls sorts the listing by file size. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. Inc. does a reverse sort by time stamp. With this option. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. For each file found. See the options -c and -u for more information. By default. This option is like the -F option. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. and -r are turned off. . block/character special. ls treats each file argument as a directory. Consequently. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. when an argument is a symbolic link. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. ls does not display the owner name/ID field. By default. This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?).ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. This option tells ls to output a long listing. With this option turned on. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. while the -a option is turned on. For each file found. If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. With this option. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/). files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. ls sorts the listing by file name. By default. When used with the -t option. -t. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line.

a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. With the P_BSD variable set. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. or -x options). With the P_ATT variable set. the group name field is also included in long listings. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. ls ignores column settings less than 20. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. There are 25 options for this command. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. With the P_ATT variable set. If a long listing is not being produced. there are several option conflicts. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. With the P_ATT variable set. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. then with the P_BSD variable set. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. the default behavior is to output the group name field. If a long listing is being output. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. Instead. ls uses the default screen width of 80. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. With the P_BSD variable set. Inc. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. -C. EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory.

found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software. man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. Normally. man displays the output of the remote man command. Because of this. using the -h host option. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. If you do not specify this option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages. No data was returned from the remote host. This version of man does not. NSH 1 . thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. Inc. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host.

-s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value.] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file.. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). This is the default behavior. so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. Light mode. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. md5sum takes its input from stdin. the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value.. If you do not specify any files. AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . Inc. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). Do not output warning messages. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. If you specify a file on a remote host.

. If either directory does not exist. NSH 1 .. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. Second.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. An unknown option was given. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. With this option. Set the initial user ownership to user. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. By default. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777. where mode is an octal value. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. mkdir creates the missing directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . Otherwise a warning message appears. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. then this error message will appear. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. mkdir will create parent directories as required. Otherwise a warning message appears. If the mode contains non octal digits. (This may be altered by the value of current umask.

Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 .mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

NSH 1 . ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1). Unable to get a license to use the software. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. mkfifo was unable to create the special file. Inc. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message.. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name . CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create.. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic.

Unable to get a license to use the software. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. mknod was unable to create the special file. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. The first argument is the name of the special file. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. The minor number of the character/block special file. The major number of the character/block special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. As the second argument. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. If you create a character or block special file. As the second argument. the name of the special file you want to create. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. As the second argument. tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p).mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. or a block special file (b). a character special file (c). The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. tells mknod to create a character special file. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. tells mknod to create a block special file. The second argument specifies the type of special file. Inc. NSH 1 . The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file.

you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another.. Source file. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. It simply overwrites the file. An error occurred while trying to move a file. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible. mv checks to see if the target file already exists. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. The second examples moves all . See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target). If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. Inc. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. By default. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo. then mv overwrites the file. $ mv foo.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*.bar to foobar.. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . then the target must be a directory. First. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. then the target file must be a directory. With the -f option.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic.c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. then the target file must be a directory. mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found. Destination file or directory. NSH 1 . and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. Unable to get a license to use the software. Second. you can use it to rename files. OPTIONS -i With this option. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway. The target file is not a directory. mv does not display this prompt. An unknown option was given. if a target file already exists. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files.

mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. the files are actually copied. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). The target file could not be created. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. the files are actually copied. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). the -i option will override the -f option. NSH 2 . There was an error removing the source file. mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. There was an error deleting the source file. Inc. the -f option will override the -i option. the files are actually copied. After having copied the source file to the target file. the source file is removed. mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the files are actually copied. The target file could not be created. the source must be deleted. See cp for more details on copying directories. With the P_ATT variable set.

. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied.//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . see their respective documentation. Copy in parallel.. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. Otherwise. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync. destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents.. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 ..P. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s)... This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts . This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options.. unless you are using the -d option. then the <sources> must be absolute path names.. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. If you use this option. addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. Inc. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. These commands provide an alternate interface. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp.

Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts ... uncp(1).. SEE ALSO dsync(1)... Inc. EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation. cp(1). ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts .. Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts . Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. ncp. NSH 2 .ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. dsync.

Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed. Replace the # character with 1. Show only entries that match the given expression. The field must be one of the column headers listed above.Property of BladeLogic. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. addresses. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. Sort on the specified column. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. this data may not be available for all servers. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. ncpu displays the value as a number. addresses. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. Quit application. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . In addition. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.. Inc. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.P..P.2..4. See the -s option below. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Do not show a header on output. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies. -t NSH 1 . Reverse sort order. some systems (for example. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz.or 5.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string.3. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline. Refresh screen. This data is not available on all systems. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Therefore.. See the -f option below. Quit application. This option overrides the -t option.

Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Switch to statistics view. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). but does not mimic it exactly. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). Switch to disk info view. host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. When an expression is used to match a string. see the man page for blexpr. ndf(1). Switch to process info view. Switch to network info view.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. wildcards are supported. Inc. nstats(1) NSH 2 . and OR. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.Property of BladeLogic. Switch to memory info view. Switch to process summary view. including NOT. Switch to system info view. nps(1). nnet(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. AND. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nmem(1). For full details on expressions.

-c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. Only show entries which match the given expression. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf. See the -f option below. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. This option overrides the -t option. See the -s option below. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Inc. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.P.P. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . The field should be one of the column headers as described above. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.. Inc. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Do not show a header on output. addresses. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. Comparisons are made case neutral. addresses. Property of BladeLogic.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Behave top like.

CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.8. Inc. and OR. Inc.5. see the man page for blexpr. nnet(1).4. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nps(1). you can define an expression used to filter the output data. When an expression is used to match a string. AND. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Property of BladeLogic.e.. ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). The expression should be a single argument (i. including NOT. nover(1). wildcards are supported.7. nstats(1) NSH 2 . or 0 (10). enclose the expression in single quotes). Switch to disk info view. nmem(1). Switch to process info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.2.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to statistics view. For full details on expressions.6. Switch to process summary view.3. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to memory info view.9. Switch to system info view. Switch to network info view.

Do not output files if they are equal. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. When you specify the -s option. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. Traverse directories recursively. file permissions. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. The file exists but has different file ownerships. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. and date of latest modification. When you specify the -o option. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. -o. Inc. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . When you specify the -p option. Also compare file permissions. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. In its base use. Also compare file ownerships. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist.. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. The file exists but has different access permissions. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. By default. file ownerships. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. -t.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Also compare file sizes. then depending on which options you specified. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. the following codes may also appear. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. and -p options. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code.. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. the width is set to 80 characters. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. If the file exists.

These options (-1. assume the output device width to be width characters. ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus. it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. The default assumption is 80 characters. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns. SEE ALSO cp(1). where N is the number of directories being checked.. NSH 2 . each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. dsync(1). -2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. When you specify the -t option. When calculating the optimal output. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. By default..

any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. Finally.. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. Without this option. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh). -l Simulates a login session. If you specify this option. etc. Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). If the program is called explicitly. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. Inc. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh.profile) should be run. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. bash. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr.. which some interactive programs need (e. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". as determined by the current working directory. On UNIX agents. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. ksh. Once the remote program has been started. LOGNAME. For more information.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>.g. an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e.g. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands. In addition. . which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 . and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine. It sets the HOME. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry.

X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call. Do not transcode input/output.0. It must be a batch (output only) command. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command. is converted to the local code page. In the same way. a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. To deal with this nexec will now. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. This option is available on agents running 7. As such the output will be not very useful. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. Inc. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. by default. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. See examples below. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences. meaning no auto transcoding. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. automatically transcode data. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. By default.3 or later. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). Imagine for example. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. As such. As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. Release 7. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. before it is passed to the application.

In the first instance. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution. take the following steps. First. host% cat hosts NSH 3 .nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. For more information../share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. see the nsh man page.

not all commands are available on all hosts.com Hostname for rome is: rome. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected.bletch. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon. An option may not be universal to all platforms. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs. Inc.bletch. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands. NSH 4 .nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus. Similarly.bletch. SEE ALSO rsh(1).bletch. The best example of this is the ps command.com In the following example. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems.

SEE ALSO nexec(1). NSH 1 .nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. telnet(1). nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence. The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. and/or ssh. It performs a remote login to host. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. Inc. rlogin. The name of the remote host you want to log into. This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message.

-c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. addresses. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . addresses. Only show entries which match the given expression. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. Property of BladeLogic. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.P.P. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 . With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Comparisons are made case neutral. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. Inc. Do not show a header on output. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. See the -s option below. This option overrides the -t option. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Behave top like.. Inc.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. See the -f option below.

Inc.e. wildcards are supported.7.3. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to process summary view. Switch to network info view. For full details on expressions. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. you can define an expression used to filter output data. -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.2.8. When an expression is used to match a string. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. Inc. Switch to memory info view. Switch to statistics view. Property of BladeLogic.6. Switch to process info view.9.. nps(1).4. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. AND. nover(1). Switch to system info view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. ndf(1). The expression should be a single argument (i. see the man page for blexpr. and OR. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. enclose the expression in single quotes). or 0 (10). including NOT. nstats(1) NSH 2 . nnet(1).5. Switch to disk info view.

Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Show only entries that match the given expression. addresses. Refresh screen.. See the -s option below.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display.. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. Not all adapters have a MAC address. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. MAC Adapter MAC address.P. NAME Adapter name. Subnet mask for the adapter. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . In addition.2 and beyond. NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. See the -f option below. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Do not show a header on output. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Quit application. By default. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. or if you do not have the required permissions. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.P. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. This option overrides the -t option. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter.P.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. I. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. addresses. If there is no MAC address. the MAC address appears as all zeros. NSH 1 . the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Quit application. With this option. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Inc. address of the adapter. Reverse sort order.

or 7. nnet(1) Sort on the specified column.3.4. Inc. ndf(1) NSH 2 . but does not mimic it exactly. nover(1). CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. see the man page for blexpr. nmem(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Replace the # character with 1. nps(1).6. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nstats(1).5. For full details on expressions.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic.2. ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.

the standard output is appended to the file nohup. . the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. Otherwise.2 (“POSIX.out in the current directory. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file. If the standard output is a terminal. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored.out cannot be created in the current directory. . SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg . 1993 1 .NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked. Inc. If standard error is a terminal. it is directed to the same place as the standard output. BSD June 6.2”) compatible.

Windows systems. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 .nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. ARCH The system hardware architecture.P. Inc. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.P. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS. addresses. Comparisons are made case neutral. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. Inc. See the -s option below. Only show entries which match the given expression. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information. Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. Do not show a header on output. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. the kernel release for Linux. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. addresses. Property of BladeLogic.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.. and as not set for Solaris. This option overrides the -t option. Behave top like. -r -s field Sort in reverse order..g. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. the release level for AIX. See the -f option below. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.

Property of BladeLogic.2. and OR. Switch to network info view. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. nmem(1). Switch to process summary view. nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. including NOT. Switch to statistics view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. For full details on expressions.. you can define an expression used to filter output data.6.e.3. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to memory info view.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. or 0 (10). When an expression is used to match a string.4.8. Switch to process info view.21-4.7. nnet(1). Switch to system info view. AND. Switch to disk info view. Inc. The expression should be a single argument (i. nps(1). wildcards are supported. enclose the expression in single quotes).5. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. see the man page for blexpr. ndf(1).9. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems).4.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. nstats(1) NSH 2 . CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.

Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .P. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Quit application. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. See the -f option below. -t NSH 1 . addresses. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether.. Refresh screen. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data.. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether. This option overrides the -t option. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. Do not show a header on output. Reverse sort order. Quit application. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Show only entries that match the given expression. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.Property of BladeLogic.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. See the -s option below. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. Inc. addresses. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.

For full details on expressions. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. nnet(1). but does not mimic it exactly. Switch to statistics view. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.5. Switch to system info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 . When an expression is used to match a string. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. see the man page for blexpr. and OR. Switch to memory info view. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.2. Switch to process summary view.6. Define an expression to filter the output data. nmem(1). 7 or 8.3.Property of BladeLogic. Inc. AND. Switch to process info view. nps(1). Switch to network info view. Switch to disk info view. wildcards are supported. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.4. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. including NOT. Sort on the specified column. nover(1). Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Replace the # character with 1. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).

This option overrides the -t option.. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. With this option. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display.. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data.) The process ID. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. See the -s option below. Show only entries that match the given expression. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. The total amount of real memory that the process is using. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. -t NSH 1 . OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. (This column only appears in the -c output. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. Do not show a header on output. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Refresh screen. The parent process ID.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Inc. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. START The start time of the process. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. The process’ priority. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.

Inc.3.9. For example. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. ndf(1).6. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. When an expression is used to match a string. and OR. AND. Reverse sort order. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. Property of BladeLogic. Define an expression to filter the output data.7. nmem(1). nstats(1) NSH 2 . sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. Switch to network info view. Switch to process info view. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nover(1). see the man page for blexpr. ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic.8. Switch to disk info view. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. nnet(1). Switch to system info view. you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. For full details on expressions. wildcards are supported. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. but does not mimic it exactly. SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.5. including NOT. Switch to statistics view.2. or 0. Inc. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.4. Switch to memory info view. Inc. 0 indicates column 10. Switch to process summary view.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. Replace the # character with 1.

Property of BladeLogic.0.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree. such as C:. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. You can never access the root of a drive. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. If you do not. as the following example illustrates. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine. If you have set a root directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host. you should also specify a directory.assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. NSH 1 . The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh. SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -.EXE In Network Shell. nor can you access any other drives. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. When you cd to a new host. To access other drives on the computer. the \h sequence takes on a new value. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. Inc. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name.

the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. Native commands. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory./. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities.. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. to execute the native command./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges.Property of BladeLogic. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . enter the command with a fully qualified path. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 . When executing a command.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path.. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host. For example. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. Inc. In the following example. For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. the command returns the hostid of host2.

These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. This can be unset. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. for example. It should be a non-interactive program. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. There are a few limitations when using redirection. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. halt. but. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. If this field is not set. By entering a value of -. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 . in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. as described earlier. they can be set to use default values. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. Inc. create a soft link to the program nexec. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). First. To continue with the above example. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. For example: command_name . capturing both its standard output and standard error. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. To add a supported remote command using this method. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. If.Property of BladeLogic. you must perform two steps. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. First. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. In addition to regular DOS commands. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. and reboot. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted.

THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . When accessing relatively few remote hosts. Next. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead. the redirection type <>. is treated the same as the < redirection type. the shell closes all connections. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH. then a new dynamic network connection is created.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/. Other values may produce unexpected results. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts.. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. For example. If no arguments are given. calling the disconnect command is not required.nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. Inc. $ZDOTDIR/. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command..Property of BladeLogic. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts. For efficiency reasons. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above).nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/.

Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 .Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. 0.. NSH::close($fd). NSH::chmod (char *path. The following examples will help clarify their use. $fd = NSH::open ("bar". processes. NSH::chdir (". 100)."). int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. NSH::chmod ("bar". (W_OK) Test for write permission. If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). 100). NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . NSH::rmdir ("bar"). NSH::. Network Shell Perl Module 1 . 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission.. The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API..NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. use NSH. 0777). If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname. NSH::close($fd). NSH::unlink("file"). 0777). 0777). (R_OK) Test for read permission. then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. $buf. NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path. 0. and commands. $buf.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files. The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. Inc. $count = NSH::read ($fd. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". $count = NSH::read ($fd. SYNOPSIS use NSH. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. then the file on the current host is used. If no hostname is included in the argument. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n".

int size. NSH::fchown ($fd. NSH::creat (char *filename. while (($filename. NSH::close ($fd). 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". 100. 12). NSH::close ($fd). int uid. pwd = NSH::getcwd (). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. and group gid. 100.") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". print "PWD = $pwd". NSH::fgets (char *buffer. $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". NSH::write ($fd. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). and group gid. int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. NSH::fchdir($fd). 200). $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n". NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd. Network Shell Perl Module 2 . int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. int uid. NSH::close ($fd). Inc. } NSH::closedir ($fd). $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". NSH::chown ("foo". "Hello world\n". 200).

512. while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). NSH::ftruncate (int fd. int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. Inc. NSH::flock (int fd. int sig) Send a signal to a process. NSH::kill (int pid. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". Network Shell Perl Module 3 . Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. } NSH::close ($fd). In other words. NSH::getpriority (int which.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. process group or user. 100). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. NSH::kill (100. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). If sig is ommitted. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. and can have any of the following values ORed together. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. 9). Remove lock. then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. know what you are doing with the call. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. then a SIGTERM is sent. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH).

If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. long offset. then the file is opened for reading. 0777). The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. NSH::mknod (char *filename. mode is assumed to be 0755. the pointer is set to offset bytes. int flags = O_RDONLY. Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. NSH::mkdir ("foo. mode is assumed to be 0755. NSH::link ("file1". If mode is ommitted. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. Inc. If only a single argument is given. NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). Network Shell Perl Module 4 . NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). When creating a file. If none is given. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. int mode. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. As previously mentioned. If mode is ommitted. NSH::lseek ($fd. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("foo. 2. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). int maj. int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. 0777). the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. if the second (and third) argument are not given. $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). 0). NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. NSH::lseek (int fd. The second argument controls how the file is opened. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar").

Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. $buf. If mode is ommited. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". Inc. int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. Network Shell Perl Module 5 . } NSH::read (int fd. If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. 100)) { print $buf. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). NSH::closedir($fd). subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. NSH::popen (char *cmd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. char *buffer. it is assumed to be ’r’. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd).

$linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". prio is the new priority to be set. Inc. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. NSH::rewinddir ($fd). Network Shell Perl Module 6 . int who. NSH::rename ("foo". NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::rename (char *oldname. NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). $pos). ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::setpriority (int which. then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. } NSH::closedir($fd).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). process group or user. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". NSH::seekdir ($fd.

foreach $host ("//host1". fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. [3]). $release. long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. $version. 200). If either mtime or atime are not given. NSH::utime (char *filename. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. NSH::truncate (char *filename. The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. All three (lstat. $nodename. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . [4]). long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). In the Network Shell environment. %d\n". "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). ($sysname. int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. These types of symbolic links however. "//host2". the following command is generated and executed. [2]). The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. In essence. stat. NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. char *buffer. $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). then the current date of the local host is used. long mtime. NSH::truncate ("foobar".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. %d\n". will not work outside the Network Shell environment. %d\n". %d\n". char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). NSH::write (int fd. [1]).

[9]). [6]). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. %d\n". [8]). [10]). %d\n". [11]). NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . %d\n". @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). %d\n". %d\n". %d\n". [12]). Inc. %d\n". [7]).

OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes.. This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host.173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51... # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host.. . Inc. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB). use a file size KB large. (52. . -b When writing data to the remote host.. done. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. (See EXAMPLE. done. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes.012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3. If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. NSH 1 . done. then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly)... # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes . ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. To determine the optimal write buffer size. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes.. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. It does not test how fast it can receive data. From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux. . use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size.147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host.... . . each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. done... nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times. but sometimes this value may not be optimal. DESCRIPTION Depending on the network. perform a bulk write rather than a regular write. done.145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. . Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data. Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample. This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer.) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes).nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic..

NSH 2 . secure(1).nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1). cp(1). Inc.

. a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine. Inc.] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine. Inc.nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic.. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname . OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’.

<SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. This option overrides the -t option. Reverse sort order. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Sort on the specified column. See the -s option below. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. LOAD The system’s current load average.6. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Quit application. For Windows.P. Do not show a header on output.P. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. By default.5. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics. -t NSH 1 . Quit application. For UNIX. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.3. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. The current time on the system.. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Show only entries that match the given expression.. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used. see uptime (1). Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. With this option. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. See the -f option below.2. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. it shows a CPU usage percentage. or 7. Refresh screen. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. Replace the # character with 1. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.4. addresses. Inc. addresses. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .

03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. Switch to network info view.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. and OR. nps(1). nnet(1). wildcards are supported. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Switch to process info view.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nover(1) NSH 2 . Switch to disk info view. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. Switch to statistics view. blexpr(1).00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0. For full details on expressions. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to memory info view. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. AND. Inc. including NOT. ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). Switch to system info view. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. but does not mimic it exactly.00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. see the man page for blexpr. ndf(1). host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. nmem(1).

please read the individual man page for each command.. Inc. For more information.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers. nmem(1). nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host ....] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic. nstats(1)..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . SEE ALSO blexpr(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nps(1)...] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. nover(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf.. nmem. blquery(1). nps. nover. ndf(1) NSH 1 ..

Inc. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed.

gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with . do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present.gz nunzip --verbose foo. Instead. or . . Inc.tar. Inc.gz Suppress all warnings. --help file Display a help screen and quit.tgz. provided that the file has the correct header. gzip -c file1 > foo. 1 .GZ. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip. File or files to be compressed or decompressed. when config.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo.gz nunzip foo.gz. the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config. gzcat.tar. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. copy the time stamp from the compressed file. . This option is the default when decompressing. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed. For example. Verbose output.gz is uncompressed. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic. --no-name When decompressing. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic. --quiet --verbose Same as -v.TGZ. gunzip.

If you do not provide a sorting option. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. The resulting list contains only unique entries. Inc. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. only the -s option is considered. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. The strings are only grouped by tag. the string order is not changed. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order.txt. Sort the list in descending order.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. If tag fields are provided in the input list. Within each tag group. the tag field is optional. input lines are contained in a file called list. Remove duplicate entries. Sorting is alphabetical. $cat list.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . If you provide a tag field. In the syntax shown above.

Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list. Inc.txt europe order(1) NSH 2 .txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.

order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 3 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic.

If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. standard input is read one line at a time.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. unless otherwise specified by the -d option. for each instance of ‘-’. circularly. Berkeley and its contributors. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. i. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself.e.. The paste utility exits 0 on success. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.8 Last change: NSH 1 ... and writes the resulting lines to standard output. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . and >0 if an error occurs. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character. the standard input is used. Inc. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5. DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. The characters in list are used circularly.merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file .

[file . pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory.. pax copies the file operands to the destination directory. [-G group] . For a description of tar options... Write. When an extracted file is a directory. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation. [-o options] ...... [-U user] .... [-s replstr] . see the section below. When a file operand is also a directory. [-T [from_date] [.] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] . [pattern ..to_date]] .. For a list of supported archive formats.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar.. [-T [from_date] [. read.to_date]] .tar .. The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list. Inc..] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] . -w -r -w NSH 1 ... except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below).] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] .. [-U user] . pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input..read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files .. -r Read.... [-E limit] [-U user] . and copy. pax will read an archive file from standard input. access and modification times.... pax will read an archive file from standard input. The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering..] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read. [pattern . pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format.. Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands.. write. The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns. When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. The setting of ownership.. and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns. and supports a wide variety of different archive formats.. and will copy directory hierarchies. pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling). [-G group] . Copy. If you do not specify any file operands. and write a table of contents to standard output.. <none> List.to_date] [/[c][m]]] .. and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option.. [-G group] . If you do not specify any file operands..... [-G group] . [-s replstr] . The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted. [-p string] .....] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] . The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable.. [file . The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input. see the -x option.... Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax.to_date] [/[c][m]]] . [-U user] . pax operation is independent of the specific archive format. the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included... and list the members of an archive file.. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [. write. All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy. [-T [from_date] [.

If the directory operand does not exist. pax uses the archive’s existing format. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. If you do not supply a pattern operand. If you try to append to an archive. Inc. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. or if it is not of type directory. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. When a pattern matches a directory. pattern operands. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. respectively. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). If you do not specify a block size. pax selects all members of the archive. When required. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. and file operands. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. S_IRWXG. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . If you do not specify an archive format -x option. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. or archive members of type directory being extracted. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. or if it is not writable by the user. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. If you do not specify any file operands. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation.

Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. In general. This is intended to be used by root. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. m o p In the preceding list. (This option is the letter ell). Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. The file times are preserved by default. When pax matches members of type directory. The string consists of the specification characters a. the one(s) given last will take precedence. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. Otherwise. If this line is blank. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name.the user ID. For example. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. pax skips the file or archive member. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. Do not preserve file modification times. its modification time. Preserve everything -. file mode bits. Preserve the file mode bits. -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. By default. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. and p (described below). m. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. o. The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. e. and file modification time. pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. file modification times are still preserved. NSH 3 . If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. someone with all the appropriate privileges. By default. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. Do not overwrite existing files. its file mode and.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. In the copy mode ( -r -w). file access time. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. Inc. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. and you can specify multiple -p options. Preserve the user ID and group ID. if -p eme is specified. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. group ID. Link files. If this line consists of a single period.

old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). The trailing <newline>. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. terminating with the first successful substitution. with the default format being ustar. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). Otherwise. read or accessed them. Inc. During copy. The old binary cpio format. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. or subexpression matching. and copy). Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 . This format is not very portable. The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. The old string may also contain <newline> characters. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option.pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. During write. During a list operation. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. You can specify multiple -s expressions. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. write. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. for all the other operational modes ( read. is not buffered. During read. Therefore. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. and is written only after the file has been read or written. -x format Specify the output archive format. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name.

a numeric gid. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. Do not follow symbolic links. perform a physical file system traversal. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. file size. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. respectively. -G group Select a file based on its group name. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. uid. or when starting with a #. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. k. With a positive limit. This is the default mode. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. gid. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. Checking stops with the first match. The default limit is a small positive number of retries. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). pax detects the truncation and repairs it. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. The bytes limit can end with m. You can supply multiple -G options. link pathname length and the type of the file. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. Inc. -D This option is the same as the -u option. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. etc. 1024 (1K) or 512. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use.3. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). NSH 5 . -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. Only regular files. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). You can use a ’´ to escape the #. hard links. soft links. Instead.

the names of these selected files. mode. -n. mm. etc). The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. Time ranges are relative to the current time. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). group. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. If you supply only a from_date. If you specify neither. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). -Y. Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. If you supply only a to_date. for example. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. -T. and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). -n. -s. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. This option is the same as the -D option. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. If you specify both c and m. -v. the last time there was a change of owner. -u. -u. Each field must contain two digits. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). When extracting files during a read operation. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. -i. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. -T. -U. -G. yy. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c. Checking stops with the first match. the names of these selected files. a numeric uid. -D. and -Z) interact as follows. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 .to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive).ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. Checking stops with the first match. When archiving files during a write operation. -G. You can supply multiple -U options. -D. or when starting with a #. -D. -T. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. A time range is made up of six different fields. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). When pax is in the write or copy mode. dd. or copying files during a copy operation.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. Inc. -G. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. The minute field mm is required. You can supply multiple -T time ranges. -u. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. -U options. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. This option is the same as the -u option.

Stop after first error. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 . Append to the archive. Inc.pax. Do not follow symlinks. Do not preserve modification time. Follow command line symlinks only. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. along with the -n option. Extract data from archive. with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options. In this case the following options are supported. group ID. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use. Interactive file rename. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update.ˆ//*usr//*. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared..pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. access/modification times. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. file mode. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. NSH 7 . List contents of the tape. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . Do not pass over mount points in the file system.’ -f a. Preserve user ID. Verbose operation mode.pax reads the archive a. Follow symlinks. Append to the archive. Create an archive. The command: pax -r -s ’.

Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive. -Y. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. or cannot preserve the user ID. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. -D. -L. ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. pax will not create a second copy of the file. sv4crc. Berkeley and its contributors. pax does not copy the file. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. If. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. Inc. -T. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. Additionally.pax will extract all files from the archive a. -P. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status. -U. NSH 8 .2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. while doing a copy. -H.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. -E. 1 An error occurred. but continues processing. and the modification and access times may be wrong. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. -Z. -G. sv4cpio. The options -B. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. it exits with a non-zero exit status.pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . or file mode when the -p option is specified. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. the archive formats bcpio. group ID. tar. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes.

This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. /bin/ksh. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). can reside on any server. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. Inc. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. including remote servers. The packages you install. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts. You can specify multiple hostname/I. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. as well as any optional response or admin files. admin.P. etc. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. address of the host on which you want to install the package. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. such as /bin/sh. address arguments. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . If you do not use this option. It will first determine which packages you want to install. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility.P. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

With the P_ATT variable set. Inc.rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). NSH 2 . the -i option will override the -f option. the -f option will override the -i option.

For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). the agent defaults to port 4750. the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. When it hears a connection. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. the agent closes the connection. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. With this mechanism. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. the agent closes the connection. If it finds an entry in the database. If it finds an entry. either from a command line or from a script. It goes through the following steps: 1 . the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred. In this case. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. But first.If it does not find an entry there.Based on the client host. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). If necessary. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. 1 . If the handshake is valid. 4 . See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host.Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection. it uses the configured port number. it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. Next. the encryption type and encryption key or keys.Before going any further.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. The agent will use this information in further security related checks.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. 2 . it uses the configured port number. 2 . The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . among other things. Inc. 3 . Before the client exits. 3 . This information is found in the secure file and includes. If not. so that it can run in background mode. NSH 1 . the agent decrypts the data that the client sent.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. determine how the communication between the two should occur. the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). then verifies that it is a valid handshake. it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections.

which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). These are also known as the user overrides. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. Inc. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. and what permissions the client should have. ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1).conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . If the client is not allowed to have access. Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). 6 . Do not fork. NSH 2 . The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. Output some debug messages. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user.Once it has the initial handshake data.Once the daemon has all the relevant information. If the client is allowed to have access. then the daemon sets the final permissions. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. Output brief usage description. OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. it decides whether or not the client should have access. the daemon sets them. If there should be overrides. -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. secure (1). users (1).

Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. Normally. For this option to work. If the remote user is not set up this way. $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . you will not gain access to the remote server. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions.. Inc.. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. use the -p option. host1 $ NSH 1 . You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host.. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions. To do this.] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine.. Except when you are using the -p option (see below). you will not get access to the host. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server.. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell. just as if you had entered an incorrect password.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you are accessing multiple hosts. With the rsu command.. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. Password for root@host3: . the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with. The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. In other words. Those permissions govern your access to that host.

ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).local. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details. exports (1).rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command.. and/or exports file must exist. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password.) in the users. users. rscd(1) NSH 2 . Appropriate entries (rsu=. Inc..

Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . hostn] [-e command1 . -H header By default. For example. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names.. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed. The format of this file is one entry per line. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). -h host .. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 .. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command. -e cmd ... This option must be the last option.. Depending on what action you are currently performing. NSH 1 .. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header. runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed. Inc. which consists of a hostname and directory. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host. you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host.. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering.. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname. Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path. All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. hostn] [-e command1 . where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name..runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. After encountering the -h option. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine.. The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. which consists of a hostname and directory. To this end. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. This option specifies the command to execute.. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names.

-v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option. This can significantly speed things up. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). Inc. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. Output the effective command executed for each host. host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. This is implicit if the program name is runscript. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel. Output a brief explanation of the available options. In other words. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Execute a Network Shell script on each host. you may not want to do things in parallel.

the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported. If a name is given. . The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option.[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 . If it does not refer to an existing file.. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers. With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. See also -h -h host [host . when looking to run a script. Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 .[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group .] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on.. As such. file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task.[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction.e.. no OS name extension). -o file By default. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec). then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied.AIX . With this option one can override the staging directory. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. Inc.. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp.

scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic.[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH).HP-UX . . Inc. scriptutil(1) . NSH 2 . nexec (NSH). Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp.

−I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. The default is 130 characters. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. is invoked. Start editing file with right set of diffs. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. See the −o option for an explanation. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. BSD March 28. Start editing file with left set of diffs. Minimize diff size. the user is prompted for each set of differences. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. prompting at each set of differences. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. Quit sdiff. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. Skip identical lines. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. below. In this mode. Start editing file with both sets of diffs. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. Start editing an empty file. for details of which editor. See EDITOR and VISUAL. if any. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. Ignore trailing blank spaces. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. 2008 1 . Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files.

net〉. TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. 2008 2 . Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. vi(1). VISUAL takes precedence. diff3(1). SEE ALSO cmp(1). depending on the current column. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. The default is /tmp. the default is vi(1). CAVEATS Although undocumented. ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option. re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. diff(1). If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. though some require GNU diff. BSD March 28. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data.

then the software looks for a default entry. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below). it uses the default entry. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file.k. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. By storing passwords in the securecert file. or hostname. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> . When configuring default communication parameters for servers. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE. including encryption and authentication parameters. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. On the agent side. create a hostname entry in the secure file. SSL). Thus. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents. it uses the rscd entry. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients.a. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a. a resolvable host name. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure.. through an indirect deployment). If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). For an Application Server. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection. The order of entries in the secure file matters. which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. Inc.. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. When entering a value for hostname. use the special hostname default. If the agent does not find a match. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. use the special hostname rscd. If the client does not find a match. default. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 .509 certificates. you can provide a host’s IP address. By default.

it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. that user is SYSTEM. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. then the file secure. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. To accomplish this. -down hostname Move the entry down one. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. that user is typically root. On Windows. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. While this is an important security measure. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. the passwords are not revealed. If hostname is not provided. Inc. When issuing a secadmin command. If hostname is not provided. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. On UNIX-style systems. If no value is entered for file. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. See below for details. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. you are prompted to enter the hostname. you are prompted to enter the hostname. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. To accomplish this. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. If hostname is not provided. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. NSH 2 . With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. On Windows.cfg is used. that user is bladmin. you are prompted to enter the hostname. in a regular secure file. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). As mentioned above. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. On UNIX-style systems.

The default protocol is protocol 5. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. This option requires a certificate. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. No authorizations or certificates are required. If -u is a negative number. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes.pem. Inc. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. To compress data. -w size -z value Set compression level. The default value for -u is 1 minute.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. supported since release 5. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. If you are adding or modifying an entry. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. By default data is not compressed. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry.2. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. With the -u option. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. This option must be used with the -c option. NSH 3 . -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. with a higher number indicating better compression. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. set value to a number between 1 and 9. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below).

configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. If no hostname is given. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon).255. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type.255. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 .0 might look something like: @192. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.is the same as giving no redirection host. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask. Consequently. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. The password to the private key for a user’s X.10. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname.509 certificate. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host. The secadmin utility also provides the following options. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.168. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options. Setting hostname to . Inc.509 certificate. A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting.

255.255.224 255.168.000 255.100.255.255.193/26 @192.168.255.100. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.168.192 255.241/28 @192. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host.248 Property of BladeLogic.240 255. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192.100.secadmin(1) 255.128 255.168.168.255.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file.225/27 @192.255. NSH 5 . To delete the entry for host foo.168.129/25 @192.255.100.255.255. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol). enter the following command.100.100.255. Inc.0/24 @192. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).255.

The −n option suppresses this behavior. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . by default. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. The input is then written to the standard output. sed cyclically copies a line of input. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin. A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. 1993 1 . applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address. [address[.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. . The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. . Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. or the standard input if no files are specified. and deletes the pattern space. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. −n By default.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. . but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). copies the pattern space to the standard output.] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). sed starts looking again for the first address. into a pattern space.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. appending a newline. not including its terminating newline character. Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. Inc. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. Normally. . only that line is selected.

The ‘b’. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. ‘t’. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. precede it with a backslash. just the delimiter characters are specified. branch to the end of the script. one. or two addresses. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. To embed a newline in the text. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. or [2addr]. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. Inc. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. and at run-time. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands.. You can’t. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. For example. not compile-time. 2. The argument text consists of one or more lines. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace.. ‘y’. ‘w’. 1993 2 .e. [1addr]. as follows: { function function . The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. If the label is not specified. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. In addition.. ‘!’. representing zero. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. In a context address. For example. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. BSD December 30. Two of the functions take a function-list. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. ‘s’. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. however. i. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. Also. ‘r’. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. If a regular expression is empty.

With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. 1993 3 . Write the pattern space to standard output. Note that the current line number changes. [2addr]l (The letter ell. Long lines are folded.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space. If file cannot be read for any reason. Write the pattern space. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. text is written to the standard output. Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. up to the first newline character to the standard output. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. Inc. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first).

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. With the P_ATT variable set. which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. which can be used for grouping primitives. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. also have special meaning to the sh(1). and the directory /etc/security exists. Value of the expression is FALSE. Unable to get a license to use the software. An operand of a primitive was missing. test is an executable program. CAVEATS Parentheses. Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. Consequently you must escape or quote them. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory.test(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

where a time format is specified as the first argument. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. The month of the year. from 0 to 59. If “YY” is specified. is supported. . Change the modification time of the file. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. Attempt to force the update. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. “DD”. Inc.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. otherwise. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. from 0 to 23. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected. the value defaults to 0. If the file doesn’t exist. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. 1995 1 . The day of the month. from 1 to 12. The “MM”. BSD April 28.SS]] file [ . the values default to the current year. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. Change the access and modification times to the specified time. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. The minute of the hour. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). from 0 to 61. but “CC” is not. . from 1 to 31. The second of the minute. it is created with default permissions. a “CC” value of 20 is used. Do not create the file if it does not exist. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. the year is set in the 21st century. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. there are at least two arguments. When no −r or −t option is specified. The second two digits of the year. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. Otherwise. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. The hour of the day. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch.

BSD April 28. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1995 2 .2”) specification.

the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. In the second synopsis form. A backslash followed by 1. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. Inc. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. 1991 1 . \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. If string1 is longer than string2. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. In the first synopsis form. In the fourth synopsis form. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. In the third synopsis form. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. Shpink October 27.

1991 2 . see ctype(3) and related manual pages. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. English has no equivalence classes. inclusively. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. Inc. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. i. it is interpreted as an octal value. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. and >0 if an error occurs. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. one per line. If n is omitted or is zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. Otherwise.e. characters are entered in ascending order. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. otherwise. they are ordered after their encoded values. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. If n has a leading zero. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #.

This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. However. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. for example. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required. 1991 3 . Inc. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. Shpink October 27. additionally. Additionally. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’.

machine(1).2”). Print the operating system name. Print the patch level.2-1992 (“POSIX. BSD January 26.4 BSD. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. Print the operating system release. If no options are specified. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. Inc. The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified. Print the machine hardware name. Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). SEE ALSO hostname(1).UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1994 1 . Print the operating system version. Print the processor type in more detail.

When uncp finds files with the specified suffix. Inc. uncp looks for the suffix ˜. This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option. Do not actually make any changes. Output a message for each file being renamed.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. This option tells it to look for a different suffix.. it renames them (removes the suffix). The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). By default. The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. It does not rename any files. DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place. Set the suffix to suf. The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). NSH 1 . uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments.. Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . just delete the files. SEE ALSO cp(1). OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names. dsync(1). This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up.

SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. the second is used as the name of an output file. Character numbers are one based. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons.e. the first character is character one. followed by a single space. 2002 1 . i. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent.2”) compatible. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. BSD December 8. If specified in conjunction with the −f option. the first field is field one. Only output lines which have duplicates. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. i. Field numbers are one based.e.. so it may be necessary to sort the files first.UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. −u Only output lines which are unique. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. If additional arguments are specified on the command line.2 (“POSIX. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.

unlink always exits with 0. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. Normally. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. any user can run the unlink command.. without doing any type of error checking..old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. NSH 1 . $ unlink foo. NOTES By default. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. To restrict its use to the super user.bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. Unable to get a license to use the software. In other words. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). except that it does exactly what it is told to do.bar The second example removes all . Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file . you should use it only in exceptional cases. you should use the rm command.

but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. test. the suffix . Again. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. and an ending character. it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.Misc. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. just specify the . the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). In particular. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [.) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. . but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. For example.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). separated by spaces. . e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. commonly found on MS-DOS systems. If the file specification is a wildcard. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. .) If no matches are found. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive. [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. Without the –x option. test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. as with any other ZIP archive.zip] [file(s) . both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS.42) 1 . be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. Only the filename can be a wildcard.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory.] [–x xfile(s) . all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. see above. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. By default. or between the file(s) and the –x option. or extract files from a ZIP archive. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Inc. and if that also fails. ARGUMENTS file[. particularly under Unix and VMS. zip(1L). [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). [ c h ] . immediately after the zipfile specification. This option need not appear at the end of the command line. ranges are specified by a beginning character. . the path itself cannot. See –v in OPTIONS below. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. A companion program. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. . z i p is appended. a hyphen. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. but none in any subdirectories. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. . the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). creates ZIP archives.

extract files to pipe (stdout). In addition to the normal header with release date and version. test archive files. [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. just as they are stored (no conversions). The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. –v lists archive files verbosely..42) 2 . As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). and the compilation date. the compiler and version used. See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). If the first option on the command line is –Z. list archive files (short format). This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.e. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check. and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). In addition. [OS/2. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites. the –a option is allowed. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). Inc. a diagnostic screen is printed.Misc. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. i. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. By default unzip queries before overwriting. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. in order to support obsolescent hardware. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. This option performs the same function as the –f option. the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. compressed size. along with totals for all files specified.. freshen existing files. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. and the files are always extracted in binary format.zip’’) and is much faster. If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. Note that under many operating systems. The names. This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted. unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’). When no zipfile is specified (that is. update existing files and create new ones if needed. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. the target operating system for which it was compiled. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). ‘‘unzip –T \∗. an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below).g. uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that.

42) 3 . 512-byte record format.. converting line endings. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text. In the example above. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. In addition. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. [Unix only. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. (On Tandem. (For example. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. That is. [BeOS only] junk file attributes. –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment.g. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. junk paths. see above). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. it is replaced by the info from the extra field..) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. OS/2 HPFS. Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. [Unix only. The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist).g. and NT supports Unicode. [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. –a is enabled by default. just the file’s data. This is a shortcut for – – –a. Inc. [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. see the relevant options below). specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms. Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. Instead. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files. match filenames case-insensitively. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated.Misc. or similar). –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension.) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. the current one). convert text files. the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. regardless of the supposed file type. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change.

(obsolete.##’’ version numbers are stripped.. never overwrite existing files. in the format file. the extraction methods. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. etc. use the non-echoing. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. etc. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file.) may be stored as all-uppercase names. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. Also. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. however. skip extraction of the current file. however. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. on some systems. NT. etc. VMS. overwrite all files. [OS/2. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. At the end of a screenful of output. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. so use it with care. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. See –L above. (It is often used with –f. Unlike Unix more(1). regardless of the originating file system. If a file already exists. interactive prompt to enter passwords. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5. skip extraction of all existing files. (And where security is truly important. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. retain (VMS) file version numbers.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter). VMS files can be stored with a version number. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. which stores filenotes as comments. SF’’). in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines. overwrite existing files without prompting.ext. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. but this option allows them to be retained. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. conversion of unsupported characters. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. old MS-DOS FAT. This can be awkward. or rename the current file. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing.) Depending on the archiver. Inc. ‘‘EA DATA. Whenever possible.##.Misc. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS.42) 4 . unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user. This is a dangerous option.11.). which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. the Enter/Return key. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. By default the ‘‘. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.g.

UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default. –C.0 to 5. but it is probably most useful with the –a. This can be done with any option. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them.Misc. but under Unix. –o. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. –L. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. make it quieter. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent).] [MS-DOS. Inc. OS/2. During extraction. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). –q. In most cases this will require special system privileges. to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. only reporting errors. To cancel both quiet flags. or security ACLs under Windows NT. so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.0. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. in effect. considered to be just like any other command-line options. For instance. Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness.g. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. Unix. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. For compatibility with zip(1L). –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. make it match names case-insensitively. however. For example. UNZIP takes precedence. acting on the q option. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. for example. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. By default. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file.0).42) 5 . It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. OS/2. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. This may seem awkward or confusing. a diskette). NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. and the second is a minus sign. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. As suggested by the examples above.. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. volume labels are ignored. or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix. To override an environment option.

50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. (In fact.g. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled. On EBCDIC systems. if a zipfile member is encrypted. as noted above. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. and our source archives do now include full crypt code. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. since spring 2000.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line.g.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. See the description of –f above for details. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. followed by the alternate one (e.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. OEM code page) to test passwords. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US. However. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header. but due to United States export restrictions. Windows PKZIP 2.. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. Latin-1).x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else. If the first password fails the header check on some file. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. that’s not quite true.Misc. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. As noted above.42) 6 . US export restrictions have been liberated. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options. OS/2 and Win3.. To check a version for crypt support. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip will prompt for another password. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. If a password is not known.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. Inc.04g uses the OEM code page. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well. DOS PKZIP 2. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted. UnZip 5.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. but at a cost in security. if both of these fail. entering a null password (that is. and so on until all files are extracted. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters. The correct password will always check out against the header.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.zip.

Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory. whether decryption support was compiled in. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory.c. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗.1 or later contain no timezone information.) To extract to standard output all members of letters. ∗.C. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer.zip (Note that the ‘‘. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗..zip’’ is generally not necessary. the compiler with which unzip was compiled. and any makefile.zip or unzip –l––q file. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗.42) 7 . Inc. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files.h. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may. etc.zip whose names end in .zip "∗. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2.c and ∗. being a lazy sort.zip or unzip –l–q file. as in the source examples below. both ∗.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards. ∗. something that is worth making a habit of doing.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. as in Unix. double quotes could have been used instead. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’).g. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source. regardless of case (e.zip "∗. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive.tex.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on).dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1. in fact.zip "∗.f.Misc.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source. Makefile.: unzip –v In the last five examples.

Processing probably failed immediately. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. invalid options were specified on the command line. scarier-looking things.Misc. however. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. In addition. the disk is (or was) full during extraction. 9-11 and 80-82. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well. except under VMS: 0 1 normal. no matching files were found. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. (If even one file is successfully processed. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. no errors or warnings detected. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. Inc. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s). where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk. 50. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted). and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. one or more warning errors were encountered. but processing completed successfully anyway. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. 51).zip. the exit status is 1. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. except in conjunction with zip. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors.’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.42) 8 .

zipcloak(1L). Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. Hunter Goatley (VMS). unzip’s query only allows skipping.org/pub/infozip/ . NT. Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS). Onno van der Linden (Zip). unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes). not always reproducible). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. because directories only have a creation time associated with them. Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. Inc. Mark Adler (decompression. older versions of unzip may hang the system. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Paul Kienitz (Amiga.42) 9 . VMS. as noted above.g. The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. Retry. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option.. the old version is not overwritten or deleted.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. In fact. [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette.dir syntax). Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). zip(1L). Dates. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version. unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Windows 95. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version. Under DEC Ultrix. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). SEE ALSO funzip(1L). fUnZip). The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H. Harald Denker (Atari. Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. Smith. This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile. This is a limitation of the operating system. then overwrite just the directory entries (e. Atari). unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. Windows 95. zipnote(1L). overwriting or renaming. only the [. NT). general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). Johnny Lee (MS-DOS. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. Windows DLLs). nor are hard-linked files relinked. Mike White (Windows GUI. MVS). and David P. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. requiring a reboot. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). Fail?’’ message. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. Jean-loup Gailly (compression). QNX. NT). MS-DOS. Chris Herborth (BeOS. In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. Windows 95). times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.. this may not be an issue anymore. In addition.g. Amiga). zipinfo(1L). directories and symbolic (soft) links.info-zip. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. zipgrep(1L). John Bush (Solaris. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. This problem appears to be fixed. shared code.info-zip. AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip).Misc. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’).

0 v2.31 v5.42) 10 .12 v5.1 v4.2 v5.4 v5. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5.11 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.1 v5. Smith Samuel H.1 v4.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.3 v5. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.41 v5. Inc. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v3. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.x v3. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v2.Misc. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1.32 v5.0 v5.0 v4. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.01 v5.

Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. a hyphen. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. and an ending character. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. [ c h ] . but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. .x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. ranges are specified by a beginning character. however. ‘‘f o o s f x ∗. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. Despite this. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. particularly under Unix and VMS. Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. In particular. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. Among these are the usage (or help) screen. . and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. Inc. For example. . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. .]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. . the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets.) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. [–x xfile(s) . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. Without the –x option. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. for example. unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce.42) 1 . but none in any subdirectories. By default. . the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile.Misc. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v).

–n (never overwrite). –C (match names case-insenstively).zip letters. The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. –q (operate quietly). that only adds to the size of the archive. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions. See unzip(1L) for details. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive.) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction).) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters. –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. Alternatively.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS. Amiga]).zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. Once again. since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS.zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters. –o (overwrite without prompting). Inc. that is. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS.letters.) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).zip letters.exe zip -A letters. –v and –Z) have been removed. EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. See unzip(1L) for details. OS/2. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment. OS/2. –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase). See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options.exe+letters. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters. All normal listing options (–l.Misc. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info).exe. but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files).exe (The VMS append command may also be used. The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen). ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does.exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.42) 2 . NT.exe" zip -A letters. note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support.

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info.g. however (e. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. (For technically oriented users. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options. For some architectures there is limited portability. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). MakeSFX.42) 3 .txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems. are also known to prepend junk. listing functions and extraction to other directories. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name. but other compilers may not).’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS. but the command to do so then becomes. e. As noted above.Misc. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly.txt To extract everything except the ∗. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. This is not necessary for simple extraction. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one.g. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well. MacOS. as noted above).. notably MacBinary. Atari TOS. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). Inc. however.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. etc. in order to create working selfextracting archives. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above). only stored and deflated files are supported.txt files: letters -x ∗. simple concatenation does not work. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk. ‘‘can’t find myself. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS.. Also. see the corresponding man page. or else a full or relative path must be given. and therefore neither are the resulting archives. Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately.

Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L).42) 4 . Inc. zipinfo(1L). See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors.Misc.info-zip. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.org/pub/infozip/ . zipgrep(1L).info-zip. zipcloak(1L). unzip(1L). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. zip(1L). zipnote(1L).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX. or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors.

6 bits per character. followed by encoded characters. tar cf . followed by a newline. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines. Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). of course. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents. Inc.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file . The character count is a single printing character. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. NSH 1 . uudecode . the file ‘‘src_tree. compresses it. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. and represents an integer. look like a header. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes. the standard input) into the original form.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline)..uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default. This line consists of one ASCII space.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. uuencodes it and mails it to a user. A space separates the three items in the header line. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. These consist of a character count.. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. and a trailer line. The body consists of a number of lines. followed by a number of body lines. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space). When uudecode is run on the target system. If the size is not a multiple of 3. Lines preceding a header must not. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree. this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. and a string which names the remote file.tar.tar.

uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. compress(1) NSH 2 . uudecode (1). Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1).

SEE ALSO agentinfo(1).5.0.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .version(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server. BladeLogic Network Shell 4. NSH 1 .0.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Inc.5. ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .

It’s probably enough to get you going. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . as if the command name was vi. vi. if no files are specified.) Start editing in read-only mode. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. however. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. Recover the specified files. read the section after the options description. The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. . ex will read commands from it regardless. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off. if standard input is not a terminal. nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. In the vi interface. the session will be a batch mode session. For the rest of this manual page. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. Prompts. list the files that could be recovered.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1996 1 . applicable only to ex edit sessions. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. . as if the command name was view. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). exactly as if the −s option had been specified. In the ex interface. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. Run with the secure edit option set. See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. Start editing in ex mode. Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi.2 interface for the historic “-” argument. Start editing in vi mode. entitled FAST STARTUP. . it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. . Enter batch mode. This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors. . This is the POSIX 1003. Inc. or. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment. . or the readonly option was set. BSD October 10. and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. This is the POSIX 1003. ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. and no startup files or environment variables are read. disallowing all access to external programs. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. as if the command name were ex.

Move the cursor down one line. after the cursor. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. Insert new text. Inc. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. There are commands that switch you into input mode. too. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed. i. displaying part of the file on each screen line. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. e. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. except for the last line of the screen.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Move the cursor right one character. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. i. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. and move the cursor to its first character. To start editing a file. vi is a screen editor.g.e. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. and start entering text. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. Append new text. and for vi to give information to you. 1996 2 . Generally. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. and start entering text. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. before the cursor. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. O or o commands. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. It will also display error messages. Move the cursor up one line. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in.

and long lines can take up more than a single screen line. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. Delete the character the cursor is on.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. Delete the line the cursor is on. vi will refuse to quit). Copy the line the cursor is on. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. In each entry below. if possible. 1996 3 . discarding any modifications that you may have made. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. leaving the current line and column as is. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. but not saved your changes. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. Quit. If count is not given.e. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. i. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. Inc. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. without changing the current column. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. the number is decremented. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack. Inc. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. BSD October 10. leaving the current line and column as is. If count is not given. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. if possible. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. the number is incremented. % Move to the matching character. 1996 4 . [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines.

[count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. BSD October 10. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. 1996 5 . [count] ) Move forward count sentences. If a count argument is given. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. count times. [count] . the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. [count] . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. If offset is specified. respectively. [count] . Inc. If buffer is specified.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. [count] ( Back up count sentences. Reverse find character count times. Repeat the last character find count times. 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [count] A Enter input mode. appending the text after the end of the line. Execute an ex command. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. @ buffer Execute a named buffer.

Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. count times. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. If buffer is specified. BSD October 10. 1996 6 . [count] G Move to line count.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. or the default buffer if none is specified. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. through the current line for the character after the specified character. If a count argument is given. [count] I Enter input mode. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. If a count argument is given. [count] O Enter input mode. replacing the characters in the current line. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. [count] R Enter input mode. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. Inc. If buffer is specified. If a count argument is given. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. If buffer is specified. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] J Join lines. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. appending text in a new line above the current line. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer.

If a count argument is given. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. [count] a Enter input mode. BSD October 10. If a count argument is given. If a count argument is given. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] w Move forward count words. appending text in a new line under the current line. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. [count] o Enter input mode. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. appending the text after the cursor. to the first non-blank character. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. Inc. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. count times. 1996 7 . u Undo the last change made to the file. [count] b Move backwards count words. [count] i Enter input mode. count times.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. inserting the text before the cursor. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉.

〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. If count1 is given. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. Otherwise. BSD October 10. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. and reset the autoindent level. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). If count2 is specified. 2 screens before ) . place the line count1 at the top of the screen. limit the screen size to count2 lines. [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. If column is omitted. Otherwise. Inc. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set.e. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. move to the start of the current line. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. display the screen after the current screen. 1996 8 . . display the screen before the current screen.

〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. " A comment.] [count] [flags] Shift lines right.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. . or filter lines through a shell command. In each entry below. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. . BSD October 10. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. display the line number of the last line in the file. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. If line is not specified. and return to command mode. returning to command mode. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. [range] <[< . . [range] >[> . @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer. Inc. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. 1996 9 . The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. each preceded with its line number. The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. .

chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. screens or tags. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line. Cscope connections. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. 1996 10 . [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. Foreground the specified screen. BSD October 10. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. Inc. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. he[lp] Display a help message. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. Background the current screen. vi only. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers.

] [all] Display or set editor options. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list. q[uit][!] End the editing session. mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations.] Edit the next file from the argument list. . [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. [Nn][ext][!] [file . sh[ell] Run a shell program. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. editor options and maps to the specified file.] [option? . res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved... Grow or shrink the current screen. .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. se[t] [option[=[value]] . 1996 11 . [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. su[spend][!] BSD October 10. . pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. .] [nooption . [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). . [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. Inc. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file.

[range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. Enter vi. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. BSD October 10. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. clearing the stack. their abbreviations and their default values. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. 1996 12 . Delete an abbreviation. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. This section describes the options. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. writing the file if it has been modified. Edit a new file. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor.

altwerase [off ] vi only.e. bf [off ] Discard control characters. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. exrc. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. columns. autowrite. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. they are either on or off. i. C and C++ language files. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. autoindent. Display the current line automatically. BSD October 10. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. Inc. beautify. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . and do not have an associated value. 1996 13 . Announce error messages with a bell. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. Skip leading comments in shell. errorbells. the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. unless otherwise specified.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. edcompatible. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. ap [on] ex only. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. eb [off ] ex only. directory. Most of the options are boolean. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. comment [off ] vi only. autoprint.

1996 14 . iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. lisp [off ] vi only. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. Inc. This option will never be implemented.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. instead of the default hexadecimal. matchtime [7] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. Set the number of lines in the screen. This option currently has no effect. BSD October 10. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. ignorecase. This option is not yet implemented. modelines. lines. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. Do left-right scrolling. number. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. leftright [off ] vi only. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. li [24] vi only. read or written. hardtabs. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users.

Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. sm [off ] vi only. prompt [on] ex only. If this option is not set. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. readonly. redraw. shiftwidth. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. opt [on] vi only. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. Display a command prompt. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. showmatch. sh [environment variable SHELL. sections. This option is not yet implemented. scroll. shell. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. re [off ] vi only. ruler [off ] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. BSD October 10. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. the open and visual commands are disallowed. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. optimize. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. 1996 15 . sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. Inc. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands.

tabstop. warn [on] ex only. smd [off ] vi only. This option is not yet implemented. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. tags. Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. Inc. before a ! command. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. term. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. ttytype. w1200 [no default ] vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. verbose [off ] vi only. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. timeout. w9600 [no default ] vi only. This option will never be implemented. slowopen. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. ttywerase [off ] vi only. 1996 16 . wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. window. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. sidescroll [16] vi only. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. BSD October 10. Display an error message for every error. w300 [no default ] vi only. This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. taglength. Select an alternate erase algorithm. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. It has no effect in this implementation. w.

ex/vi enters the value into the environment. the wrapmargin value is used. FILES BSD October 10. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. The user’s terminal type. If interrupted during text input.exrc files. wrapmargin. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. When an interrupt occurs. SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. The user’s home directory. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). ex/vi enters the value into the environment. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. The default is the type “unknown”. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. The number of rows on the screen. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. the wrapmargin value is used. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set.nexrc and $HOME/. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. wm [0] vi only. Inc. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. wrapscan. Break lines automatically. Break lines automatically. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. writeany. 1996 17 . wl [0] vi only. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered.

exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi.vi/vi. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi. HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. The default recovery file directory. "Ex Reference Manual". /usr/share/doc/usd/11. Temporary file directory. This document is the final reference for the ex editor.4 BSD. re_format(7) The default user shell. First choice for user’s home directory startup file. quoting.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.edit/.viref/.ex/.2”).summary.vi/. System-wide vi startup file. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors. STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003. 1996 18 . and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code. BSD October 10. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file. The "Vi Quick Reference" card. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. input.nexrc .nexrc $HOME/. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. The files autowrite. Second choice for local directory startup file. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor.recover $HOME/.2 (“POSIX.exrc . That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places. "Ex: A Tutorial".exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1). Inc.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual". First choice for local directory startup file. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". there are changes to be made on both sides.

vshview. The vsh. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O. the vsh log file viewer. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. Log all terminal output. which is a shell of /bin/sh. If you do not specify a shell. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val.<field=val[:val]>. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format. may not properly understand the result. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. vsh itself does not take any arguments. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. If you specify <nsh>. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed.]>[. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it..conf in the NSH installation directory. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead...conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry. vsh will automatically terminate the session. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes. All of the above. Instead.. Inc.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can specify multiple log files. an autologout of NSH 1 .conf file controls the behavior of vsh. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output. This file is located in share/vsh. You can use NSH format to name the log files. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout). You should create one log file per session.conf file.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file.CONF The vsh.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. You can configure the vsh.conf VSH.

which are expanded at run time. range 0 to 6. %A The full weekday name. %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). %u Current user name. NSH 2 .vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. Inc. Sunday being 0.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23). %B The full month name. The following macros are supported. %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). %% A literal ‘%’ character. %h Current host name. you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. %Y The year as a decimal number including the century. To do this. log file names should be unique for each vsh session. %b The abbreviated month name. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99). %w The day of the week as a decimal. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. %a The abbreviated weekday name. ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1).

Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 .) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. only one minute granularity is available. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). you need to use the vshview utility. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). logouttime. Instead. Output only those entries that relate to user. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. (Note that when using this option.. just output a summary of vsh sessions. shows a summary of login and logout activity. Do not show any blank lines.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. To view the these log files. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. (Note that when using this option. Output only those entries that happened on host. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. login. Inc. In either case. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. Therefore. logout. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input.. If a given file is a directory. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. Show terminal (stdout) output. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. Define a search expression (see below). logintime. There are two basic modes to vshview. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. Can be used with -1 and -2. or pid. Can be used with -0 and -2.) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. host. Output only those entries that happened before this date. shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional.

NSH 2 . Inc. These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | .} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31). These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. The second type are 8 bit characters.| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + . ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1). Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence.

Inc. Place totals at the end.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. Height of tree to examine.0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display. Provide a visual display. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case). vtree recursively descends into it. EXAMPLE In this example. Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. Show the current version. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Provide a quick display with no counts. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> .svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . Count nodes. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system.

NSH 2 . Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef." written by David S. Inc.

c 339 917 6051 file3. and characters of several source files.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. Count the number of lines in the file.c 449 1334 8491 file2. If you do not specify any files. words. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings. Count the number of words in the file. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. wc counts lines. wc uses the standard input. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. OPTIONS By default. words..c 347 945 6227 file1. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers. the number of words. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. If you specify more than one file. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. If you do not want counts for all of these things. wc will also output a total for all files. Unable to get a license to use the software. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file .. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. You specified an unknown option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. the number of characters. The second example counts lines. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . words. and characters. Inc. With the P_ATT variable set. One of the files to be counted was not accessible.

zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name.. The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive. this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 . if foo.Misc. in which case it will write the zip file to standard output.3) 1 .zip and add foo/file3 to foo. [ c h ] " . unpacks zip archives. Under UNIX. for archiving files. in which case it will read the file from standard input. protection. zipnote. MSDOS. When given the name of an existing zip archive. time of last modification. You must use PKUNZIP 2. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input.r . . to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d . If the file list is specified as –@. . and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3. and foo/file3. date. zipcloak.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names. . zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. VMS. A companion program (unzip(1L)). The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP.  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Amiga and Acorn RISC OS.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. Note that PKUNZIP 1. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line. zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed. For example: t a r c f .04.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it). allowing the output to be piped to another program. allowing zip to take input from another program. Atari and Macintosh. OS/2. For a brief help on zip and unzip. Minix. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. with foo/file2 unchanged from before. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. Windows NT. After this. zip version 2. For example: z i p .zip. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. then: z i p .zip contains foo/file1. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2. For example. path..04g or unzip 5.n a me " ∗. foo/file2. It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems).3. and check information to verify file integrity). along with information about the files (name. foo.04 or zip 2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. Inc.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory.zip to the current directory when done. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data.zip is added.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk. compressing standard input to standard output.o (in any path). If the name already contains an extension other than . or just return for no comment.. [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp.. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. updating) are done first.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. For example.3) 2 . | zip . tar cf . Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. File operations (adding. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. Inc. and all of the files that end with . OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format. zip acts as a filter.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged. For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. the extension .Misc. and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package.. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive. –c Add one-line comments for each file. copying over stuff. If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. Adjust self-extracting executable archive. so that zip can see the asterisks. Enter the comment followed by return. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. At present. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error.

c which will include only the files that end in . since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. so try this option first. If the restoration fails. For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. the archive might become corrupted. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. as in: zip -r foo . The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . Resource-forks will be ignored at all. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. -i \∗. Under MSDOS. for example if it has only been truncated. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –F Fix the zip archive. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. if standard error is not a tty. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. [OS/2] Use the . the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. -u and -o options to work correctly. If this operation fails. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). Such files cannot be recovered. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive.c in the current directory and its subdirectories.3) 3 .Misc. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. instead of creating a new one. zip will exit with an error). Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing. It is not guaranteed to work.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. After the repair.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. Inc.

so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. For example: zip -rn . zip will not consider Image files (eg. zip will store the full path (relative to the current path). store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX).lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files.zip. if you have SparkFS loaded. Move the specified files into the zip archive. but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files.zip:. The complete path including volume will be stored.zip. and do not store directory names. .Misc. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path). for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. actually.tiff. -i@include. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.g. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons. Inc.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. Display the zip license. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not). Also possible: zip -r foo . to undo the effect of zip -l. By default the relative path will be stored. If the input files already contain CR LF. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. This is useful for conserving disk space. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.tiff:. but will store any files that end in .snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods). This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file. By default. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF.Z. this option adds an extra CR.lst. When used. For example.Z:. This option should not be used on binary files. Strip any prepended data (e. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS. Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. or . Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded.gif:. This option should not be used on binary files. Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error.gif.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo.3) 4 . a SFX stub) from the archive. the directory is also removed. By default. zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. . .

dd is the day of the month (1-31). Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive.arj.Misc. For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. and yyyy is the year.∗". –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date. including files with names starting with ".3) 5 . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism.c –S [MSDOS. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. –N [Amiga.zip. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n .arc:. In this case. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. CFS files and PackDir files).gif:. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. since that matches ". Inc.c’ In this case. all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo. If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. and yyyy is the year." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended).. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.". Such files are stored directly in the output archive. You should not use –r with the name ". where mm is the month (0-12). where mm is the month (0-12). –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory. By default.Z:. you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo.lzh:. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). If -c is used also.zip. use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension. to the zip archive infamy. which are ignored otherwise. –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date.zip. dd is the day of the month (1-31).zip:. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.zoo:.zip.zip" To attempt compression on all files.e. This can be used without any other operations. Archives. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) . For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991. for example: zip -R foo ’∗. WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. OS/2. if desired. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. all the files matching ∗. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.

lst. or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems. Inc. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. Then. OS/2. version. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. uid/gid and file times on Unix). If the check fails. OS version.Misc. The default compression level is –6. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.zip while excluding all the files that end in . (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). and D Z VAX/VMS). and stdout is not redirected to a file. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. ignores the suffix list). The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.o which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. In addition to the help screen header with program name. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. to the zip archive infamy. when applied to real operations. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. Normally. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip into itself when you do this). –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. and release date. Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory.lst which will include the contents of foo in foo. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2.3) 6 . When –v is the only command line argument. Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info. Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive. including multiple versions of files.o.zip. a diagnostic screen is printed. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. ∧ on MSDOS. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files).

unless that archive name given contains a dot already. foo. [MSDOS. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo. If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option.zip. The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. To zip up an entire directory. as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. Take the list of input files from standard input. the last created archive is deleted. Inc. in compressed form (the . PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. without recording the directory name. files starting with ". Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.Misc.3) 7 .zip." are not included. [0–9]). You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. If foo contains the subdirectories tom. use the drive name as first file name. The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space.zip suffix is added automatically. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. and harry.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it. making room for the next zip command to function. OS/2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Only one filename per line. In this case. and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. and the next two add to it. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. dick. to include these as well: zip stuff . containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. At the completion of each zip command.

a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.o". using the pattern matching characters described above. If it finds it. or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes (""). no errors or warnings detected. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. or –d). ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. it first looks for the name in the file system.3) 8 . –f. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). –u. unexpected end of zip file. ?∗[]). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or.e. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. shar(1L). zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). In general. on the list of files to be operated on. gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do. If it does not find it. it then adds it to the list of files to do. unless this name matches one given with the –x option. In general. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. if present. Inc. and so patterns like \∗. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options.o match names that end in ". Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add.Misc. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. For each match. or does not match any name given with the –i option. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. Processing probably failed immediately. unzip(1L). by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. tar(1). The pattern matching includes the path. no matter what the path prefix is.

the machine and operating system in use. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR. and as much additional information as possible. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format.∗. you do not have to care about this problem. On OS/2. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other.ZIP filename extension. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. Otherwise OS/2 1. Jean-loup Gailly. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. 6. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Under VMS. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.Pas program.1 or PKZIP 1. Onno van der Linden. Igor Mandrichenko. In both cases.edu. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. zip cannot match some names.3 and 2. 13.3 must not be updated by zip 1. Under VMS. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign. compression format. and for accepting minor changes to the file format. and that this copyright notice is retained. LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. zip files produced by zip 2. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included.3. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. Byrne for his Shrink. copy. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. Under OS/2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. that it is not sold for profit. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. Kai Uwe Rommel. 18. and . Wales. 7. For bug reports. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. However. P. Use zip 1. scarier-looking things.Misc. 9. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). Richard B. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ). When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. which inspired this project.10.10. BUGS zip 2.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file.wku. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ).3) 9 . type "set file type block" on the Vax. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. Inc.10. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. 16. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. 2 (error) for the zip values 3. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names.

P.Misc. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. Inc. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. C. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format.3) 10 . for getting us into this mess in the first place. Rodgers. and most importantly. Rich Wales.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. David Kirschbaum. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use. to Keith Petersen.

zip(1L).Misc.z i p . zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function. . zipinfo(1L). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 . i n f o . Its output is identical to that of egrep(1).z i p.] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. . zipnote(1L). i nf o. . funzip(1L). o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[. unzip(1L). AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . . SEE ALSO egrep(1).] [–x xfile(s) . zipcloak(1L).zip] [file(s) . ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. see below.zip] [file(s) . except that the compression factor.zip] [file(s) . a hyphen. but allow headers (–h). list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. This option excludes all others. as well. list zipfile information in verbose. list header line.32) 1 . Such information includes file access permissions. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. . Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. version and operating system or file system of compressing program. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. headers. . This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio. . ranges are specified by a beginning character. and an ending character. multi-page format. . expressed as a percentage. see above. list filenames only. a link to it). If the file specification is a wildcard. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. however.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. encryption status. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. one per line. Identical to the –s output.) If no matches are found.Misc. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. . particularly under Unix and VMS. z i p is appended. the path itself cannot. Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. the suffix . Only the filename can be a wildcard. on some systems. The archive name. ARGUMENTS file[. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. is also listed. This is the default behavior.] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. Inc. type of compression.] [–x xfile(s) . . one per line. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. just specify the . . list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. . Again. . See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly.] [–x xfile(s) . each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. and if that also fails. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. and the like. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output.

0 hpf 1. if there is an extended local header but no extra field.32) 2 . they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). . The number of files listed. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. which is presumably the case here.Misc. on the other hand. Inc.btm files are assumed to be so).e. Unlike Unix more(1). zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format.cmd and .R.. At the end of a screenful of output.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. The fifth field consists of two characters.9 unx 2802 t. is not encrypted. The second character may also take on four values. The case of the filename is respected.R 0. and their overall compression factor is printed. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file. ‘X’. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes.exe. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. but if the file is encrypted. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. ‘l’. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. respectively. . list totals for files listed or for all files. . Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). The default date format is a more standard. If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. (2) is readable (always true).hhmmss). Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS). and if both exist. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’.9 of zip. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary. ‘x’. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. The example below. the values for the entire archive are given. OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. on some systems. These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. Since it comes from Unix. SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip. Also. if only the totals line is being printed. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed.1 fat 1. (3) is writable. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. or. either of which may take on several values. (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. the Enter/Return key.TXT. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. If neither exists.hpfs 4096 b.bat.macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). their uncompressed and compressed total sizes.com.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. and its name. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is). and Macintosh. that is also displayed as part of the filename. if the reverse. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size. MS-DOS.

the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second. tokn.def 17:51 zipinfo. however. i8:3. defN.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. instead: -rw-rws--1. Finally.) Nevertheless. In brief. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed. and defS. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. etc.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms.0 hpf 98 b. imploding. 13386 bytes uncompressed.rw. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. and deflating.rw. re:1. 1.. and the total number of files.i8:3 26-Jun-92 . and defX. reducing. normal. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1. manner.zip 5453 bytes 5 files . the trailer gives the number of files listed. VMS filesystem info. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info.. their total uncompressed size.134804 perms. 1.5 unx 2802 t.0% The header line gives the name of the archive.. 1.rw. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. its total size. defF.Misc. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive. Macintosh resource forks. shrk. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip. and explicit options given by the user. shrinking.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . (Try not to laugh..81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory.0 hpf 8753 b. and so on. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile.i4:3 26-Jun-92 .rw.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. re:2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). etc. and four levels of deflating (superfast. the header and trailer lines are not listed. Inc. tokenizing (never publicly released). whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage. OS/2 extended attributes.. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2.os2 15:29 os2unzip. and (7) is a system file.rw. If. if any. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes.. which can override or add to the defaults. both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions.2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). environment options.32) 3 . yet Unix-like.2660 In this example. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. maximum compression). i4:2. 1. (6) is hidden. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly. 1. the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used. In addition to individual file information.0 hpf 730 b. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive. fast. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees)..2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1.def compressed: 63.c 15:34 unzip. there is some underlying logic. one or more file(s) are provided.0 hpf 3710 b. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format.0 hpf 95 b.stor 21-Aug-91 . The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression. which can override or add to either of the above. In addition.

however. use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full. For compatibility with zip(1L). so the –s option was sufficient. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. The first hyphen is the regular switch character. in this example. As suggested above.zip. includes headers and footers by default. EXAMPLES To get a basic. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. long-format listing (not verbose). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). as noted above. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. Inc. as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well).. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. ZIPINFO takes precedence. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l.Misc. To turn off the totals line by default. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1).g.32) 4 . Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. in addition. however. only the header and/or footer are printed. use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). short-format listing of the first example again. Nothing was indicated about the header. with both header and totals lines. since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined. given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. like –m and –l. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. unless otherwise specified. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. Note that both the –h and –t options. including header and totals lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. override any default listing of member files. when used by themselves or with each other. the user dislikes the trailer line.

) SEE ALSO ls(1).e. copy/rename the executable. if –m or –l is used. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed.Misc.. as noted above. (This is not to say that it will be. Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well. For multiple files. This assumes the default short-listing format. zipnote(1L). on other systems. AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive. Inc. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. funzip(1L). create a link or create a command file with the name ii). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others. zip(1L). will override the default header and totals lines. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified.c The specification of any member file. BUGS As with unzip. to see the most recently modified files in the archive. unzip(1L). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. unzipsfx(1L). zipcloak(1L). the seventh field). use the verbose option. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options.32) 5 . the proper sort(1) option would be +7. as in this example. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.info-zip. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. in medium format. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp.org/pub/infozip/ . It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. In addition.info-zip. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size. This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗.

elte.gmd. and a host of other features.funet.zsh.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.org>. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.ips. Inc.elte.zsh.0. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections.dgac. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list.cenatls.zsh. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite.fu–berlin.org>.uni–trier.gov.zsh.cs.elte. shell functions (with autoloading).hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.cs. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh.cs. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp. Of the standard shells.dk>. 2001 1 . This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor.4 Last change: October 26.hu instead of the primary site.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://www. a history mechanism.cena.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite.org>.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp. programmable command completion.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp. Zsh has command line editing. builtin spelling correction. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp.

All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers. 2001 2 .edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.uiuc.win.dk> Announcements about releases.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp.zsh.technion.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.icm. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ. bug reports and patches. zsh 4. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.edu.ne.kappa.uit.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED. To subscribe or unsubscribe.org.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp.kfki.siol.liu.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. development. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users.4 Last change: October 26.lysator.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite.ac.technion.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.nisiq.math.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite. Inc.0.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.dk> Hacking.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.dk> User discussions.math.roedu.zsh.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp. <zsh–workers@sunsite. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.rge.lut.il/pub/zsh/ http://www.unina.ac.net.ac.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.

Like other option syntaxes. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. for example.org>. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation. the first one is assigned to $0. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. For example. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. available at http://www. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’.org>. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above.org/mla/. –o acts like a single–letter option.4 Last change: October 26.org>.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. So. rather than being used as a positional parameter. Force shell to read commands from the standard input.sunsite.org/FAQ/. For further options. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above. Unlike other option syntaxes. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given. Inc. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp.org>. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists.zsh.zsh. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on.dk>. and thus ignored.org>. If any further arguments are given. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).org>. or downright mystifying (for example.zsh. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites.0. There is also a hypertext archive. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www.unix.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. It is intended to complement the manual. send mail to <listmaster@zsh.org/. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. ‘– –option–name’. hierographic.auc. Force shell to be interactive. of SunSITE Denmark. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. At the time of writing. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. Options may be specified by name using the –o option. but takes a following string as the option name. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o. zsh 4.dk/Guide/. The mailing lists are archived. –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. see zshoptions(1). 2001 3 . When this is done. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. or at http://www. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input.

command substitution. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. PROMPT_BANG. Firstly. fpath. NO_MULTIOS. PROMPT2. NO_NOTIFY. in two ways. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. PROMPT. SH_WORD_SPLIT. NO_NOMATCH. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. the shell becomes restricted. prompt. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. manpath. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. more precisely. cdpath. NO_BANG_HIST. path. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. EUID. ‘– –help’ is also handled. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments. fignore. NO_EQUALS. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. NO_BG_NICE. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. PROMPT3. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. NO_HUP. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. module_path. HISTFILE. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. PROMPT4. status. Option processing may be finished.4 Last change: October 26. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. SH_GLOB. USERNAME. MANPATH. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. HISTSIZE. SHELL. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS.profile. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. mailpath. path. then exits successfully. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.0. psvar. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. GLOB_SUBST. Furthermore. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. watch. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). POSIX_BUILTINS. HISTCHARS. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. argv. Also. UID. Secondly. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. EGID. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. KSH_ARRAYS. 2001 4 . LOCAL_OPTIONS.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. GID. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. then exits successfully. Inc. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. MODULE_PATH. RM_STAR_SILENT.

If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the .zprofile. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. When a login shell exits. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins. this cannot be overridden. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.zshrc. i. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/.e.zlogin are read. zsh 4. Then. depending on the installation..zshenv. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. 2001 5 . Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.0. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. if the shell is interactive. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. If ZDOTDIR is unset. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. no history file will be saved. the compiled file will be used instead. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. the files $ZDOTDIR/. then .’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. Finally. it is important that it be kept as small as possible. However. In particular. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). while the second only affects those in the /etc directory.. HOME is used instead. If the shell is a login shell. If one of the options is unset at any point. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. the former affects all startup files.4 Last change: October 26. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. the logout files are not read. if the shell is a login shell.

For example. the value of the sublist is that return value. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word.’ or newline. it is executed as a coprocess. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. A pipeline is either a simple command. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists.. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. 2001 1 . and the remaining words. ‘&!’. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. If a command name is given. When a sublist is terminated by ‘.. or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. including the complex commands below. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. or a newline.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The value of a simple command is its exit status. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero).’. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’.. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. zsh 4. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever.)’ or ‘{. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. If job control is active. Where commands are separated by ‘’. echo foo is a simple command with arguments. Inc. More generally. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. with optional redirections interspersed. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). which will alter how the command is interpreted. If it does not. A sublist is either a single pipeline.4 Last change: October 26. For example. if any. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value). The first word is the command to be executed. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero. ‘&’. ‘&’. which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next.}’. For example. For example. ‘&’. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’. are arguments to the command.. or ‘&!’. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background). or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal.

the value of the parameter name is set to null. and set the parameter name to each of them in turn. use the positional parameters. the then list is executed. select name [ in word ... ) list (.. exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words.4 Last change: October 26... for name [ in word . Expand the list of words. The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. for (( [expr1] . executing list each time. to terminate the words. list is then executed n times. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or .. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. and if it returns a zero exit status. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. Otherwise. If the list that is executed is terminated with . which must evaluate to a number n.&) ] .. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] .0. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . or the esac is reached. or else standard input.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the else list is executed. the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. Otherwise.. the selection list is printed again.. before any parsing is done. 2001 2 .. Inc.& rather than . It has no effect in non–interactive shells. [ else list ] fi The if list is executed. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. rather than a shell function or external command. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). Print the set of words. If any expression is omitted. If the in word is omitted.. If each elif list returns nonzero. use the positional parameters instead of the words.. nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words. as it is interpreted immediately. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . the following list is also executed. list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY.. rather than a shell function or builtin. The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation. the then list is executed. This continues until either a list is terminated with .. each preceded by a number. If this line is empty.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string. [expr2] .. zsh 4. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. if any. then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status. If the in word is omitted. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number.

the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case. [expr2] .. Inc. else the end of the test will not be recognized. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word. () [ term ] { list } word .. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command. Normally.4 Last change: October 26. If pipeline is omitted. repeat. but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . For the for. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells... for name ( word . otherwise. ) sublist A short form of for..0. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary. ))’. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited. See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. since the test is not suitably delimited. function word ....User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 2001 3 .. zsh 4. () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or .. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter. For the if.. while and until commands. Another short form of for. The body of the function is the list between the { and }. print statistics about the shell process and its children.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell. for (( [expr1] . These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. ]]’ or ‘(( .. ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms. See the section ‘Functions’. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works... multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps. Execute list. [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true.. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word . such as by ‘[[ . time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed. only one word is provided. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word.. Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list.. for name [ in word . The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set.

&) ] .g. If the text ends with a space.. Inside double quotes (" " ). A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. if an alias is defined for the word foo. Therefore. while list { list } An alternative form of while. ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat. a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. A short form of select. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command). print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted. zsh 4. ‘‘’. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. until list { list } An alternative form of until. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. If so. and ‘$’. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . parameter and command substitution occur... Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. 2001 4 . COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. or if the alias is global. ) list (... A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. e.. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word. Inc.0. ‘" ’.4 Last change: October 26. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. \foo. } An alternative form of case. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or .. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word ..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ) list end Another form of for. For example. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it.. But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape. in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. but one single quote if it is set.

Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). Inc. The resulting document. it is truncated to zero length. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. parameter and command substitution occurs. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input. ‘$’. or to an end–of–file. If <<– is used. called a here–document. If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. otherwise. and the CLOBBER option is unset. this causes an error. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. the file is created. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. >> word >>! word Same as >>. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. otherwise. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. If the file does not exist then it is created.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. except that the file is created if it does not exist. even if CLOBBER is unset. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. 2001 5 . < word Open file word for reading as standard input. and the CLOBBER option is unset. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active.4 Last change: October 26. This is known as a here–string. becomes the standard input. No parameter expansion. this causes an error. even if CLOBBER is unset. Otherwise. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. If the file does not exist then it is created. If the file exists. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. Otherwise. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output.0. zsh 4. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. If the file does not exist. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. > word >! word Same as >.

fname).sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is. as it is by default. and also pipes it to cat. provided the MULTIOS option is set. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. provided the MULTIOS option is set. file) association at the time of evaluation.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. thus zsh 4. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. If the MULTIOS option is set.0.. similar to cat. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly. similar to tee..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. you can do ∗’. assuming there’s at least one. 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. If the order of redirections were reversed. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. For example: . Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’.4 Last change: October 26.ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’. (Without the MULTIOS option. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). 2001 6 . Inc. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. If one of the above is preceded by a digit.

then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel.4 Last change: October 26. an error is caused. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. and write ‘foo’ into baz.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Otherwise. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’.0. but no command name. If there exists a shell function by that name. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. the shell attempts to locate it. and the file is not a directory. it is assumed to be a shell script. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. Otherwise. 2001 7 . Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. Thus to define functions for autoloading. Such a function has no body. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). Shell functions are read in and stored internally. with paging if that is a terminal. zsh can behave in several ways. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. all files redirected to are actually opened. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. When the function is first executed. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. Inc. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. If the search is unsuccessful. If the MULTIOS option is unset.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. the builtin is invoked. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format.

element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files. } print func is initialized then ‘func.. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath.4 Last change: October 26. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. in fact. Inc. which is executed in the context of the function execution.}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. first.. which is expected to contain the definition for function. taken to be the definition for function. This will normally define the function in question. the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file. and a call to the shell function. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. including any arguments. It may include other function definitions as well. a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen. For example. and may therefore define local parameters. and the other message on the second and subsequent calls.. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set. element/function A file of zsh command text.. but those are neither loaded nor executed.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. element/function. second.zwc extension (i. If the definition is not found. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U. 2001 8 . For each element in fpath. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but may also perform initialization. If element already includes a . as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the .zwc A file created with zcompile. within a directory.zwc file is created. In summary. the shell looks for three possible files. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. the extension was explicitly given by the user). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 . suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func.e. the function itself is not re–executed. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. the order of searching is.0. Otherwise. at the end. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used. the file’s contents will be executed. and third. zsh 4. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought.

preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args.. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status. precmd Executed before each prompt. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command.. If a function of this form is defined and null. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’.. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. just before a prompt. For example. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. zsh 4. size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided). but which loads its own definition by searching fpath. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. Inc. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. because all comments are discarded from defined functions. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function. if defined. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions.. otherwise it is an empty string.4 Last change: October 26. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. In fact. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed. 2001 9 . However.0.

0. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. If the NOTIFY option is not set. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. %% Current job. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. nor when it is continued with bg. it does not have a place in the job table. and assigns them small integer numbers. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. whose process ID was 1234. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. You can then manipulate the state of this job. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. printed by the jobs command. It keeps a table of current jobs. 2001 10 . It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. rather than in their own function environment. %– Previous job. The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. putting it in the background with the bg command.4 Last change: October 26. then that job is immediately disowned. zsh 4. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. If you set this tty option. Inc. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. After startup. %string Any job whose command line begins with string. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. and print another prompt. and is not subject to the job control features described here. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you.

. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. the precision is at least 8 bytes. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin. require quoting.." ’. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let. If you do this or immediately try to exit again. If the # is doubled.. if the HUP option is set. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. More precisely. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then no base prefix is output. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). for example ‘[#16]’. Inc. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. the last encountered is used. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. if the number appears unchanged. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. zsh 4. For example. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’.4 Last change: October 26. For integers. ‘((. the shell will not warn you a second time. This can be tested.0.. either using the builtin let. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. Otherwise. for example ‘[##16]’. where it acquires the output base 8. Integers can be in bases other than 10. in which case base 10 is used. ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. the rightmost value in the given output base. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example.)). The base# may also be omitted. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. as well as spaces.. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active.. the suspended jobs will be terminated. for example. each is evaluated separately. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted. or via a substitution of the form $((. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used.))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. 2001 11 . the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on. Since many of the arithmetic operators. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments.

2001 12 . The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. ‘’. ‘<<’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.0. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. precedence. In addition. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. ‘∧ ‘%’. {pre. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. differing only in their output format. Inc. there are two types. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. but its use is deprecated.e. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. as it will be taken for a parameter name. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. Likewise. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. For example. and associativity of expressions in C. as described for the typeset builtin. division. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . floating point argument. ‘&’.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. but the exponent character e or E may not. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format.4 Last change: October 26. and XOR operators. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary.post}{in. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. modulus (remainder) +– addition. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. logical NOT. complement. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. zsh 4. OR. ‘’. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. ‘&&=’. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. i. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated.

true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. then the current process has permission to search in the directory. option may be a single character. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). true if file exists and is a character special file. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. Inc. in which case it is a single letter option name.1 )). true if file exists and is a symbolic link. f < 1. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. zsh 4. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. This can have unforeseen consequences. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. true if file exists and is a block special file. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. –o option true if option named option is on. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. f += 0.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope. For example. If file exists and is a directory. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. 2001 13 .1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. in the loop for (( f = 0. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. true if file exists and is readable by current process. so that the loop will fail. true if file exists and is a regular file. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case.4 Last change: October 26. true if file exists and has its sticky bit set.0’. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. true if file exists. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. true if file exists and is executable by current process. true if file exists and is a directory.

file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. where n is an integer. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. In each of the above expressions. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. see zshexpn(1). –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2.4 Last change: October 26. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. similar to the effect of double quotes. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern.0. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. true if exp is false. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. string and pattern arguments. Inc. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. zsh 4. However. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket. 2001 14 . if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2.

the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists. am/pm format. trailing components of the hostname are shown. %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. Current time of day in 24–hour format. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. A ‘)’. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin.)). If it starts with $HOME. %–1d specifies the first component. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded.’. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. Inc. with seconds. i. zsh 4. 2001 15 . in 12–hour. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. The hostname up to the first ‘.0. If an integer follows the ‘%’. if the complete condition is true. $USERNAME. %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. and if so.’ is printed. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. the message ‘File exists. Current time of day. For example. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. As %d and %/. See zshexpn(1). zero means the whole path. Present working directory ($PWD). Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string.. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. in 24–hour format. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’. The current value of $SHLVL. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’. The full machine hostname.4 Last change: October 26. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set.. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show. Current history event number. A negative integer specifies leading components. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. command substitution and arithmetic expansion.e. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. With a negative integer.

true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. 2001 16 . the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. ˜ / C t True if the current path. sourced file. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors. with prefix replacement. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. zero means the full path. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. has at least n elements. Brace pairs can nest. if POSIX. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. a ‘%’ if not. A negative integer specifies leading components. Negative integers count from the end of the array. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. See strftime(3) for more details. Equivalent to ‘%(!.1e capabilities are supported.e. The definition of ‘privileged’. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. which defaults to zero. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. sourced file.4 Last change: October 26. If there is none. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially.0. The date in mm/dd/yy format. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. The date in day–dd format. for these purposes. or.#. %E %# %v %{. zsh 4. The line number currently being executed in the script. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. %(x. The date in yy–mm–dd format. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This separator may not appear in the true–text. including further ternary expressions. is that either the effective user ID is zero. except as part of a %–escape sequence. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. The status of the parser. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’. The test character x may be any of the following: c . If given an integer number that many strings will be printed. whichever was started most recently. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. The character following the x is arbitrary.true–text. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. Inc. i. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges.. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. Clears to end of line. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. True if the time in minutes is equal to n.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. or shell function given by %N.%%)’.. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1.

form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’.. True if at least n shell constructs were started. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line. it will appear in full. %c %. which ever comes first.. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct..0. %C Trailing component of $PWD. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. a truncation with argument zero (e. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. In particular. the prompt ’%10<. i. or in fact any character. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’.<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory. True if the array psvar has at least n elements. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. For example. note when using print –P. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n.e. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. True if the day of the month is equal to n. note this does not undergo prompt expansion. tilde contraction is performed first. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’.. however. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0). which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length.e. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). Without the ‘%<<’. 2001 17 . True if the exit status of the last command was n. deprecated. True if the shell is running with privileges. the terminating character (‘<’. The numeric argument.g. The third. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. zsh 4. ‘>’ or ‘]’). the prompt ‘%8<. completely replacing the truncated string. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. Inc..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. followed by a space.. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated. Unless ‘%C’ is used. For example. The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. In this string. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/." ’. respectively.<%/’ will expand to ‘.4 Last change: October 26. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string.e/pike’. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<. True if the effective gid of the current process is n. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on.

each command is saved in the history list. respectively.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. history expansions do not nest. Immediately before execution. Inc. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. Filename Generation This expansion. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. However. it refers to the previous command. commonly referred to as globbing. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command.0. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. Conversely. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. The one most recent command is always retained in any case. 2001 1 . Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1). and may occur anywhere on the command line. if it is the only history reference in a command. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. By default. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail.4 Last change: October 26. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. if neither of these designators is present. which is ‘!’ by default. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. For example. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. After these expansions. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. Double quotes will not work for this. is always done last. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. no history expansion occurs.

If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). except when followed by a blank. In the list below. ! Start a history expansion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words. ∗’. x defaults to 0. 2001 2 . The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search. The nth argument. Refer to the previous command. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. Refer to the most recent command starting with str. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. Refer to the current command–line minus n. Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. The last argument.. Anything else results in an error. By itself. Word designators include: ’. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. All the arguments. If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. Refer to command–line n. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. except where noted.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. this expansion repeats the previous command. 1. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. That is. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. The first argument. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. replacing the string foo with bar. although the error may not be the most obvious one. newline. respectively. !# !{. A range of words. the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. Modifiers After the optional word designator. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. or a null value if there are none.0. ‘∧ ’. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. zsh 4. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command).4 Last change: October 26. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’. ‘=’ or ‘(’. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. each preceded by a ‘:’. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. More precisely. Inc.. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference.

the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. Quote the substituted words.0. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. Inc. respectively. Like s.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. but character strings. Repeat the previous s substitution. but break into words at whitespace. For example. The following f. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. leaving the tail. Only works with history expansion. F:expr: Like f. with no colon between. otherwise. Does not work with parameter expansion. the shell runs process list asynchronously. This works like ‘basename’. leaving the head. This works like ‘dirname’. in the right–hand–side r. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). ‘[’. In the case of the < or > forms. this applies to each word of the expanded text. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. Convert the words to all uppercase. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. F. escaping further substitutions. the closing delimiter should be ’)’. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. Unless preceded immediately by a g. If < is used. Print the new command but do not execute it. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. may be preceded immediately by a g. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. For arrays and for filename generation. if ‘(’.4 Last change: October 26. leaving the root name. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. Remove all but the extension. The character ‘&’.xxx’. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. Like q. or ‘}’. opening parentheses are handled specially. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. see above. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. 2001 3 . ‘]’. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. the command argument will be a named pipe. Substitute r for l as described below. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. Convert the words to all lowercase. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. Remove all leading pathname components. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism.

4 Last change: October 26. Inc. are themselves subject to parameter expansion.0. pastes the results together. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. digit. if the programme does not actually open the file. 2001 4 . the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. with KSH_ARRAYS. and arithmetic expansion. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. all of which work with or without braces. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. one element per word. exceptions. the value of the parameter is then substituted. In both forms. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. including arrays. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’. In both cases. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. Note that these patterns. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. ${name:?word} zsh 4. command substitution. unconditionally set name to word. the name. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set. ‘˜’. In the former case. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. this is the first element of an array. if any. in the second form. then the value of each element of name is substituted. the expansion results in one word only. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. If name is an array parameter. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. In the second case. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. Otherwise. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. of the parameter name is substituted. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. In addition to the following operations. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. substitute word. If = is used. If name is missing. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. associative arrays. otherwise substitute word. ${name} The value. In addition. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern.

or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used.e. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. the largest matching pattern is preferred. then substitute the empty string. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. the second form all occurrences. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. For example. then the shell only checks whether name is set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. however. just substitute the value of name. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. ${#spec} zsh 4. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. the flags M. In the first form. R. The repl may be an empty string. B.0. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. just substitute the value of name.4 Last change: October 26. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. the largest matching pattern is preferred. otherwise. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. or ‘%’. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. otherwise. in which case it must match at the end of the string. print word and exit from the shell. in the second form. otherwise substitute nothing. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. otherwise. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. 2001 5 . Inc. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. not whether its value is null. E and N are not useful. in the second form. In the first case. otherwise.. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. a quoted backslash). If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). In the following expressions. In the first form. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. If word is omitted. just substitute the value of name. while in the second ∗e case. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. then a standard message is printed. even at the start. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’.

Note that ‘∧ ‘=’. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar.} type parameter expression or a $(.. Create an array parameter with ‘${.. using IFS as a delimiter. Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. for example... In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful.. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed. s or z flags. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words. for example. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26.}.0. If spec is an array expression. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. substitute the number of elements of the result. one surrounding the whole expression. turn it off.. Each name or nested ${. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. 2001 6 .. ’. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible. When this option is set. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’). ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec.. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1]. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted. for example..}’. the repetitions need not be consecutive. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined.}’ or ‘${. if the ‘˜’ is doubled. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next. if the ‘=’ is doubled. turn it ’ off. E. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted. Assignment is made before sorting or padding. if the ‘∧ is doubled. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’.g. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo).=. This is done by default in most other shells. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec. turn it off.. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution.::=.$var[2].. Inc.. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1.. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context... If this flag is given twice. The form with $(.. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options. E.... create an associative array parameter.. If a ${. Internally. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions. which still applies within each array element. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below. below. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’). When this option is set. In double quotes. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis.} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1).. see the examples below. in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" .. array elements are put into separate words. and ‘˜’.}’. each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags... This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. ‘${.:=.g. there are two sets of quotes..

‘array’. Inc. not to words that result from field splitting. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words..}’ to activate field splitting. ‘integer’. Capitalize the resulting words. With o or O. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. Perform parameter expansion. ‘float’ or ‘association’. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. 2001 7 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it can be one of ‘scalar’. However. For example. If this flag is given twice. If name refers to an associative array. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). If used with a nested parameter or command substitution.4 Last change: October 26. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times. ${(P)${foo}}. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’. sort case–independently. If it is given four times. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’. as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. Quote the resulting words with backslashes.0. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. Split the result of the expansion to lines. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. whose value will be used where appropriate. c C e f F i k With ${#name}.. when creating an associative array. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. count the total number of characters in an array. the strings ${(P)foo}. Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. the words are quoted in double quotes. Sort the resulting words in descending order.

Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below.e..} forms. or with ${.. count words in arrays or strings. The default is to take the first match.]’.%.} forms. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4...%... with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted.. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case... Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence.. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter. i. Used with subscripts.. With the ${. So to access single words in the result.4 Last change: October 26.. specifies non–greedy matching..#...>’.. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored.. Used with k... Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument.} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.%%... before padding.e../. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument.. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element.. S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced... either with the S flag. Any character... With substitution via ${. 2001 8 . The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown.. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right.} and ${./. If both string1 and string2 are given. r:expr::string1::string2: As l... one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’.. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.... to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’.. Likewise.//. With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported.} forms.} or ${.. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number). Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide./. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word.. This only applies when searching for substrings..} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted). force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys.0. Without the flag they are silently ignored.//. Inc... p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator. ‘{. or ‘<.. Note that this is done very late. The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left.. With ${#name}.)’. taking into account any quoting in the value.} or ${.}’. ‘[. as for the ‘(s)’ flag. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters. s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string. The following flags are meaningful with the ${. i. or the matching pairs ‘(..}.

. by default a space.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes..4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. ‘witch’. At each level. Any number of subscripts may appear.. ${.4 Last change: October 26. i. Thus if var is an array.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). between each word (single word arrays are not modified). ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. 3.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2.. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. and the substitution appears in double quotes. but not to " ${${foo[2. If the (j) flag is present. the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags.e. Note that ${foo[2. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter.. for example. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. Include the matched portion in the result.0. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). 5. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. 1. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution. is applied. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution.} forms are present. multiple subscripts can appear. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution. Some particular examples are given below. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. 2001 9 . and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag.}. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${. but in reverse order.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value. but ${var[2. Subscripts are evaluated left to right. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. 2. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). Note that. possibly adjusted for quoting. 4. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present. As with 2. zsh 4.e. such as ${var[3]}. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar. Include the length of the match in the result. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’.

Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. For example. which makes the entire content of the file a single string..)’ or ‘(r. or 9. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present.. The outer substitution " ${(@). ‘b’ and ‘1’.0. ‘%’.. which has no array (@) flag... The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present. or the same inside double quotes. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8.. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone.fill. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . zsh 4. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given.. which divides the file up by words. Note this step. Inc. too. this rule is skipped. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. ${=var}).[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. 9. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. 11. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" . ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions. Modifiers Any modifiers. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b. In this case. 8. 7. as specified by a trailing ‘#’. and joining did not take place at step 4.g. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value. 12. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. The outer substitution " ${. 10. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string.)’ flags is applied. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. ‘1’. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. produces a single word result " bar baz" . or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e.fill. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’.[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’. 2001 10 .. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS.4 Last change: October 26. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. are applied to the words of the value at this level. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If a single word is not required. First. so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character.

‘ b’ and ‘’. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. respectively. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign.n2}’. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated. In particular. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. In that case. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. Inc. is replaced with its standard output. This construct may be nested. The final empty string will then be elided. As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.. like ‘$(. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width.0. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’.yy. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. If it does. If so. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. like ‘‘. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here. The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. Left–to–right order is preserved. and then split to give ‘a’. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space). An expression of the form ‘{n1. In either case. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms. If either number begins with a zero. with any trailing newlines deleted. it is left unchanged. then the word up to a ‘/’.. as it is not in double quotes.‘’.. where n1 and n2 are integers. which is joined to give " ax bx" . ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set. the output is eligible for filename generation.)’.4 Last change: October 26. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’.zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. 2001 11 . Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word.. or quoted with grave accents.. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. zsh 4. in the manner of a search set.

the ‘/’ and ‘. In this case.’ or ‘. including the null string. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern. [.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. If an alias exists by that name. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon).] [!. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. To match individual digits. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set.. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. Inc. ‘[’. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. it is regarded as ∗’. the shell gives an error message.. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. except when the directory is / itself. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix.’ are not treated specially.]. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set. the EQUALS option is also respected. when the shell prints a path. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. There are also several named classes of characters. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter.. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. ‘<’. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. for instance). ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter.. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’. or unless the NOMATCH option is unset. zsh 4. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3).. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter. Like [. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set. the word is replaced with the text of the alias. Named character sets can be used alongside other types.. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’. In other instances of pattern matching. 2001 12 . the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. a pattern for filename generation. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. in which case the word is left unchanged. unless the GLOB option is unset. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If a command exists by that name. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’. the ‘=’. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. ‘’... any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph.] form is more efficient.. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment.’. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. In filename generation.g. Matches any of the enclosed characters. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic.0. inclusive. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set. These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. in which case the word is deleted. or ‘?’. the [. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. a ‘...] [∧ . e. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. If no matching pattern is found. also. If so.4 Last change: October 26.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. Matches any character. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family.

or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example.) ∗ ∗(. ‘∗ ‘+’.) Matches anything except the pattern x. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y.) Matches the enclosed pattern.)#’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead. This is a trap for the unwary. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set..)##’. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set...’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match.’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.. As mentioned above... as detailed below./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. the remaining operators are ’.]]’).) Match at least one occurrence. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way. ‘?’ ∗’. or ‘!’.) !(. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘. ∗’ (. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’. (Like ‘(. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit.. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’.) Match the pattern in the parentheses. foo/any/bar. simply treated from left to right as part of a string. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially. 2001 13 . to avoid interpretation as a pipeline.. @(. zsh 4...4 Last change: October 26. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together.)’. and so on. ‘∗ ‘+’.. ‘˜’.)’. and the ‘∗ will match any others. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects. a ‘/’ is not special. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example.) ?(.0. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern.) Match zero or one occurrence.. (Like ‘(. foo/any/anyother/bar. or a parenthesised expression). with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i. ‘?’.. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x.. for example. a character. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. For example.. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’).. The ∗’.. in case statements and tests within ‘[[... If the KSH_GLOB option is set.. This operator has high precedence. (Like ‘(.>’.))’. This operator has high precedence. then a ‘@’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. this includes an empty string. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x..) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string.. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated. This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. ‘<. Inc. ‘’ (lowest).]’.. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation).. ‘[. In the exclusion pattern (y). (Like ‘(∧ (... while a ‘’ must do so.) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y. rather than ‘(12)#’. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar..) +(. but the ‘(’ must be.e. rather than ‘(12)##’. (Like ‘(.) Match any number of occurrences.’ except ‘. This is used for grouping. ‘/’ and ‘. This operator has lower precedence than any other. a pattern already followed by ‘##’.

Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. i. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match.e. Inc. respectively. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. or a global substitution. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. For example. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. The parameters $MATCH. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. as otherwise the string matched is obvious.0. although sets of parentheses may be nested. and the start and end indices are set to –1. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. only the data for the last match remains available. B m Deactivate backreferences. Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern. this does not work in filename generation. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters.4 Last change: October 26. such as ${array#pattern}. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. not local to a group. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. zsh 4. 2001 14 . These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. and so on. such as ${param//pat/repl}. See the example for the m flag below. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1]. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. and the indices of the end in the array $mend.

Unlike the other flags. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example.] groups. Inc. zsh 4. in/test/middle. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters. An extra character appearing in the target string. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work.4 Last change: October 26. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. as in banana and abnana. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i. these have only a local effect.e. there is no speed penalty for using match references.. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. 3. match anywhere except at the start of the string. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type. at/end/test. Finally. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. Unlike backreferences. Another use is in parameter substitution. For example. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. ∗’ test/at/start. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. Transposition of characters. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. hence no references to match data will be created. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. and all slashes in filenames. Similarly. Approximate Matching When matching approximately.. is potentially slow. since all the ? must match. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match.e. Different characters. 4. Four types of error are recognised: 1.. For example. but not by (#l)FOOXX. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. as with stove and strove. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately). ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. but not strings of length two. as in fooxbar and fooybar. as with the pattern road and target string rod. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. M anum s. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). 2001 15 . The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/.. all vowels) into uppercase. e Deactivate the m flag. Thus.0. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. 2. i. A character missing in the target string.

note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. where approximation is turned off. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). and this can be delimited by grouping. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. Inc. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. As a shorthand. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. Thus. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set.4 Last change: October 26. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz.ME but not READ_ME. For example. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. bling the parentheses. for example. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. This form does not follow symbolic links. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator.0. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. Apart from exclusions. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. however. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. which may not occur in the dog section. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. there is only one overall error count. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in that case. (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. 2001 16 . however. However.

the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. and execute permission. If set to an array. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access.4 Last change: October 26. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. ‘{’. which overrides the value of REPLY. ‘+’. ‘}’. a ‘+’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups.0. the bits in the number must not be set. and with a ‘–’. if a ‘g’ is given. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. If none of these characters is given. and ‘>’. respectively. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. 2001 17 . the value given must match the file–modes exactly. ‘g’. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. Thus. a ‘+’. or a octal digit. and for which other group members have no rights. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’. ‘w’ for write access. or a ‘–’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. zsh 4. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. independent of the permissions for other users. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. ‘s’. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. and ‘a’. while any other character matches itself. ‘w’. or a ‘–’. those for the owner of the file are used. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. with a ‘+’. write. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. estring The string will be executed as shell code. ‘x’. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. ‘{’. ‘}’. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. those of the group are checked. if combined with a ‘=’. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. In addition. The ‘=’. Inc. ‘[’. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). and ‘t’. If a ‘u’ is given. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. ‘o’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. followed by a ‘=’. and ‘>’ respectively.

∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files. if l they are sorted by the number of links. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. Inc. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. more than n bytes (+). Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago. megabytes. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access.g. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). respectively. files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. weeks. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n).2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. like ‘o’. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. 2001 18 . ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option. ‘}’.e. ‘m’ (‘M’). m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. m. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. and ‘>’ respectively.g. and c compare the age against the current time. if d. except that it uses the file modification time. or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’.4 Last change: October 26.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. if not. i. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). greater than ct (+). ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days). or inode change respectively. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. hours. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. ‘w’. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). if a. Note that a.g. m. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. ‘h’. For instance. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. modification. Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). hence the first name in the list is the youngest file. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. but sorts in descending order. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. ‘{’. or exactly n bytes in length.0. Oc zsh 4. except that it uses the file inode change time. Note the quotation marks. minutes or seconds instead of days.

. zsh 4. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. separated by commas. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. however. parse. ‘N’.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot.h. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. and ls ∗ ∗(W. independent of the sublist in which they are given. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse). lex. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[.0.g. ‘o’.[ch](∧ l1) ∗.3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files. Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’.]’).4 Last change: October 26. ignoring symlinks. ‘D’. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). Some qualifiers.c and parse. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions.. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed. 2001 19 . and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp. ‘n’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. These are the qualifiers ‘M’. affect all matches generated..c. E. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list.h. More than one of these lists can be combined. ‘T’.

Note that this assigns to the entire array. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. Inc. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. 2001 1 . However.. To declare the type of a parameter. and they stay special even if unset. use the typeset builtin. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript..) Every key must have a value in this case. To create an empty array (including associative arrays). ‘?’. ‘–’.))’. Special parameters cannot have their type changed. the braced form is the only one that works. an array (indexed numerically). which affects the way that certain zsh 4. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value . except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’... by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. an integer. and a number of attributes. ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’. The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. ‘$’. To refer to the value of a parameter. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. –i.. name=(key value . is set for name. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. an ordinary array parameter is created.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar. it is replaced by a new array. value may be a scalar (a string).) If no parameter name exists. a value. In the parameter lists that follow. name=(value . as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.0. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment.. The elements are numbered beginning with 1.. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. ‘#’.4 Last change: October 26. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. write one of: set –A name value . ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. or ‘!’. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details. The ∗’. indexed by name)... where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation.

there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes.. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. For associative arrays. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. To delete an element of an associative array. Arrays do not nest.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case.e. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag.. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. See Subscript Parsing below for details. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters.0. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array. if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. then ‘echo $FOO[2. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array.4 Last change: October 26.. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given.. and so do not support ranges. The subscript used is the number of the matching element.(r)f∗ are possible.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. but see Subscript Flags below). or the comma in a range.’. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array.5]’ prints ‘ooba’. Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. assign ‘()’ to that element. with elements separated by newlines. say –n. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. respectively)." ’. 2001 2 . which may not exist even if there are values for other keys). (This is not supported for associative arrays. i. in no particular order. inclusive. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. To delete an element of an ordinary array. zsh 4. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. if it is a scalar. The default word separator is whitespace. and ‘$foo[1. For example. as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. (Associative arrays are unordered.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??. Inc. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] . this means the value of the key ‘0’. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number.

This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. Inc. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values.4 Last change: October 26. 2001 3 .0. However. behaves like ‘r’. For associative arrays. Like ‘i’. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). and the first matching key found is the result. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. but gives the index of the match instead. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. zsh 4. For associative arrays. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. for example. this behaves like ‘r’. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. However. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. ‘R’. R i Like ‘r’. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. ‘i’ or ‘I’. ‘R’. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. flags). the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). On the left side of an assignment. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. Therefore. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. For associative arrays. this may not be combined with a second argument. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. or character (if expr evaluates to n). so the rules have two important differences. ‘R’. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). but gives the last match. Like ‘r’. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. ‘i’ or ‘I’. word. If used on another type of parameter. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. ‘i’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but not for assigning to associative arrays. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns. makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. etc. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. because of the standard shell quoting rules. If used in a subscript on an associative array. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. gives all possible matches. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. but gives the index of the last match. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’).

parentheses. 2001 4 . or the shell itself. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. This has two effects: first. thus ‘$argv[n]’. because the positional parameters form an array. backslashes are interpreted twice. second. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. the subscript is a plain string in that case. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values. is the nth positional parameter. from the innermost subscript outwards. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗.) The typeset builtin. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. local and readonly (but not export). once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). positional parameters. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression.. shell script.. For complex patterns.)’ is allowed. but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. As in true double–quoting. ‘${2[3. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . etc. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern. a subscript expression. where n is a number.. because then the backslashes. to refer to the value of that key. Therefore. for example.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. That is.. integer. and its alternative forms declare. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression. Inc. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array.0. (Parameters are dynamically scoped. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. see the section ‘Invocation’. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. rather than as a pattern. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes.5]’. The parameter n. In a reverse subscript. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. and also the section ‘Functions’. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. zsh 4. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. by assigning to the argv array. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. but ‘$2[3. etc. Note that.) One final note. they are removed only once.4 Last change: October 26. brackets. it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern.

parameter. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. the local parameter hides any less–local parameter.. Inc. status <S> <Z> Same as ?. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #.0.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. q. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). even when argv is not set. In particular. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param. CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). If you have sufficient privileges. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. you may change the zsh 4. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends. and within a sourced script to the name of the script.4 Last change: October 26. assigning to a non–existent parameter. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function. Also. An array containing the positional parameters. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. but argv is not itself a local ∗. (That is. @ <S> Same as argv[@].v. The number of positional parameters in decimal. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities.. The name used to invoke the current shell. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. as determined at run time. Special parameters may also be made local. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function.) However. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands. or declaring a new parameter with export. 2001 5 . the sequence ‘$#–. If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden.

This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). If you have sufficient privileges. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. as determined at compile time. LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). sourced file. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. as determined at compile time. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. If this parameter is assigned a value.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call. whichever was started most recently. Inc. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. or shell function being executed. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session. OSTYPE The operating system. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. 2001 6 . GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. command)’ HOST The current hostname. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment.0. zsh 4. If you have sufficient privileges. OLDPWD The previous working directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. PWD The present working directory. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. Also (assuming sufficient privileges).4 Last change: October 26.

If you have sufficient privileges. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. it will be truncated zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. ARGV0 If exported. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. e. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). 2001 7 . its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands.g. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. as determined at compile time. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. signals An array containing the names of the signals. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). and not the modem. they retain their special properties when recreated. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. If you have sufficient privileges. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. if any. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. If the stack gets larger than this. These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’.0. in this case. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. Inc. such as path and PATH. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor.

If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. then it is read and executed in the current environment. If unset. LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting. However. tab. in hundredths of seconds. HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. Any characters from the set space. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field.4 Last change: October 26. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. the history is not saved. Inc. This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically. If an executable file is found. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. 2001 8 . if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’).0. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. (Deprecated. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. newline and NUL). this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). ’). This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. than these files are completed anyway. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism.

Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’.4 Last change: October 26. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set.0. however. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. The manpath array can be useful. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. 2001 9 . If the value is negative. change this to :.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the number of matches to list without asking first. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. When this parameter is set. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. Defaults to cat. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. For sh/ksh behavior. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. unset this parameter. Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail.) For security reasons. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. since setting it also sets MANPATH. If set to zero. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. Inc. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. For csh–like behavior. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits. The message will undergo parameter expansion. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. and vice versa. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. LISTMAX In the line editor. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. This is initialized to a standard pathname.

Defaults to more. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. zsh 4. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. PS2. reply As REPLY. printed before a command is read. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. but for array values rather than strings. The default is ‘?# ’. STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. The default is ‘%_> ’.0. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. All other prompt escapes are also allowed. PS3 and PS4. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. In sh or ksh emulation. the default is ‘%m%# ’. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1.4 Last change: October 26. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. the default is ‘+ ’. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. 2001 10 . Inc. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. and vice versa. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. respectively. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left.

If it contains the single word ‘notme’. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. if a login/logout event matches all of them. If no trap is set. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. the whole name is printed. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect.0.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). as if it were not suspended. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. even if the value does not change (e. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal. ‘TERM=$TERM’).’. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out.g. The hostname up to the first ‘. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. it is reported. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. then all login/logout events are reported. computed as (%U+%S)/%E. If it contains the single word ‘all’. 2001 11 . An entry in this list may consist of a username.e. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. zsh terminates. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. Inc. these will not be local to the command. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). The line (tty) the user is logged in on. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended.. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. This is used when looking up termcap sequences. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. zsh 4. CPU seconds spent in user mode. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. i. The full hostname of the remote host. Elapsed time in seconds. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry. The name of this job. The CPU percentage. The observed action.4 Last change: October 26. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. If there is a trap on SIGALRM. "logged on" or "logged off". Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. in 12–hour. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). if not $HOME. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. The time. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. 2001 12 . Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option. If the result is ‘true’. but both separators must be present in any case. which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. The character following the x is arbitrary. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. am/pm format. and the false–text is skipped. If ‘false’. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. Either or both of the branches may be empty. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression.zshrc. Inc. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. ‘m’ or ‘M’. Ternary expressions may be nested.4 Last change: October 26. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. or it may be ‘a’. %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. etc). for example. zsh 4.0. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. this gives a string of characters. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. ‘n’. the entire expression is omitted in this case. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. ZBEEP If set. in 24–hour format. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false.

as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. ALL_EXPORT (–a.4 Last change: October 26. sh. Similarly. zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. perform the cd command to that directory. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. trailing whitespace will be ignored. 2001 1 . When listing options (by ‘setopt’. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. those set by default only in csh. and a full completion is inserted. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. Thus.0. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. or with the set. That is. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. zsh 4. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. ‘unsetopt’. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). the cursor is moved to the end of the word. This inversion can only be done once. setopt and unsetopt builtins. in the order they are killed. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. For example. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. Some options also have one or more single letter names. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. and the command is the name of a directory. <K>. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. ksh. <S>. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. rather than overwrite it. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). For example. Inc. ‘noexec’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. <Z> as appropriate. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported.

’. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack. automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession. the automatically added character is deleted. if it contains no ‘’. remove the slash.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. csh–style. so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. See the section ‘Filename Generation’.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. the pattern will be left unchanged. treating the character ‘!’ specially. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. This option is set by default. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. print an error message.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’.). C_BASES zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. ‘:’. 2001 2 . or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). (Otherwise. (If this option is unset. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. If AUTO_MENU is set. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. etc. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. a slash.

Inc. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’).4 Last change: October 26. ‘foo/. Without this option.. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP.e.’ is the first part of the path. and does not begin with a slash.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS. done’. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . end’ instead of ‘do list. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘.. CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod.0.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words.’ would be removed from the path. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. a ‘. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control.. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory. instead resolve the path to the physical directory.. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory. defaulting to the previous command.. else such jobs will be killed automatically. CLOBBER (+C. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. ‘cd /foo/bar/. it changes to /alt.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. and ‘>>’ to create files.’ is used. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. with it set. COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. 2001 3 . i. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default).’ changes to /foo. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file. or if ‘. Without this option set. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. For example. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’.

) ERR_EXIT (–e. integer. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. EXEC (+n. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’. Without this option. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. If the option is unset. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. In double–quoted strings. zsh 4. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. float. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. execute the ZERR trap. delete the pattern from the argument list.) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set. but not executed. Overrides NOMATCH. GLOB (+F. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion. These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. This option is set by default for backward compatibility.4 Last change: October 26. 2001 4 . Inc. This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell. ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). if set. and cannot be nested. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. Command substitutions are only expanded once. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. and exit. etc. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status.

). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. so it works not only for files but for any completion. HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed. This makes the first completion slower. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘. not globbing. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. etc.g. 2001 5 . GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set. otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity.4 Last change: October 26.0. as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path. etc. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’). This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e. Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. including inside local startup files (. when CORRECT is set. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time. user names. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run.g. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. If this option is unset. This actually uses pattern matching. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted. Inc. Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. However. the startup files /etc/zprofile. no path hashing is done at all. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. such as options. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set. even if the duplicates are not contiguous. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line. You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events. zsh 4. make sure the entire command path is hashed first.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. hash the directory containing it. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. ∗)’) with this option set. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list.zshrc. /etc/zshrc. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. avoiding a path search.

HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion.) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion. but can exceed this value between trimmings. HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked. HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Require the use of exit or logout instead. or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. instead.4 Last change: October 26. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer. older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. This works only for normal widgets. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. Inc. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command.0. don’t execute the line directly. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST. INTERACTIVE (–i. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. However. Also. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input. 2001 6 . ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. type a space and press return. not for completion widgets. HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list.

float. only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. However. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. (By default. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options. ‘off’ otherwise. array elements are numbered from zero. integer. 2001 7 . zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment. in other words. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’). LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. including declare. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. ‘∗ ‘+’. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. This means that when a function is autoloaded. the function is defined to the contents of the file. ‘?’ or ∗’. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. with it. the corresponding file is merely executed.4 Last change: October 26. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. If this option is set. all options are shown. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands. export. LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4. LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. word splitting does not take place in those cases. that is. the second match is to the right of the first one. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. not under it as usual. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored. that is done without a completion list being displayed. and must define the function itself. local and readonly.0. ‘!’. Otherwise. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. are processed. Without this option. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion. More accurately. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

ksh: –l) This is a login shell. the value on exit from the function is irrelevant. In other words. it is passed to the command as a single argument. rather than waiting until just before printing a prompt. MAIL_WARNING (–U) Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked. For example. the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a ‘–’. sleep 3. This option overrides AUTO_MENU. and not used as an actual parameter assignment. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting. both occurrences of ˜ would be replaced.4 Last change: October 26. then the previous status of the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. instead of leaving it unchanged in the argument list. ksh: –X) Append a trailing ‘/’ to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing). where expression has a leading ‘˜’ or ‘=’) performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment. trap ’’ INT. Overrides NOMATCH. When there are no more matches. zsh 4. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. MULTIOS <Z> Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section ‘Redirection’). NULL_GLOB (–G) If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. reverse–menu–complete may be used to loop through the list in the other direction. LONG_LIST_JOBS (–R) List jobs in the long format by default. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function. This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option. unsetopt localtraps trap – INT fn() { setopt localtraps. NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. in echo foo=˜/bar:˜/rod. Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar statements. 2001 8 . Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function. ksh: –m) Allow job control. if both options are in effect. NOTIFY (–5. etc. MONITOR (–m. Inc. print an error. MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST All unquoted arguments of the form ‘anything=expression’ appearing after the command name have filename expansion (that is.0. instead of listing possibilities or beeping. delete the pattern from the argument list instead of reporting an error. insert the first match immediately. MARK_DIRS (–8. Then when completion is requested again. remove the first match and insert the second match. go back to the first one again. Set by default in interactive shells. MENU_COMPLETE (–Y) On an ambiguous completion. it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly restored by a function. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. For example. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately. The argument is not otherwise treated specially. } will restore normally handling of SIGINT after the function exits. If this option is not explicitly set. LOGIN (–l.

4 Last change: October 26. and changing it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. per IEEE Std 1003.2–1992 (ISO 9945–2:1993). etc. POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S> When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell builtin commands. trap and unset. PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (–1) Print the exit value of programs with non–zero exit status. and regardless of whether ‘. Turning this option off causes the effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs. PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z> If set. :. return. export. This option cannot be changed using the –m option of setopt and unsetopt.’ or the current directory appear in the command search path. and he or she types ‘X11/xinit’. set. for example.0. the command ‘/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit’ will be executed (assuming it exists). shift. declare. date and time strings with leading zeroes. This option is not necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)). readonly. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID.. /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive shells). Thus if ‘/usr/local/bin’ is in the user’s path. Inc. break. PRINT_EIGHT_BIT Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists. Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in this form./’ or ‘. OCTAL_ZEROES <S> Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal. Sourcing ˜/. parameter expansion. Special builtins are . ‘. PROMPT_CR (+V) <D> Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor. This also applies to the . times. continue. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern. PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS Don’t push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack. ‘%’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of. zsh 4. ‘!’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. This takes place before any search indicated by this option. ksh: –p) Turn on privileged mode.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored. integer.User Commands Property of BladeLogic./’ are not subject to the path search. eval. 2001 9 . See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. OVERSTRIKE Start up the line editor in overstrike mode. exit. sort the filenames numerically rather than lexicographically. This is on by default as multi–line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears. builtin. source. PROMPT_BANG <K> If set. Commands explicitly beginning with ‘/’. command substitution and arithmetic expansion are performed in prompts. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. PROMPT_SUBST <K> If set.. Parameter assignments specified before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin. This option disables sourcing user startup files. PRIVILEGED (–p. If zsh is invoked as ‘sh’ or ‘ksh’ with this option set. local. PATH_DIRS (–Q) Perform a path search even on command names with slashes in them.

If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported. ˜ expansion) before parameter expansion. /etc/zprofile. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. SHARE_HISTORY <K> This option both imports new commands from the history file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) PUSHD_MINUS Exchanges the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack. This avoids the problem of reflexively answering ‘yes’ to the query when one didn’t really mean it.zshrc.’. zsh 4. but any of the others will not be. arithmetic expansion and brace expansion. RC_EXPAND_PARAM (–P) Array expansions of the form ‘foo${xx}bar’. The history lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off reading the file after it gets re–written). so things like ‘˜$USERNAME’ and ‘˜{pfalstad.. SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S> Perform filename expansion (e.g. If this option is unset. it can be set at any time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced. . See the section ‘Restricted Shell’. It is also possible to create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported commands. where a backslashed single quote can be used.. command substitution. INC_APPEND_HISTORY on. history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines. and also causes your typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY). 2001 10 .zlogout files.rc}’ will work. and .4 Last change: October 26. PUSHD_SILENT (–E) Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd. and some include them. PUSHD_TO_HOME (–D) Have pushd with no arguments act like ‘pushd $HOME’. . REC_EXACT (–S) In completion. recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous.zprofile. . Inc. and then manually import commands whenever you need them using ‘fc –RI’. you may wish to turn SHARE_HISTORY off. /etc/zshrc. The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the ‘∗ in ZLE ∗’ (with tab). /etc/zlogin. and setting it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. source the . By default. the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced. RM_STAR_WAIT If querying the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ first wait ten seconds and ignore any∗’ ∗’. RESTRICTED (–r) Enables restricted mode. Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $’. it is performed after brace expansion. as described in the section ‘Files’. RCS (+f) <D> After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup..zshenv. but you can toggle this on and off with the set–local–history zle binding. If this option is unset. This option cannot be changed using unsetopt. RM_STAR_SILENT (–H) <K> <S> Do not query the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ ∗’ ∗’. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). RC_QUOTES Allow the character sequence ‘’’’ to signify a single quote within singly quoted strings.zlogin. thing typed in that time.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) SH_GLOB <K> <S> Disables the special meaning of ‘(’. Note that this option has nothing to do with word splitting. (See the section ‘Parameter Expansion’. ‘’. unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command line. Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal. SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z> Allow the short forms of for. and function constructs. ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z> Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting. VERBOSE (–v. SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (–M) <K> Use single–line command line editing instead of multi–line.) SINGLE_COMMAND (–t. zsh 4. ‘)’ and ’<’ for globbing the result of parameter and command substitutions. ksh: –s) Commands are being read from the standard input. If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line. ksh: –v) Print shell input lines as they are read. ZLE (–Z) Use the zsh line editor. This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small. and there are an odd number of backquotes on the line. Commands are read from standard input if no command is specified with –c and no file of commands is specified. use ‘:’ instead (see the section ‘Redirection’).0. ksh: –x) Print commands and their arguments as they are executed. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. Otherwise they are treated as an error. if. SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (–L) If a line ends with a backquote. any argument that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal positional parameter. This also affects the value of the – special parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. XTRACE (–x. but can be used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell. Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running – that is purely an indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input. ksh: –t) If the shell is reading from standard input. Inc. OPTION ALIASES Some options have alternative names.4 Last change: October 26. This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh. This also makes the shell non–interactive. SH_WORD_SPLIT (–y) <K> <S> Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions. SH_NULLCMD <K> <S> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections. SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S> If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and setopt) like ksh does. and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns. it exits after a single command has been executed. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it. ignore the trailing backquote. UNSET (+u. select. These aliases are never used for output. SHIN_STDIN (–s. 2001 11 .

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

BRACE_EXPAND NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility) DOT_GLOB GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility) HASH_ALL HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility) HIST_APPEND APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility) HIST_EXPAND BANG_HIST (bash compatibility) LOG NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility) MAIL_WARN MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility) ONE_CMD SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility) PHYSICAL CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility) PROMPT_VARS PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility) STDIN SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility) TRACK_ALL HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)
SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS Default set

–0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –B –C –D –E –F –G –H –I –J –K –L –M –N –O –P

CORRECT PRINT_EXIT_VALUE NO_BAD_PATTERN NO_NOMATCH GLOB_DOTS NOTIFY BG_NICE IGNORE_EOF MARK_DIRS AUTO_LIST NO_BEEP NO_CLOBBER PUSHD_TO_HOME PUSHD_SILENT NO_GLOB NULL_GLOB RM_STAR_SILENT IGNORE_BRACES AUTO_CD NO_BANG_HIST SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK SINGLE_LINE_ZLE AUTO_PUSHD CORRECT_ALL RC_EXPAND_PARAM

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

12

User Commands

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ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–Q –R –S –T –U –V –W –X –Y –Z –a –e –f –g –h –i –k –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –w –x –y –C –X –a –b –e –f –i –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –x
Also note

PATH_DIRS LONG_LIST_JOBS REC_EXACT CDABLE_VARS MAIL_WARNING NO_PROMPT_CR AUTO_RESUME LIST_TYPES MENU_COMPLETE ZLE ALL_EXPORT ERR_EXIT NO_RCS HIST_IGNORE_SPACE HIST_IGNORE_DUPS INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE CHASE_LINKS XTRACE SH_WORD_SPLIT NO_CLOBBER MARK_DIRS ALL_EXPORT NOTIFY ERR_EXIT NO_GLOB INTERACTIVE LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE XTRACE Used by set for setting arrays Used on the command line to specify end of option processing Used on the command line to specify a single command Used by setopt for pattern–matching option setting Used in all places to allow use of long option names

sh/ksh emulation set

–A –b –c –m –o

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

13

User Commands

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ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–s

Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

14

User Commands

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ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

NAME

zshbuiltins – zsh built–in commands
SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

– simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. . file [ arg ... ] Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment. If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory containing file. Files in the current directory are not read unless ‘.’ appears somewhere in $path. If a file named ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed. : [ arg ... ] This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on shell parameters. A zero exit code is returned. alias [ {+–}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ] For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion. If the –g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position. For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any. With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases. If the –m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed. When printing aliases and the –g or –r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or regular aliases, respectively. Using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’, or ending the option list with a single ‘+’, prevents the values of the aliases from being printed. If the –L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup script. The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined. autoload [ {+–}UXmt ] [ –wkz ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to functions –u, with the exception of –X/+X, –w, –k and –z. The flag –X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name. It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments. This replaces the previous definition of the function. If no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it. The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it was found. This does not replace any existing definition of the function. The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined or when no definition was found. In the latter case the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X may be combined with either –k or –z to make the function be loaded using ksh–style or zsh–style autoloading, respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With ksh–style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

1

User Commands

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ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

With the –w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading. bg [ job ... ] job ... & Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified. bindkey See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1). break [ n ] Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one. builtin name [ args ... ] Executes the builtin name, with the given args. bye cap Same as exit. See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

cd [ –sLP ] [ arg ] cd [ –sLP ] old new cd [ –sLP ] {+–}n Change the current directory. In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified. If arg is ‘–’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory. Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath. If no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory. In that case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table. The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory. The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains symlinks. If the –P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values. If the –L option is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option. chdir clone Same as cd. See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

command simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. comparguments See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compcall See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compctl See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compdescribe See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

compfiles See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compgroups See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compquote See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptags See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptry See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compvalues See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). continue [ n ] Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, break out of n–1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop. declare Same as typeset. dirs [ –v ] [ arg ... ] With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack. If the –v option is given, number the directories in the stack when printing. Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands. If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack. disable [ –afmr ] name ... Temporarily disable the named hash table elements. The default is to disable builtin commands. This allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command. The –a option causes disable to act on aliases. The –f option causes disable to act on shell functions. The –r options causes disable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled. Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command. disown [ job ... ] job ... & job ... &! Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped. If no job is specified, disown the current job. echo [ –neE ] [ arg ... ] Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one. If the –n flag is not present, print a newline at the end. echo recognizes the following escape sequences: \a \b \c \e \f \n \r \t \v bell character backspace suppress final newline escape form feed linefeed (newline) carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

3

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

\\ backslash \0NNN character code in octal \xNN character code in hexadecimal The –E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences. In the latter case, –e flag can be used to enable them. echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1). echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1). emulate [ –LR ] {zshshkshcsh} Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible. csh will never be fully emulated. If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zshmisc(1) . If the –R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered. If the –L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. enable [ –afmr ] name ... Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable. The default is to enable builtin commands. The –a option causes enable to act on aliases. The –f option causes enable to act on shell functions. The –r option causes enable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled. Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command. eval [ arg ... ] Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command in the current shell process. exec simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. exit [ n ] Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit code from the last command executed. An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set. export [ name[=value] ... ] The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. Equivalent to typeset –gx. If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope. false [ arg ... ] Do nothing and return an exit code of 1. fc [ –e ename ] [ –nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ] fc –ARWI [ filename ] Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current history event number. A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string. All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

4

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

If the –l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output. If the –m flag is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown. Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events. If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used. If ename is ‘–’, no editor is invoked. When editing is complete, the edited command is executed. If first is not specified, it will be set to –1 (the most recent event), or to –16 if the –l flag is given. If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to –1 if the –l flag is given. The flag –r reverses the order of the commands and the flag –n suppresses command numbers when listing. Also when listing, –d prints timestamps for each command, and –f prints full time–date stamps. Adding the –E flag causes the dates to be printed as ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’. Adding the –i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy–mm–dd’ format. With the –D flag, fc prints elapsed times. ‘fc –R’ reads the history from the given file, ‘fc –W’ writes the history out to the given file, and ‘fc –A’ appends the history out to the given file. If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed. If the –I option is added to –R, only those events that are not already contained within the internal history list are added. If the –I option is added to –A or –W, only those events that are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written. In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries. fg [ job ... ] job ... Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground. If no job is specified, resume the current job. float [ {+–}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted. functions [ {+–}UXmtu ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to typeset –f. getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1). getln [ –AclneE ] name ... Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name. Equivalent to read –zr. getopts optstring name [ arg ... ] Checks the args for legal options. If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters. A valid option argument begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’. An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’, or the argument ‘– –’, ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg begins with a ‘+’. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG. The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND. OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function. OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts. If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored. The option itself is still stored in name in this case. A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to ‘?’ for an unknown option and to ‘:’ when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message when an option is invalid. The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options. hash [ –Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash table. Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table). The choice of hash table to work on is determined by the –d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash table is used. Given no arguments, and neither the –r or –f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full. The –r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied. It will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion. The –f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt immediately. For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this adds all users’ home directories. These two options cannot be used with any arguments. The –m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are printed. This is the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements. For each name with a corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the selected hash table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’. In the command hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by ‘value’. In the named directory hash table, this means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘˜name’. For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table. If an appropriate value can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged. The –v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specification. If has no effect if used with –f. If the –L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash. history Same as fc –l. integer [ {+–}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted. jobs [ –dlprs ] [ job ... ] jobs –Z string Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted. The –l flag lists process IDs, and the –p flag lists process groups. If the –r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed and if the –s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown. If the –d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown. The –Z option replaces the shell’s argument and environment space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit. This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings. This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state. kill [ –s signal_name ] job ... kill [ –sig ] job ... kill –l [ sig ... ] Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes. Signals are given by number or by names, without the ‘SIG’ prefix. If the signal being sent is not ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list. In the third form, kill –l, if sig is not specified the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed. let arg ... Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’ for a

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

6

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

description of arithmetic expressions. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise. limit [ –hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ... Set or display resource limits. Unless the –s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the shell. If –s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children. If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value. If the –h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits. If no resource is given, print all limits. resource can be one of: addressspace Maximum amount of address space used. aiomemorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations. aiooperations Maximum number of AIO operations. cachedthreads Maximum number of cached threads. coredumpsize Maximum size of a core dump. cputime Maximum CPU seconds per process. datasize Maximum data size (including stack) for each process. descriptors Maximum value for a file descriptor. filesize Largest single file allowed. maxproc Maximum number of processes. maxpthreads Maximum number of threads per process. memorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM. memoryuse Maximum resident set size. resident Maximum resident set size. sockbufsize Maximum size of all socket buffers. stacksize Maximum stack size for each process. vmemorysize Maximum amount of virtual memory. Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system. resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix. limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows: nh nk nm [mm:]ss hours kilobytes (default) megabytes or minutes minutes and seconds

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

7

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

local [ {+–}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ... Same as typeset, except that the options –g, and –f are not permitted. In this case the –x option does not force the use of –g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions. log List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter. logout [ n ] Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell. noglob simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. popd [ {+–}n ] Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory. With no argument, the current top entry is removed. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form –n counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. print [ –bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ –un ] [ –R [ –en ]] [ arg ... ] With no flags or with flag ‘–’, the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M–x’ metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), ‘\C–x’ produces a control character (‘\C–@’ and ‘\C–?’ give the characters NUL and delete), and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’. Finally, if not in an escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is not printed. –r –R Ignore the escape conventions of echo. Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless the –e flag is given. The –n flag suppresses the trailing newline. Only the –e and –n flags are recognized after –R; all other arguments and options are printed. Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1). Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern. Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output. Do not add a newline to the output. Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces. Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls. Print the arguments sorted in ascending order. Print the arguments sorted in descending order. If given together with –o or –O, sorting is performed case–independently. Print the arguments in columns. Print the arguments to file descriptor n. Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess. Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces. Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ˜ expressions, as appropriate. Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

–b –m –s –n –l –N –o –O –i –c –un –p –z –D –P pushd [ arg ] pushd old new pushd {+–}n

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

8

] Equivalent to print –nz. If arg is not specified. no input is assigned to the parameters. arg is interpreted as it would be by cd. read [ –rzpqAclneEt ] [ –k [ num ] ] [ –un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name . Otherwise. The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it.4 Last change: October 26. If the –c flag is given. If the –l flag is given. All are assigned to the first name. without word splitting.. and push the old current directory onto the directory stack. etc. Input is read from the terminal unless one of –u or –p is present.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the second field to the second name. This option may also be used within zle widgets. even if used with the –p or –u or –z flags or with redirected input. 2001 9 . Note that this always reads from the terminal. The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output. Note that num must be in the argument word that follows –k. The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd. See –u. If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays. Text is pushed onto the stack with ‘print –z’ or with push–line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)). In the first form. or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the –L flag is not given. the directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed. With this flag set the return value is zero only if the character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’. without word splitting. –r –q Raw mode: a ‘\’ at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote the following character and are not removed. the words of the current command are read.0.. Read only one character from the terminal and set name to ‘y’ if this character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ otherwise. –z Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name. The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) Change the current directory. The first field is assigned to the first name. r Same as fc –e –. the printed path will not contain symbolic links. pwd [ –rLP ] Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory. change to the second directory on the stack (that is. This flag is ignored when –q is present. This option may also be used within zle widgets. exchange the top two entries). starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command. –k [ num ] Read only one (or num) characters. ] Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators.. pushln [ arg . change the current directory to arg.. except as noted below. the whole line is assigned as a scalar. If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set. This flag is ignored when the –k or –q flags are present. not in the same word. the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the –K flag to compctl). An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. Inc. If the –e flag is used. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set. with leftover fields assigned to the last name.. or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack. If both flags are –e –E –A –c –l zsh 4. If the –r or the –P flag is specified.

Input is read from the coprocess. if +A is used and name is an array. If the first argument contains a ‘?’. set [ {+–}options  {+–}o option_name ] . Note that read does not attempt to alter the input processing mode. its character index is the length of the line plus one. when called from within completion with –c or –l. or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to test for input. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) present. With +s sort arguments in descending order. ] Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters. With zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the trap). Presently –q cancels all the others. with –q which clears the input queue before reading. script to return to the invoking script with the return status specified by n. The default mode is canonical input. name is set to an array containing the given args. –u and –z flags is undefined. rehash Same as hash –r.. so usually ‘read –t’ will not read anything until an entire line has been typed. 2001 10 . the number of the word the cursor is on is read. –p. This is not available when reading from the editor buffer with –z. the effect is different for zero and non–zero return status. –q. or declare and set an array. and otherwise –z cancels both –p and –u.0. –k cancels –z. and that when the cursor is at the end of the line. or when –c or –l is present and the command is not called from a compctl function. note that only availability of the first character is tested. If the –s option is given. If the –A flag is specifi