BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

0. Put a space between each host name. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH.. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. use either the ncpu or nover commands.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.. Put a space between each host name. By default.P. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6. hostname The names or I.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. agentinfo displays a message to that effect.P. If the current directory is on the local host.4.0.0. Inc. You can also specify the names or I. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.P. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts.3.3. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host. by design. Do not output a header. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6. List one host per line.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. the CSV file includes a header line. You can turn off the header line with the -H option. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message.160 solarishost SunOS 5. With no arguments.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that.160 NSH 1 .3. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host.

SEE ALSO ncpu (1). Inc.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH.0.3. version(1) NSH 2 . nover (1). Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6.

License hosts that are currently un-licensed. License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. Login to the BladeLogic support website. -c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. Debug output. upload the license file created by the getlic command. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . List one host per line. Inc. Apply the licenses with the putlic command. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. You can specify more than one option.. and then download the generated license. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 . autolic processes all the hosts you specify.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not include any of these four options. In most cases.. do not use this option. host1 . Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing.dat file. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. regardless of their license status. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information...

Inc.mycompany. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy.conf (from the NSH install directory).com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. by a firewall). the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy. For autolic to function properly. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy. the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type. Instead. based on the your current customer/prospect status. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent). NSH 2 . putlic(NSH).mycompany. Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH). you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic. do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. agentinfo(NSH).com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy.

’). print |. after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line. The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. The fields are denoted $1. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’. -safe Disable file output (print >. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. an open brace (‘()’). a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. process creation (cmd | getline.. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. Additionally. .. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. $2.. not a filename. An action is a sequence of statements. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement. any number of blanks separate fields. or by the regular expression FS. Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . while $0 refers to the entire line. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. the input line is split into one field per character. Set debug level to n. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace.. Normally. Inc. nawk . system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. If FS is null. Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern.. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 .. a logical OR (‘||’). This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . or by the value of RS.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. This is convenient when working with multi-line records. or 1 if n is not specified. or ‘while’ statement. DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. If RS is null. expression. a missing pattern always matches. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). see the section on variables below). ‘for’. any number of -v options may be present. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. print >>).. a logical AND (‘&&’).

the constituents are concatenated. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement . start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. assignable. a relational expression.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [. Variables are initialized to the null string.. this allows for a form of associative memory.. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr. and terminated by the output record separator. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. Array subscripts may be any string. using the operators ˜ and !˜. non-null members are taken as filenames. The operators ! ++ -. newlines or right braces. Inc. String constants are quoted "". and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match).. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma. and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation).) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. assignable.j. separated by the current output field separator. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file. expr. in this case.. Variables may be scalars. Argument array.. /re/ is a constant regular expression. open next. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. Multiple subscripts such as [i. the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). An empty expression-list stands for $0. Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). NSH 2 . array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line. .+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate.k] are permitted. or a Boolean combination of these. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. not necessarily numeric. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons..cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present). separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)).. A conditional is an arithmetic expression. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these).

where x is in radians. FILENAME The name of the current input file. Return the square root of x. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034).cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. where x is in radians. If expr is omitted. Input record separator (default newline). FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. Output format for numbers (default "%. NSH 3 . n. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. t. ENVIRON Array of environment variables.6g"). Output record separator (default newline). or 0 if it does not. Return the exponential of x. String Functions gsub(r. gsub() returns the number of replacements. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. also settable by option -F fs. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. string. Regular expression used to separate fields. FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. Return x truncated to an integer value.6g"). Ordinal number of the current record. Output field separator (default blank). RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. the time of day is used instead. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. index(s. Return a random number. such that 0<=n<1. input/output and general. Return the natural logarithm of x. Inc. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. Return the sine of x. subscripts are names.

cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. substr(s. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). As long as the stream remains open. . m. cat(1) match(s. 0 for end of file. The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr.. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. split(s. getline returns 1 for a successful input. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s.. Inc. NSH 4 . If s is not given. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s.. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. This form of getline sets the variables NF. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1.. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. the variables $0 and NF are set. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). If file is not open.) The string resulting from formatting expr. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. according to the printf(3) format fmt. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). If var is omitted. and FNR.. or 0 if it does not. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character. a[n] and returns n. or -1 if no match is found. getline returns 1 for a successful input. t. a[2]. it is opened. If the stream is not open. or of $0 if no argument is given. NR. If n is omitted. Otherwise var is set. Otherwise var is set. and -1 for an error. a. The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’).. sub() returns the number of replacements. . subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. and -1 for an error. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. As long as the stream remains open. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. If var is omitted. expr. sprintf(fmt. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file. sub(r. the variables $0 and NF are set. 0 for end of file. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd.. $0 is used. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. . it is opened.

$1 } Same. c) { . Addison-Wesley. B. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). 1988. Aho. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. V. BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. all other variables are global.. and by reference if array name. sed(1). Inc. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . printf(1).. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. " average is". return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar. the syntax is worse. i++) printf "%s ". print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is". EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. $1 } Add up first column. J. b. with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". The AWK Programming Language. Parameters are local to the function. copy. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. Kernighan. Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. functions may be called recursively. modify. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. and P. W. Weinberger. s.. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. i < ARGC. printf(3) A.[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. lex(1).

Inc. written prior permission. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. DATA OR PROFITS. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 . and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific.

Once a certificate is created on a client. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. such as /home/johnk. Inc.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic.pem. id. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic.Property of BladeLogic. the user is prompted for a private key password.bladelogic. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.509 certificate in a file named id. NSH 1 . In Windows. id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. On UNIX. Inc. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.

bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. password. the system prompts for a user ID. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. Inc. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. When you run bl_srp_agent. If you do not use this option. and role. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. NSH 1 . After entering your user information. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. After you provide this information.

session credentials. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified. you must also provide a user name and password. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. To log into a BladeLogic system. or Network Shell Proxy Server.xml NSH 1 . which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. To use blcred on a client machine. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. And. and trusted certificates. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles.e. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. and delete authentication profiles. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. you must have Operations Manager installed. Network Shell. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. Configuration Manager. Inc.. add. session credentials. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. you must provide an authentication profile and other information. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service. Application Server.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. and trusted certificates. a Kerberos TGT). a BladeLogic client application (i. The utility lets you show.509 certificates. If you are using SRP authentication. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. Using the information you provide. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. Using that session credential. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. Provisioning Manager.

509 certificates.pkcs12 for Windows. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. If the time option is present. the default credential cache file is used. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. If an authentication profile name is not specified. To acquire a session credential. the user is prompted for a user name and password. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache. and service ticket. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. NSH 2 .bladelogic/client_keystore. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. which holds trusted X. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. including the client IP address. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials.conf file. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile. issuing service URL.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. Default trust keystores are unique per user. If the username option is present.dat) using the -i parameter. authentication type. If a name is not specified. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/. Inc. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES. the default keystore file is used. When selecting an SRP profile. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. destination service URLs. Alternatively. Default credential caches are unique per user. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. and expiration time of session credentials. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. the user is prompted for a name.

-host. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option. Inc. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. The -all parameter deletes all certificates. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. and -type parameters. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). NSH 3 . Additionally. Named authentication profile did not exist.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store. such as -acquire -profile profile_name. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. Users are prompted for omitted information. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x).blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. cert –list Lists all X. Authentication Service. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user. The profile name. cache contained credential with desired properties.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. Cached credential did not match named authentication profile.

It prints the result to stdout. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn. LF) as optional operand/operator separators. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr . OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 .b.P. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function.c. DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator. It takes all of its arguments as input..mm 0xABC a. An expression consists of operands and operators.. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. TAB. You can use whitespaces (SPACE. If you do not specify any arguments. OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators. Inc.d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I. CR.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. then creates and evaluates an expression.

Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types. . blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value.0. then proceeds with the operation. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero). 3. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. If the argument is a string.. 7.. 5. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value.. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world").. max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. with the resulting value also being a floating point value.5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . and floating point numbers. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. blexpr adds the arguments. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100).14").) Return the average of all arguments given. with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. If it is. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). then divides by the number of arguments. 2. Inc. arg2. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. decimal numbers. min_val. The supported functions are: average (arg1. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. 2. 1. arg1. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1. it returns 0 (false). blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. In the case of the three numeric types.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value.5") * 2. 3. then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point. Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. .14)’ 12 equals_any (val. 3. 4)’ 2. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer.

40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n". "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME". The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles. args .30. The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote..) Both these functions generate a formatted output. address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional . 27)’ 14 printf (format. it returns true_val. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP". otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3").P. Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format.m]. "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME". args . true_val.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. Inc. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -.. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -. NSH 3 .blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic.20.) sprintf (format.%s %s --\n". The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I. If val is true. Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val. The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970).9s". false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val... $FIRSTNAME. 10. 14. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string.

The optional format arguments specifies output format. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). You define the name of the variable with string. you should use the respective macros supported by the call. val) strstr can be used in one of two ways. $IP). Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string. strlen returns a length of 0. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. Once you have created a variable this way. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. If you supply a value that is not a string. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Inc. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world".blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. If you do not specify a format.20. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . and you define the value of the variable with expr. $IP. "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO".40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10.30.

such as /home/johnk. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. On UNIX. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X.Property of BladeLogic. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. In Windows. the user is prompted for a private key password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.509 certificate in a file named id.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. Inc. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.pem. Inc. Once a certificate is created on a client.bladelogic. id. NSH 1 . id.

e. COMMAND_OPTIONS. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent".. the status displays as "Unknown. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].g. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host. [TARGET]. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks.. e. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status. "Inconsistent".Property of BladeLogic. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. [TARGET]. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed.. Inc. and TARGETS NSH 1 . as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile.. or "Unknown." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with... //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries... If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].g... //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman..

mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list.Property of BladeLogic. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data). the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. Exercising the p option. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp". e. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 .mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. As a result.log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. Inc. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp".g. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries.

Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Inc. Inc. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 .Property of BladeLogic.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.

[COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing.. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman.. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. [TARGET]. as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file. logman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution.. Inc.. DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks... as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS.. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 . COMMAND_OPTIONS. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands. [TARGET]. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. Use only when copying a signature file.Property of BladeLogic....

or "Unknown.1" does not already exist.log.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host. and private key file on the local host.log NSH 2 . This command is intended to be used for client side verification. you must have the corresponding signature file. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. For example." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. Note: All files needed for this command should be local. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found.1. To execute this command. or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status. certificate file. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd.log" to "rscd." assuming "rscd.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. Inc. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. "Inconsistent". logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file. this option returns a status as "Unknown. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent".log. Use only when rotating a signature file. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. You can request the status of all the log files on a host. logfile Full path to local log file.

Inc.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.Property of BladeLogic. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.0 release.log.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.log.3.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd.pem All files need to be on the local host. Inc. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.log. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 .sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate.

and the subsequent escaping thereof. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. otherwise it returns 0. or against any number of remote servers. In addition to specifying host names on the command line. To create comment lines. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout. Instead..then blquery reads input from stdin. If you specify server names. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. To query the local host. otherwise it returns 0. A file containing the expression you want to run. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 . then blquery will query against each of the given servers. Do not include the hostname as part of the output.. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. otherwise it returns 0. If file is a . blquery will query the local server. Inc. just omit any server names. host1 . NSH 1 . If you do not specify a host name. hostN The hosts you want to query.. Expression to run against the given hosts. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host.. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true.Property of BladeLogic. To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. output only the resulting value.

and bundles. they mostly support the general concept of software installations. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID.Property of BladeLogic. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. otherwise it returns 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. NSH 2 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. Inc. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. patches. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1.

These functions take an expression as their argument. with the exception of Linux. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. so the values are not guaranteed to be set. The NSH 3 .Property of BladeLogic. patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry. Inc. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). which does not support patches.

NAME. patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number.blq NSH 4 . In this case.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n". you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions.A password-checking library. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software. "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr.Property of BladeLogic. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. show_date (DATE. if (DATE <= 0. DESCRIPTION.7-8 . Not all software has a version number. Example: $ cat patch. To do this. Because these functions scan through all entries. "Unknown install date". include the printf call inside of the given expression.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines. these functions return a zero length string. Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. these functions may still have a universal appeal. you can also use them for reporting. Inc.blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s .blq cracklib-2. Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2. NAME)’). making it seem like two different patches are installed.7-8 . patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches. $ blquery solaris8 -E patch. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field).The standard CrackLib dictionaries. By using these functions.

The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record. Inc.. config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". The first record/field is 0. it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. "/"). If you omit the expression. "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". The expr argument is optional. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0.Property of BladeLogic.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. As its second parameter. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. For UNIX and Linux systems. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile. $0)"). The skip parameter is optional. This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr.. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. $1 . expr. NSH 5 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files. $N for each respective field in the current record. If you use it. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. For Windows systems. Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". the function returns the total number of records.

"/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". "$5 = $USRBIN"). "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". records occur in a config file in no particular order. "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". config_record_number ($INI. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. $RECORD.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". 0)’ bin NSH 6 . config_record_number ($PASSWD. "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from. In many cases. record.Property of BladeLogic. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). Inc. 0.

FULLNAME The configured name of the user. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. config_record_number ($INI. These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. record. The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. but ones that do include Windows . then the record does not have a parent record. The numeric UID of the user. the following dynamic variable are supported.BNI".Property of BladeLogic. If the function returns a negative number (-1). $RECORD. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. Not all config files have a hierarchy. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument. On its own this function has limited value. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB".BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. Details are included below. Although config files are generally treated as flat files. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). Inc. and returns the value of field field. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts.

accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. Inc. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type. UID)"). NAME. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) .Property of BladeLogic. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account. \"Normal Account\"). EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. On Windows systems. expr. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. . LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". \"Super User Account\". On Windows systems. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. On Windows systems.

the function returns an error message. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. Inc. that field is returned. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . the function refers to a start script. On Windows. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message.Property of BladeLogic. the function returns an error message. that field is returned. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. When it is set. On Windows. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message.

5. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked.Property of BladeLogic.2. otherwise it returns 0. If the user does not exist.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs.")’ 1. Inc. with respective return values of 1. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . the function returns an error message.3. For Windows systems. For Windows. Otherwise it is a normal account. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. To display the date of last login in human readable form. 2. use the show_date () function. For UNIX systems. The default separator is a SPACE character. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. ". If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs.7.6. The default separator is a SPACE character. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root".9. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. There are three types of possible accounts: . administrator.0. normal.4. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0.8. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. or 3. the function returns 0. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user. these are inherent attributes of a user account. and guest.

The default separator is a SPACE character. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n". group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values.Property of BladeLogic. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. the following dynamic variables are supported. $ cat showgroups. Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. The numeric GID of the user. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname.blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. printf ("-----------------\n"). Inc. NAME. group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. GID)’). Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). Example: NSH 11 . .

Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Inc. you can use the following dynamic variables. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. ". and returns the I. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp". All of these functions take an expression as an argument. address in the standard 4 octet notation.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10.30.30.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.0 NSH 12 . This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address.20.255.P. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr.")’ root. The adapter’s I.40\"")’ 255.255. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10. Within these expressions.P. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10.20.20. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.30.

$ blquery solaris8 -E speed. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. 2. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr.blq set_variable ("FLAGS". Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. Example: $ cat speed. "Half Duplex". "1Gb". The return value is a 64 bit integer. if ($FLAGS & 32. "Full Duplex".Property of BladeLogic. The interface is running in full duplex mode. if ($FLAGS & 64. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. "Auto"))). "100 Mb".20.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. The return value is a 64 bit integer. Inc.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0.30.20. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. "10 Mb". "NA"))). The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec.30. 1. 4. The interface is running in half duplex mode. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. If you do not specify expr. and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. the function matches all adapters. NSH 13 .40\"")’ 10. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr.

Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5. Inc.0.11.8 linux: 7. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters.21.0.101 255. The wrapper functions are described first. Other platforms.1 win2k: 5.Property of BladeLogic. NAME.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n").255.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2.4. SUBNET)’). On AIX.0 hpux11: B. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host. followed by the generic functions. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information.255.2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system.0. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).20. the function returns the Service Pack.1 255. IP. On Linux. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 . $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters. the function returns the maintenance release. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host.0 hme0 10. the function returns the kernel release number.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n".0. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways. On Windows.

Not all systems return a value. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS. Inc.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system.4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.0800 win2k: 0.5100 linux: 0.9100 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS.Property of BladeLogic.0300 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 .

3800 linux: 0. "STATS". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). Inc. "/C". "OVER". ntop_value (type. NSH 16 .2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. the first line of output consists of the column names. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".Property of BladeLogic. Some columns have a two word name. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Check the individual ntop commands for more details. "/C". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". column. "DF". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command. expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS". use the first word of the name to identify the column. or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. "NET". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". In this case.8000 win2k: 0. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition.

the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. Example: # # For each server. If the expression is a numeric.0560 linux3: 0. the function returns the field value of the first record.0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". "DF" and "PS").1f MB". Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above). column.1480 linux2: 0. If you specify an expression as a string.Property of BladeLogic. "FREE") / 1024. the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. You may use column names to construct the expression. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). a value of -1 means the last record).3800 ntop_sum (type. "MEM". Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example. "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as.0890 # # For each server. it returns a value of -1. The first record is 0. the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. "CAPACITY".1200 linux: 0. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. If the function does not find any matching records. the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". If you do not specify an expression. Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". $HOSTNAME. "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0. expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. Inc. "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME".0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911.2 MB NSH 17 . ntop_sum ("DF". the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access.

Inc. Therefore. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated. column. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 . otherwise it returns 0. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE"). within an expression string. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45.8 MB 36208. Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7.1f%%". ntop_average ("DF". you need to escape it. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". then it return the total number of entries. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values. Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4.4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13.6% ntop_record_count (type.0 MB ntop_average (type. "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE". $HOSTNAME. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. If expr is not given. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists.Property of BladeLogic.

REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. REG_BINARY. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1.Property of BladeLogic. string. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples). use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists.) depends on the registry value type. REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. REG_LINK. int. Inc. There are no NSH 19 . etc. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. The supported types are: REG_DWORD. otherwise it returns 0. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. REG_SZ. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example.

These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). "SYSTEM_START". If service is an integer. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. "*\\mysqld-nt. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). or "DISABLED". the function returns the total number of configured services. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). or "PENDING". One of "BOOT_START". In the case of a string. "MANUAL". Account name service is run as. "AUTO_START". "STOPPED". the function returns 0. service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. If you do not specify expr.Property of BladeLogic. Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. If the service does not exist. DESCRIPTION Description of service. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service.exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. service can be either a string or an integer. "DISABLED") NSH 20 .exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. Display name of service (long name). if you specified an out of range record number. Inc. if it is not running. There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. One of "RUNNING". or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0.

to access particular service records. field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. Returns the account name service is run as. Inc. Once you get this record number. Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START".blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). "STOPPED". (" RUNNING: %d\n". "SYSTEM_START". or "DISABLED". Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING".exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. "*\\mysqld-nt. NSH 21 . field should be one of the following string values. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. $PENDING). or "PENDING". service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE".exe" is running or not. Returns the display name of service (long name). "AUTO_START". (" PENDING: %d\n". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". (" STOPPED: %d\n". $RUNNING). $STOPPED). service_record_count ()).blq set_variable ("RUNNING". service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". you can use it in other services functions. "MANUAL". DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. $ blquery win2k -E expr. The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records.Property of BladeLogic.

The argument service can be either a string or an integer. ntop (NSH). nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql". "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt.Property of BladeLogic. Returns zero length string. "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. nstats (NSH). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service.exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL".exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). nmem (NSH). In the case of a string. ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). nover (NSH). Inc. If service is an integer. "MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). ndf (NSH). nps (NSH).

bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. NSH 1 . After entering your user information. the system prompts for a user ID. Inc. When you run bl_srp_agent. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. After you provide this information. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. password. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. Inc. and role. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. If you do not use this option.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic.

When you run bl_srp_agent. Inc. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. After entering your user information. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. NSH 1 . where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. After you provide this information. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. and role. the system prompts for a user ID. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. If you do not use this option. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. password. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key.

or have serious file name length restrictions. permissions. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames .tbz2 or . In this case. Inc. v1.tbz2 becomes filename.. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename.tar anyothername becomes anyothername. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output.. bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files. and Huffman coding.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. specify the −f flag. Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip. .bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . Each compressed file has the same modification date.tbz. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. and.out appended. when possible.bz2. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.bz becomes filename filename. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags. and uses the original name with . such as MS-DOS.tbz becomes filename. If no file names are specified. As with compression. ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames . bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files. but they are not identical. permissions.. and a warning issued. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. If you want this to happen.bz. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time.bz2 becomes filename filename. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file. 1 . .. ownership as the corresponding original.. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm.tar filename. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. with the name "original_name. .bz2"..

9. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations. at the expense of your compression ratio. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression.0 or later. Compression is always performed. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. in that order.5 bytes per block byte. though. Inc. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. During compression. −s --small Reduce memory usage. use −s for everything. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. but don’t decompress them.05 bits per byte. albeit at about half the normal speed. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. which it otherwise wouldn’t do.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.5%. −d --decompress Force decompression. Normally. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. which limits memory use to around the same figure. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. for compression. and forces bzip2 to decompress. −f --force Force overwrite of output files. In short. −s selects a block size of 200k. As a self-check for your protection. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. I/O errors. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. decompression and testing. This flag overrides that mechanism. &c). The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. regardless of the invokation name. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. 2 . giving an expansion of around 0. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. invalid flags. that the check occurs upon decompression. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory. It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. Be aware. bzip2. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2.

for example: bzip2 −. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. For files compressed with the default 900k block size. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. The relevant flag is -s. 900 k when compressing. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. −v --verbose Verbose mode -. 0. 3 . can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ).000 bytes through 900. For example. in bytes. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. since that maximises the compression achieved. Compression and decompression requirements. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. so you should use this option only where necessary.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns.9. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. about 2300 kbytes. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. license terms and conditions. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. since the file is smaller than a block. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file.. Inc. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory.−myfilename. or 100k + ( 2. even if they start with a dash. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names.5 and above. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. In general. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes.show the compression ratio for each file processed.9. Similarly. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine.000 bytes (the default) respectively. 200 k . −L --license -V --version Display the software version. At decompression time. compressing a file 20. Has no effect when decompressing. which was sometimes useful. Decompression speed is also halved.

bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1.bz2". and writes a number of files "rec0001file. and decompress those which are undamaged. "rec0002file. since a damaged block cannot be recovered. this figure was more like 100:1. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block .bz2 file to become damaged. Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3.lists the files in the correct order. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files.for example.. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. bzip2recover takes a single argument. This means that performance. The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal. containing the extracted blocks. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. if you want. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large .bz2". Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. Inc.622 bytes.. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty.9. as these will contain many blocks. and write each block out into its own . you might consider compressing with a smaller block size.141. small changes to the 4 . Because of this. the name of the damaged file. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. Versions 0. Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks.bz2 > recovered_data" -.bz2 files.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -.bz2 file. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols. Each block is handled independently. Because of this. "bzip2 -dc rec*file. usually 900kbytes long. For previous versions. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. like "aabaabaabaab .bz2 files. both for compressing and decompressing. It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. etc.

I am much indebted for their help.0 and 0. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly.org. This manual page pertains to version 1.co.com/bzip2 http://www. 0.demon. http://sourceware. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be. and many refinements). 0. This could easily be fixed. Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip.1pl2. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files. so as to speed up compression. versions 0. Many people sent patches. so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. lent machines.9.5. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.1pl2 cannot do this.0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip).muraroa. for the Huffman coder). helped with portability problems. support and advice. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms. David Wheeler (again.cygnus.9. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation).0 of bzip2. AUTHOR Julian Seward. gave advice and were generally helpful. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance. 5 . Inc. jseward@acm. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream. and Alistair Moffat. but with the following exception: 0. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation.9.

Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. sh(1). print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. BSD May 2. 1995 1 . vis(1). read and output contents of the standard input again. If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.file2 .CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line. EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. The tab character. Inc. . then finally output the contents of file3. The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. sh(1)) for more information on redirection.g. print the contents of file2. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. less(1). See the manual page for your shell (e. "UNIX Style. or cat -v Considered Harmful". USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. . Number the output lines. can be made visible via the −t option. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. 1983.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. truncating file3 if it already exists..file3 SEE ALSO head(1). The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. The file operands are processed in command-line order. $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. causing the output to be single spaced. more(1).2”) specification. Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X. writing them to the standard output. Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. cat reads from the standard input. starting at 1.2-1992 (“POSIX. which are displayed normally. pr(1). control-I. tail(1). with the exception of the tab and EOL characters. $ cat file1 .

1995 2 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification. BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2.CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

In addition. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output..] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. In addition. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . If the registry location is not found/set. With this option only error messages are output. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS.. To determine which password to use. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. Inc. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly... When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. If a password was not specified with the -p option. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set. To this end.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content. -r -q host . The name of the hosts to be updated.

chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. To turn it off. NSH 1 . chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric.. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. use the -l option.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. chgrp [-fhRv?] user. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . New owner of the file (user name or UID). However. DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). Inc.. this option is turned on. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin.group file . and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. See the -r option.’). Instead. By default. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. chgrp changes only the group ownership. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’.. By default. This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes.. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur.

The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). You specified an unknown GID or UID. Unable to get a license to use the software. chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine. If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Unknown option or missing file argument. NSH 2 . CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). you may not achieve the ownership change you want.

special files. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. If chmod encounters a directory.e. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. . This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. mode can be an absolute octal value. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. or a series of comma separated instructions. etc).. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions.. If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory.. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. chmod silently skips it. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change. The permissions changes you want to make. chmod silently skips it.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. File whose mode you want to change. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who . since directories usually have different permissions than files. Inc. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. See the DESCRIPTION section above.. regular files. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list.

The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. and read.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected. execute permissions for the owner of the file. chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. write. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read. Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. write. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. execute for both the group and other users). Unknown option or missing file argument. chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions. NSH 2 . execute for user.

. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file . By default. Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. By default. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. However. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. New owner of the file (user name or UID). this option is turned on. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. Inc. without changing any ownerships. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. NSH 1 . chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. See the -r option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. You can turn it off with the -l option.. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to.group file .’) and a group name to the user name. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename. this command changes only the user ownership. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link... New group owner of the file (group name or GID).chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Instead. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown.

the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used. ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. Unable to get a license to use the software.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. Consequently. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). Unknown option or missing file argument. NSH 2 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected.

ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. the role selection is ignored. Your current role is role1. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. and then reconnect. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. NSH 1 . $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. when you have an existing connection. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must specify a new role preference. provided the active user is authorized for that role. Inc. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. you must disconnect.

Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility. If no file name is specified.. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value.. For historic reasons. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used. and >0 if an error occurs. the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1.. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic.. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). the standard input is used and no file name is written. See description below. Using this interface. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command. the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. Partial blocks are rounded up. NSH 1 . Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. the total number of octets in the file and the file name.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16. with a right rotation before each addition. These fields are a checksum CRC. overflow is discarded. This is a 32-bit checksum. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes.e. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. least significant octet first. Inc. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet. This is a 16-bit checksum. The cksum utility exits 0 on success.. These n bits are the bits from the file. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file .

Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). algorithm 2 is used. With the P_ATT variable set. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. Berkeley and its contributors. SEE ALSO sum(1). A system error message follows the output of the error message.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. algorithm 1 is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. Inc. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. NSH 2 . UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected. cksum(1). EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software.

rhosts file on host oslo has changed. By default. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. The first file in the comparison. even with the -l option. find all differences in the files. checking to see if they are identical.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference. Instead. cmp always considers the files not to be identical. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. If file1 is ’-’.rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. cp rhosts. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. When this happens.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/. The second file in the comparison.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical.rhosts chown root. NSH 1 . Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. then cmp uses the standard input. If it has. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. and the two different character values found in the files.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. Inc.master //oslo/. For each difference it finds.root //oslo/. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’). then the offset is read instead of being seeked over. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical.master //oslo/.

Unable to get a license to use the software. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus. One of the files was not accessible. Inc.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Output is written to the standard output. Berkeley and its contributors. Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight. If only the start column is specified. Inc. SEE ALSO column(1). paste(1) SunOS 5. not zero. Column numbering starts with one. columns numbered less than the start column will be written. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. Input is read from the standard input. cut(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written.8 Last change: NSH 1 . If both start and stop columns are specified. A column is defined as a single character in a line.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file.

which should be sorted lexically. Berkeley and its contributors. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1. For example. all characters participate in line comparisons.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO cmp(1). and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1.8 Last change: NSH 1 . lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2. uniq(1) SunOS 5. ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. lines only in file2. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. Suppress printing of column 3. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. Comm exits 0 on success. and lines printed in column number three will have one. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . if column number two is being suppressed. Suppress printing of column 2. and lines in both files. >0 if an error occurred. Inc. sort(1).

. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. . instead they are converted to “tar”. No files are modified (force zcat mode). It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). Force compression of file.. If either the input or output files are not regular files. renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). the files are not overwritten. ..Z”. If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. “-Z”. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. “_Z”. access time. in compress mode. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. “. the deflate mode of compression is chosen. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file. and the attributes of the input file are not retained. copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. The options are as follows: −1. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. “_gz”. If compression would not reduce the size of a file. . Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode). If no files are specified. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c.gz”. user ID. The default is −6. file flags. This option implies −g. and “_taz”. “-tgz”.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. “.9 Use the deflate scheme.taz”. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. Inc. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). see gzip(1) for more information. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. “-gz”. 2008 1 . When uncompressing. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file .Z”. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g). As many of the modification time. but is relatively slow. “_tgz”. the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. Additionally. If invoked as compress −g. . Instead. “.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding.tgz”. even if it is not actually reduced in size. These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. with compression factor of −1 to −9. the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. the input file is not removed. but provides a poorer level of compression.] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. this information is not used. “-taz”. . described below. file mode. By default. recognising the following extensions: “. uncompress. Compression factor −1 is the fastest.

If the −v option is specified. 2008 2 . −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. When compressing. Print the license. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. Size of the file when uncompressed. for the uncompressed version. Use compress mode (the default). if any. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. if the compression ratio decreases. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. BSD April 3. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. List information for the specified compressed files. −N When uncompressing or listing. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. compress periodically checks the compression ratio. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. When code 512 is reached. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached.Property of BladeLogic. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. However. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . Inc. After the bits limit is reached. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories. If it is increasing. −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. Print a short help message. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode).

. IEEE Computer.3 BSD. SEE ALSO Welch. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]. and takes less time to compute. 17:6. 8−19. or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack). or 2 if a warning occurred. uncompress. and the distribution of common substrings. Terry A. BSD April 3. pp. 1984. The compress. 2008 3 . June.Property of BladeLogic. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. Typically. the number of bits per code. STANDARDS The compress.1. and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. 1 if an error occurred. and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. Inc. uncompress. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output.

By default. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. Preserve parent. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. then cp overwrites the file. when cp creates a new file. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . When the destination directory does exist. use the -b command..c becomes foo. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. With this option. By default. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. Don’t actually make any changes. If the target directory does already exist. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. cp creates it and copies the content into it. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. If the destination directory does exist. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. cp copies multiple files into a directory. for example. permissions. if the target file already exists. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it.. By default. If the target directory does not already exist. This also applies to new directories being created. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. when cp copies a directory.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. cp overwrites it. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. if it exists. and access and modification times as the source file. before copying over the new source file. In the first form. then cp will create the directory as required. If the destination directory does not exist. and copies the content into it. When copying to a directory. so that. cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. Synchronize file ownerships. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). If a target file already exists. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. If the target file already exists. To turn on the file backup feature. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. This option turns off the -i option. In the second form. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. By default. Synchronize file permissions. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. With the -P option. Inc. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. and is consequently overwritten. With his option.

Conditional copy. If the file sizes are the same. -S and -C. Conditional copy. Output a message for each file being copied. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. then the backup will not be overwritten. NSH 2 . This option is the same as the -r option. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. Conditional copy. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. should it be a symbolic link. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. follow symbolic links. This option implies the -S option. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. If you use this option with the -p option. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). See the -u option. write. When recursing through directories. Inc. especially on a large file. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. They are -T. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. See the -u option. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. except that it applies only to the top level file. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. With the -P option. and execute. This option can be very resource intensive. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. This is the no parent option. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy.

this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. With the P_ATT variable set. the -f option will override the -i option. NSH 3 . this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. cp was unable to copy all files requested. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. Inc. cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. SEE ALSO dsync (1). uncp(1). then this message appears. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. Unknown option or missing file argument. cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . the -i option will override the -f option. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear. Unable to get a license to use the software. this message will appear. If cp is not able to create one of these directories. ncp(1). indicating that cp cannot copy directories. it will display this message. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. cp will display this message. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy.

’) character as the field separator. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream. With this option. With this option. Inc. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. Do not output the root node tag. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code. csv2xml generates column names. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name.21-4. This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 .4. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. OPTIONS -<number> By default.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. in the format of column-<record number>. Do not output the XML header entry. and in turn XML tags. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option. It uses this header line to name the columns of input. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator.

csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record. ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1). csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters. nmem(1). nover(1). If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. csv2xml will not display these additional fields.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. nnet(1). Inc. ndf(1). ncpu(1). nstats(1). If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character.

-f list Indicates that the list specifies fields. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 . Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unless specified. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. -s The arguments following the options -c. Column numbering starts from 1. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. Inc. and writes them to the standard output. -d. lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second.. a dash (-). If you do. inclusively. Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file .. Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. Berkeley and its contributors. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). and in any order. overlapping. 1 if an error occurred. that character is used to separate output fields. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character.. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number. delimited in the input by a single tab character. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. Number ranges consist of a number. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success.. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. the correct number of bytes is read.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. Otherwise.. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd . For all other devices. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Write output to file instead of the standard output.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. Set the conversion record size to n bytes.. Copy n input files before terminating. The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. input data is read and discarded. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. The number of truncated input records. value . NSH 1 . space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. If the seek operation is past the end of file.. Otherwise. For pipes. a lseek(2) operation is used. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. On non-tape devices. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. If the user does not have read permission for the tape.3BSD-reno systems. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. If no conversion values other than noerror. On input which supports seeks. notrunc or sync are specified. ascii. Any trailing newline character is discarded. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. superseding the ibs and obs operands. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. if any.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. When finished.. a lseek(2) operation is used. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. If input reads are short. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. Read input from file instead of the standard input. Inc.

Where sizes are specified. the number is multiplied by 512. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. otherwise NUL bytes are used. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. ‘‘k’’. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. When finished. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. NSH 2 . which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. Normally. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. the rest of the block will be written. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4.3BSD-reno systems. When an input error occurs. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. the input block is omitted from the output. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. Do not stop processing on an input error. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. any remaining output is written as a block. Inc. After the end of input is reached. a decimal number of bytes is expected. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. If the sync conversion is also specified. Swap every pair of input bytes. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. If dd receives a SIGINT signal. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. respectively. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. ibm. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. 1024 (1K). swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. Otherwise. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. oldebcdic. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. the last byte will be ignored during swapping. If the sync conversion is not specified.

NSH 3 . ebcdic. oldascii.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. Inc. ibm. Berkeley and its contributors. The files operand and the ascii. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. SEE ALSO cp(1).

Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . If one of the targets is a directory name only. OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options. Inc. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host.. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory.df(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not specify any targets. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report. this header line will be included for each named target. df again uses the current host.. Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. which may be a directory or host name. paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df .] DESCRIPTION For each named target. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command.

Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. unlike with −c. No output is produced if the files are identical.’. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. while defining string will yield file2. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. . −e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. . −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. However. differ” if files contain binary characters. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. Inc. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. Produces a script similar to that of −e. but in reverse order. BSD July 21. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. 2003 1 . −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. Just print a line when the files differ.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. It cannot be digested by ed(1). those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. Does not output a list of changes. −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). ed(1). which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2.

this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. Causes diff to report files which are the same. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. insertions. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. producing a change list. which are otherwise not mentioned. on text files which are different. context or unified output formats. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. Will expand tabs in output lines. “A” will compare equal to “a”. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. −I pattern Ignores changes. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size.g. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3). and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. If a file is found only in dir2. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. E. Long output format. common subdirectories. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. Inc. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. Binary files which differ. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. E. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter.g. For C source code following standard layout conventions. −p With unified and context diffs. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. Multiple −x options may be specified. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. Multiple −X options may be specified.. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. an underscore or a dollar sign. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. If a file is found in only one directory. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file. If both arguments are directories. 2003 2 . beginning with file name.

XXdYY At line XX delete the line. XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. SEE ALSO cmp(1). −w or −i options specified. XX. Output Style The default (without −e. ZZ. but append the range of lines. An error occurred. Inc. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. the standard input is used in its place. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. fnmatch(3). If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. As in ed(1).YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. XX. where XX. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input.QQ Replace the range XX. Thus. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. XX.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. diff3(1). −c. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered.1-2001 specification. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. 2003 3 . by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order.ZZ Same as above. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21. XXaYY. FILES /tmp/diff. diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. pr(1). comm(1). Differences were found.QQ from file2. those after pertain to file2.YY from file1 with the range ZZ. a diagnostic message is printed. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. At (the end of) line XX of file1.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ed(1).YYcZZ. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. YY.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. BSD July 21. 2003 4 .DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. Inc. and -u. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. by default. then cp overwrites the file. while preserving the file ownerships. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. it leaves it alone. By default. permissions. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. -m NSH 1 . (The -P option is not turned on by default. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. -f. Also. If a target file already exists. if it exists. All options are described here. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. By default. it leaves it alone. then it will be created. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. turned on the following options: -r.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. however when running dsync. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. When you run cp as dsync. before copying over the new source file. it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. -b -i Backup the target file. and access times. By default. because the security models for file permissions may differ. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. -p. -d Use this option with care. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated.

With this option. This also applies to new directories being created. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. This option implies the -S option. then cp will create the directory as required. if the target file already exists. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. write. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. If the target directory does not already exist. Inc. With the -P option. See the -u option. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. If you use this option with the -p option. See the -u option. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. Don’t actually make any changes. With this option. This option is the same as the -r option. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. This is the no parent option. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. NSH 2 . and access and modification times as the source file. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. This option can be very resource intensive. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. They are -T. permissions. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). especially on a large file. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. -L -P When recursing through directories. If the file sizes are the same. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read.c becomes foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. Conditional copy. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. -S and -C. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. Output a message for each file being copied. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. Conditional copy. This option turns off the -i option. follow symbolic links. Conditional copy. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. If the target directory does already exist. and execute.

dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). the -f option will override the -i option. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. the -i option will override the -f option. Unknown option or missing file argument. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. dsync outputs this message. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. The second example does the same as the first. Inc. With the P_ATT variable set. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). Unable to get a license to use the software. NSH 3 . indicating that the copy may not be complete. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. it will output this message. it outputs this message. it will output this message. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). then dsync outputs this message. it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. it outputs this message. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. indicating that it cannot copy directories. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename.

Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1). NSH 4 .dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only. output only a summary for all directories searched. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename . du searches directories recursively. With this option. du ignores all files with more than one link. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. Same as -d. (By default. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size. du counts linked files only once. du counts files with multiple links only once. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. Same as -d. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. If you do not specify any files or directories.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. By default.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. When the P_BSD variable is set.. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option.) If. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB.. while traversing a directory. findings are already reported in KB. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. Inc. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. Report the directories that du cannot search. NSH 1 .

du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. Furthermore. With the P_ATT variable set.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. the universe flag determines the size of a block. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. unless you specify the -r option. du assumes that a block is 1K large. du does not report errors. With the P_ATT variable set. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. Inc.

NSH 1 . DEC 8. Inc. DEC 9. HEX 9). backslash (OCT 0134. DEC 92. HEX C). ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. Form feed (OCT 014. HEX B). Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . Unable to get a license to use the software. $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. Argument to be echoed. If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only. HEX A). DEC 12. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. DEC 13.old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character.] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. You specified an unknown option.echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. DEC 10.. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. HEX 5C). carriage return (OCT 015.. DEC 11. HEX D). vertical tab (OCT 013. tab (OCT 011. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. HEX 8). Do not output a new-line at the end. new line (OCT 012.

tabn] file . If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns. etc. unexpand [-a] file . If the -a option is given. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1. Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand... Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs.. Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8.. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters. looking at specific columns.expand tabs to spaces. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.expand(1) Property of BladeLogic..) that contain tabs... NSH 1 .. ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California. If a single tabstop argument is given. DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. unexpand . Berkeley and its contributors. Inc.tab2. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default.

If you specify a positive field number. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character. such as 5. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. If the field number is 0. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. If you specify a negative field number. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. the entire data row is extracted. the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. If this option is not provided. such as -2.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row.

NSH 2 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

preserve these keywords. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. file attempts to guess its language. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another). just as the keyword struct indicates a C program.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file.h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.out(5). or if it’s some sort of special file. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. and which of several types thereof. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file . People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed.h〉. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets.h〉 and possibly 〈exec.out file. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”. Don’t do as Berkeley did. performed in this order: filesystem tests. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. write a magic. whose format is defined in 〈a. For each magic number file. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. For example. the keyword . symbolic links. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself. The program checks to see if the file is empty. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats. magic number tests. These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. . The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. so they are performed last. There are three sets of tests. 2004 1 . . or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). and language tests. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. Inc. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call.h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. BSD December 4. This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it.out.

file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. 2004 2 . ls(1). because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. of files containing magic numbers. −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. strings(1). od(1). magiclist. so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. to test the standard input. Defaults to ‘:’. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files. separated by colon characters.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. BSD December 4. it will be used instead. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. Print the version of the program and exit. hexdump(1). so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. Inc. Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). however. −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. a. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. Normally. as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. keep going. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1).out(5). The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. −m magiclist Specify an alternate list. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). which are block special files. This prevents problems. This is only useful if checking a list of files. This version knows more magic. If a compiled magic file is found alongside. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. Cause symlinks to be followed.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1). For example. Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). file adds “.

it must be escaped. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright.com〉. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth.orig). Depending on what system you are using.NOTICE in the distribution. You know who you are. 2004 3 . If your old file command uses a magic file. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. but with some extensions. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files. July.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. John Gilmore revised the code extensively.com〉. and contributed by various authors. used as. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. 2000. Canada. 1989.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code. BSD December 4. 1986-1999. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries. based on the System V version. The order of entries in the magic file is significant.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program. see the file LEGAL.ac. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. thank you. mainly USENET.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. making it better than the first version.com〉. Toronto. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. The files tar. Inc. if a pattern string contains a backslash. was written by Ian F. for example. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. in this version. Darwin. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic.h and is_tar. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. and are not covered by the above license. 1973). This program. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick.uk〉.

. Regular expression support would make this easy. first long. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line. is too long. it should be possible to use the first guess. Inc. BSD December 4. 2004 4 .FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value.astron. once we have fetched it.g. ndbm(3) or. better yet. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN.gz. with the flexibility of the System V version.YY. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is.tar. inefficient and requires recompilation to update. first word. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. What is it? Better yet. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir. etc. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e. but is entrenched. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup.g. This manual page.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte. We end up removing guesses (e. and particularly this section. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files. if the others don’t pan out. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic. Regular expression support would make this easy..g. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files.. Still. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy.

-atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. the file information and type will be for the link itself. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started.e. Alternatively. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. is n 24-hour periods. An alias for the −L option. -print is assumed..e. not the link itself. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . before their contents. the file information and type will be for the link itself. allowing all file names to be processed safely. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. and the file is skipped. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. space. tab. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. In the absence of an expression. If the referenced file does not exist. not the link itself. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. rounded up to the next full minute. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started.. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. BSD December 4. Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. This option exists for backwards compatibility.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. 1999 1 . The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. is n minutes. rounded up to the next full minute. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. is n minutes. find visits directories in pre-order i. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). If the referenced file does not exist. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path . [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

size in bytes. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -execdir utility [argument . These do not describe actual file system types. . -exec utility [argument . is n 24-hour periods. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name. last modification time. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. is n minutes. If the file is a block or character special file. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. BSD December 4. group. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. owner. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”.’ ) . Case insensitive. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. size in 512-byte blocks. The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. file permissions. the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. 1999 2 .]. then gname is treated as a group ID. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. -follow Follow symbolic links. . the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. If the file is a symbolic link. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”.]. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. and pathname. number of hard links. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. Inc. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. . -links n True if the file has n links. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. rounded up to the next full minute.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. . -inum n True if the file has inode number n. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status.

followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -ok. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. rounded up. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If n is followed by a ‘c’. Inc. -print This primary always evaluates to true. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. is n 24-hour periods. . -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. followed by a null character. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If neither -exec. If the mode is octal. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . Note. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. 1999 3 . only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. ‘]’. It causes find to not descend into the current file. -ls. in 512-byte blocks is n. nor -print0 is specified. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. If the mode is not preceded by a dash. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. ‘∗’. . BSD December 4. -ok utility [argument . this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. ‘]’. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. Note. ‘∗’. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. If the mode is symbolic. Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file.].

The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. It evaluates to true if the expression is false. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. then uname is treated as a user ID.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. Inc. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. 1999 4 . All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. and neither means “exactly n”. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.

getpwent(3). This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. ‘(’. and -xdev. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.2”) standard. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -maxdepth. ‘!’. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. stat(2). ‘)’. which(1). The options and primaries -amin. getgrent(3). -mindepth. -follow. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began.’ may have to be escaped from the shell.2 (“POSIX. In particular. BSD December 4.[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). xargs(1). Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. As −print always evaluates to true. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”. ‘[’. locate(1). -iname. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”. -fstype. ‘\’. -cmin. Inc. ‘]’. the −d.2 (“POSIX. the characters ‘∗’. chmod(1). and the operator -and was implemented as −a. -execdir. -mmin. This is not the case. -empty. Historically. and ‘. -ls. The operator -or was implemented as −o. -links. strmode(3). −H. 1999 5 . -follow. ‘?’. fts(3).2”). whereis(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗. These primaries always evaluated to true. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. -inum.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit.

fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . SunOS 5. expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding. or the standard input if no files are specified. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold .User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. Inc. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present..8 Last change: NSH 1 .

conf like file.. If multiple hostnames are specified.com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts).. No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.conf like file. OPTIONS -u Print usage.. Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database.domaincomponent1. <local> <dns> .conf like file on the operating system. <nis> .. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. DNS.com <nis> . EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1... and NIS..domaincomponent1.Property of BladeLogic.domaincomponent2. <dns> .conf like file. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered. <local> .conf like file. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> . in that particular sequence. <nis> ...... <nis> NSH 1 .. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host... <local> .domaincomponent2. -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <dns> host2.. <dns> . This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. in that particular sequence. Inc..

domaincomponent2.domaincomponent1. <local> host4 host4. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> .. <dns> host4....com loghost <dns> .domaincomponent3.com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra..Property of BladeLogic...com host4... <local> . <dns> . NSH 2 .domaincomponent2. <dns> .domaincomponent1..domaincomponent2.. <local> . SEE ALSO hostname(1)..

i nf o. then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin.zip  [. . after prompting again for the password. . for example. zipnote(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [.z i p . This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive.. Decryption may not be supported at some sites. A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive). | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. . DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. In the case where the first member is a directory. SEE ALSO gzip(1L). then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. i n f o . BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password.]  funzip [–password]  [.gz  [. zipinfo(1L).zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state. and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting.z i p. funzip will reset the terminal properly. run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). . This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line.zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. . unzipsfx(1L). the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode. .] funzip [–password] input. that is. and command-line histories can be read. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive.93) 1 . Given the limitation on single-member extraction. unzip(1L).g. Inc.] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ .zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems. To recover. ps(1) under Unix).] funzip [–password] input. zip(1L).Misc. The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release). funzip simply creates the directory and exits.zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. See DESCRIPTION for more details. it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. . EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If there is an argument. zipcloak(1L). .

Inc.Misc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.93) 2 .

If you do not specify any of these four options. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license.raw file. and an optional expiration key. host1 .raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -v option for more details. one entry per line..dat to license the remote agents. Inc. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. Verbose output. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license.. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry.. a product code. regardless of license status. Do not create a license. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 . hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license. The putlic command uses license.dat. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. and writes this data to a file called license. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. Displays the status of each host. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information.. You can specify multiple options. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host.dat file can contain multiple entries. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 .raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license. Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed. a license key. Each entry consists of a hostname. The license.

By default. An empty expression matches every line. OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. follow all symbolic links. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. Force grep to behave as egrep. but do not attempt to print them. Force grep to behave as fgrep.. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern. Treat all files as text. Ignore binary files. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. If you specified the -R option. Inc. Write only a count of matching lines. in front of the matching line.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. fgrep . -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. If you specified -R.file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. Force grep to behave as grep. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. Search binary files. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. Perform case insensitive matching. When displaying a matching line. it writes the pathname ‘-’. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). grep does not follow symbolic links. NSH 1 . Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. If grep searched the standard input. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. egrep. Display version information. and write the names of these files to standard output. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. List the pathname for each file.. If you specified the -R option. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline.

Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. Suppress normal output. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes. it writes the pathname ‘-’. The first line of each file is 1. List the pathname for each file. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. grep uses the standard input. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. Always print filename headers with output lines. Silent mode. An error occurred. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern.’ which would otherwise match any character.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. If grep searched the standard input. No lines were selected. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘. Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines. Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected. Align the match from the beginning of the line.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. and write the names of these files to standard output. Inc. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. or -q. ‘$.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’). -l. Add another pattern (see example below).

NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. 20 or 25. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Inc.

head displays the first few lines from the standard input. Instead of displaying count number of lines.head(1) Property of BladeLogic. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. When you specify the -B option. $ head -20 *.c files. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . This is the default. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. File whose first few lines you want to display. You specified an unknown option." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>.. -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default. head outputs the file "as is. if you are using the -c option) to be count. This is done for compatibility purposes. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . if you are using the -c option) to be n. display count number of characters. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. If you do not specify any file names.. Unable to get a license to use the software. If you do not specify any files. Inc. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . Measure quantities in lines.

k. in unsigned decimal. xd . followed by sixteen spaceseparated. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. followed by eight space-separated. Two-byte hexadecimal display. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. four column. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Without the -v option. separated by whitespace. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. zero-filled. hexadecimal. in octal. which defaults to one. For each input file. and a format. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. followed by eight. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. followed by sixteen space-separated. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. in a user specified format. zero-filled.. -o Two-byte octal display. three column. od. three column. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. six column. per line. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). By default. Two-byte decimal display. two-byte units of input data. offset is interpreted as an octal number. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. any number of groups of output lines. two byte quantities of input data. Appending the character b. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. two-byte quantities of input data. or 1048576. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. if no files are specified. in octal. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. The byte count is an optional positive integer. space-filled. in the order that they were specified. Inc. space separated. respectively. One-byte character display. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. With a leading 0x or 0X. otherwise. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . decimal. 1024. with the following exceptions: NSH 1 .hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. characters of input data per line. Each format is applied iteration count times. with a leading 0. five column. or the standard input. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. per line. in hexadecimal. per line. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. per line. zero-filled. zero-filled. bytes of input data. a byte count. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. followed by eight space-separated. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.ascii.. Display the input offset in hexadecimal.

with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). Inc. ‘‘n’’. and x specify the display base as decimal. ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. two and four byte counts supported. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. lower-case. Output characters in the default character set. cumulative across input files. %f. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. Characters greater than 0xff. one. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. four byte counts supported. hexadecimal. o. which is the iteration count times the byte count. octal or hexadecimal respectively. %u. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . when all of the input data has been processed. %_u. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. zero-padded octal. names. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. %i. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’. Four byte default. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. of the next byte to be displayed. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. ‘‘l’’. which are displayed as two character strings.’’.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. %G. Eight byte default. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. %g One byte counts only. %_p. %x %E. %X. _c Output characters in the default character set. %e. %c %d. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. The appended characters d. Output US ASCII characters. %o.

Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. ‘‘ ’’. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 . the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’.e. If no format strings are specified.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07. the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option. Berkeley and its contributors. input data only partially satisfies a format string.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed.7_Ax\n" "%07. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. If. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces.7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. an iteration count is greater than one. If. and referencing a NULL string. EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06.

8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep . It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. Inc. but cute. DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled. front-end for grep. Quoting is not handled.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. SunOS 5.

OPTIONS hostname has no options. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides. NSH 1 . Inc.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host.

you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). and >0 if an error occurs. For example. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. For example. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output.field’. The default output field separator is a single space character. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. Each output line consists of the join field.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. -e string Replace empty output fields with string. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. -j2 field In file 2. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. on the fields on which they are to be joined. join on the field specified by field. -j1 field In file 1. Many of the options use file and field numbers. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1.’’) or whitespace separated. The join utility exits 0 on success. join on the field specified by field. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join .join(1) Property of BladeLogic. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. join on the field specified by field. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. The first field in each line is used by default. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. join uses the standard input. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. For example. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. NSH 1 . COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join. In file 2. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. -1 field -2 field In file 1. Inc.using the -b option. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. For example. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. join may not report all field matches. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. Otherwise. join on the field specified by field.

paste(1). This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. Berkeley and its contributors. sort(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2.field_number’’ as described for the current -o option.. join on the field specified by field. These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number. In general. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California. Inc. These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification. join(1) -o list .2’’. comm(1). do not use these options. Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option.. uniq(1) NSH 2 . SEE ALSO awk(1).

–f min. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. Berkeley and its contributors. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width. The name ‘–’ means the standard input. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. pr(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. –p min.max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . and if it begins with a ‘–’. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline.8 Last change: NSH 1 . SunOS 5. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). each option affects only the file after it. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. This option may appear after the last file. and may be repeated. Normally. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active.max Print line fragments according to the format string min. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized.. If min begins with a zero. The options are described below. zeros will be added to make up the field width.max. Inc.. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.max Like –f. SEE ALSO join(1).

it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. Also. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. 2003 1 . ESC stands for the ESCAPE key. COMMANDS In the following descriptions. If N is specified. only the final screenful is displayed. ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. but scrolls a full screensful. default one half of the screen size. remember this one. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). default one window (see option -z below).] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . even if N is more than the screen size. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. The entire N lines are displayed. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. as indicated. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file. less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). BSD January 17. so it can run on a variety of terminals.) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". . but if N is specified. called N in the descriptions below. then "v". h | H Help: display a summary of these commands. it becomes the new window size. d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines.. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). default 1. ˆX means control-X.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). In this mode. Inc. The number is used by some commands... If you forget all the other commands. z Like SPACE. . but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. If N is more than the screen size. (On a hardcopy terminal.

only the final screenful is displayed. default half the screen width (see the -# option). ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. but if N is specified. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. Inc. If N is more than the screen size. Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. Like }. or if N is not specified and standard input. If a number N is specified. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. is being read.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. 2003 2 . If N is specified. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. default the end of the file. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. } ( ) BSD January 17. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. Scroll forward. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. discarding any buffered input. Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. default one half of the screen size. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. default one window (see option -z below). It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. it becomes the new window size. Like {. default 1 (beginning of file). the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. default 1.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. While the text is scrolled. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines. rather than a file.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. The entire N lines are displayed. w Like ESC-v. The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. R F Repaint the screen. N should be between 0 and 100. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. default half the screen width (see the -# option). If a number N is specified. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. even if N is more than the screen size. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command.

The pattern is a regular expression. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. Search multiple files. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. Inc. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. that is. as recognized by ed(1). Search multiple files. ˆXˆX Same as single quote. returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. which change this). respectively. Like }.) Followed by any lowercase letter. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Followed by another single quote. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. Certain characters are special. For example. 2003 3 . do a simple textual comparison. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Followed by a ˆ or $. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. That is. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. For example. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. acts like }. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. acts like {. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match. That is. BSD January 17. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. N defaults to 1. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. marks the current position with that letter. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. respectively. (Single quote.

two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line). As in forward searches. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗".LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 4 . for N-th line containing the last pattern. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. If the previous search was modified by ˆN.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. If the previous search was modified by ˆE. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. However. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. If the filename contains one or more spaces. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. As in forward searches. the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. you may not be able to use ˆV. Similarly. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". turn highlighting back on. If a number N is specified. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. the N-th previous file is examined. Repeat previous search. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. the search is done without using regular expressions. but in the reverse direction. If a number N is specified. BSD January 17. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. On such systems. ESC-N Repeat previous search. Examine the previous file in the command line list. n Repeat previous search. the N-th next file is examined. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. but crossing file boundaries. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. Inc. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. If the filename consists of several files. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. If the filename is missing. N ESC-n Repeat previous search. ESC-u Undo search highlighting. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on.

a new value may be entered after the option letter. Like the −! command.) This does not work for string-valued options. V Prints the version number of less being run. 2003 5 . this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. as in the − command. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). Inc. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. The setting of the option is not changed. the N-th file in the list is examined.) Like the _ (underscore) command. Like the −+ command. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. or a string value (such as -P or -t). this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. Go to the previous tag. If no new value is entered. Examine the first file in the command line list. Like the − command. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Go to the next tag. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. If a number N is specified. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. For example. If possible. (Double underscore. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. BSD January 17. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. Remove the current file from the list of files. The following four commands may or may not be valid. if defined. it also prints the length of the file. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. Followed by one of the command line option letters. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. (Underscore. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. depending on your particular installation. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. See the −t option for more details about tags. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.

thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. The BSD January 17. By default. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". as distinct from --quit-at-eof. This only works if the input is a pipe. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. Some long option names are in uppercase. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. 2003 6 . For example. Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). see the -B option). via the "−" command.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. thus: "-\?".. −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. the current screen is piped. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. For example. see the -j option). but not --qui.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. or defaults to "sh". "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. or two dashes followed by a long option name. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". "!!" repeats the last shell command. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. For example. so command line options override the LESS environment variable. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. If <m> is . Most options may be changed while less is running. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. not an ordinary file. OPTIONS Command line options are described below. s filename Save the input to a file." each time less is invoked. For options like -P which take a following string. If an option appears in the LESS variable. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. For example. or newline. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). to avoid typing "less -options . A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. Inc. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.. the remainder of the name may be in either case.

that is. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. If n is -1. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c.) BSD January 17. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. This option is on by default when invoked as more. 2003 7 . but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. lacks some important capability.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. −g | −-hilite-search Normally. By default. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. ’q’ to quit. the entire file is read into memory. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. By default. the bell is rung). less will refuse to open non-regular files. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. buffer space is unlimited. -h0 is implied. that is. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. buffers are allocated automatically as needed. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. when data is read from a pipe. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. any earlier data is lost. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.]’’. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. By default. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. Inc.

searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. not an ordinary file. This option can be set from within less. in other words. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). tag search. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. If the -j option is used. the second to the bottom is -2. The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). especially with a very large input file. or jump to a marked position. jump to a line number. the next is 2. uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. not to the file which is currently open. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. and so on. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. Inc. less prompts with a colon. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). then that search does not ignore case. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. it is also used as a lesskey file. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. if "-j4" is used. If the file already exists. By default. This applies only when the input file is a pipe. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. BSD January 17. with the percent into the file. 2003 8 . −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. jump to a file percentage. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. For example. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. Multiple -k options may be specified. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. that is. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. and so on. When invoked as more. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. A target line is the object of a text search.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

" is zero or more characters other than "m". −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. Inc.. such as typing an invalid character. -PM changes the long (-M) prompt.. This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. rather than being typed in with each less command. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. See the section on PROMPTS for more details. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. The bell will be rung on certain other errors. That is. they will simply report the name of the log file. Without a file name. various display problems may result. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. m where the ". Thus. or be terminated by a dollar sign. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown.. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command). −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. it is used instead. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. The default is to fold long lines.. BSD January 17. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ . display the remainder on the next line. for example. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. 2003 9 .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. Warning: when the -r option is used. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. If the terminal has a "visual bell". −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded. that is. that is.

it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global. Inc. etc. if neither -u nor -U is given. will edit the file containing that tag. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. -x9.. Also. −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page. BSD January 17. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command. followed immediately by a TAG. unless the -J option is in effect.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. like clearing the screen. The entire line is highlighted. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. that is. Other backspaces are deleted. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces.. 33. tab stops are set at multiples of n. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. 2003 10 . The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. tag information must be available. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. −xn.. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. 17. tab stops are set at those positions.. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags". they are handled as specified by the -r option. For example. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags". which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command.gnu. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability. The default for n is 8. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. that is. For this to work. (See http://www. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line. If only one n is specified.org/software/global/global. in which case only the status column is highlighted. | −-tabs=n. and that command is executed to find the tag. along with the preceding character. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. By default.. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters. Sets tab stops. 25. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters.html). for example.17 will set tabs at positions 9.

This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. For example. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. changes the open quote to the first character. or the pattern for a search command). −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). The default is one screenful. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. If a command line option begins with +. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. For example. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right. any forward movement causes scrolling. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. either ˆV or ˆA. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. By default. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. 2003 11 . LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. Followed by a single character. if the screen is 24 lines. −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. If the option starts with ++. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. If the number n is negative. +<number> acts like +<number>g. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. not just the first one. As a special case. The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. a filename for the :e command. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. see the caveat under the "g" command above). If the number specified is zero. and the close quote to the second character. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. it starts the display at the specified line number (however. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. Note that even after the quote characters are changed. BSD January 17. −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. Inc. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). this changes the quote character to that character. that is. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". the screen is repainted instead. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. Followed by two characters.

all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. If it matches more than one filename. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB.) Delete the word under the cursor. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. Otherwise. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. a "/" is appended to the filename. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. If the completed filename is a directory. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. that character is used instead of ˆU. the first match is entered into the command line. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. BSD January 17. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). 2003 12 . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is.) Move the cursor one word to the right. KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set.less". less uses that as the name of the lesskey file. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously.) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. Otherwise. If it matches more than one filename. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. Inc. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. Delete the entire command line. and to set environment variables.) Move the cursor one word to the left.

This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. which writes the contents of the file to a different file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. To set up an input preprocessor. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). as normal. and the name of the replacement file.. It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". An input pipe. these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. It should create the replacement file. which was output by LESSOPEN. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen. as entered by the user. esac lessclose.$$ ]. less uses the original file. and so on. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. Inc. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. 2003 13 . and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". but still let less view them directly: lessopen.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less. it will call another program. that is. called the replacement file.$$ fi . writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. as normal. However.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. Before less opens a file. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input.sh %s". rather than putting the data into a replacement file. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. called the input postprocessor.sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. When less closes a file opened in such a way. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument. the original filename as entered by the user. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. then echo /tmp/less. it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. the original filename. To set up an input postprocessor.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename. This program receives two command line arguments. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened.sh %s %s". To use an input pipe. For example.

" would mean character 0 is binary.) BSD January 17.. Should not be displayed directly. "bccc4b. Selects a Russian character set. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen. (This is an example. CR. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. 2003 14 . esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. control." is used for a normal character. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. 2 and 3 are control.sh %s".Z) uncompress -c $1 . The character ". The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used. Selects an EBCDIC character set. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. In this case. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. In this case. 6 and 7 are binary. Same as iso8859.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. and binary. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. TAB. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last. 5. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). When an input pipe is used. Same as iso8859. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. 1. NL. 4. and "b" for binary. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. This is the same as ASCII. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. A decimal number may be used for repetition. and 8 is normal. "c" for control. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example. and formfeed are control characters. For example. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-". and all others are binary. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. Inc.

Replaced by the size of the current input file.6b10.8b8.3b9. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]". 8bcccbcc18b95. or equivalently. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. X.9b5.10b6.g. and "∗n" is normal. an "m" means use the middle line.9b7. if the setlocale interface is also not available. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. a "b" means use the bottom line. the default character set is latin1. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used. less will use setlocale to determine the character set. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables. o. If the character is a "t". "∗u" is underlined. as with the %b option.b.b 8bcccbcc18b95.b. the page number of the last line in the input file.8b6.7b 9. The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". but your system supports the setlocale interface. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen.).b. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility. Inc. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". "∗d" is bold. The line to be used is determined by the X. normal attribute is assumed. For example. Finally. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially..8b8.b. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e. 8bcccbcc18b95.bb125. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191. then the default character set is utf-8. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file. as specified by the -j option. Otherwise. but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b9. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.17b3.b.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set. The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string.33b.33b. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b. d. etc. If that string is not found. 8bcccbcc18b95. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file. 2003 15 . and a "j" means use the "target" line. ˆA for control-A). binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. "∗s" is standout. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.7b9. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character.b128.

based on byte offsets. Replaced by the total number of input files. If any item is unknown (for example. based on line numbers. but may appear anywhere. The line used is determined by the X. True if the percent into the current input file. based on line numbers. The line used is determined by the X. See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. of the specified line is known. Usually used at the end of the string. True if the page number of the specified line is known. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. True if the percent into the current input file. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. the file size if input is a pipe). as with the %b option. such characters are not included. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. True if there is an input filename (that is. as with the %b option. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. BSD January 17. if and only if the IF condition is false. up to a period.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If the condition is false. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. a condition is evaluated. 2003 16 . of the specified line is known. are included in the prompt. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. Replaced by the name of the current input file. as with the %b option. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. If the condition is true. a question mark is printed instead. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. The line to be used is determined by the X. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. Same as %B. True if the size of the current input file is known. True if at end-of-file. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. if input is not a pipe). Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. any characters following the question mark and condition character. based on byte offsets. Inc. True if the line number of the specified line is known. True if there is more than one input file.

or has other differences in invocation syntax. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file.?e(END) ?x. followed by a + and the line number.?n?m(file %i of %m) . the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file.. percent. True if there is a next input file (that is.?m(file %i of %m) .. . 2003 17 . less runs in a "secure" mode.%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f . %f Note that this expands to the editor name. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.?m(file %i of %m) . Notice how each question mark has a matching period. colon. Then.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash. This prompt would print the filename. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark. This is the default prompt.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. byte %bB?s/%s.%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined. period. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1... if known. ?f%f .?e(END) ?x. This prompt prints the filename. Inc. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively).. .. The pipe command. if known. if we are at end-of-file.. The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm. : byte %bB?s/%s.%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file.:?pB%pB\%.%t ?f%f .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%. if there is one.. BSD January 17. otherwise the percent if known. This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command. a dash is printed. ?n?f%f . and backslash) become literally part of the prompt.?m(file %i of %m) . Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. if the current input file is not the last one). if known. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.. Finally.: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s. For reference.Next\: %x.?e(END) ?x. If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. otherwise the byte offset if known. any trailing spaces are truncated..Next\: %x.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. The filename is followed by the line number. Otherwise. otherwise the string "Standard input". ?n?f%f . followed by the file name. Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only.Next\: %x. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B".

Filename completion (TAB. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. or in a lesskey(1) file. Log files.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). The editing command. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. global tags are not used. If not set. See discussion under PROMPTS. LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. BSD January 17. non-control characters. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. Language for determining the character set. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. Use of lesskey files. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set. Use of tags files. ˆL). Inc. Metacharacters in filenames. such as "∗". LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. 2003 18 .

LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. On such terminals.) BSD January 17.com/less. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. In certain cases.com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. more text than the matching string may be highlighted. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command). Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. If the :e command is used to name more than one file. TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode. LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. as well as to expand filenames. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.greenwoodsoftware. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.org〉. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. For more information. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 19 . LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell. see the less homepage at http://www. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. Inc. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). See discussion under SECURITY.

This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary. 2003 20 . On some systems. setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. non-binary files.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). See http://www. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option. searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence.greenwoodsoftware. BSD January 17. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. To workaround this problem. Also. Inc.

If no output file is specified. If the output file already exists. except for the special section header lines. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. by default $HOME/. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. #env Defines environment variables. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. If no input file is specified. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. Otherwise. Otherwise. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. by default $HOME/. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. The characters in the string may appear literally. If −V or −−version is present.lesskey . If the input file is ‘-’. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. from the list below. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. The input file consists of one or more sections. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. other options and arguments are ignored. The action is the name of the less action. and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. The string may be a single command key. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings.less is used. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys. lesskey will overwrite it. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. standard input is read. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. this line may be omitted.

space.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. An action may be followed by an "extra" string. see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below. tab and the backslash itself. the action is performed. For example. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. When such a command is entered while running less. and then the extra string is parsed. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. just as if it were typed in to less.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

one per line as in the example below. Alternatively. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . Since all default commands are disabled. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". For example. but not for a "noaction" command. In addition. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid".LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands.

the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. in a keyboard-independent manner. such as uparrow. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. FILES $HOME/. NSH 5 .lesskey Default lesskey input file. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. Each line consists of an environment variable name. $HOME/.less Default lesskey file. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file.

$ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. OPTIONS link has only one option. and links across hosts will not work. Links to directories. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. NSH 1 . This is not the default for link. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. If you want this behavior. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. Existing file to be linked. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. Inc. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. do not use it except in exceptional cases. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. links to files on different partitions. you should use the ln command instead. Newly created link file. Normally. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. link always exits with an exit code of 0. only the super user can use the link command. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command.

OPTIONS -f By default. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. If you use the -f option with the -i option. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. In the second case. In the output of the ls command. if the target file already exists.. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column).. Existing file to be linked. With this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . With this option. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. if the target file of a link already exists. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. and you can make symbolic links to directories. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. Inc. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. if the target file already exists. then the target file must be a directory. ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. Symbolic links however. consist of a special file.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. NSH 1 .] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. and it does not have appropriate write permissions. ln does not ask for this confirmation. Furthermore. With this option. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. Newly created link file. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory.

ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. The target file is not a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created. ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command. This is not possible to do. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. An unknown option was given. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. then the target file must be a directory. Inc. avoid using it except in exceptional cases.4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. One of the files to be removed was not removable. SEE ALSO link(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. NSH 2 .ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. and the target file already exists. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. You should normally use the ln command. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message.

) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable. ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. lr. Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls.). ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information." (current directory) and ". then ls uses the current directory (. Before ls displays a listing. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen.. and -1 options). then the default format depends on two things.).] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. This often includes the directories ". lf. ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). or a stream listing (see the -m option). See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. ls is the standard program. however it does not include the directories ".". This option is similar to the -a option. If you do not specify any file arguments. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column. When using a multi-column output. then the default universe behavior determines the output format." (parent directory). The remaining programs are derivatives of ls. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). With this option. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). With the P_ATT variable set. then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. For each file argument. Consequently. it uses the default value of 80. This may be the default. if a file contains special characters in the name. ls does not display files beginning with a period (. If the output is going to a terminal. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . If the COLUMNS variable is not set. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument." and ".. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. a multi-column listing (see the -C.. ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option). With the P_BSD variable set. By default. and -g options). If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. if it is being redirected or piped). If you do not specify an output format. it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 . depending on the universe setting. ls displays the contents of the directory. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification. l.. -o. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. Each derivative has a specific option turned on. With this option. By default.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). (This is the default behavior. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. or if it has a value less than 20. -x. Inc. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. lc.

ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. ls sorts the listing by file name. With the P_BSD variable set. With this option. Inc. ls sorts the listing by file size. when an argument is a symbolic link. The default time stamp is date of last modification. With this option. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format. By default. This makes it easy to identify directories. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. This option is like the -F option. With this option turned on. Each line contains detailed information about the file. ls sorts the listing by time stamp.. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. . This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. Directories are marked with a ’/’. This option tells ls to output a long listing. does a reverse sort by user name. By default. the options -l. block/character special. Consequently. See the options -c and -u for more information. does a reverse sort by time stamp. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. and -r are turned off. With the P_ATT variable set. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. If ls comes across a directory. putting a comma and a space between file names. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. By default. ls treats each file argument as a directory.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. ls does not display the owner name/ID field. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). For each file found. etc. -t. ls sorts the listing by file name. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. while the -a option is turned on. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). This option tells ls to output a long listing. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. With this option. When used with the -t option. By default.. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). This option is similar to the -l option. -s. When used with the -u option. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/). if a file contains special characters in the name. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. For each file found.) When outputting a long listing. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification.

Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. or -x options). With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. With the P_BSD variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. -C. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. ls uses the default screen width of 80. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option. With the P_ATT variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set. Inc. With the P_BSD variable set. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. If a long listing is not being produced. ls ignores column settings less than 20. If a long listing is being output. there are several option conflicts. With the P_ATT variable set. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. There are 25 options for this command. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. Instead. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. the group name field is also included in long listings. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. the default behavior is to output the group name field. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 .

man does not know on which host to look for man pages. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. Normally. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). Because of this. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host. No data was returned from the remote host. man displays the output of the remote man command. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. This version of man does not. If you do not specify this option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. using the -h host option. The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages.

OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . This is the default behavior. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file. If you specify a file on a remote host. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . Inc. Do not output warning messages. If you do not specify any files.] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. md5sum takes its input from stdin.. -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. Light mode. the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512).. You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation.

-u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file.. Second. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. Inc. mkdir will create parent directories as required. By default. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. (This may be altered by the value of current umask.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. mkdir creates the missing directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . With this option. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. NSH 1 . The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. Set the initial user ownership to user. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777.. If either directory does not exist. An unknown option was given. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. then this error message will appear. where mode is an octal value. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). Otherwise a warning message appears. Otherwise a warning message appears. If the mode contains non octal digits.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below).

mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Inc.

EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. NSH 1 . Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. mkfifo was unable to create the special file. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing.. The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1). this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message.mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic.. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name . The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe.

tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. The major number of the character/block special file. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. Inc. tells mknod to create a character special file. The second argument specifies the type of special file.mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. a character special file (c). this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. the name of the special file you want to create. which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). As the second argument. As the second argument. The minor number of the character/block special file. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. mknod was unable to create the special file. NSH 1 . If you create a character or block special file. As the second argument. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. tells mknod to create a block special file. Unable to get a license to use the software. The first argument is the name of the special file. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. or a block special file (b).

mv does not display this prompt. Source file. Second. mv checks to see if the target file already exists. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. Unable to get a license to use the software. mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found. then the target file must be a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. The second examples moves all . The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target). With the -f option. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. Inc. $ mv foo. OPTIONS -i With this option.. you can use it to rename files. An error occurred while trying to move a file.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. It simply overwrites the file.c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src.. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . Destination file or directory. An unknown option was given. then the target must be a directory. then the target file must be a directory. By default. NSH 1 . you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. First.bar to foobar.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. The target file is not a directory. then mv overwrites the file. if a target file already exists.

There was an error removing the source file. the files are actually copied. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. Inc. the -i option will override the -f option. The target file could not be created. With the P_ATT variable set. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. the source must be deleted. There was an error deleting the source file. the source file is removed. the files are actually copied.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. the -f option will override the -i option. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. the files are actually copied. mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options. the files are actually copied. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. See cp for more details on copying directories. mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. After having copied the source file to the target file. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. NSH 2 . The target file could not be created.

These commands provide an alternate interface. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s)..P.. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. Inc. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied.. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp.. <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. unless you are using the -d option.. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations.. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. Copy in parallel. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations.. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts .//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . then the <sources> must be absolute path names. addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . see their respective documentation. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync. If you use this option. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel.. Otherwise. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file.

EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation. ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus. Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. NSH 2 . Inc. dsync. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts .... cp(1).ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts ... ncp.. Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts . SEE ALSO dsync(1). ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. uncp(1).

Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.. Do not show a header on output.Property of BladeLogic. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. some systems (for example. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. Reverse sort order. In addition.. -t NSH 1 .. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. Refresh screen. See the -f option below. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.2. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. This option overrides the -t option.P. Quit application. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Display data similar to the way the top command displays data.. See the -s option below. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline. Quit application. This data is not available on all systems. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.P. addresses. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies.or 5. Therefore. ncpu displays the value as a number.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .3.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. addresses. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Replace the # character with 1. Inc. Sort on the specified column. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Show only entries that match the given expression.4. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. this data may not be available for all servers. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data.

see the man page for blexpr. including NOT. Switch to statistics view. nnet(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. For full details on expressions. nmem(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). Switch to system info view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to disk info view.8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. Switch to process info view.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. nps(1). host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. Inc. ndf(1). but does not mimic it exactly. When an expression is used to match a string. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nstats(1) NSH 2 . and OR. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.Property of BladeLogic. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to process summary view. Switch to memory info view. Switch to network info view. AND. wildcards are supported.

Inc. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Only show entries which match the given expression. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. This option overrides the -t option. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . Property of BladeLogic. addresses. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information.P. addresses. Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. Comparisons are made case neutral. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Do not show a header on output. Inc. See the -f option below. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. See the -s option below. The field should be one of the column headers as described above.P. Behave top like.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available.

2. including NOT. or 0 (10).4. enclose the expression in single quotes)..8. you can define an expression used to filter the output data. wildcards are supported. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. nover(1). Switch to system info view. AND. Inc.3. For full details on expressions. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to memory info view.5. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. Switch to process info view.7. nnet(1).9. nstats(1) NSH 2 . nps(1). ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to disk info view. ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument (i. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. see the man page for blexpr.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic.e. Switch to statistics view.6. and OR. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. nmem(1). Switch to network info view. Inc. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. When an expression is used to match a string.

Also compare file permissions. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. Also compare file sizes. and -p options. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. and date of latest modification. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . When you specify the -s option. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. the width is set to 80 characters. then depending on which options you specified. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. -t. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. Traverse directories recursively. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. -o. the following codes may also appear. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. The file exists but has different access permissions. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. The file exists but has different file ownerships. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. When you specify the -o option. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. Inc. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. By default.. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code..ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Do not output files if they are equal. file permissions. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . If the file exists. In its base use. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. Also compare file ownerships. file ownerships. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. When you specify the -p option. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories.

where N is the number of directories being checked. When calculating the optimal output. dsync(1). ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification. These options (-1. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output. -2 .. NSH 2 . each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. assume the output device width to be width characters. SEE ALSO cp(1). ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus. The default assumption is 80 characters. When you specify the -t option. Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. By default. Inc. it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification..

Once the remote program has been started. Finally. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 .g. LOGNAME. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways. which some interactive programs need (e. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. bash. In addition. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". Inc. -l Simulates a login session.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e. For more information. etc. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. If you specify this option. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. as determined by the current working directory. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. If the program is called explicitly. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh.profile) should be run. an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). . ksh. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh).nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands.. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr. On UNIX agents. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. It sets the HOME. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command.. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>.g. Without this option.

by default. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where. As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. See examples below. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. Inc. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’).3 or later. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. By default. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. As such the output will be not very useful.0. Release 7. This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). Do not transcode input/output. meaning no auto transcoding. automatically transcode data. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. As such. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. Imagine for example. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. This option is available on agents running 7. is converted to the local code page. before it is passed to the application. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . In the same way. It must be a batch (output only) command. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. To deal with this nexec will now.

First. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. Inc. nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs. take the following steps. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command.. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. see the nsh man page. In the first instance./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . host% cat hosts NSH 3 . For more information. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated.

The best example of this is the ps command. Inc.bletch.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.com Hostname for rome is: rome.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. Similarly. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected. NSH 4 . An option may not be universal to all platforms. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems.bletch.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands.com In the following example.bletch.bletch. SEE ALSO rsh(1). not all commands are available on all hosts. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs.

It performs a remote login to host. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. The name of the remote host you want to log into. Inc. rlogin. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. SEE ALSO nexec(1). The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. telnet(1). This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. and/or ssh.nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. NSH 1 . nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence.

Only show entries which match the given expression. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -f option below.P.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB.. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB.P. See the -s option below.. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. addresses. Behave top like. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. Property of BladeLogic. This option overrides the -t option. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Comparisons are made case neutral. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available. Inc. addresses. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Inc. -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 . Do not show a header on output.

Inc. Property of BladeLogic. When an expression is used to match a string. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.7. AND.2. nstats(1) NSH 2 .3. Switch to statistics view.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic.5. or 0 (10). wildcards are supported. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. see the man page for blexpr. nover(1). nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to process summary view. Switch to process info view. Switch to memory info view. including NOT. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.6. nnet(1). For full details on expressions. Switch to network info view. Inc. you can define an expression used to filter output data. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).9.4. Switch to disk info view.e. Switch to system info view.. nps(1).8. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. The expression should be a single argument (i. and OR. ndf(1). enclose the expression in single quotes). -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.

<SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. Quit application. Inc. NSH 1 .2 and beyond. Subnet mask for the adapter. NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. By default. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. address of the adapter. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data..nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. or if you do not have the required permissions. Show only entries that match the given expression. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. addresses.. If there is no MAC address.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.P. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. the MAC address appears as all zeros. This option overrides the -t option. Do not show a header on output. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. With this option. Reverse sort order.P. I. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. In addition. Refresh screen. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10.P. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. NAME Adapter name. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. See the -f option below. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Quit application. addresses. MAC Adapter MAC address. Not all adapters have a MAC address. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. See the -s option below. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.

4. or 7. nnet(1) Sort on the specified column. Inc.2. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nstats(1). ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Replace the # character with 1.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic.6. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. see the man page for blexpr. nover(1). For full details on expressions. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. ndf(1) NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.5. but does not mimic it exactly. nps(1). nmem(1).3.

Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg . If the standard output is a terminal.out in the current directory.2”) compatible. 1993 1 . Inc. . . If standard error is a terminal. it is directed to the same place as the standard output.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored. the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility.NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.out cannot be created in the current directory. the standard output is appended to the file nohup. BSD June 6. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. Otherwise. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file.2 (“POSIX. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked.

Property of BladeLogic. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Inc. Only show entries which match the given expression. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option.P.g. the release level for AIX. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. Behave top like. the kernel release for Linux. addresses. Do not show a header on output. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. See the -f option below. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. and as not set for Solaris. This option overrides the -t option. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. ARCH The system hardware architecture. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. Windows systems. Inc. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information.. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Comparisons are made case neutral. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover.P. addresses. See the -s option below. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .

or 0 (10). Inc. Switch to process info view. nnet(1). enclose the expression in single quotes). Switch to network info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 . nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. ndf(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Inc. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. Switch to disk info view.5.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to statistics view. For full details on expressions. Switch to system info view.9. you can define an expression used to filter output data. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems).4. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1)..3.21-4.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Property of BladeLogic. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2.7. When an expression is used to match a string.2.6. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. nmem(1). AND. The expression should be a single argument (i. Switch to memory info view.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. see the man page for blexpr. wildcards are supported.e.8. including NOT. Switch to process summary view.4. and OR. nps(1).

USER NPROCS Total number of processes. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.P. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. addresses. This option overrides the -t option.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether. See the -s option below. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether.P. Quit application. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. Show only entries that match the given expression.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. Inc. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. See the -f option below.Property of BladeLogic.. Refresh screen. addresses. Quit application. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. -t NSH 1 . Do not show a header on output. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display. Reverse sort order.. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data.

For full details on expressions. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. wildcards are supported. Sort on the specified column. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.4. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Switch to disk info view. nnet(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. but does not mimic it exactly. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. 7 or 8. Switch to network info view. When an expression is used to match a string. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to memory info view. and OR. nstats(1) NSH 2 .Property of BladeLogic. nmem(1).5.3. Switch to process info view. Inc.2. including NOT. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to statistics view.6. AND. nps(1). Switch to system info view. Define an expression to filter the output data. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Replace the # character with 1. Switch to process summary view. nover(1). see the man page for blexpr.

] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.) The process ID. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. START The start time of the process.. The process’ priority. See the -s option below. The parent process ID. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. -t NSH 1 . the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The total amount of real memory that the process is using. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. This option overrides the -t option. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. Do not show a header on output. Refresh screen. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. Show only entries that match the given expression. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. (This column only appears in the -c output. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. With this option. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. Inc.

host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. Define an expression to filter the output data. Switch to memory info view. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. Inc. sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. ndf(1). Replace the # character with 1. Inc. When an expression is used to match a string. nover(1). Switch to disk info view.2. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. and OR. ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic.7. For example. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes. For full details on expressions. wildcards are supported.4.8. you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. AND.6.5. 0 indicates column 10. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to process summary view. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to process info view. nmem(1). but does not mimic it exactly. or 0. Switch to network info view. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Switch to system info view. Switch to statistics view. nnet(1). CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. see the man page for blexpr. Inc. Property of BladeLogic. including NOT. Reverse sort order. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. SEE ALSO blexpr(1).9. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. nstats(1) NSH 2 .3.

0. the \h sequence takes on a new value. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine.assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive. When you cd to a new host.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name. If you have set a root directory. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. you should also specify a directory.EXE In Network Shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. To access other drives on the computer. NSH 1 . explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. If you do not. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. Inc. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works. nor can you access any other drives. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. as the following example illustrates. SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. You can never access the root of a drive.Property of BladeLogic. such as C:.

. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . For example.. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host./. Inc. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. the command returns the hostid of host2. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. Native commands. the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges. enter the command with a fully qualified path. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. to execute the native command. For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 . When executing a command. In the following example. The later is supported for backwards compatibility.Property of BladeLogic. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host.

but.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted.Property of BladeLogic. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. for example. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. It should be a non-interactive program. First. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. First. To add a supported remote command using this method. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. If this field is not set. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE. There are a few limitations when using redirection. the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. If. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. capturing both its standard output and standard error. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. as described earlier. and reboot. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. they can be set to use default values. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. you must perform two steps. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. create a soft link to the program nexec. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 . This can be unset. By entering a value of -. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. To continue with the above example. For example: command_name . the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. In addition to regular DOS commands. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. Inc. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. halt.

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection.Property of BladeLogic. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. Next. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH. the shell closes all connections.nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. For efficiency reasons. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. Other values may produce unexpected results. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. then a new dynamic network connection is created. When accessing relatively few remote hosts. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. calling the disconnect command is not required. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh. THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses.nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. Inc. If no arguments are given.. For example. The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above)..nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. $ZDOTDIR/. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . the redirection type <>. is treated the same as the < redirection type.

Inc.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 .

100). DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname. processes. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::rmdir ("bar"). NSH::close($fd). NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo"."). $buf. 0777). (W_OK) Test for write permission. 0. and commands.. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. 0. Network Shell Perl Module 1 . NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path.. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). (R_OK) Test for read permission. If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). $fd = NSH::open ("bar". SYNOPSIS use NSH. NSH::. NSH::chmod ("bar". 0777). NSH::unlink("file"). $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". $buf. then the file on the current host is used. If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). NSH::close($fd). The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. The following examples will help clarify their use. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . 100). The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API. NSH::chmod (char *path. $count = NSH::read ($fd. use NSH. NSH::chdir (". int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. If no hostname is included in the argument. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". 0777). 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission. $count = NSH::read ($fd.. Inc. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files.

NSH::creat (char *filename. int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. NSH::fchdir($fd). while (($filename. NSH::close ($fd). int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::write ($fd. 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. "Hello world\n". int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. NSH::fchown ($fd. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. 200). NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". NSH::chown ("foo". NSH::fgets (char *buffer.") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". int size. } NSH::closedir ($fd). int uid. 100. 12). NSH::close ($fd).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". Network Shell Perl Module 2 . 200). int uid. $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n". Inc. pwd = NSH::getcwd (). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. and group gid. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). and group gid. int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. 100. print "PWD = $pwd". NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd.

The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. int sig) Send a signal to a process. The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). NSH::ftruncate (int fd. 100). The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. then a SIGTERM is sent. and can have any of the following values ORed together. while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). In other words. NSH::getpriority (int which. 9). Remove lock. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH). NSH::kill (int pid. long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. 512. int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. know what you are doing with the call. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". NSH::kill (100. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. Inc. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". process group or user. Network Shell Perl Module 3 . Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. } NSH::close ($fd). $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. If sig is ommitted. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. NSH::flock (int fd.

0777). The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. If none is given. int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. int flags = O_RDONLY. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). int mode. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. the pointer is set to offset bytes. NSH::mknod (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("foo. NSH::lseek (int fd. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. int maj. NSH::link ("file1". NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). If mode is ommitted. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. 2. NSH::lseek ($fd. Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. if the second (and third) argument are not given. If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). then the file is opened for reading. If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). 0777). Network Shell Perl Module 4 . int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET). Inc. long offset. The second argument controls how the file is opened. If only a single argument is given. 0). NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). int min) NSH::open (char *filename. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). mode is assumed to be 0755. When creating a file. If mode is ommitted. the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. NSH::mkdir ("foo. file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". $fd = NSH::open ("bar").NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. mode is assumed to be 0755. the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. As previously mentioned. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes.

$fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. Inc. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". If mode is ommited. 100)) { print $buf. Network Shell Perl Module 5 . char *buffer. NSH::closedir($fd). ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. NSH::popen (char *cmd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. it is assumed to be ’r’. } NSH::read (int fd. int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. $buf. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option.

($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. } NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::seekdir ($fd. int who. NSH::setpriority (int which. NSH::rewinddir ($fd). NSH::rename ("foo".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). prio is the new priority to be set. int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. Inc. NSH::rename (char *oldname. then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. process group or user. $pos). Network Shell Perl Module 6 . Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n".

[3]). $release. char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. $nodename. exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. NSH::write (int fd. then the current date of the local host is used. NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). In essence. foreach $host ("//host1". stat. 200). Inc. char *buffer. %d\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. ($sysname. In the Network Shell environment. $version. long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. These types of symbolic links however. int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. [2]). Network Shell Perl Module 7 . "//host2". NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). If either mtime or atime are not given. will not work outside the Network Shell environment. NSH::utime (char *filename. STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. NSH::truncate (char *filename. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). long mtime. The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. [1]). NSH::truncate ("foobar". [4]). the following command is generated and executed. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. %d\n". All three (lstat. %d\n". %d\n". $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename.

%d\n". [8]). @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). [9]).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. [10]). %d\n". [6]). %d\n". %d\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". [7]). %d\n". Inc. %d\n". [11]). NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . [12]).

012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3. .. NSH 1 . This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size.. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. (52. The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host.) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size. . done.... done. use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size. # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes .. but sometimes this value may not be optimal. # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . It does not test how fast it can receive data. Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample.147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host.. perform a bulk write rather than a regular write.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer. OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes..nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. -b When writing data to the remote host. done. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . done. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes... DESCRIPTION Depending on the network.. If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes).. each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. use a file size KB large. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes. then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly).. nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times. . . .145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51.. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. done. This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host. (See EXAMPLE. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc.173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. . From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux. To determine the optimal write buffer size. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB).

secure(1). Inc.nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1). cp(1). NSH 2 .

. ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.. NSH 1 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname .nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’.] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine. a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine.

Sort on the specified column. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Quit application. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The current time on the system. addresses. or 7. addresses. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. see uptime (1). -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics. This option overrides the -t option. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. Replace the # character with 1.5. LOAD The system’s current load average. See the -f option below. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. For Windows. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . it shows a CPU usage percentage. For UNIX. Do not show a header on output. With this option. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. By default.6.3. Refresh screen. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Reverse sort order. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values. See the -s option below.. -t NSH 1 . the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The field must be one of the column headers listed above.4.2.P. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data.P. Show only entries that match the given expression. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Inc. Quit application.. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.

Inc. nover(1) NSH 2 . but does not mimic it exactly. wildcards are supported. nmem(1).nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. Switch to statistics view. Switch to disk info view. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. blexpr(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. including NOT. ndf(1). Switch to system info view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to process summary view. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. AND. When an expression is used to match a string.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to network info view. Switch to process info view. nps(1). see the man page for blexpr. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. Switch to memory info view. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. and OR. For full details on expressions. nnet(1). ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1).00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0.00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0.

nover(1).. blquery(1)..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. nmem(1). Inc.. nover. For more information. nstats(1). nps(1). please read the individual man page for each command. nmem.ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers. Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf..... nps... ndf(1) NSH 1 .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . SEE ALSO blexpr(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .

nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. Inc. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify.

tar. This option is the default when decompressing. gunzip. --help file Display a help screen and quit.gz is uncompressed.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo. Verbose output. . gzcat. copy the time stamp from the compressed file. --quiet --verbose Same as -v. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout. For example. gzip -c file1 > foo.gz nunzip --verbose foo. Inc. when config.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Instead. provided that the file has the correct header.gz nunzip foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. File or files to be compressed or decompressed. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present. the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.tgz. or .tar. 1 .TGZ. gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with . --no-name When decompressing. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic.gz Suppress all warnings. .GZ.gz.

the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. Inc. input lines are contained in a file called list. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified.txt. the tag field is optional. If tag fields are provided in the input list. $cat list. In the syntax shown above. If you provide a tag field. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. only the -s option is considered. Remove duplicate entries. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Sorting is alphabetical. Within each tag group. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’. If you do not provide a sorting option. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. The resulting list contains only unique entries. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. the string order is not changed. Sort the list in descending order. The strings are only grouped by tag. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields.

Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.txt europe order(1) NSH 2 . Inc.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list.

Inc.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic.

. and >0 if an error occurs. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . The characters in list are used circularly. and writes the resulting lines to standard output.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. the standard input is used. for each instance of ‘-’. Berkeley and its contributors. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5.. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files.e. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. unless otherwise specified by the -d option. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). i.8 Last change: NSH 1 . If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. standard input is read one line at a time. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character.merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . Inc. The paste utility exits 0 on success. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. circularly.

. When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. [-U user] ..to_date] [/[c][m]]] ...to_date]] ...] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read... write. see the -x option... access and modification times. The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable. pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format.. [-p string] . [-s replstr] . While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation..to_date]] . The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns. read. and will copy directory hierarchies.tar .. Copy.. [-U user] . pax will read an archive file from standard input. [-o options] . [-G group] . except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below). pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. write. Write. -r Read. The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering.. and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns. If you do not specify any file operands..to_date] [/[c][m]]] . pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input.. Inc. pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included... -w -r -w NSH 1 .... and write a table of contents to standard output.... The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list.. <none> List.] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] .. [pattern ... [-G group] . pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling). [-T [from_date] [... [pattern .. When a file operand is also a directory. Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands. pax copies the file operands to the destination directory.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. and list the members of an archive file. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [.. [-T [from_date] [.] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] .... [file .. The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted. For a list of supported archive formats.. [file .. [-U user] .. When an extracted file is a directory. pax operation is independent of the specific archive format.. [-E limit] [-U user] . and supports a wide variety of different archive formats. All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy. [-s replstr] .. and copy.. and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option... Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax... If you do not specify any file operands. The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input. [-T [from_date] [..] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] . see the section below. pax will read an archive file from standard input.. For a description of tar options.] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] . [-G group] . [-G group] .read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files . pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. The setting of ownership..

A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. If you try to append to an archive. If you do not specify a block size. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. If you do not supply a pattern operand. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. pax selects all members of the archive. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. When required. or if it is not of type directory. Inc. If the directory operand does not exist. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. or archive members of type directory being extracted. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. When a pattern matches a directory. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. pattern operands. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. pax uses the archive’s existing format. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. or if it is not writable by the user. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). respectively. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). If you do not specify any file operands. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. and file operands. S_IRWXG.

If this line consists of a single period. Do not overwrite existing files. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. Preserve everything -. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. group ID. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. pax skips the file or archive member. The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. Do not preserve file modification times. pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. file modification times are still preserved. Inc. if -p eme is specified. its file mode and. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. Otherwise. its modification time. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. The file times are preserved by default. NSH 3 . When pax matches members of type directory. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. (This option is the letter ell). The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. In the copy mode ( -r -w). Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. Preserve the file mode bits. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. By default. The string consists of the specification characters a. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. Preserve the user ID and group ID. file access time. someone with all the appropriate privileges. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. In general. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. o. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. the one(s) given last will take precedence. If this line is blank. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. For example.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. This is intended to be used by root. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). By default. If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. file mode bits. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. and p (described below). and file modification time. Link files. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. m o p In the preceding list. m. e.the user ID. and you can specify multiple -p options.

-x format Specify the output archive format. terminating with the first successful substitution. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. with the default format being ustar. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. and copy). the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line.pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. During copy. or subexpression matching. and is written only after the file has been read or written. The old string may also contain <newline> characters. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 . is not buffered. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). Inc. During write. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. Otherwise. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. The trailing <newline>. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. During read. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. This format is not very portable. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). write. old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). During a list operation.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. for all the other operational modes ( read. pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. read or accessed them. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. Therefore. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. You can specify multiple -s expressions. The old binary cpio format.

The bytes limit can end with m. hard links. You can supply multiple -G options. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. -G group Select a file based on its group name. respectively. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. Instead. a numeric gid. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. Do not follow symbolic links. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. You can use a ’´ to escape the #. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. k. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). pax detects the truncation and repairs it. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. This is the default mode. NSH 5 . a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. gid. etc.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. With a positive limit. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. The default limit is a small positive number of retries. link pathname length and the type of the file. 1024 (1K) or 512. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. Inc. Checking stops with the first match. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). or when starting with a #. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. Only regular files. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. soft links. perform a physical file system traversal. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). uid. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. file size. -D This option is the same as the -u option.3. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard.

the names of these selected files. -G. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. -U options. -T. You can supply multiple -U options. This option is the same as the -D option. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. When archiving files during a write operation. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. -G. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). group. etc). the last time there was a change of owner. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. -u. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -u. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). a numeric uid. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. -D. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. This option is the same as the -u option. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c. If you supply only a to_date. or copying files during a copy operation. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. If you specify neither. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). -Y. the names of these selected files. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. Checking stops with the first match. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. -D. If you supply only a from_date. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. dd. When extracting files during a read operation. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. Time ranges are relative to the current time.ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. for example. yy. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -D. If you specify both c and m. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. A time range is made up of six different fields. -G. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. mode. -n. Inc. Each field must contain two digits. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 . and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). mm. -U. -u. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). -n. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. You can supply multiple -T time ranges.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). The minute field mm is required. Checking stops with the first match. or when starting with a #. except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. and -Z) interact as follows. file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. When pax is in the write or copy mode. -v. -i. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. -T. -s. -T.

The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename. Do not pass over mount points in the file system. NSH 7 . group ID. Append to the archive. Append to the archive. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use. List contents of the tape. Do not follow symlinks. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 . Do not preserve modification time. access/modification times.pax. Preserve user ID. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. Stop after first error. Verbose operation mode. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. along with the -n option. Interactive file rename. Follow command line symlinks only. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update.ˆ//*usr//*. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. Create an archive. Follow symlinks. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. The command: pax -r -s ’. Inc.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory.’ -f a. file mode. In this case the following options are supported. Extract data from archive. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw .pax reads the archive a.. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options.

pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. -L. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. -D. or cannot preserve the user ID. the archive formats bcpio.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. pax will not create a second copy of the file. -H. -E. pax does not copy the file. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. -Z. group ID. The options -B. Additionally. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. but continues processing. and the modification and access times may be wrong.pax will extract all files from the archive a. sv4cpio. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive. Berkeley and its contributors. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. -G. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. tar. sv4crc. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. -Y. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. 1 An error occurred. it exits with a non-zero exit status. or file mode when the -p option is specified. If. ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. Inc. -U. -P. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. NSH 8 .pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. while doing a copy. -T.

solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens.P. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. can reside on any server.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. etc. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. address arguments. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). including remote servers. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. For example. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host. The packages you install. You can specify multiple hostname/I. as well as any optional response or admin files.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package. such as /bin/sh. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. /bin/ksh. address of the host on which you want to install the package. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). admin. If you do not use this option. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . copying the necessary files to those target hosts. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell. It will first determine which packages you want to install. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts. Inc.P. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). With the P_ATT variable set. the -i option will override the -f option. the -f option will override the -i option.rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Inc.

2 . See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database.Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. 2 . NSH 1 . the agent closes the connection. then verifies that it is a valid handshake. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . the encryption type and encryption key or keys. it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. 4 . determine how the communication between the two should occur. Next. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. In this case. If it finds an entry in the database. If necessary. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). The agent will use this information in further security related checks. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. the agent defaults to port 4750. the agent closes the connection. If not. 3 . Inc. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. With this mechanism. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. among other things. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. 1 . the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur.Based on the client host. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic.Before going any further. But first.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). 3 . it uses the configured port number. either from a command line or from a script. When it hears a connection. It goes through the following steps: 1 . This information is found in the secure file and includes. If the handshake is valid. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. it uses the configured port number. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections. If it finds an entry. the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates.If it does not find an entry there.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). so that it can run in background mode. Before the client exits.

After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. NSH 2 . ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1).rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. If there should be overrides.Once the daemon has all the relevant information. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. Output some debug messages. Output brief usage description. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . If the client is not allowed to have access. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. and what permissions the client should have.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. users (1). which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). 6 . Do not fork. secure (1). Inc. it decides whether or not the client should have access. If the client is allowed to have access. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file. Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. the daemon sets them. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. These are also known as the user overrides. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user. then the daemon sets the final permissions.Once it has the initial handshake data.

you will not gain access to the remote server. just as if you had entered an incorrect password. the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. In other words... Those permissions govern your access to that host. you will not get access to the host. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. use the -p option. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host..] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine.. when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. If you are accessing multiple hosts. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server. $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. Inc.. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. Normally. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with. If the remote user is not set up this way. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. For this option to work. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. With the rsu command. The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. host1 $ NSH 1 . Password for root@host3: . It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password. Except when you are using the -p option (see below). To do this. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell.. the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions.

EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command. Appropriate entries (rsu=.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic.. users. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details. exports (1). rscd(1) NSH 2 .local.. Inc.) in the users. and/or exports file must exist. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password. ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).

. The format of this file is one entry per line. Depending on what action you are currently performing. which consists of a hostname and directory. -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed.. -h host . NSH 1 . After encountering the -h option. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed.. This option specifies the command to execute.. For example. -e cmd .. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines.. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path.. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. which consists of a hostname and directory. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header. All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. This option must be the last option. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 ... The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. To this end. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name. hostn] [-e command1 . you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name.. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering.. -H header By default. Inc. hostn] [-e command1 ..

This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. In other words. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. Output the effective command executed for each host. This can significantly speed things up. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . This is implicit if the program name is runscript. Execute a Network Shell script on each host. you may not want to do things in parallel. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel. Inc. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. Output a brief explanation of the available options. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts.

. -o file By default. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option.e.[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . . then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name.AIX . file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). If it does not refer to an existing file.scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp. then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed.. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l . no OS name extension). With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 . Inc. If a name is given.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec)..[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 . Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. As such. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task.[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group . See also -h -h host [host . the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine.] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported. The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. when looking to run a script. With this option one can override the staging directory. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers..

HP-UX . nexec (NSH). Inc.[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). . Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp. NSH 2 . scriptutil(1) .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic.

−i Do a case-insensitive comparison. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. is invoked. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. if any. Ignore trailing blank spaces. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. BSD March 28. The default is 130 characters. Minimize diff size. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. 2008 1 . the user is prompted for each set of differences. See EDITOR and VISUAL. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. for details of which editor. Start editing file with right set of diffs. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. Skip identical lines. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. Start editing an empty file. Start editing file with both sets of diffs. In this mode. See the −o option for an explanation. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. Start editing file with left set of diffs. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. Quit sdiff. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. below. prompting at each set of differences.

BSD March 28.net〉. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. CAVEATS Although undocumented. depending on the current column. vi(1). VISUAL takes precedence. TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. The default is /tmp. 2008 2 . diff(1). ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data. If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. diff3(1).SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. though some require GNU diff. the default is vi(1). Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option. re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). SEE ALSO cmp(1).

a. If the agent does not find a match. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. it uses the default entry. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. By storing passwords in the securecert file. default. a resolvable host name. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd.509 certificates. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. The order of entries in the secure file matters. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. If the client does not find a match. By default. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. through an indirect deployment).. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 . which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. create a hostname entry in the secure file. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. it uses the rscd entry. Thus. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. SSL). BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection.. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. On the agent side.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. including encryption and authentication parameters. When entering a value for hostname. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients. For an Application Server. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. Inc. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). then the software looks for a default entry. use the special hostname default. use the special hostname rscd. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below). you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE. or hostname.k. you can provide a host’s IP address. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> .

secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. then the file secure. that user is bladmin. in a regular secure file. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. If hostname is not provided. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. See below for details. that user is SYSTEM. If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. On Windows. the passwords are not revealed. you are prompted to enter the hostname. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. NSH 2 . With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. If hostname is not provided. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. that user is typically root. While this is an important security measure. Inc. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. you are prompted to enter the hostname. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. On Windows. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. If hostname is not provided. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). To accomplish this. To accomplish this. On UNIX-style systems. -down hostname Move the entry down one. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. As mentioned above.cfg is used. On UNIX-style systems. If no value is entered for file. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. When issuing a secadmin command. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. you are prompted to enter the hostname.

The default value for -u is 1 minute. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. With the -u option. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. No authorizations or certificates are required. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. -w size -z value Set compression level. The default protocol is protocol 5. This option requires a certificate. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. Inc. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. If you are adding or modifying an entry. If -u is a negative number. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes. NSH 3 . with a higher number indicating better compression. This option must be used with the -c option. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. To compress data. set value to a number between 1 and 9.2. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. By default data is not compressed.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below).pem. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. supported since release 5.

Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname.10.509 certificate. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host.509 certificate. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option.is the same as giving no redirection host. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. The password to the private key for a user’s X. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.168.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 . A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. Consequently. Inc. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon). If no hostname is given. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server. The secadmin utility also provides the following options. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections.0 might look something like: @192. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting.255.255. Setting hostname to .

193/26 @192.secadmin(1) 255.255.168. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).100.255.168.255. Inc.255.255.128 255.168.000 255.129/25 @192. enter the following command.168. NSH 5 .255.100.255.168.240 255.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.255.224 255.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host. To delete the entry for host foo.255.100.192 255.255.100.241/28 @192. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192.0/24 @192. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.100.225/27 @192.255.100.168. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).

Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30. Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. into a pattern space. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. . and deletes the pattern space. only that line is selected. [address[. sed cyclically copies a line of input. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address. The input is then written to the standard output. copies the pattern space to the standard output. 1993 1 . by default. appending a newline. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. not including its terminating newline character. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. . a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. Inc. sed starts looking again for the first address. . −n By default. or the standard input if no files are specified.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file .] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. . The −n option suppresses this behavior. A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). Normally.

You can’t.. If a regular expression is empty. In addition. not compile-time. Also. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. 2. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. precede it with a backslash.. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. The argument text consists of one or more lines. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments.. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. as follows: { function function . The ‘b’. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. representing zero. or two addresses. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”. one. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . To embed a newline in the text. and at run-time. Inc. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. i. For example. however. ‘w’. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. [1addr]. or [2addr]. Two of the functions take a function-list. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. In a context address. ‘r’.e. ‘y’. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. branch to the end of the script. For example. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. If the label is not specified. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. ‘s’. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. BSD December 30.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1993 2 . One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. ‘t’. ‘!’. just the delimiter characters are specified.

Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. Write the pattern space. Inc. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. 1993 3 . Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). Write the pattern space to standard output. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. Note that the current line number changes. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. Long lines are folded.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space. text is written to the standard output. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If file cannot be read for any reason. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. up to the first newline character to the standard output. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents. [2addr]l (The letter ell. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’.

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. and the directory /etc/security exists. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. test is an executable program. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. Value of the expression is FALSE. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Consequently you must escape or quote them. Unable to get a license to use the software. With the P_ATT variable set. also have special meaning to the sh(1). An operand of a primitive was missing. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. which can be used for grouping primitives. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. Inc. The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. CAVEATS Parentheses. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).test(1) Property of BladeLogic.

the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. is supported. even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. If the file doesn’t exist. there are at least two arguments.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. it is created with default permissions. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. Change the modification time of the file. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. BSD April 28. otherwise. from 0 to 23. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. from 0 to 61. The month of the year. the value defaults to 0. The “MM”. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.SS]] file [ . No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected. Change the access and modification times to the specified time. where a time format is specified as the first argument. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. The hour of the day. 1995 1 .TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Attempt to force the update. Otherwise. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day. . from 1 to 12. a “CC” value of 20 is used.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. but “CC” is not. Do not create the file if it does not exist. from 0 to 59. . from 1 to 31. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. When no −r or −t option is specified. The minute of the hour. The second two digits of the year. Inc. The day of the month. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. The second of the minute. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. the year is set in the 21st century. the values default to the current year. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. If “YY” is specified. “DD”.

Inc.2”) specification. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. BSD April 28.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1995 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.

To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. 1991 1 . Shpink October 27. In the first synopsis form. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. A backslash followed by 1. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. Inc. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. In the third synopsis form. In the fourth synopsis form. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. In the second synopsis form. If string1 is longer than string2. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on.

[=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. If n is omitted or is zero. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. they are ordered after their encoded values. If n has a leading zero. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. English has no equivalence classes. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. one per line. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. and >0 if an error occurs. inclusively. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. see ctype(3) and related manual pages.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. Inc. it is interpreted as an octal value. characters are entered in ascending order. otherwise. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. i. 1991 2 . where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. Otherwise.e. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27.

This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. However. Shpink October 27. for example.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. additionally. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. Additionally. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. Inc. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. 1991 3 .

Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. Print the operating system version. If no options are specified. BSD January 26. Print the patch level. SEE ALSO hostname(1). HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4.4 BSD.UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.2-1992 (“POSIX. 1994 1 . The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified.2”). Inc. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. Print the processor type in more detail. Print the operating system release. Print the machine hardware name. machine(1). Print the operating system name. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output.

It does not rename any files. uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. it renames them (removes the suffix). The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). dsync(1). This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place. Output a message for each file being renamed. SEE ALSO cp(1). Set the suffix to suf. NSH 1 . The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. just delete the files. Do not actually make any changes. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. By default. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . Inc. When uncp finds files with the specified suffix. uncp looks for the suffix ˜.. This option tells it to look for a different suffix.. OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names. This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option.

If additional arguments are specified on the command line. If specified in conjunction with the −f option. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. the first character is character one. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. the second is used as the name of an output file. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons. Field numbers are one based. followed by a single space.e. the first field is field one. −u Only output lines which are unique. so it may be necessary to sort the files first. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. 2002 1 .2 (“POSIX. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. Character numbers are one based. i. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored..e.UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. i. Inc. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . Only output lines which have duplicates.2”) compatible. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. BSD December 8..

$ unlink foo. you should use the rm command. Inc. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. To restrict its use to the super user. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking.. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command. Unable to get a license to use the software.. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems.bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. except that it does exactly what it is told to do.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file . because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. without doing any type of error checking. In other words.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. any user can run the unlink command. you should use it only in exceptional cases. NOTES By default. unlink always exits with 0.old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). NSH 1 .bar The second example removes all . Normally.

zip] [file(s) . Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory.] [–x xfile(s) . The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive. commonly found on MS-DOS systems. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. ranges are specified by a beginning character. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. as with any other ZIP archive. zip(1L). it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). Inc. For example. creates ZIP archives. but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. .42) 1 . This option need not appear at the end of the command line. Only the filename can be a wildcard. a hyphen. immediately after the zipfile specification. the suffix . just specify the . See –v in OPTIONS below.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. or between the file(s) and the –x option.) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. By default. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). [ c h ] . ARGUMENTS file[. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. In particular. but none in any subdirectories. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’).) If no matches are found. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. A companion program. test. both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS. If the file specification is a wildcard. and if that also fails. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. and an ending character. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. . or extract files from a ZIP archive. particularly under Unix and VMS. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. Again.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. the path itself cannot. z i p is appended. separated by spaces.Misc. Without the –x option. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). see above. .zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. . . test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[.

–v lists archive files verbosely. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’). an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below). list archive files (short format). the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. By default unzip queries before overwriting. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that. along with totals for all files specified. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. In addition to the normal header with release date and version. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). [OS/2. just as they are stored (no conversions). [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). If the first option on the command line is –Z. This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted.. update existing files and create new ones if needed. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.Misc. freshen existing files. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). Note that under many operating systems. The names. the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). a diagnostic screen is printed. in order to support obsolescent hardware. i. See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. the target operating system for which it was compiled. ‘‘unzip –T \∗.. and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. the compiler and version used. and the files are always extracted in binary format. In addition. If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. and the compilation date. When no zipfile is specified (that is.e. test archive files.42) 2 . unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites.zip’’) and is much faster. compressed size. This option performs the same function as the –f option. the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. Inc. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). extract files to pipe (stdout). As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check.g. the –a option is allowed.

junk paths. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. –a is enabled by default. specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’.) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect.. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. In addition. In the example above. the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. This is a shortcut for – – –a. some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. [Unix only. converting line endings. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. That is. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). it is replaced by the info from the extra field. unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option.42) 3 .g. (For example. the current one). and NT supports Unicode. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text. match filenames case-insensitively. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. just the file’s data. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. 512-byte record format. see above).Misc. [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. see the relevant options below). Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated..g. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. All Macintosh specific info is skipped. convert text files. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). Inc. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. OS/2 HPFS. (On Tandem. –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. [Unix only.) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. regardless of the supposed file type. The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. Instead. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. or similar). [BeOS only] junk file attributes. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary.

pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. which stores filenotes as comments. etc.Misc. old MS-DOS FAT. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing. This can be awkward. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation.11.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5. etc. but this option allows them to be retained. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. Whenever possible. the extraction methods. VMS. Also. the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option.) Depending on the archiver. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. ‘‘EA DATA. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. overwrite existing files without prompting.).) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). This is a dangerous option. VMS files can be stored with a version number. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter). See –L above. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases.g.##’’ version numbers are stripped. By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. (obsolete. (And where security is truly important. [OS/2. Inc.) may be stored as all-uppercase names. SF’’). At the end of a screenful of output. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS.ext. retain (VMS) file version numbers.42) 4 . this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. regardless of the originating file system. the Enter/Return key. overwrite all files. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). however. interactive prompt to enter passwords. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. however. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. skip extraction of all existing files. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. use the non-echoing. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages. By default the ‘‘. so use it with care. unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. never overwrite existing files. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. on some systems. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. NT. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. Unlike Unix more(1). in the format file. or rename the current file. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. skip extraction of the current file. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. If a file already exists. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines.##. conversion of unsupported characters. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. (It is often used with –f. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. etc.

–C. OS/2. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. To override an environment option. By default. to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. or security ACLs under Windows NT. It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness. During extraction. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. make it quieter. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. OS/2. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. but it is probably most useful with the –a. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent).] [MS-DOS. This can be done with any option. so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. As suggested by the examples above. For compatibility with zip(1L). NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. in effect. –q. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. –L.. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. volume labels are ignored.42) 5 . however. or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. To cancel both quiet flags. In most cases this will require special system privileges.g. considered to be just like any other command-line options. This may seem awkward or confusing. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. make it match names case-insensitively. for example. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. a diskette). UNZIP takes precedence. For instance. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0).Misc. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. For example. but under Unix. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. acting on the q option. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. only reporting errors. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. and the second is a minus sign. –o. Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.0 to 5. Unix.0. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.

Inc. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. On EBCDIC systems.zip. and our source archives do now include full crypt code. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. DOS PKZIP 2. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel.g.42) 6 . just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well. unzip will prompt for another password. As noted above. If the first password fails the header check on some file.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters. EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers.. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled. as noted above.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. but at a cost in security. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options.Misc.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it.. Windows PKZIP 2. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. See the description of –f above for details. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. followed by the alternate one (e. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line. This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. Latin-1). DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding. If a password is not known. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header. UnZip 5. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6.04g uses the OEM code page. However.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e. and so on until all files are extracted. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed. that’s not quite true. OS/2 and Win3. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. US export restrictions have been liberated. if a zipfile member is encrypted. OEM code page) to test passwords. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. The correct password will always check out against the header. but due to United States export restrictions.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. entering a null password (that is. if both of these fail. since spring 2000. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US. (In fact.g. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. To check a version for crypt support. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.

zip or unzip –l–q file.g. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory. Inc.zip "∗.zip "∗.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file. whether decryption support was compiled in. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source.C.42) 7 .zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may. regardless of case (e. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source.c and ∗.zip’’ is generally not necessary. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables.: unzip –v In the last five examples.zip (Note that the ‘‘. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5..c.tex. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’).[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory. ∗. and any makefile.) To extract to standard output all members of letters.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on). without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files.Misc. in fact.1 or later contain no timezone information.zip "∗. both ∗. etc. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. as in the source examples below. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗. being a lazy sort. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.f.zip or unzip –l––q file.zip whose names end in .h. double quotes could have been used instead.zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer. as in Unix. the compiler with which unzip was compiled. something that is worth making a habit of doing. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. Makefile. ∗.

zip. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. but processing completed successfully anyway. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted).) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. one or more warning errors were encountered. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. no matching files were found. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. Inc. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. scarier-looking things. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. 9-11 and 80-82. the exit status is 1. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’.42) 8 . This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password. however. Processing probably failed immediately.’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. In addition. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk.Misc. where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). except in conjunction with zip. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well. invalid options were specified on the command line. 50. (If even one file is successfully processed. except under VMS: 0 1 normal. no errors or warnings detected. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s). 51). a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. the disk is (or was) full during extraction.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other.

42) 9 . unzip’s query only allows skipping. MVS). unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Chris Herborth (BeOS. older versions of unzip may hang the system. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H. VMS. Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. Windows 95.info-zip. NT). Jean-loup Gailly (compression). Smith. John Bush (Solaris. zipgrep(1L).info-zip. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. Mike White (Windows GUI. Windows 95. this may not be an issue anymore.. [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette. Under DEC Ultrix. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). Mark Adler (decompression. nor are hard-linked files relinked. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. overwriting or renaming.foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version. Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS). Windows 95).dir syntax).Misc. Retry. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. In addition. [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp.. unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. MS-DOS.g. Dates. the old version is not overwritten or deleted. Harald Denker (Atari. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). not always reproducible). but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. QNX. Windows DLLs). Hunter Goatley (VMS). The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. This problem appears to be fixed. This is a limitation of the operating system. and David P. only the [. unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. zipcloak(1L). Atari). Johnny Lee (MS-DOS. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. zip(1L). Fail?’’ message. general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). Paul Kienitz (Amiga. as noted above. In fact. SEE ALSO funzip(1L). See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. zipinfo(1L). and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. directories and symbolic (soft) links. then overwrite just the directory entries (e. Amiga). requiring a reboot. Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read.g. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version.org/pub/infozip/ . Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). zipnote(1L). NT). Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. Inc. shared code. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. fUnZip). NT. because directories only have a creation time associated with them. Onno van der Linden (Zip). block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile.

GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR.x v3. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v4. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK. Smith Samuel H. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.1 v4. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.4 v5.0 v3. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Inc. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.01 v5.31 v5.0 v5.2 v5.2 v2.11 v5.32 v5. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42) 10 . SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.41 v5.Misc.3 v5. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1.1 v4.12 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v2. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.1 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H.

however. a hyphen. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one.42) 1 .x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. By default. Despite this. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). . but none in any subdirectories. For example. Among these are the usage (or help) screen. ‘‘f o o s f x ∗. and an ending character. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v). Without the –x option.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). [ c h ] . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [.]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. . Inc. . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. for example. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. In particular. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. . and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. . [–x xfile(s) . the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. particularly under Unix and VMS. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members.Misc. ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. ranges are specified by a beginning character. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). .) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory.

Inc. –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase).exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions. –o (overwrite without prompting).exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx. The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.letters. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). –C (match names case-insenstively). See unzip(1L) for details. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). –q (operate quietly). note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support. NT. –n (never overwrite). NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. Alternatively. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).exe (The VMS append command may also be used. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen).42) 2 .zip letters. –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction). –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. All normal listing options (–l.zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters. See unzip(1L) for details. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info).exe" zip -A letters.exe.zip letters. OS/2.zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment. since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives. See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options. Once again.) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. Amiga]). that only adds to the size of the archive. –v and –Z) have been removed. EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS.Misc. The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. OS/2.exe+letters.) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.exe zip -A letters. that is.

notably MacBinary. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options. listing functions and extraction to other directories. are also known to prepend junk. or else a full or relative path must be given. but the command to do so then becomes. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). For some architectures there is limited portability.g. MakeSFX. etc. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. see the corresponding man page. As noted above.txt files: letters -x ∗. This is not necessary for simple extraction. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked. only stored and deflated files are supported.. (For technically oriented users. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name. the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk.txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems.g.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well. ‘‘can’t find myself. Also. however. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. Inc. unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. but other compilers may not).42) 3 . e. as noted above). in order to create working selfextracting archives.. MacOS. Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above). The situation is not known for AmigaDOS. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info.Misc. and therefore neither are the resulting archives. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one.txt To extract everything except the ∗. however (e.’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗. simple concatenation does not work. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. Atari TOS. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L).

zip(1L).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. unzip(1L).42) 4 . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L). See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX. zipgrep(1L). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. zipinfo(1L). zipnote(1L).org/pub/infozip/ . zipcloak(1L).info-zip. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. Inc.Misc.info-zip. or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors.

and a trailer line. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero. followed by a number of body lines. tar cf . Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. Lines preceding a header must not. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. These consist of a character count.. look like a header. The body consists of a number of lines. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. Inc. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. the file ‘‘src_tree.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). The character count is a single printing character. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default. This line consists of one ASCII space. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space). When uudecode is run on the target system. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes. and represents an integer. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. the standard input) into the original form. If the size is not a multiple of 3. A space separates the three items in the header line. NSH 1 .. followed by a newline. of course. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. uudecode . this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. uuencodes it and mails it to a user.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. 6 bits per character.tar.tar. followed by encoded characters. Berkeley and its contributors. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents. and a string which names the remote file. compresses it.

Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1). Inc.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. compress(1) NSH 2 . uudecode (1).

0.5. SEE ALSO agentinfo(1). NSH 1 . Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server.2002 BladeLogic Inc.5.0.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus. BladeLogic Network Shell 4. Inc.version(1) Property of BladeLogic.

and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. This is the POSIX 1003. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors. Start editing in vi mode.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). vi is a screen-oriented text editor. as if the command name were ex. as if the command name was view.) Start editing in read-only mode. Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit. ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program. disallowing all access to external programs.2 interface for the historic “-” argument. applicable only to ex edit sessions. it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. if no files are specified. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. . entitled FAST STARTUP. BSD October 10. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. if standard input is not a terminal. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. ex will read commands from it regardless.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page. and no startup files or environment variables are read. . If you’re in an unfamiliar environment. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file. list the files that could be recovered. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. 1996 1 . (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. Enter batch mode. vi. In the vi interface. Run with the secure edit option set. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. . nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. Start editing in ex mode. . or. . the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. read the section after the options description. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. or the readonly option was set. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. Inc. the session will be a batch mode session.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . Prompts. For the rest of this manual page. however. . exactly as if the −s option had been specified.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. In the ex interface. This is the POSIX 1003. Recover the specified files. as if the command name was vi. It’s probably enough to get you going. The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded.

/text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.e. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. and start entering text. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. and move the cursor to its first character. and for vi to give information to you. after the cursor. Inc. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. Move the cursor right one character. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. and start entering text. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. It will also display error messages. i. before the cursor. except for the last line of the screen. There are commands that switch you into input mode. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. i. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. Append new text. too. Generally. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. e. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed.g. Insert new text. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. Move the cursor up one line. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. To start editing a file. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. Move the cursor down one line. 1996 2 . vi is a screen editor. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. displaying part of the file on each screen line. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. O or o commands.

If count is not given. Copy the line the cursor is on. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. if possible. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line. vi will refuse to quit).e. i. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. 1996 3 .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. Quit. discarding any modifications that you may have made. In each entry below. The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. but not saved your changes. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. Delete the line the cursor is on. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. leaving the current line and column as is. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. Delete the character the cursor is on. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen.

leaving the current line and column as is. 1996 4 . the number is decremented. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. % Move to the matching character.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. If count is not given. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. Inc. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. the number is incremented. BSD October 10. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen. if possible. without changing the current column. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen.

If offset is specified. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. count times. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. BSD October 10. 1996 5 . [count] ( Back up count sentences. If buffer is specified. appending the text after the end of the line. If a count argument is given. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] A Enter input mode. Repeat the last character find count times. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. [count] . Execute an ex command. [count] . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. Inc. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. Reverse find character count times.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] . [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. respectively. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions.

“yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. count times. [count] G Move to line count. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. [count] J Join lines. [count] O Enter input mode. 1996 6 . If buffer is specified.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. If buffer is specified. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If buffer is specified. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] I Enter input mode. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. If a count argument is given. If a count argument is given. appending text in a new line above the current line. Inc. [count] R Enter input mode. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. through the current line for the character after the specified character. If a count argument is given. or the default buffer if none is specified. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. replacing the characters in the current line. BSD October 10.

[count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. [count] o Enter input mode. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. to the first non-blank character. 1996 7 . the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. [count] a Enter input mode. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. count times. If a count argument is given. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. BSD October 10. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] i Enter input mode.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. appending text in a new line under the current line. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] b Move backwards count words. If a count argument is given. count times. appending the text after the cursor. Inc. through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. If a count argument is given. inserting the text before the cursor. u Undo the last change made to the file. [count] w Move forward count words.

[count] { Move backward count paragraphs. display the screen after the current screen. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). Otherwise. 2 screens before ) . [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. move to the start of the current line. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. place the line count1 at the top of the screen. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input.e. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. limit the screen size to count2 lines. 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. If count2 is specified. display the screen before the current screen. 1996 8 . Otherwise. 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. and reset the autoindent level. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. If column is omitted. BSD October 10. If count1 is given.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. . Inc. [range] >[> . The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. . or filter lines through a shell command. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. If line is not specified. 1996 9 .] [count] [flags] Shift lines right. . returning to command mode. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode. display the line number of the last line in the file. 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. In each entry below. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. and return to command mode. [range] <[< . BSD October 10. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. each preceded with its line number. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file. . 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. " A comment. @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer.

Cscope connections. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. he[lp] Display a help message. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. 1996 10 . BSD October 10. vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. Foreground the specified screen. Background the current screen. screens or tags. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line. Inc. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously.

. su[spend][!] BSD October 10. Grow or shrink the current screen. 1996 11 . . sh[ell] Run a shell program. se[t] [option[=[value]] . [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions.] [all] Display or set editor options. [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. . [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). . mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations.. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file.. pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. editor options and maps to the specified file.] [option? . . [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines. q[uit][!] End the editing session.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list.] Edit the next file from the argument list.] [nooption . rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. [Nn][ext][!] [file . Inc. .

u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. their abbreviations and their default values. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. writing the file if it has been modified. Enter vi. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. 1996 12 . This section describes the options. BSD October 10. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. Edit a new file. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. Delete an abbreviation. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. clearing the stack. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window.

errorbells. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen.e. Announce error messages with a bell. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. comment [off ] vi only. 1996 13 . C and C++ language files. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. ap [on] ex only. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. i. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. bf [off ] Discard control characters. unless otherwise specified. directory. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. they are either on or off. Most of the options are boolean. beautify. edcompatible. eb [off ] ex only. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. autoprint. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. BSD October 10. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. autowrite. Skip leading comments in shell. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. autoindent. Display the current line automatically. exrc. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . Inc. altwerase [off ] vi only. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. columns. and do not have an associated value.

ignorecase. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. Do left-right scrolling. li [24] vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. number. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. modelines. Inc. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. lines. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. lisp [off ] vi only. This option is not yet implemented. Set the number of lines in the screen. instead of the default hexadecimal. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. leftright [off ] vi only. 1996 14 . read or written. This option will never be implemented. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. hardtabs. This option currently has no effect. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. matchtime [7] vi only. BSD October 10.

shiftwidth. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. re [off ] vi only. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width. the open and visual commands are disallowed. shell. If this option is not set. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. Inc. 1996 15 . Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. sh [environment variable SHELL. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. prompt [on] ex only. optimize. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. sm [off ] vi only.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. sections. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. ruler [off ] vi only. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. redraw. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. readonly. BSD October 10. scroll. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. showmatch. opt [on] vi only. This option is not yet implemented. Display a command prompt.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

window. term. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. This option will never be implemented. sidescroll [16] vi only. verbose [off ] vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ttywerase [off ] vi only. 1996 16 . wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. tabstop. warn [on] ex only. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. Inc. Display an error message for every error. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. taglength. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. ttytype. Select an alternate erase algorithm. tags. BSD October 10. w. timeout. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. smd [off ] vi only. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. before a ! command. slowopen. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. w1200 [no default ] vi only. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. It has no effect in this implementation. w300 [no default ] vi only. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. This option is not yet implemented. w9600 [no default ] vi only.

wrapmargin. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. When an interrupt occurs. Inc. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. wm [0] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. wrapscan. the wrapmargin value is used. wl [0] vi only. SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. the wrapmargin value is used. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. FILES BSD October 10. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. The number of rows on the screen. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. If interrupted during text input.exrc files. ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. The default is the type “unknown”.nexrc and $HOME/. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. Break lines automatically. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. The user’s home directory. The user’s terminal type. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. 1996 17 . used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. Break lines automatically. writeany. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands.

nexrc $HOME/. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. Inc.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.nexrc . This document is the final reference for the ex editor.recover $HOME/. First choice for local directory startup file.summary. quoting. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. The "Vi Quick Reference" card.2 (“POSIX.exrc .ex/. The files autowrite. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code. The default recovery file directory.vi/vi. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". 1996 18 .vi/.2”). System-wide vi startup file.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code. input. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. Second choice for local directory startup file. First choice for user’s home directory startup file.edit/. BSD October 10. "Ex Reference Manual". STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003.exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors. Temporary file directory. HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places.exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1). "Vi/Ex Reference Manual". Second choice for user’s home directory startup file.viref/. re_format(7) The default user shell. there are changes to be made on both sides.4 BSD. "Ex: A Tutorial". /usr/share/doc/usd/11.

conf VSH.<field=val[:val]>. This file is located in share/vsh. All of the above.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. may not properly understand the result. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. Log all terminal output. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. The vsh.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh.conf file controls the behavior of vsh. Instead. You can use NSH format to name the log files.. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead.. which is a shell of /bin/sh. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout). Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. Inc. vsh itself does not take any arguments. If you specify <nsh>. If you do not specify a shell. You should create one log file per session. You can configure the vsh.CONF The vsh.. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format.conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry. an autologout of NSH 1 .conf in the NSH installation directory.conf file.]>[. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. vshview. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes.. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val. You can specify multiple log files. vsh will automatically terminate the session. the vsh log file viewer. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool.

The following macros are supported. log file names should be unique for each vsh session. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. To do this. Inc.vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. %b The abbreviated month name. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). range 0 to 6. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23). %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). %Y The year as a decimal number including the century. %a The abbreviated weekday name. NSH 2 . which are expanded at run time. you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. Sunday being 0. %w The day of the week as a decimal. %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). %B The full month name. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). %h Current host name. %% A literal ‘%’ character.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. %A The full weekday name. %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1). and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. %u Current user name. %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99).

Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. shows a summary of login and logout activity. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. logout. you need to use the vshview utility. Inc. Can be used with -1 and -2. Therefore. Output only those entries that happened on host. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. just output a summary of vsh sessions. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input. Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. There are two basic modes to vshview. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). (Note that when using this option. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. login. Do not show any blank lines. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. host. Show terminal (stdout) output.) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. Instead. shell.. Output only those entries that happened before this date.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. logouttime. Define a search expression (see below). Output only those entries that relate to user. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. To view the these log files. or pid. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. Can be used with -0 and -2. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. In either case. If a given file is a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . (Note that when using this option. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. only one minute granularity is available. Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 . logintime.

Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31). NSH 2 .| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + . Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . The second type are 8 bit characters.} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. Inc. These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1).

EXAMPLE In this example.0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . Provide a visual display. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes. Count nodes. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case).svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . Provide a quick display with no counts. Show the current version. Place totals at the end. Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. vtree recursively descends into it. Height of tree to examine. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system. Inc. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> . and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory.svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 .

Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon. NSH 2 .vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic." written by David S. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef. Inc.

The second example counts lines.c 339 917 6051 file3.. words. If you do not want counts for all of these things. wc uses the standard input. Count the number of lines in the file. the number of words. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . wc counts lines. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. OPTIONS By default. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. words. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files. wc will also output a total for all files.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. the number of characters. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). words. Unable to get a license to use the software. You specified an unknown option.. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. If you do not specify any files. With the P_ATT variable set. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count.c 347 945 6227 file1. and characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. If you specify more than one file. Inc. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 .wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. and characters of several source files.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*. Count the number of words in the file.c 449 1334 8491 file2.

in which case it will write the zip file to standard output. After this.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. foo. path. and foo/file3. For example. foo/file2.r . allowing the output to be piped to another program. zip version 2.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. . with foo/file2 unchanged from before.zip contains foo/file1. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. MSDOS. Amiga and Acorn RISC OS. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. When given the name of an existing zip archive. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive. time of last modification. Inc.n a me " ∗. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. For example: t a r c f . [ c h ] " . For a brief help on zip and unzip. unpacks zip archives. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line. then: z i p . to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d . Under UNIX.zip and add foo/file3 to foo. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed. allowing zip to take input from another program.3. Atari and Macintosh.04 or zip 2.. .p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . zipnote. For example: z i p . [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input. Note that PKUNZIP 1. Minix.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo.Misc. If the file list is specified as –@.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command. date. if foo. protection. OS/2. . and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.zip. this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory. You must use PKUNZIP 2. VMS. for archiving files. The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution. along with information about the files (name. in which case it will read the file from standard input.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).04g or unzip 5.04. and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3.3) 1 . zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed. It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems).0p1 (or later versions) to extract them. A companion program (unzip(1L)). zipcloak. zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names.. Windows NT.  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 . For example. and check information to verify file integrity). Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.

o (in any path). or just return for no comment. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.Misc. Inc. compressing standard input to standard output.3) 2 . | zip . For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. so that zip can see the asterisks.. and all of the files that end with . all of the files that start with foo/harry/.. and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. File operations (adding. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. the extension . Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. zip acts as a filter. For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. Adjust self-extracting executable archive. tar cf . A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. –c Add one-line comments for each file. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. Enter the comment followed by return. updating) are done first.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk.. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. At present. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made.zip to the current directory when done. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp.zip is added. If the name already contains an extension other than . If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format. copying over stuff. For example.

Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive.c which will include only the files that end in . for example if it has only been truncated. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. -u and -o options to work correctly. For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. If this operation fails. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. Such files cannot be recovered. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. After the repair. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. if standard error is not a tty. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first.Misc. Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). as in: zip -r foo . instead of creating a new one.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. Inc. If the restoration fails. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. Resource-forks will be ignored at all. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. the archive might become corrupted. zip will exit with an error). It is not guaranteed to work.3) 3 . The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. –F Fix the zip archive. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. -i \∗. so try this option first. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. [OS/2] Use the .) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. Under MSDOS. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged.

This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file. Move the specified files into the zip archive.tiff. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. zip will store the full path (relative to the current path).3) 4 . -i@include. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. and do not store directory names.Misc. For example: zip -rn . [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname).snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods).) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.Z.gif. . Inc. if you have SparkFS loaded.lst. actually. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. . This option should not be used on binary files.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo.lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files. Also possible: zip -r foo . Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file. By default. store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX). to undo the effect of zip -l. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS. This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. Display the zip license.Z:. zip will not consider Image files (eg.zip. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.gif:. Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. The complete path including volume will be stored. so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them. Strip any prepended data (e. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path). and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not).zip. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive. this option adds an extra CR.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.g. a SFX stub) from the archive. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error. . For example. This option should not be used on binary files. but will store any files that end in . but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. When used. By default the relative path will be stored. or . the directory is also removed.zip:. This is useful for conserving disk space. If the input files already contain CR LF. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.tiff:. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. By default. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.

–R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory.e. zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.zip" To attempt compression on all files. for example: zip -R foo ’∗.arj.zip:. Such files are stored directly in the output archive. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date. use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension. Archives. This can be used without any other operations. all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo. By default. OS/2. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991.3) 5 . The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes. since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism. if desired.zoo:. –N [Amiga. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive.zip. WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. all the files matching ∗.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. You should not use –r with the name ". In this case. If -c is used also. which are ignored otherwise. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. and yyyy is the year. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n .c’ In this case.c –S [MSDOS.zip..zip to the latest time of the entries in foo. including files with names starting with ".zip. to the zip archive infamy. –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended).Z:. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗.Misc. dd is the day of the month (1-31). dd is the day of the month (1-31). since that matches ". Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) . CFS files and PackDir files). Inc.". For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.lzh:. and yyyy is the year. where mm is the month (0-12).∗". The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.gif:. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo. where mm is the month (0-12).arc:.zip.

Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info. –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. Normally. The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.Misc. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable.zip while excluding all the files that end in . –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. ignores the suffix list). or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. If the check fails. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. The default compression level is –6. In addition to the help screen header with program name. ∧ on MSDOS. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2. to the zip archive infamy.o which will include the contents of foo in foo. and stdout is not redirected to a file. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. Then. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995.zip. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. OS/2. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. uid/gid and file times on Unix). For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory.o.3) 6 . Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. OS version. this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive.zip into itself when you do this). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. when applied to real operations. including multiple versions of files. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. and D Z VAX/VMS).lst which will include the contents of foo in foo. When –v is the only command line argument. version.lst. Inc. a diagnostic screen is printed. and release date.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files). The comment is ended by a line containing just a period. Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.

If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. in compressed form (the . containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.zip. The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. the last created archive is deleted. and the next two add to it. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic." are not included. and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.zip. In this case. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. OS/2. unless that archive name given contains a dot already. dick. to include these as well: zip stuff . If foo contains the subdirectories tom. At the completion of each zip command. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). use the drive name as first file name. you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. [0–9]).zip suffix is added automatically. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. and harry. as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. Inc. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option. Only one filename per line. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). Take the list of input files from standard input. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. To zip up an entire directory. files starting with ".∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory. making room for the next zip command to function.3) 7 . You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. without recording the directory name. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space. foo. [MSDOS.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it. The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments.Misc.

if present.e. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do. If it finds it. and so patterns like \∗. gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. or does not match any name given with the –i option. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). using the pattern matching characters described above. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. If it does not find it. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.o match names that end in ". and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. unexpected end of zip file. zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). For each match. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. or –d). tar(1). Processing probably failed immediately. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. it then adds it to the list of files to do.3) 8 . on the list of files to be operated on. or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes (""). ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. it first looks for the name in the file system. shar(1L).Misc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. The pattern matching includes the path. by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. In general.o". In general. –f. unzip(1L). ?∗[]). –u. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. no matter what the path prefix is. unless this name matches one given with the –x option. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. no errors or warnings detected. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed.

the make options used to compile it see zip–v ). and that this copyright notice is retained. Richard B. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. copy. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen. 7.Misc. Kai Uwe Rommel. the machine and operating system in use. that it is not sold for profit. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. P. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.wku.10.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. 9.3 and 2. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. Under VMS. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability.∗. you do not have to care about this problem. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.ZIP filename extension. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names.3. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. Otherwise OS/2 1. 6. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. BUGS zip 2.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. which inspired this project. Byrne for his Shrink. type "set file type block" on the Vax.3) 9 . and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. compression format. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. Use zip 1. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. 16. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ). to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally.Pas program. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. zip files produced by zip 2. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1. However. Onno van der Linden. and for accepting minor changes to the file format.10.edu. On OS/2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.10. and as much additional information as possible. Under OS/2. Igor Mandrichenko. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. Under VMS. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE. Inc. and . type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. In both cases. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.1 or PKZIP 1. zip cannot match some names. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. For bug reports. 13. Wales. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. 18. 2 (error) for the zip values 3. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. scarier-looking things. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. Jean-loup Gailly.3 must not be updated by zip 1.

to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip.Misc.3) 10 . Rodgers. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. to Keith Petersen. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. P. Rich Wales. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. Inc. David Kirschbaum.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use. for getting us into this mess in the first place. and most importantly. C. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.

ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). zipcloak(1L). AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . zip(1L). SEE ALSO egrep(1).Misc. . Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). . i nf o.] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function. i n f o . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 .z i p . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.] [–x xfile(s) . o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. . zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. zipinfo(1L). Inc. . unzip(1L). funzip(1L).z i p.zip] [file(s) . zipnote(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[.

zip] [file(s) . particularly under Unix and VMS. see below. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. expressed as a percentage. a hyphen.) If no matches are found. encryption status. The archive name. list header line. is also listed. as well. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. just specify the . This is the default behavior. . Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. z i p is appended. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and if that also fails.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z).] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. however. one per line. but allow headers (–h). . [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. . . and the like. on some systems. the path itself cannot.Misc. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. . Again. actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. . a link to it). Inc. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. the suffix . The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. If the file specification is a wildcard. . list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. list zipfile information in verbose. trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. one per line. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket.] [–x xfile(s) . and an ending character. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. . Such information includes file access permissions. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.32) 1 . OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. This option excludes all others. Only the filename can be a wildcard.zip] [file(s) . list filenames only.] [–x xfile(s) . See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below. except that the compression factor. multi-page format. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. Identical to the –s output. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). version and operating system or file system of compressing program. Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. ranges are specified by a beginning character. see above. ARGUMENTS file[. . type of compression.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. headers. .

i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. the values for the entire archive are given. Since it comes from Unix.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. ‘x’.1 fat 1. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. Unlike Unix more(1). SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip. (2) is readable (always true). The number of files listed. and their overall compression factor is printed. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. which is presumably the case here. ‘l’. MS-DOS. Also. If neither exists.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. on the other hand. . If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the Enter/Return key. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed.macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format.R. These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized.e. and its name. but if the file is encrypted. and Macintosh. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). on some systems.com. OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. list totals for files listed or for all files. that is also displayed as part of the filename. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i.exe.9 of zip. ‘X’. At the end of a screenful of output. The fifth field consists of two characters. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.32) 2 .0 hpf 1. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt.TXT.R 0.btm files are assumed to be so).cmd and . (3) is writable. .hpfs 4096 b.0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. . zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and.9 unx 2802 t. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. either of which may take on several values. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. The second character may also take on four values. The default date format is a more standard. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. is not encrypted. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size. (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file.bat. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. if the reverse. or. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. their uncompressed and compressed total sizes.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. if there is an extended local header but no extra field. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. respectively.hhmmss)..Misc. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. if only the totals line is being printed. Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS). The example below. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is). The case of the filename is respected. Inc. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. and if both exist.

.i4:3 26-Jun-92 .. tokenizing (never publicly released). It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. and defX. 1. which can override or add to either of the above.0 hpf 730 b. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile. i4:2.def compressed: 63. and so on.os2 15:29 os2unzip.2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly. Macintosh resource forks. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary.2660 In this example..rw. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size. if any.5 unx 2802 t. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.0% The header line gives the name of the archive.c 15:34 unzip. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. one or more file(s) are provided. i8:3. the trailer gives the number of files listed. re:1. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. environment options.0 hpf 95 b. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). however.Misc. there is some underlying logic.. the header and trailer lines are not listed. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’..rw. OS/2 extended attributes. and deflating. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression).rw. VMS filesystem info.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files.zip 5453 bytes 5 files . defF. 13386 bytes uncompressed.0 hpf 8753 b.rw. defN. the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used. tokn. its total size. instead: -rw-rws--1.0 hpf 3710 b.i4:3 26-Jun-92 .) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. 1. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly. and explicit options given by the user. In addition. re:2. maximum compression).stor 21-Aug-91 . shrinking. etc.rw. manner.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options.def 17:51 zipinfo.2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. 1. 1. fast. (6) is hidden.134804 perms. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second. and the total number of files. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). and (7) is a system file.32) 3 . See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. If. In addition to individual file information. both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions. 1. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees). which can override or add to the defaults. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip. shrk.i8:3 26-Jun-92 . The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive. yet Unix-like. In brief. and four levels of deflating (superfast. and defS. imploding. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage.. reducing. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five. Finally. normal. The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory.) Nevertheless. their total uncompressed size.0 hpf 98 b.. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. Inc. (Try not to laugh. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed. etc.

given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. however.32) 4 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. EXAMPLES To get a basic. includes headers and footers by default. like –m and –l. This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. override any default listing of member files. so the –s option was sufficient. with both header and totals lines. only the header and/or footer are printed. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there.zip. Note that both the –h and –t options. in addition. Nothing was indicated about the header. when used by themselves or with each other. long-format listing (not verbose). It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1). The first hyphen is the regular switch character. As suggested above.g. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l. short-format listing of the first example again..Misc. To turn off the totals line by default. Inc. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. ZIPINFO takes precedence. use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. however. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. unless otherwise specified. since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. as noted above. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. including header and totals lines. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. For compatibility with zip(1L). in this example. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. the user dislikes the trailer line. use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic.

in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. zipnote(1L). in medium format. Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. funzip(1L).info-zip. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified.c The specification of any member file.. This assumes the default short-listing format. to see the most recently modified files in the archive. will override the default header and totals lines. use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well. It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive. For multiple files.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. on other systems. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order. use the verbose option. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or. unzipsfx(1L). zip(1L). Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed.) SEE ALSO ls(1). copy/rename the executable. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others. unzip(1L). create a link or create a command file with the name ii).info-zip. AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. In addition. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.org/pub/infozip/ . the seventh field). if –m or –l is used. and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. as noted above. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. BUGS As with unzip.Misc.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive.e. (This is not to say that it will be.32) 5 . as in this example. zipcloak(1L). the proper sort(1) option would be +7. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. Inc. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read.

cenatls.gmd. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite. Zsh has command line editing. shell functions (with autoloading).elte.hu instead of the primary site.cs.elte. programmable command completion.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.gov.org>. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp.zsh.zsh. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.org>.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.org>.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.cena.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.elte. This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite. 2001 1 . but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.zsh. Of the standard shells. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.cs. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh.cs.dk>. Inc.dgac.4 Last change: October 26.fu–berlin. builtin spelling correction.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp. a history mechanism. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.ips.funet.uni–trier.zsh.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp. and a host of other features.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.

dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite.4 Last change: October 26.unina.siol.math. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.nisiq.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.math.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.dk> Hacking. <zsh–workers@sunsite.ne. Inc.0.uiuc.kappa. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.win.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users.lysator.dk> Announcements about releases.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.net.ac.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.il/pub/zsh/ http://www. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp. To subscribe or unsubscribe.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite. bug reports and patches.lut.kfki.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.edu.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.zsh.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.roedu.dk> User discussions. 2001 2 . development.icm.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite.ac.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.zsh.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.uit.technion.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.org.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite.liu.technion.ac.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp.rge. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers. zsh 4.

setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name.unix. of SunSITE Denmark.dk/Guide/. send mail to <listmaster@zsh. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. It is intended to complement the manual. see zshoptions(1). ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’. or downright mystifying (for example.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. for example.org>.auc.dk>.org>.org>. For further options. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. the first one is assigned to $0. hierographic. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp. available at http://www.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites.zsh. –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh.org/mla/. ‘– –option–name’. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic.org>. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation. and thus ignored.sunsite. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o. Force shell to be interactive. Unlike other option syntaxes. 2001 3 . Like other option syntaxes.zsh. For example. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. If any further arguments are given. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. or at http://www.org>. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. So. At the time of writing.4 Last change: October 26. zsh 4. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. The mailing lists are archived.org/FAQ/. –o acts like a single–letter option. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. rather than being used as a positional parameter.zsh. Options may be specified by name using the –o option.0. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. There is also a hypertext archive. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given.org/.org>. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’. but takes a following string as the option name. When this is done. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. Force shell to read commands from the standard input.

The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh. allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments. psvar. NO_HUP. more precisely. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.4 Last change: October 26. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. PROMPT_BANG. Furthermore. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. SH_WORD_SPLIT. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. the shell becomes restricted. PROMPT. ‘– –help’ is also handled. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. Inc. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. SHELL. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing.0. HISTFILE. NO_MULTIOS. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. status. KSH_ARRAYS. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. Also. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. POSIX_BUILTINS. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. manpath. cdpath. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. LOCAL_OPTIONS. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell. EGID.profile. MODULE_PATH. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. fignore. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. in two ways. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. watch. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). Option processing may be finished. path. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. UID. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. GID. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. HISTSIZE. fpath. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. NO_NOTIFY. Firstly. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. module_path. NO_BANG_HIST. command substitution. USERNAME. PROMPT3. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). 2001 4 . NO_BG_NICE. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. then exits successfully. EUID. PROMPT2. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). mailpath. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. NO_NOMATCH. HISTCHARS. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. NO_EQUALS. GLOB_SUBST. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. Secondly. argv. path. then exits successfully. prompt. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). MANPATH. RM_STAR_SILENT. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. PROMPT4. SH_GLOB. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively.

Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory. Finally. the former affects all startup files. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. Then. 2001 5 .. the compiled file will be used instead. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. If the shell is a login shell. the files $ZDOTDIR/. if the shell is interactive. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. If one of the options is unset at any point. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files. no history file will be saved. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. if the shell is a login shell.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. HOME is used instead. In particular.zprofile. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands.zshrc. the logout files are not read.4 Last change: October 26.zlogin are read. it is important that it be kept as small as possible. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file.e. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option.zshenv. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. then . zsh 4. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. i. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. depending on the installation. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. When a login shell exits. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the . this cannot be overridden. If ZDOTDIR is unset. while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. However.

A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. The value of a simple command is its exit status. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero). and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background). which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next. it is executed as a coprocess.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. If it does not. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. If job control is active. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero. or a newline. ‘&!’.4 Last change: October 26. More generally. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal.. For example. A sublist is either a single pipeline. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’.}’. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. zsh 4. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background.. 2001 1 . echo foo is a simple command with arguments. A pipeline is either a simple command. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. ‘&’. if any. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever. Inc. The first word is the command to be executed. with optional redirections interspersed. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value).)’ or ‘{.. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. are arguments to the command. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. For example. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed.0. For example. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. or ‘&!’. If a command name is given. including the complex commands below. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. which will alter how the command is interpreted. unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. and the remaining words. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. ‘&’. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. Where commands are separated by ‘’. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value.’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’.’ or newline. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. ‘&’.. the value of the sublist is that return value. For example.

[ else list ] fi The if list is executed. executing list each time. ) list (. the then list is executed. If each elif list returns nonzero.&) ] . for (( [expr1] .. use the positional parameters. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. If the in word is omitted. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] .. list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status.. before any parsing is done. the then list is executed. the else list is executed. Inc. select name [ in word . The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words..& rather than . See the section ‘Filename Generation’. the following list is also executed. or else standard input. If this line is empty. rather than a shell function or external command.. rather than a shell function or builtin. zsh 4. Expand the list of words. 2001 2 . nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words. Otherwise. which must evaluate to a number n. If the list that is executed is terminated with ... If the in word is omitted.. Otherwise. the elif list is executed and if its value is zero.. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . for name [ in word . command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command... and if it returns a zero exit status. exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking... each preceded by a number.. It has no effect in non–interactive shells. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. and set the parameter name to each of them in turn. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] .User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. or the esac is reached.4 Last change: October 26. Print the set of words. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). to terminate the words. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. If any expression is omitted.. as it is interpreted immediately. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string. The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active.. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. [expr2] . The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation. if any. The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero. the selection list is printed again. use the positional parameters instead of the words. the value of the parameter name is set to null. This continues until either a list is terminated with . then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or . list is then executed n times. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words.

repeat. time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed.. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. for (( [expr1] . if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . while and until commands. such as by ‘[[ . [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. ))’... See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. For the if. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works.0. for name ( word . Execute list.. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. The body of the function is the list between the { and }. () [ term ] { list } word .. For the for. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word... Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell. ) sublist A short form of for. ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms.4 Last change: October 26.. These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future.. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead. else the end of the test will not be recognized.. Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word . the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case. function word . but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or . Another short form of for. for name [ in word . and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. otherwise. Inc. 2001 3 . [expr2] .. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. Normally. only one word is provided. If pipeline is omitted. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited.. since the test is not suitably delimited. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’... print statistics about the shell process and its children. See the section ‘Functions’.. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or .. zsh 4. ]]’ or ‘(( . The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set..

global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin. case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . ) list end Another form of for. If so. } An alternative form of case. parameter and command substitution occur.4 Last change: October 26. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it.. while list { list } An alternative form of while. in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. For example.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command). But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. Inside double quotes (" " ). QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. until list { list } An alternative form of until. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . A short form of select. but one single quote if it is set. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above... and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’..0.. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. zsh 4. ‘‘’. repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set. Therefore. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. If the text ends with a space..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set.&) ] . a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. and ‘$’. 2001 4 . made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. if an alias is defined for the word foo. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word...g. \foo. e. ‘" ’. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored. print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. Inc. or if the alias is global. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape. ) list (. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally.

If <<– is used. otherwise.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. This is known as a here–string. and the CLOBBER option is unset.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)).4 Last change: October 26. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document. this causes an error. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. becomes the standard input. except that the file is created if it does not exist. The resulting document. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity.0. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. this causes an error. Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. parameter and command substitution occurs. If the file does not exist then it is created. even if CLOBBER is unset. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. Inc. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. otherwise. If the file exists. >> word >>! word Same as >>. If the file does not exist. Otherwise. If the file does not exist then it is created. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. > word >! word Same as >. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. called a here–document. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. or to an end–of–file. the file is created. ‘$’. 2001 5 . and the CLOBBER option is unset. No parameter expansion. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. Otherwise. even if CLOBBER is unset. it is truncated to zero length.

thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’. provided the MULTIOS option is set. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. as it is by default.ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. file) association at the time of evaluation. 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly. For example: . 2001 6 .0. Inc. provided the MULTIOS option is set. If one of the above is preceded by a digit. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. similar to tee.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. If the order of redirections were reversed. you can do ∗’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. fname)..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). similar to cat. (Without the MULTIOS option. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. assuming there’s at least one. and also pipes it to cat. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. If the MULTIOS option is set.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once.. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory.4 Last change: October 26. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. thus zsh 4. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor.

Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller.0. with paging if that is a terminal. If there exists a shell function by that name.4 Last change: October 26. When the function is first executed. it is assumed to be a shell script. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. Thus to define functions for autoloading. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. but no command name. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. and the file is not a directory. 2001 7 . Inc. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. If the MULTIOS option is unset. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. an error is caused. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). Such a function has no body. all files redirected to are actually opened.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. Otherwise. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. and write ‘foo’ into baz. If the search is unsuccessful. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. Shell functions are read in and stored internally. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel. the shell attempts to locate it. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. the builtin is invoked. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. Otherwise. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. zsh can behave in several ways.

the extension was explicitly given by the user).e. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. but may also perform initialization.. For each element in fpath. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. but those are neither loaded nor executed. the order of searching is. It may include other function definitions as well.zwc A file created with zcompile. For example. the file’s contents will be executed. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. and a call to the shell function. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used. Otherwise. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen.zwc file is created. Inc. zsh 4. element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. second. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. including any arguments. as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set. the shell looks for three possible files. the function itself is not re–executed. This will normally define the function in question. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. and third. } print func is initialized then ‘func. 2001 8 . To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined.}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command. within a directory. element/function A file of zsh command text. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call.0. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. element/function. If the definition is not found.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If element already includes a . at the end. In summary. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 .zwc extension (i.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath. taken to be the definition for function. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. and the other message on the second and subsequent calls.. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element.4 Last change: October 26. which is executed in the context of the function execution.. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U. first. in fact. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. and may therefore define local parameters. which is expected to contain the definition for function..

In fact.. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. Inc. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions.. zsh 4. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath.. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status.. and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided). TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. If a function of this form is defined and null. A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. because all comments are discarded from defined functions.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if defined. precmd Executed before each prompt. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed.0. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’.4 Last change: October 26. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. For example. TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command. 2001 9 . or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. just before a prompt. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). otherwise it is an empty string. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. However.

%– Previous job. %% Current job. it does not have a place in the job table.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. zsh 4. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. rather than in their own function environment. whose process ID was 1234. 2001 10 . Inc. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’. printed by the jobs command. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. %string Any job whose command line begins with string. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command.0. You can then manipulate the state of this job. It keeps a table of current jobs. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. then that job is immediately disowned. The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. After startup. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output.4 Last change: October 26. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. If you set this tty option. putting it in the background with the bg command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. nor when it is continued with bg. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. If the NOTIFY option is not set. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. and print another prompt. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. and is not subject to the job control features described here. and assigns them small integer numbers. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed.

the precision is at least 8 bytes. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. For example. To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. as well as spaces. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin. in which case base 10 is used. for example ‘[#16]’. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. for example.. ‘((. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. Otherwise. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments. if the number appears unchanged. This can be tested. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. 2001 11 . the rightmost value in the given output base. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. then no base prefix is output.)). and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. where it acquires the output base 8. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. require quoting. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’. Since many of the arithmetic operators.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example.))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . For integers..4 Last change: October 26. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted. or via a substitution of the form $((. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation. if the HUP option is set. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used." ’. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. either using the builtin let. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active. the shell will not warn you a second time. for example ‘[##16]’. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. the last encountered is used. More precisely. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic.0. Integers can be in bases other than 10. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. Inc.. each is evaluated separately. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. If the # is doubled. If you do this or immediately try to exit again.. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. zsh 4. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on.. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. The base# may also be omitted. the suspended jobs will be terminated.. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status.

but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left.e. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. division. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. and associativity of expressions in C. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin.post}{in. but the exponent character e or E may not. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent.0. ‘’. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. zsh 4. ‘∧ ‘%’. and XOR operators. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. logical NOT.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. differing only in their output format. ‘&’. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. Likewise. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2. as it will be taken for a parameter name. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. Inc. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. there are two types. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. For example. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. as described for the typeset builtin. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions. modulus (remainder) +– addition. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. but its use is deprecated. i. floating point argument. 2001 12 .4 Last change: October 26. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format. OR. ‘&&=’. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. precedence. ‘<<’. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. complement. In addition. ‘’. {pre.

0.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero. For example.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. This can have unforeseen consequences. then the current process has permission to search in the directory.0’. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0. true if file exists and is a character special file. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. Inc. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. zsh 4. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. true if file exists and is a regular file. true if file exists and is a directory. –o option true if option named option is on. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process. true if file exists and is a symbolic link.1 )). in which case it is a single letter option name. If file exists and is a directory.4 Last change: October 26. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. option may be a single character. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared. f < 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. 2001 13 . true if file exists and is executable by current process. true if file exists. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case. true if file exists and is a block special file. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope. true if file exists and is readable by current process. so that the loop will fail. in the loop for (( f = 0. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. f += 0.

string != pattern true if string does not match pattern.4 Last change: October 26. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. true if exp is false.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. Inc. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. see zshexpn(1). –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. zsh 4. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. In each of the above expressions.0. However. string and pattern arguments. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots. similar to the effect of double quotes. where n is an integer. 2001 14 . Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2.

0. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded.)). %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day.. The hostname up to the first ‘. As %d and %/. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. Current time of day. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. Present working directory ($PWD). %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. Current history event number. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. zsh 4. See zshexpn(1).4 Last change: October 26. with seconds.’. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. in 12–hour. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set.’ is printed. A negative integer specifies leading components. For example. $USERNAME. %–1d specifies the first component. The current value of $SHLVL. in 24–hour format. and if so. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’.. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists. trailing components of the hostname are shown. With a negative integer. 2001 15 . If it starts with $HOME. A ‘)’. if the complete condition is true. but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. command substitution and arithmetic expansion. Some escapes take an optional integer argument.e. the message ‘File exists. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. zero means the whole path. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number. Current time of day in 24–hour format. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. am/pm format. If an integer follows the ‘%’. The full machine hostname. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. Inc. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. i. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode.

%%)’. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter. The character following the x is arbitrary. with prefix replacement. zero means the full path.e. sourced file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped.true–text. for these purposes. or shell function given by %N.1e capabilities are supported. The status of the parser. The date in yy–mm–dd format. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. %(x. whichever was started most recently. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. including further ternary expressions. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. 2001 16 . The test character x may be any of the following: c . or. Brace pairs can nest. %E %# %v %{.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. Clears to end of line. Negative integers count from the end of the array. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. This separator may not appear in the true–text. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. is that either the effective user ID is zero. has at least n elements. i. The definition of ‘privileged’. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month.0. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. If there is none.4 Last change: October 26. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. a ‘%’ if not. ˜ / C t True if the current path. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result.. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. The date in mm/dd/yy format. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function. except as part of a %–escape sequence.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors.#. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. A negative integer specifies leading components. sourced file. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed. Equivalent to ‘%(!.. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. if POSIX. which defaults to zero. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. The line number currently being executed in the script. zsh 4. Inc. See strftime(3) for more details. The date in day–dd format. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position.

the prompt ‘%8<. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. Inc. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated." ’.. it will appear in full.e.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘>’ or ‘]’). True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. True if the exit status of the last command was n. %c %.4 Last change: October 26. For example. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line. In particular.<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory.<%/’ will expand to ‘.. note when using print –P. or in fact any character. however. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’. True if the day of the month is equal to n. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. which ever comes first.. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct. True if the array psvar has at least n elements. The numeric argument. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. Unless ‘%C’ is used. %C Trailing component of $PWD. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/. note this does not undergo prompt expansion. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string.. True if the effective gid of the current process is n.g. The third. tilde contraction is performed first. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).. respectively. In this string. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<.e/pike’. the prompt ’%10<. True if the shell is running with privileges. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’. a truncation with argument zero (e. True if at least n shell constructs were started. deprecated. 2001 17 .0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. For example. completely replacing the truncated string. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. the terminating character (‘<’. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). i. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. followed by a space.e. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt.. zsh 4. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. Without the ‘%<<’. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component.

the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. Inc. commonly referred to as globbing. no history expansion occurs. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. if it is the only history reference in a command. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. each command is saved in the history list.4 Last change: October 26. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. it refers to the previous command.0. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. if neither of these designators is present. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. 2001 1 . After these expansions. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). By default. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Double quotes will not work for this. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter. Filename Generation This expansion. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. The one most recent command is always retained in any case. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. Immediately before execution. and may occur anywhere on the command line. is always done last. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. For example. However. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. history expansions do not nest. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1). a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. Conversely. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. which is ‘!’ by default. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. respectively. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset.

respectively. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. 2001 2 . Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. Inc. although the error may not be the most obvious one. ‘=’ or ‘(’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. replacing the string foo with bar. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.4 Last change: October 26. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. or a null value if there are none. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. That is. Anything else results in an error. Refer to the most recent command starting with str. except where noted.. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. By itself. the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. ‘∧ ’. Refer to command–line n. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). !# !{. ∗’. The first argument. Refer to the current command–line minus n.0. zsh 4. If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. More precisely. Modifiers After the optional word designator. ! Start a history expansion. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). Refer to the previous command. except when followed by a blank. this expansion repeats the previous command. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. x defaults to 0. In the list below. 1. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. The last argument. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. newline. All the arguments. Word designators include: ’. A range of words. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. The nth argument. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion.. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). each preceded by a ‘:’. you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers.

Like s. Remove all but the extension. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. the shell runs process list asynchronously. The following f. if ‘(’. Convert the words to all lowercase. Remove all leading pathname components. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Convert the words to all uppercase. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. see above. This works like ‘basename’. Like q. Inc. Repeat the previous s substitution. ‘[’. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. ‘]’. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. or ‘}’. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Quote the substituted words. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. in the right–hand–side r. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. respectively. 2001 3 . In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. For example. may be preceded immediately by a g. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. escaping further substitutions. but character strings.0. otherwise. F. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. this applies to each word of the expanded text. If < is used. For arrays and for filename generation.4 Last change: October 26. leaving the head. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘.xxx’. but break into words at whitespace. with no colon between. Unless preceded immediately by a g. The character ‘&’. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. F:expr: Like f. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. In the case of the < or > forms. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. leaving the tail. Substitute r for l as described below. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. Print the new command but do not execute it. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. Only works with history expansion. opening parentheses are handled specially. the command argument will be a named pipe. This works like ‘dirname’. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. Does not work with parameter expansion. leaving the root name. the closing delimiter should be ’)’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

In both forms. ${name} The value. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. the value of the parameter is then substituted. ‘˜’. pastes the results together. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. 2001 4 . ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. If name is an array parameter. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. of the parameter name is substituted. the expansion results in one word only. If = is used. if any. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. exceptions. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’. ${name:?word} zsh 4. if the programme does not actually open the file. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. then the value of each element of name is substituted. with KSH_ARRAYS. substitute word. and arithmetic expansion. including arrays. unconditionally set name to word. otherwise substitute word.4 Last change: October 26. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. If name is missing. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. Inc. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. In addition. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. one element per word. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. in the second form. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. In addition to the following operations. In the second case. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. this is the first element of an array. In both cases. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. associative arrays. Note that these patterns.0. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. the name. In the former case. Otherwise. digit.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. command substitution. all of which work with or without braces. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks.

just substitute the value of name. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. in which case it must match at the end of the string. in the second form. just substitute the value of name. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. then substitute the empty string. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. the largest matching pattern is preferred. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. E and N are not useful. B. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. a quoted backslash). the second form all occurrences. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter.4 Last change: October 26. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. In the following expressions. The repl may be an empty string. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. R.0. otherwise. otherwise substitute nothing. In the first form. If word is omitted. ${#spec} zsh 4. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. the largest matching pattern is preferred. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). in the second form. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. Inc. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. otherwise. print word and exit from the shell. then a standard message is printed. even at the start. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. otherwise. then the shell only checks whether name is set. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. In the first case. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. just substitute the value of name.. however. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. In the first form. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. For example. not whether its value is null. while in the second ∗e case.e. otherwise. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon. 2001 5 . To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. or ‘%’. the flags M.

If this flag is given twice.=.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’.}. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options. ’. one surrounding the whole expression. for example. Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays.. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec.$var[2]. ‘${. below. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis.. Internally. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted. if the ‘=’ is doubled. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’). but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes. see the examples below.. array elements are put into separate words.::=. Inc. E. the repetitions need not be consecutive.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed.4 Last change: October 26. for example. This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. if the ‘∧ is doubled.. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT. The form with $(.}’.. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec... array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1]. create an associative array parameter..g. Create an array parameter with ‘${. If a ${.. E. In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’).. there are two sets of quotes.. turn it off.... for example.. 2001 6 . substitute the number of elements of the result. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c).} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1). in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" . When this option is set.. turn it ’ off. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’.. Assignment is made before sorting or padding.:=. If spec is an array expression. turn it off.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined. When this option is set. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags. which still applies within each array element.g. and ‘˜’. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below..}’ or ‘${. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before.} type parameter expression or a $(. Each name or nested ${. each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution.0. This is done by default in most other shells.}’. s or z flags. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions.... using IFS as a delimiter. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name.. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself.. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context. if the ‘˜’ is doubled. In double quotes.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next.. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo).. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words.

as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). ${(P)${foo}}. Inc. 2001 7 . However. With o or O. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words. Quote the resulting words with backslashes. Split the result of the expansion to lines.. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. sort case–independently. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. For example. ‘integer’. If it is given four times.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’.4 Last change: October 26. ‘float’ or ‘association’. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. Perform parameter expansion. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. count the total number of characters in an array. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution. the words are quoted in double quotes.}’ to activate field splitting. ‘array’. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics. If this flag is given twice.. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. Capitalize the resulting words. If name refers to an associative array. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). whose value will be used where appropriate. it can be one of ‘scalar’. when creating an associative array. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. the strings ${(P)foo}. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. not to words that result from field splitting.0. Sort the resulting words in descending order.

The default is to take the first match. Likewise.} forms.. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored..//. So to access single words in the result..)’. or the matching pairs ‘(.} and ${... specifies non–greedy matching. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced.}... either with the S flag.#... i. Any character. count words in arrays or strings.>’. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.. or ‘<. If both string1 and string2 are given./. as for the ‘(s)’ flag.%. force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument... Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide.} or ${.... 2001 8 .. ‘[. taking into account any quoting in the value. Inc.} forms.e... Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below. with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string.. i. ‘{......User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown.%%. S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter.. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence...]’. Note that this is done very late.//. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string.} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${. to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).. or with ${.} forms. s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string... Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case.} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted).. Without the flag they are silently ignored. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element. The following flags are meaningful with the ${.. With ${#name}.. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4.. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator. The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given.%.... Used with subscripts. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.}’.0... r:expr::string1::string2: As l.. before padding. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word.} or ${. With the ${. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option... With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported.4 Last change: October 26./. Used with k.. With substitution via ${. This only applies when searching for substrings.e./.. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted.

5..4 Last change: October 26. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’.. Thus if var is an array. If the (j) flag is present. the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value.. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array. ‘witch’. ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}.0. Include the length of the match in the result. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. by default a space. Any number of subscripts may appear. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution.. but ${var[2.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. for example. is applied. such as ${var[3]}. 4. 3. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes. the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. Some particular examples are given below.. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. i. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. multiple subscripts can appear. but in reverse order. zsh 4. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases).}. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. At each level. Note that.} forms are present.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). Include the matched portion in the result.e. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’. Note that ${foo[2. and the substitution appears in double quotes. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present. but not to " ${${foo[2. 1. 2. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${. possibly adjusted for quoting. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). Subscripts are evaluated left to right. As with 2. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. 2001 9 . ${. Inc.e. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript.

or 9.[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. which divides the file up by words. 12. are applied to the words of the value at this level.fill.g.0. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. 2001 10 .. The outer substitution " ${(@). too. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. 9. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. produces a single word result " bar baz" . Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present. The outer substitution " ${. as specified by a trailing ‘#’. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value. Modifiers Any modifiers. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines.. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. and joining did not take place at step 4. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. or the same inside double quotes. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions.)’ flags is applied. or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8. 11. 10. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’).[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. which has no array (@) flag..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array.. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions. zsh 4. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string. 8. Note this step. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.)’ or ‘(r. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between. Inc. ‘%’. For example. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given. In this case. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS.. 7..4 Last change: October 26. ‘b’ and ‘1’. If a single word is not required. this rule is skipped. ‘1’. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. which makes the entire content of the file a single string.. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’. ${=var}). so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’. First.fill..

If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place.. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. in the manner of a search set. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. with any trailing newlines deleted. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. then the word up to a ‘/’. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If it does. respectively. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. or quoted with grave accents. The final empty string will then be elided. the output is eligible for filename generation.n2}’. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack.zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. and then split to give ‘a’.. In either case. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here. Left–to–right order is preserved. The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value. which is joined to give " ax bx" . In that case. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match.0. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width.yy. is replaced with its standard output. it is left unchanged. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. zsh 4. 2001 11 . where n1 and n2 are integers. Inc. like ‘‘. If so. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp.)’. As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. ‘ b’ and ‘’.‘’. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. In particular. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. If either number begins with a zero. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. as it is not in double quotes..4 Last change: October 26. This construct may be nested. like ‘$(. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. An expression of the form ‘{n1. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space). and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo..

the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. If no matching pattern is found. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set. in which case the word is left unchanged. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’. the shell gives an error message.] [∧ . Like [. Matches any character. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace. inclusive. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’.. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command.] [!.’ or ‘. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set. In other instances of pattern matching. If so.’.] form is more efficient. There are also several named classes of characters.4 Last change: October 26. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment. it is regarded as ∗’. To match individual digits. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number. e. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. including the null string. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. a ‘. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended.. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern.... or unless the NOMATCH option is unset... in which case the word is deleted. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. [. the ‘/’ and ‘. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter. or ‘?’. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. ‘<’. also. the ‘=’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. for instance).. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory.. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. 2001 12 . the EQUALS option is also respected.’ are not treated specially. In this case. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’..g. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter.]. If an alias exists by that name. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. In filename generation. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph.. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3). zsh 4. Named character sets can be used alongside other types. ‘’. except when the directory is / itself.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon). If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set.0. unless the GLOB option is unset. the [. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’. Matches any of the enclosed characters. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’. when the shell prints a path. Inc. the word is replaced with the text of the alias. a pattern for filename generation. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. ‘[’. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set. If a command exists by that name. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit.

) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’.. a pattern already followed by ‘##’.) Matches anything except the pattern x. The ∗’. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x.) ∗ ∗(. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’.0. ‘?’.) +(.4 Last change: October 26.)’. ‘[.) Match the pattern in the parentheses.) Match zero or one occurrence. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation). Inc. x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example.)’. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. and the ‘∗ will match any others. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar. (Like ‘(. (Like ‘(.. zsh 4... but the ‘(’ must be. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example.. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.) Match at least one occurrence. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses.. ‘˜’. a character.. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses. or a parenthesised expression). xy ∧ x Matches either x or y. a ‘/’ is not special. rather than ‘(12)##’. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way.)#’.. or ‘!’. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. As mentioned above.) !(. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.. This operator has high precedence.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. This operator has high precedence... ‘∗ ‘+’.]’.e. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’). This is a trap for the unwary.) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. for example... (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. in case statements and tests within ‘[[. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit.. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available. simply treated from left to right as part of a string.) Matches the enclosed pattern.. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially. In the exclusion pattern (y). This character need not be unquoted to have special effects. to avoid interpretation as a pipeline..’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories.. ‘∗ ‘+’.>’. while a ‘’ must do so. the remaining operators are ’. @(. ∗’ (.. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. then a ‘@’.]]’). rather than ‘(12)#’.. ‘?’ ∗’. ‘’ (lowest). This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’..’ except ‘. (Like ‘(. For example. (Like ‘(∧ (.. with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i..)##’../foo’ for a file named ‘bar’. 2001 13 .) Match any number of occurrences. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘.. ‘<.. This operator has lower precedence than any other.) ?(. foo/any/anyother/bar. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’.) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y. this includes an empty string. foo/any/bar. If the KSH_GLOB option is set.’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.))’.. This is used for grouping. (Like ‘(. and so on.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x.. as detailed below. ‘/’ and ‘.

Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The parameters $MATCH. 2001 14 . The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. For example. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation. respectively. such as ${param//pat/repl}. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1]. not local to a group. zsh 4. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. and the indices of the end in the array $mend.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. i. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. This is most useful in parameter substitutions.0. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. and the start and end indices are set to –1. or a global substitution. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. See the example for the m flag below. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. Inc. and so on. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. although sets of parentheses may be nested. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. only the data for the last match remains available. this does not work in filename generation. such as ${array#pattern}. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. as otherwise the string matched is obvious. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. B m Deactivate backreferences. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched.e. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2].

all vowels) into uppercase. Different characters. at/end/test. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. but not by (#l)FOOXX. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. Transposition of characters. M anum s. e Deactivate the m flag.] groups. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. hence no references to match data will be created. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. as in fooxbar and fooybar. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. 3. Another use is in parameter substitution.e. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. Approximate Matching When matching approximately. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. but not strings of length two. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters. 4.e. and all slashes in filenames. these have only a local effect. Similarly. For example. An extra character appearing in the target string. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. Finally. i. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. For example. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’.. Four types of error are recognised: 1. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately).4 Last change: October 26. Unlike the other flags. is potentially slow. A character missing in the target string. 2. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once. as with stove and strove. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. zsh 4.0. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i.. there is no speed penalty for using match references.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. as in banana and abnana.. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. match anywhere except at the start of the string. since all the ? must match. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. Unlike backreferences. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). ∗’ test/at/start. as with the pattern road and target string rod. 2001 15 . note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. Thus. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. in/test/middle. Inc. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type.

Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. Thus. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. However. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. This form does not follow symbolic links. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and this can be delimited by grouping. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. 2001 16 . so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment.ME but not READ_ME. which may not occur in the dog section. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . Inc. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator. in that case. Apart from exclusions. however. note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). For example. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. there is only one overall error count. where approximation is turned off. As a shorthand.0. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. for example. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. however.4 Last change: October 26. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. bling the parentheses. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent.

0. and for which other group members have no rights. and ‘a’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). ‘}’. ‘g’. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. followed by a ‘=’. ‘s’. If a ‘u’ is given. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. independent of the permissions for other users. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. if a ‘g’ is given. if combined with a ‘=’.4 Last change: October 26. The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. ‘w’. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). ‘}’. which overrides the value of REPLY. 2001 17 . zsh 4. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. ‘o’. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. those for the owner of the file are used. The ‘=’. The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. and with a ‘–’. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. Thus. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. ‘{’. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. while any other character matches itself. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. with a ‘+’. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. In addition. ‘{’. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. Inc. estring The string will be executed as shell code. and ‘>’. If none of these characters is given. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. a ‘+’. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. ‘[’. ‘+’. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. or a ‘–’. If set to an array. those of the group are checked. or a octal digit. ‘x’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. and ‘>’ respectively. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. and ‘t’. the bits in the number must not be set. a ‘+’. write. respectively. or a ‘–’. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. ‘w’ for write access. and execute permission.

Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. megabytes. if d.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. m. weeks. Inc. like ‘o’. ‘w’. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago. more than n bytes (+). modification. or inode change respectively. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. or exactly n bytes in length. if not. except that it uses the file inode change time. ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. ‘{’. m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. ‘m’ (‘M’). Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). Note the quotation marks. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’.g. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order.0. and ‘>’ respectively. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. hence the first name in the list is the youngest file. For instance. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. minutes or seconds instead of days. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. greater than ct (+). ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days).g. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. m.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. respectively. if a. files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. except that it uses the file modification time. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. Note that a. i. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). ‘}’. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. 2001 18 . hours. and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. if l they are sorted by the number of links. ‘h’. but sorts in descending order.4 Last change: October 26. Oc zsh 4.g. ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames.e. and c compare the age against the current time.

If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. parse. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. lex.. 2001 19 .h. affect all matches generated. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1.]’). ‘N’.[ch](∧ l1) ∗. zsh 4.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:. separated by commas. ignoring symlinks. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). Some qualifiers. These are the qualifiers ‘M’.0. independent of the sublist in which they are given. More than one of these lists can be combined. ‘o’. ‘n’. and ls ∗ ∗(W. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse).3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories.4 Last change: October 26. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex.c and parse.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. E. however.. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[. ‘T’.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list.c. ‘D’.g.. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). Inc. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable.h. Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’.

In the parameter lists that follow. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. To declare the type of a parameter.4 Last change: October 26. The elements are numbered beginning with 1.. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details. However. or ‘!’. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar. indexed by name). is set for name. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript.. an integer.. it is replaced by a new array. –i. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. 2001 1 ... Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. To refer to the value of a parameter. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs.. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value . the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. write one of: set –A name value .. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. name=(key value .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘#’. Inc.. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. and they stay special even if unset.. value may be a scalar (a string). the braced form is the only one that works. and a number of attributes. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’. an ordinary array parameter is created. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’.))’. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays. The ∗’. use the typeset builtin. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list. Note that this assigns to the entire array. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. To create an empty array (including associative arrays).) Every key must have a value in this case. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. Special parameters cannot have their type changed. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute.) If no parameter name exists. ‘?’. ‘$’.. an array (indexed numerically). A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. name=(value . a value. ‘–’. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero.0.

respectively). If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array." ’.’. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys).5]’ prints ‘ooba’. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag. The subscript used is the number of the matching element. say –n. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. then ‘echo $FOO[2.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case.4 Last change: October 26.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. and so do not support ranges. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. (Associative arrays are unordered. with elements separated by newlines. Arrays do not nest. 2001 2 . Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. in no particular order. To delete an element of an associative array. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). or the comma in a range. The default word separator is whitespace. See Subscript Parsing below for details. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset. this means the value of the key ‘0’.e. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. For associative arrays. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo.. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. zsh 4.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number.(r)f∗ are possible.. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead.0. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] . Inc. i.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. (This is not supported for associative arrays. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. assign ‘()’ to that element. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. if it is a scalar. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. inclusive.. and ‘$foo[1. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. To delete an element of an ordinary array. as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. For example. there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. but see Subscript Flags below).

but gives the index of the last match. For associative arrays. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. If used on another type of parameter. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). but gives the index of the match instead. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. but gives the last match. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. ‘R’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. If used in a subscript on an associative array. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. or character (if expr evaluates to n). this behaves like ‘r’. but not for assigning to associative arrays. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. word. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). However. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. For associative arrays. and the first matching key found is the result. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. gives all possible matches. R i Like ‘r’. ‘i’ or ‘I’. because of the standard shell quoting rules. ‘i’ or ‘I’. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. zsh 4. For associative arrays. etc. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. However. Like ‘r’. ‘i’. ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. flags). Therefore. However. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. so the rules have two important differences. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’). On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. behaves like ‘r’. ‘R’. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values. and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. for example. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. this may not be combined with a second argument. On the left side of an assignment. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). This flag is ignored when the array is associative. 2001 3 . makes them begin at the nth or nth last element.0. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. ‘R’. Like ‘i’. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment.

brackets.. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. second. for example. thus ‘$argv[n]’. positional parameters. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values. That is. to refer to the value of that key. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. etc.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. integer. Therefore. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes.0. by assigning to the argv array. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed. The parameter n.5]’. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. they are removed only once. but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. see the section ‘Invocation’. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. Inc. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression.. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). backslashes are interpreted twice. local and readonly (but not export).. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. Note that. For complex patterns.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. because the positional parameters form an array. As in true double–quoting.) The typeset builtin. shell script. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. from the innermost subscript outwards. because then the backslashes. a subscript expression. ‘${2[3. zsh 4. 2001 4 . it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’.) One final note. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. In a reverse subscript. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. the subscript is a plain string in that case. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. parentheses. rather than as a pattern.4 Last change: October 26. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed. etc. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern..)’ is allowed. and its alternative forms declare. or the shell itself. (Parameters are dynamically scoped. but ‘$2[3. where n is a number. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. This has two effects: first. once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. and also the section ‘Functions’. is the nth positional parameter.

Special parameters may also be made local. or declaring a new parameter with export. you may change the zsh 4..) However. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). status <S> <Z> Same as ?. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked.4 Last change: October 26. q. If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. If you have sufficient privileges.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. Also. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute. assigning to a non–existent parameter. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The number of positional parameters in decimal. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends.0. the sequence ‘$#–. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope.v. Inc. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden. In particular. An array containing the positional parameters. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands. (That is. parameter. The name used to invoke the current shell. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param.. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. but argv is not itself a local ∗. CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). even when argv is not set. as determined at run time. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function. 2001 5 . causes it to be created in the outermost scope.

OLDPWD The previous working directory. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session.0. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. sourced file. Inc. 2001 6 . you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. command)’ HOST The current hostname. LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. as determined at compile time. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If you have sufficient privileges. If this parameter is assigned a value. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. If you have sufficient privileges. or shell function being executed. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. OSTYPE The operating system. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter.4 Last change: October 26. PWD The present working directory. whichever was started most recently. zsh 4. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. as determined at compile time. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment. Also (assuming sufficient privileges).

e. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. such as path and PATH. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. If you have sufficient privileges. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. signals An array containing the names of the signals. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. 2001 7 . These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. and not the modem. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. it will be truncated zsh 4. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name.g. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. ARGV0 If exported. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell.4 Last change: October 26. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. if any. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. as determined at compile time. If the stack gets larger than this. If you have sufficient privileges. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. they retain their special properties when recreated.0. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. in this case. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. Inc.

One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. Any characters from the set space. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. ’). LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting. in hundredths of seconds. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. 2001 8 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. If unset. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. newline and NUL). setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. tab. However.4 Last change: October 26. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS. then it is read and executed in the current environment. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. Inc. the history is not saved. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. If an executable file is found. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). than these files are completed anyway. (Deprecated. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character.0.

) For security reasons. This is initialized to a standard pathname. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command. the number of matches to list without asking first. and vice versa. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. The message will undergo parameter expansion. unset this parameter. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. change this to :. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. since setting it also sets MANPATH. Inc. however. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits. When this parameter is set. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. LISTMAX In the line editor. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands.0. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. Defaults to cat. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value.4 Last change: October 26. The manpath array can be useful. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. If set to zero. 2001 9 . It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If the value is negative. For sh/ksh behavior. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. For csh–like behavior. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set.

printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. Defaults to more. All other prompt escapes are also allowed. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. PS2. STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. the default is ‘+ ’. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. printed before a command is read. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. PS3 and PS4. 2001 10 . zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. In sh or ksh emulation. respectively. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. The default is ‘?# ’. and vice versa. It is expanded in the same way as PS1.4 Last change: October 26. the default is ‘%m%# ’. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. reply As REPLY. but for array values rather than strings.0. The default is ‘%_> ’. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt.

and are reset when it finishes or is suspended. then all login/logout events are reported. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. The CPU percentage. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications.’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. 2001 11 . This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. CPU seconds spent in user mode.. it is reported.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME. This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. ‘TERM=$TERM’). STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. This is used when looking up termcap sequences. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. The hostname up to the first ‘. If there is a trap on SIGALRM. as if it were not suspended.0.g. even if the value does not change (e. "logged on" or "logged off". the whole name is printed.4 Last change: October 26. If no trap is set. i. zsh 4. these will not be local to the command. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname. The observed action. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’.e. If it contains the single word ‘all’. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. The name of this job. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. The full hostname of the remote host. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. if a login/logout event matches all of them. zsh terminates. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). The line (tty) the user is logged in on. An entry in this list may consist of a username. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. Elapsed time in seconds. Inc. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it. computed as (%U+%S)/%E.

%S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. ZBEEP If set. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The time. zsh 4. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed.zshrc. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. 2001 12 . Ternary expressions may be nested. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. The character following the x is arbitrary. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. the entire expression is omitted in this case. Inc. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. but both separators must be present in any case. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. Either or both of the branches may be empty. If ‘false’. this gives a string of characters. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). etc).4 Last change: October 26. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. ‘n’. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. and the false–text is skipped. If the result is ‘true’. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. ‘m’ or ‘M’. if not $HOME. in 12–hour. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. am/pm format.0. in 24–hour format. or it may be ‘a’. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. for example.

and a full completion is inserted. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. For example. ALL_EXPORT (–a.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. When listing options (by ‘setopt’. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. <S>. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. <Z> as appropriate. zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. zsh 4.0. Some options also have one or more single letter names. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. This inversion can only be done once.4 Last change: October 26. ksh. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. those set by default only in csh. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. Thus. rather than overwrite it. in the order they are killed. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. or with the set. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. sh. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). Similarly. trailing whitespace will be ignored. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. Inc. setopt and unsetopt builtins. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. For example. ‘unsetopt’. <K>. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. perform the cd command to that directory. ‘noexec’. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. That is. and the command is the name of a directory. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. 2001 1 .

Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. ‘:’. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. csh–style. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion.0.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. treating the character ‘!’ specially. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job.4 Last change: October 26. (Otherwise. if it contains no ‘’. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. print an error message. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.). AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. Inc. a slash. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. C_BASES zsh 4. the automatically added character is deleted. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. 2001 2 . If AUTO_MENU is set. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. remove the slash. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. the pattern will be left unchanged. etc. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first.’. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. This option is set by default. (If this option is unset. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. ‘cd /foo/bar/.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES. CLOBBER (+C. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. and ‘>>’ to create files.0. Inc.. end’ instead of ‘do list. i. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory.’ is used. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). or if ‘. ‘foo/. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. it changes to /alt.’ would be removed from the path. Without this option set. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed.. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default). CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.’ changes to /foo. with it set. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes.. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal.’ is the first part of the path. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command.. try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’).4 Last change: October 26.. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . and does not begin with a slash. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS. done’.. instead resolve the path to the physical directory.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. 2001 3 . defaulting to the previous command.e. Without this option. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. else such jobs will be killed automatically. a ‘. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. For example. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs.

delete the pattern from the argument list. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. GLOB (+F. ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands. readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. etc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and exit. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. EXEC (+n. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. Overrides NOMATCH. Inc. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. If the option is unset. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. if set. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’. zsh 4. This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). In double–quoted strings. The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’. 2001 4 .) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion. These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. but not executed. Command substitutions are only expanded once. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. float. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. integer. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. and cannot be nested. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. Without this option.) ERR_EXIT (–e. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). execute the ZERR trap.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file. This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status.0. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function.

otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset. when CORRECT is set. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history.g. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed. 2001 5 . HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there. the startup files /etc/zprofile. including inside local startup files (.zshrc. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor. such as options. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. hash the directory containing it. no path hashing is done at all. filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e. ∗)’) with this option set. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’). Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion. not globbing. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. user names. This actually uses pattern matching. Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run. If this option is unset. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This makes the first completion slower. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. /etc/zshrc. You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events.g. GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set. etc. However.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. avoiding a path search.). so it works not only for files but for any completion. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted.0. The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. Inc. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. even if the duplicates are not contiguous. This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed.4 Last change: October 26. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. zsh 4. etc. make sure the entire command path is hashed first. as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path.

However. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). Also. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer. ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command.4 Last change: October 26. INTERACTIVE (–i. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. not for completion widgets. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. instead. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. Require the use of exit or logout instead. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. but can exceed this value between trimmings. HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion.0. HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. zsh 4. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. 2001 6 . Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. don’t execute the line directly. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. This works only for normal widgets. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message. HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space. Inc. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell. type a space and press return. HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked.) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST.

LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion. However. that is.4 Last change: October 26. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’). marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. array elements are numbered from zero. A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. word splitting does not take place in those cases. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. with it. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. ‘!’. in other words. This means that when a function is autoloaded.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. float. integer. and must define the function itself. LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. are processed. all options are shown. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. local and readonly. Inc. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. (By default. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. including declare. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. More accurately. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function. ‘off’ otherwise.0. the function is defined to the contents of the file. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted. the corresponding file is merely executed. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. Without this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. If this option is set. export. LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set. 2001 7 . LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. ‘∗ ‘+’. that is done without a completion list being displayed. zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment. Otherwise. ‘?’ or ∗’. the second match is to the right of the first one. not under it as usual. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored.

and not used as an actual parameter assignment. the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a ‘–’. 2001 8 . ksh: –X) Append a trailing ‘/’ to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing). MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST All unquoted arguments of the form ‘anything=expression’ appearing after the command name have filename expansion (that is. Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function. etc. then the previous status of the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits. sleep 3. it is passed to the command as a single argument. Set by default in interactive shells. This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option. MULTIOS <Z> Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section ‘Redirection’). unsetopt localtraps trap – INT fn() { setopt localtraps. LONG_LIST_JOBS (–R) List jobs in the long format by default. This option overrides AUTO_MENU. it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly restored by a function. In other words. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately. Inc. insert the first match immediately. the value on exit from the function is irrelevant. } will restore normally handling of SIGINT after the function exits. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. if both options are in effect. both occurrences of ˜ would be replaced. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. MARK_DIRS (–8. go back to the first one again. MONITOR (–m. print an error. The argument is not otherwise treated specially. NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function. When there are no more matches. reverse–menu–complete may be used to loop through the list in the other direction. NOTIFY (–5. remove the first match and insert the second match. Then when completion is requested again. where expression has a leading ‘˜’ or ‘=’) performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment. instead of leaving it unchanged in the argument list. Overrides NOMATCH. If this option is not explicitly set. For example. ksh: –m) Allow job control. MENU_COMPLETE (–Y) On an ambiguous completion. However. rather than waiting until just before printing a prompt.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar statements. ksh: –l) This is a login shell. delete the pattern from the argument list instead of reporting an error.4 Last change: October 26. For example. in echo foo=˜/bar:˜/rod. zsh 4. instead of listing possibilities or beeping. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting. NULL_GLOB (–G) If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. LOGIN (–l. MAIL_WARNING (–U) Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked. trap ’’ INT.

local. This option disables sourcing user startup files. 2001 9 . OVERSTRIKE Start up the line editor in overstrike mode. shift. break. PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS Don’t push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack. PRINT_EIGHT_BIT Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists. ‘!’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. set. export. eval. This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of. builtin.. POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S> When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell builtin commands. Special builtins are . Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in this form. This also applies to the . See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. source. PRIVILEGED (–p. This is on by default as multi–line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. return. the command ‘/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit’ will be executed (assuming it exists). readonly. OCTAL_ZEROES <S> Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal. command substitution and arithmetic expansion are performed in prompts. Inc. /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive shells). sort the filenames numerically rather than lexicographically. zsh 4. PROMPT_BANG <K> If set. exit. trap and unset. Commands explicitly beginning with ‘/’.2–1992 (ISO 9945–2:1993). Thus if ‘/usr/local/bin’ is in the user’s path. etc. Parameter assignments specified before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin. date and time strings with leading zeroes. for example.’ or the current directory appear in the command search path. This takes place before any search indicated by this option./’ or ‘. Turning this option off causes the effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs. This option is not necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)). PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (–1) Print the exit value of programs with non–zero exit status./’ are not subject to the path search. PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z> If set. per IEEE Std 1003. ksh: –p) Turn on privileged mode. This option cannot be changed using the –m option of setopt and unsetopt. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern. Sourcing ˜/. declare. :. times. and he or she types ‘X11/xinit’.. and changing it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. integer. ‘%’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. and regardless of whether ‘. ‘. PROMPT_SUBST <K> If set.4 Last change: October 26. If zsh is invoked as ‘sh’ or ‘ksh’ with this option set. PROMPT_CR (+V) <D> Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor. parameter expansion. PATH_DIRS (–Q) Perform a path search even on command names with slashes in them. continue.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) PUSHD_MINUS Exchanges the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack. . Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $’. RC_EXPAND_PARAM (–P) Array expansions of the form ‘foo${xx}bar’. you may wish to turn SHARE_HISTORY off. If this option is unset. so things like ‘˜$USERNAME’ and ‘˜{pfalstad. it can be set at any time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced. 2001 10 .’. RESTRICTED (–r) Enables restricted mode. and . The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the ‘∗ in ZLE ∗’ (with tab)..rc}’ will work. PUSHD_SILENT (–E) Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.zshrc. the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced. and some include them. REC_EXACT (–S) In completion. RM_STAR_SILENT (–H) <K> <S> Do not query the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ ∗’ ∗’.zprofile. but you can toggle this on and off with the set–local–history zle binding. zsh 4. RM_STAR_WAIT If querying the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ first wait ten seconds and ignore any∗’ ∗’. Inc. source the . SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S> Perform filename expansion (e. It is also possible to create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported commands.g. and setting it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. This option cannot be changed using unsetopt. recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous. This avoids the problem of reflexively answering ‘yes’ to the query when one didn’t really mean it.zlogin. but any of the others will not be.zshenv. INC_APPEND_HISTORY on. RCS (+f) <D> After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup.. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c).0. SHARE_HISTORY <K> This option both imports new commands from the history file.zlogout files.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and then manually import commands whenever you need them using ‘fc –RI’.4 Last change: October 26. ˜ expansion) before parameter expansion. /etc/zprofile. See the section ‘Restricted Shell’. If this option is unset. where a backslashed single quote can be used. as described in the section ‘Files’. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. . and also causes your typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY). /etc/zlogin. command substitution. PUSHD_TO_HOME (–D) Have pushd with no arguments act like ‘pushd $HOME’. thing typed in that time. /etc/zshrc. If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported. RC_QUOTES Allow the character sequence ‘’’’ to signify a single quote within singly quoted strings. The history lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off reading the file after it gets re–written). it is performed after brace expansion. . By default. arithmetic expansion and brace expansion.. history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines.

SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (–M) <K> Use single–line command line editing instead of multi–line.) SINGLE_COMMAND (–t. SH_NULLCMD <K> <S> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections. ksh: –s) Commands are being read from the standard input. and function constructs. SH_WORD_SPLIT (–y) <K> <S> Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions. and there are an odd number of backquotes on the line. Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running – that is purely an indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (–L) If a line ends with a backquote. This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small. Note that this option has nothing to do with word splitting. it exits after a single command has been executed. zsh 4. This also makes the shell non–interactive. OPTION ALIASES Some options have alternative names. ksh: –v) Print shell input lines as they are read. If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Otherwise they are treated as an error. This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh. ksh: –x) Print commands and their arguments as they are executed. but can be used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell. Inc. ‘’. select. ignore the trailing backquote. ZLE (–Z) Use the zsh line editor. This also affects the value of the – special parameter. any argument that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal positional parameter. Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal.0. Commands are read from standard input if no command is specified with –c and no file of commands is specified. 2001 11 . and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it. XTRACE (–x. and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns. SHIN_STDIN (–s. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) SH_GLOB <K> <S> Disables the special meaning of ‘(’. (See the section ‘Parameter Expansion’.4 Last change: October 26. ksh: –t) If the shell is reading from standard input. SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S> If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and setopt) like ksh does. SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z> Allow the short forms of for. UNSET (+u. use ‘:’ instead (see the section ‘Redirection’). These aliases are never used for output. ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z> Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting. ‘)’ and ’<’ for globbing the result of parameter and command substitutions. if. unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command line. VERBOSE (–v.

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

BRACE_EXPAND NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility) DOT_GLOB GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility) HASH_ALL HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility) HIST_APPEND APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility) HIST_EXPAND BANG_HIST (bash compatibility) LOG NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility) MAIL_WARN MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility) ONE_CMD SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility) PHYSICAL CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility) PROMPT_VARS PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility) STDIN SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility) TRACK_ALL HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)
SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS Default set

–0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –B –C –D –E –F –G –H –I –J –K –L –M –N –O –P

CORRECT PRINT_EXIT_VALUE NO_BAD_PATTERN NO_NOMATCH GLOB_DOTS NOTIFY BG_NICE IGNORE_EOF MARK_DIRS AUTO_LIST NO_BEEP NO_CLOBBER PUSHD_TO_HOME PUSHD_SILENT NO_GLOB NULL_GLOB RM_STAR_SILENT IGNORE_BRACES AUTO_CD NO_BANG_HIST SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK SINGLE_LINE_ZLE AUTO_PUSHD CORRECT_ALL RC_EXPAND_PARAM

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

12

User Commands

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ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–Q –R –S –T –U –V –W –X –Y –Z –a –e –f –g –h –i –k –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –w –x –y –C –X –a –b –e –f –i –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –x
Also note

PATH_DIRS LONG_LIST_JOBS REC_EXACT CDABLE_VARS MAIL_WARNING NO_PROMPT_CR AUTO_RESUME LIST_TYPES MENU_COMPLETE ZLE ALL_EXPORT ERR_EXIT NO_RCS HIST_IGNORE_SPACE HIST_IGNORE_DUPS INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE CHASE_LINKS XTRACE SH_WORD_SPLIT NO_CLOBBER MARK_DIRS ALL_EXPORT NOTIFY ERR_EXIT NO_GLOB INTERACTIVE LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE XTRACE Used by set for setting arrays Used on the command line to specify end of option processing Used on the command line to specify a single command Used by setopt for pattern–matching option setting Used in all places to allow use of long option names

sh/ksh emulation set

–A –b –c –m –o

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

13

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ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–s

Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

14

User Commands

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ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

NAME

zshbuiltins – zsh built–in commands
SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

– simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. . file [ arg ... ] Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment. If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory containing file. Files in the current directory are not read unless ‘.’ appears somewhere in $path. If a file named ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed. : [ arg ... ] This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on shell parameters. A zero exit code is returned. alias [ {+–}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ] For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion. If the –g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position. For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any. With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases. If the –m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed. When printing aliases and the –g or –r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or regular aliases, respectively. Using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’, or ending the option list with a single ‘+’, prevents the values of the aliases from being printed. If the –L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup script. The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined. autoload [ {+–}UXmt ] [ –wkz ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to functions –u, with the exception of –X/+X, –w, –k and –z. The flag –X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name. It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments. This replaces the previous definition of the function. If no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it. The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it was found. This does not replace any existing definition of the function. The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined or when no definition was found. In the latter case the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X may be combined with either –k or –z to make the function be loaded using ksh–style or zsh–style autoloading, respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With ksh–style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

1

User Commands

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ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

With the –w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading. bg [ job ... ] job ... & Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified. bindkey See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1). break [ n ] Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one. builtin name [ args ... ] Executes the builtin name, with the given args. bye cap Same as exit. See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

cd [ –sLP ] [ arg ] cd [ –sLP ] old new cd [ –sLP ] {+–}n Change the current directory. In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified. If arg is ‘–’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory. Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath. If no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory. In that case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table. The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory. The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains symlinks. If the –P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values. If the –L option is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option. chdir clone Same as cd. See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

command simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. comparguments See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compcall See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compctl See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compdescribe See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

compfiles See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compgroups See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compquote See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptags See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptry See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compvalues See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). continue [ n ] Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, break out of n–1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop. declare Same as typeset. dirs [ –v ] [ arg ... ] With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack. If the –v option is given, number the directories in the stack when printing. Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands. If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack. disable [ –afmr ] name ... Temporarily disable the named hash table elements. The default is to disable builtin commands. This allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command. The –a option causes disable to act on aliases. The –f option causes disable to act on shell functions. The –r options causes disable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled. Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command. disown [ job ... ] job ... & job ... &! Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped. If no job is specified, disown the current job. echo [ –neE ] [ arg ... ] Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one. If the –n flag is not present, print a newline at the end. echo recognizes the following escape sequences: \a \b \c \e \f \n \r \t \v bell character backspace suppress final newline escape form feed linefeed (newline) carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

3

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Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

\\ backslash \0NNN character code in octal \xNN character code in hexadecimal The –E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences. In the latter case, –e flag can be used to enable them. echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1). echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1). emulate [ –LR ] {zshshkshcsh} Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible. csh will never be fully emulated. If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zshmisc(1) . If the –R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered. If the –L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. enable [ –afmr ] name ... Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable. The default is to enable builtin commands. The –a option causes enable to act on aliases. The –f option causes enable to act on shell functions. The –r option causes enable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled. Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command. eval [ arg ... ] Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command in the current shell process. exec simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. exit [ n ] Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit code from the last command executed. An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set. export [ name[=value] ... ] The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. Equivalent to typeset –gx. If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope. false [ arg ... ] Do nothing and return an exit code of 1. fc [ –e ename ] [ –nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ] fc –ARWI [ filename ] Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current history event number. A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string. All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

4

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

If the –l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output. If the –m flag is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown. Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events. If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used. If ename is ‘–’, no editor is invoked. When editing is complete, the edited command is executed. If first is not specified, it will be set to –1 (the most recent event), or to –16 if the –l flag is given. If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to –1 if the –l flag is given. The flag –r reverses the order of the commands and the flag –n suppresses command numbers when listing. Also when listing, –d prints timestamps for each command, and –f prints full time–date stamps. Adding the –E flag causes the dates to be printed as ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’. Adding the –i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy–mm–dd’ format. With the –D flag, fc prints elapsed times. ‘fc –R’ reads the history from the given file, ‘fc –W’ writes the history out to the given file, and ‘fc –A’ appends the history out to the given file. If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed. If the –I option is added to –R, only those events that are not already contained within the internal history list are added. If the –I option is added to –A or –W, only those events that are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written. In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries. fg [ job ... ] job ... Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground. If no job is specified, resume the current job. float [ {+–}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted. functions [ {+–}UXmtu ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to typeset –f. getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1). getln [ –AclneE ] name ... Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name. Equivalent to read –zr. getopts optstring name [ arg ... ] Checks the args for legal options. If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters. A valid option argument begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’. An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’, or the argument ‘– –’, ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg begins with a ‘+’. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG. The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND. OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function. OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts. If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored. The option itself is still stored in name in this case. A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to ‘?’ for an unknown option and to ‘:’ when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message when an option is invalid. The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options. hash [ –Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash table. Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table). The choice of hash table to work on is determined by the –d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash table is used. Given no arguments, and neither the –r or –f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full. The –r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied. It will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion. The –f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt immediately. For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this adds all users’ home directories. These two options cannot be used with any arguments. The –m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are printed. This is the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements. For each name with a corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the selected hash table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’. In the command hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by ‘value’. In the named directory hash table, this means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘˜name’. For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table. If an appropriate value can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged. The –v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specification. If has no effect if used with –f. If the –L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash. history Same as fc –l. integer [ {+–}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted. jobs [ –dlprs ] [ job ... ] jobs –Z string Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted. The –l flag lists process IDs, and the –p flag lists process groups. If the –r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed and if the –s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown. If the –d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown. The –Z option replaces the shell’s argument and environment space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit. This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings. This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state. kill [ –s signal_name ] job ... kill [ –sig ] job ... kill –l [ sig ... ] Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes. Signals are given by number or by names, without the ‘SIG’ prefix. If the signal being sent is not ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list. In the third form, kill –l, if sig is not specified the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed. let arg ... Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’ for a

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

6

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

description of arithmetic expressions. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise. limit [ –hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ... Set or display resource limits. Unless the –s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the shell. If –s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children. If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value. If the –h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits. If no resource is given, print all limits. resource can be one of: addressspace Maximum amount of address space used. aiomemorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations. aiooperations Maximum number of AIO operations. cachedthreads Maximum number of cached threads. coredumpsize Maximum size of a core dump. cputime Maximum CPU seconds per process. datasize Maximum data size (including stack) for each process. descriptors Maximum value for a file descriptor. filesize Largest single file allowed. maxproc Maximum number of processes. maxpthreads Maximum number of threads per process. memorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM. memoryuse Maximum resident set size. resident Maximum resident set size. sockbufsize Maximum size of all socket buffers. stacksize Maximum stack size for each process. vmemorysize Maximum amount of virtual memory. Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system. resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix. limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows: nh nk nm [mm:]ss hours kilobytes (default) megabytes or minutes minutes and seconds

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

7

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

local [ {+–}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ... Same as typeset, except that the options –g, and –f are not permitted. In this case the –x option does not force the use of –g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions. log List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter. logout [ n ] Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell. noglob simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. popd [ {+–}n ] Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory. With no argument, the current top entry is removed. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form –n counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. print [ –bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ –un ] [ –R [ –en ]] [ arg ... ] With no flags or with flag ‘–’, the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M–x’ metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), ‘\C–x’ produces a control character (‘\C–@’ and ‘\C–?’ give the characters NUL and delete), and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’. Finally, if not in an escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is not printed. –r –R Ignore the escape conventions of echo. Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless the –e flag is given. The –n flag suppresses the trailing newline. Only the –e and –n flags are recognized after –R; all other arguments and options are printed. Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1). Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern. Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output. Do not add a newline to the output. Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces. Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls. Print the arguments sorted in ascending order. Print the arguments sorted in descending order. If given together with –o or –O, sorting is performed case–independently. Print the arguments in columns. Print the arguments to file descriptor n. Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess. Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces. Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ˜ expressions, as appropriate. Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

–b –m –s –n –l –N –o –O –i –c –un –p –z –D –P pushd [ arg ] pushd old new pushd {+–}n

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

8

r Same as fc –e –. not in the same word. If the –e flag is used.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. read [ –rzpqAclneEt ] [ –k [ num ] ] [ –un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name . Input is read from the terminal unless one of –u or –p is present. See –u. If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set. 2001 9 . If the –l flag is given. This flag is ignored when –q is present.0. If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.. pwd [ –rLP ] Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory. pushln [ arg . This option may also be used within zle widgets. except as noted below. or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack. Read only one character from the terminal and set name to ‘y’ if this character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ otherwise. Note that this always reads from the terminal. If the –c flag is given. –z Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name. even if used with the –p or –u or –z flags or with redirected input. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set. etc. The first field is assigned to the first name. and push the old current directory onto the directory stack. ] Equivalent to print –nz. the whole line is assigned as a scalar. The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd. This option may also be used within zle widgets. Text is pushed onto the stack with ‘print –z’ or with push–line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).. In the first form. exchange the top two entries). starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command. the words of the current command are read. the directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed. with leftover fields assigned to the last name. These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the –K flag to compctl). or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the –L flag is not given. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. no input is assigned to the parameters. the second field to the second name. The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it. arg is interpreted as it would be by cd. change to the second directory on the stack (that is. The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list. Otherwise. This flag is ignored when the –k or –q flags are present. the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. Note that num must be in the argument word that follows –k. change the current directory to arg. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) Change the current directory. The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output. without word splitting. All are assigned to the first name. With this flag set the return value is zero only if the character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’.. If arg is not specified. ] Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators. If both flags are –e –E –A –c –l zsh 4. If the –r or the –P flag is specified. –r –q Raw mode: a ‘\’ at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote the following character and are not removed.. Inc. –k [ num ] Read only one (or num) characters.. without word splitting. the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

The default mode is canonical input. so that e. if +A is used and name is an array. If the –A flag is specified. so the statement ‘return $((128+$1))’ will return the same status as if the signal had not been trapped. For the meaning of the other flags. 2001 10 . Note that the command name is word number 1.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the effect is different for zero and non–zero return status. Presently –q cancels all the others. the shell will return to whatever it was previously processing. Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument. name is set to an array containing the given args. Inc. note that only availability of the first character is tested. set [ {+–}options  {+–}o option_name ] . script to return to the invoking script with the return status specified by n. This is not available when reading from the editor buffer with –z. the number of the word the cursor is on is read. –n Together with –c. all arrays are printed. Otherwise the positional parameters are set.. or declare and set an array. If the –s option is given.. Test if input is available before attempting to read.0. –p. it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if –A is used). If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function. With zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the trap). [ {+–}A [ name ] ] [ arg .4 Last change: October 26. in which an entire line is read at a time. return status 1 and do not set any v