BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

P.0. the CSV file includes a header line. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that. use either the ncpu or nover commands. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading.3. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format. Put a space between each host name. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading.4.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH.P.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. Put a space between each host name. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.3.. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6.0. Do not output a header. agentinfo displays a message to that effect.160 NSH 1 . List one host per line. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. Inc. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host. With no arguments. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I.. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents. You can turn off the header line with the -H option.3. nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . If the current directory is on the local host.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can also specify the names or I. By default. hostname The names or I.0. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.P.160 solarishost SunOS 5. by design.

nover (1). Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5. SEE ALSO ncpu (1). version(1) NSH 2 .agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.3.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc.0.

If you do not include any of these four options. Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. List one host per line. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. regardless of their license status. You can specify more than one option. -c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. upload the license file created by the getlic command. In most cases. Inc. host1 . OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. License hosts that are currently un-licensed. autolic processes all the hosts you specify.dat file... -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing. The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. Apply the licenses with the putlic command. and then download the generated license. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments.. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 .autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. Debug output.. Login to the BladeLogic support website. do not use this option. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps.

do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH). Instead. Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic. agentinfo(NSH). Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy. the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. For autolic to function properly. you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example. by a firewall). based on the your current customer/prospect status. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy.com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy.mycompany. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required.conf (from the NSH install directory). Inc. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent).autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic.mycompany. putlic(NSH). NSH 2 . the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy.

Set debug level to n. This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. If FS is null. Additionally. ‘for’.. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. An action is a sequence of statements. The fields are denoted $1. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). Normally. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. $2. a logical OR (‘||’).’). If RS is null.. Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. process creation (cmd | getline..cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. a logical AND (‘&&’). If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. or ‘while’ statement. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. expression. nawk . A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. print >>). DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile... The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. . the input line is split into one field per character. a missing pattern always matches. an open brace (‘()’). see the section on variables below). expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . -safe Disable file output (print >.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . print |. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit. This is convenient when working with multi-line records. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. any number of blanks separate fields. while $0 refers to the entire line. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. any number of -v options may be present. after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern. or 1 if n is not specified. not a filename. Inc. or by the regular expression FS... The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. or by the value of RS. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’.

Multiple subscripts such as [i. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma.. /re/ is a constant regular expression. separated by the current output field separator. The operators ! ++ -. file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. a relational expression. non-null members are taken as filenames.k] are permitted. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)). An empty expression-list stands for $0. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. the constituents are concatenated.. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. or a Boolean combination of these.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [. and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). assignable. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. Variables are initialized to the null string. array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. open next. Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line.) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr. Variables may be scalars. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match).+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate.. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement . this allows for a form of associative memory. .j. Inc. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file.. A conditional is an arithmetic expression. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. using the operators ˜ and !˜. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). NSH 2 .. Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. in this case. not necessarily numeric. String constants are quoted "". BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. newlines or right braces. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these). Argument array..cat(1) Property of BladeLogic.. and terminated by the output record separator. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second. assignable. expr. Array subscripts may be any string. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present).

Input record separator (default newline). such that 0<=n<1. input/output and general. Output record separator (default newline). cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. index(s. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034). cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. or 0 if it does not. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. Inc. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. If expr is omitted. subscripts are names. Return x truncated to an integer value. string. gsub() returns the number of replacements. Return a random number. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. Return the exponential of x. ENVIRON Array of environment variables. the time of day is used instead. where x is in radians. Return the natural logarithm of x. Regular expression used to separate fields. NSH 3 . n. also settable by option -F fs.6g"). FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. where x is in radians. Return the square root of x. Output format for numbers (default "%. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. Output field separator (default blank). FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic.6g"). String Functions gsub(r. FILENAME The name of the current input file. Ordinal number of the current record.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. t. Return the sine of x.

. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. 0 for end of file. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). m. or 0 if it does not. substr(s. The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. If var is omitted. it is opened.. sub() returns the number of replacements. and FNR. a[2]. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. a. NSH 4 . subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. or -1 if no match is found. or of $0 if no argument is given. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). according to the printf(3) format fmt.. it is opened. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file. split(s. As long as the stream remains open. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. cat(1) match(s. sub(r. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character.) The string resulting from formatting expr. Otherwise var is set. This form of getline sets the variables NF. getline returns 1 for a successful input. . expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. getline returns 1 for a successful input. expr. If s is not given. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. As long as the stream remains open. If file is not open. sprintf(fmt. If var is omitted. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s. a[n] and returns n. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. If the stream is not open. If n is omitted. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. and -1 for an error. Inc. and -1 for an error. Otherwise var is set. . t. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. . A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’).. 0 for end of file. $0 is used.. NR.. toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). the variables $0 and NF are set. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. the variables $0 and NF are set..

b. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". W. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. modify. and by reference if array name. i < ARGC. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. $1 } Add up first column. Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. B. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). i++) printf "%s ". functions may be called recursively. Weinberger. all other variables are global. $1 } Same. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is". the syntax is worse. Aho. printf(3) A. V.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. Addison-Wesley. " average is". Parameters are local to the function. copy. s. sed(1). Inc. Kernighan. and P. 1988. J. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. The AWK Programming Language.[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use.. printf(1).. lex(1).. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. c) { . BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar.

WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. written prior permission. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. Inc. DATA OR PROFITS. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 .

where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory.509 certificate in a file named id.Property of BladeLogic. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. id. the user is prompted for a private key password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. Once a certificate is created on a client.bladelogic. Inc. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. NSH 1 .pem. Inc. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. such as /home/johnk.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. In Windows. On UNIX.

password. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. If you do not use this option. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. After entering your user information. NSH 1 . This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. the system prompts for a user ID. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. and role. Inc. Inc. When you run bl_srp_agent. After you provide this information.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic.

session credentials. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles. and trusted certificates. and delete authentication profiles. Using that session credential. Inc. Using the information you provide. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles.. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. a Kerberos TGT). you must provide an authentication profile and other information. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service. session credentials. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. And. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. To use blcred on a client machine. Application Server. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. Configuration Manager. If you are using SRP authentication. Provisioning Manager. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. and trusted certificates.xml NSH 1 . COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. or Network Shell Proxy Server. The utility lets you show. add. which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. you must also provide a user name and password. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. you must have Operations Manager installed. To log into a BladeLogic system. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles.e. Network Shell. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. a BladeLogic client application (i.509 certificates.

and service ticket. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. the user is prompted for a name. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. Default credential caches are unique per user.dat) using the -i parameter. including the client IP address. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. NSH 2 . The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. issuing service URL. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. Default trust keystores are unique per user. and expiration time of session credentials. When selecting an SRP profile. authentication type. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. If a name is not specified.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. the default credential cache file is used. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES.509 certificates. If the username option is present. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name. Inc. the user is prompted for a user name and password. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. If an authentication profile name is not specified. Alternatively. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info. the default keystore file is used. which holds trusted X. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining. destination service URLs.pkcs12 for Windows. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. To acquire a session credential.conf file.bladelogic/client_keystore.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache. If the time option is present. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile.

The profile name.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. such as -acquire -profile profile_name. Users are prompted for omitted information. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. Cached credential did not match named authentication profile. NSH 3 .509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. Inc.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. Additionally. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter. The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. and -type parameters. BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store. AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. cache contained credential with desired properties. -host. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. cert –list Lists all X. The -all parameter deletes all certificates. Named authentication profile did not exist. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). Authentication Service.

DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator.d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I.. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 . An expression consists of operands and operators.P. TAB..blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function. LF) as optional operand/operator separators. Inc. OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators. CR. It prints the result to stdout. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr .mm 0xABC a. If you do not specify any arguments.c. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. You can use whitespaces (SPACE. It takes all of its arguments as input. then creates and evaluates an expression.b.

Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. 3. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value. with the resulting value also being a floating point value. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value. then proceeds with the operation.14"). 2. 7. If it is. In the case of the three numeric types. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero). max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. it returns 0 (false). min_val. . blexpr adds the arguments.. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). 5. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. 2. . and floating point numbers. 1. If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point. 3. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic.0..5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. Inc.14)’ 12 equals_any (val. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values.. with the result also being a 64 bit integer value.5") * 2. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. arg1. arg2. 3. blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. If the argument is a string.. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . then divides by the number of arguments. decimal numbers. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world"). blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. The supported functions are: average (arg1. 4)’ 2.) Return the average of all arguments given. blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary.

The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote. true_val. 27)’ 14 printf (format.9s".after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. args ..%s %s --\n". 10. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME".Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP".. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. 14.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -. otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3").. Inc. The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles..30. "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME". while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string. NSH 3 . The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I. false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val. If val is true. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12.20.) Both these functions generate a formatted output.) sprintf (format. $FIRSTNAME. Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format. it returns true_val. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -. Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val.P.40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n". args . The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970). address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional .m].

"Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. You define the name of the variable with string. If you supply a value that is not a string. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Inc. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . val) strstr can be used in one of two ways. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date ().blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic.30. format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. The optional format arguments specifies output format. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. you should use the respective macros supported by the call. Once you have created a variable this way. strlen returns a length of 0. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP.40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. and you define the value of the variable with expr. If you do not specify a format. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. $IP. $IP). "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO".20.

Inc.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. the user is prompted for a private key password. id. Inc. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.pem. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.bladelogic. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys.Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . On UNIX.509 certificate in a file named id.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. Once a certificate is created on a client. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. In Windows. id. such as /home/johnk. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.

g.. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with.." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile. and TARGETS NSH 1 . e. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS.Property of BladeLogic. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status.. Inc. the status displays as "Unknown. e. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks.. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]..g.. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. [TARGET]. "Inconsistent". as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries. If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile.. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent". COMMAND_OPTIONS... blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [TARGET].. or "Unknown...

log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. As a result. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp". the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. Inc.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.Property of BladeLogic. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data).mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones. e. Exercising the p option. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.g. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp".log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 .

log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Inc.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.Property of BladeLogic.

as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions. Inc. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands.. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman..... Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. Use only when copying a signature file. DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks. logman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [TARGET]. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].Property of BladeLogic.... logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 .. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. COMMAND_OPTIONS. bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution. [TARGET]...

this option returns a status as "Unknown. To execute this command." assuming "rscd. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. certificate file. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent".1" does not already exist. or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed.log. Use only when rotating a signature file. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file. Note: All files needed for this command should be local. This command is intended to be used for client side verification. "Inconsistent". logfile Full path to local log file. or "Unknown. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. For example.log. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. and private key file on the local host. You can request the status of all the log files on a host.1. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file.Property of BladeLogic.log" to "rscd. you must have the corresponding signature file." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log NSH 2 . Inc.

bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.pem All files need to be on the local host. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.3.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 .log. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.log. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate.log. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.0 release.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey. Inc.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.log. Inc.Property of BladeLogic.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.

If you do not specify a host name. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). otherwise it returns 0. Instead. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. NSH 1 . In addition to specifying host names on the command line. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file.Property of BladeLogic. If file is a . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers. otherwise it returns 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 . This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. Expression to run against the given hosts. A file containing the expression you want to run.then blquery reads input from stdin.. and the subsequent escaping thereof. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout.. If you specify server names.. blquery will query the local server. just omit any server names. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment.. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. To create comment lines. Inc. To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. Do not include the hostname as part of the output. host1 . otherwise it returns 0. output only the resulting value. To query the local host. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. or against any number of remote servers. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. hostN The hosts you want to query.

If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. patches. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". otherwise it returns 0. and bundles. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. Inc. they mostly support the general concept of software installations.Property of BladeLogic. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. NSH 2 . If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set.

Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. with the exception of Linux. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software.Property of BladeLogic. patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. These functions take an expression as their argument. which does not support patches.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. The NSH 3 . where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. so the values are not guaranteed to be set. Inc.

blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s . Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr. To do this. Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2.blq NSH 4 . Example: $ cat patch.The standard CrackLib dictionaries. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software. these functions may still have a universal appeal.7-8 . Inc. these functions return a zero length string.blq cracklib-2. NAME.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". Not all software has a version number.Property of BladeLogic. include the printf call inside of the given expression.7-8 .%s\n Install date: %s\n\n". if (DATE <= 0. In this case. Because these functions scan through all entries. DESCRIPTION. you can also use them for reporting. you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions. NAME)’). patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. "Unknown install date". $ blquery solaris8 -E patch. By using these functions. patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches. show_date (DATE. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines.A password-checking library. making it seem like two different patches are installed. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field).

The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0. the function returns the total number of records. This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. $N for each respective field in the current record. expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. expr.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. For UNIX and Linux systems. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. As its second parameter. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields.. "/"). Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record. For Windows systems. If you omit the expression. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts.Property of BladeLogic. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. $1 . NSH 5 . The first record/field is 0. $0)"). config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". The skip parameter is optional. The expr argument is optional. skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files. Inc.. If you use it. it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with.

BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". 0) = $CUSTDB)"). "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. Inc. 0)’ bin NSH 6 . In many cases. "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. $RECORD. "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from. Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd".Property of BladeLogic. config_record_number ($INI. 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". config_record_number ($PASSWD. "$5 = $USRBIN"). "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. 0. records occur in a config file in no particular order. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. record.

there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record.Property of BladeLogic. HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. Not all config files have a hierarchy. The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). NAME GROUP UID GID The username. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. Details are included below. FULLNAME The configured name of the user. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. then the record does not have a parent record. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile.BNI". and returns the value of field field.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts. record. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. On its own this function has limited value. but ones that do include Windows . however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". The numeric UID of the user. config_record_number ($INI. Although config files are generally treated as flat files. This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. the following dynamic variable are supported. record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. $RECORD. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. Inc. If the function returns a negative number (-1). These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs.Property of BladeLogic. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. On Windows systems. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. \"Super User Account\". Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". On Windows systems. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . UID)"). On Windows systems. expr. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. . if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . \"Normal Account\"). BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type. accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. NAME. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account.

Property of BladeLogic. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. Inc. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. When it is set. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. On Windows. the function refers to a start script. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. On Windows. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. the function returns an error message. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. If the user does not exist. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. the function returns an error message. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. that field is returned. that field is returned.

5.7. the function returns an error message. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. For Windows systems. Inc. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs. To display the date of last login in human readable form.0.Property of BladeLogic. the function returns 0. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . If the user does not exist. use the show_date () function. with respective return values of 1. If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. For UNIX systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". 2.")’ 1. administrator.9. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems.3. The default separator is a SPACE character. these are inherent attributes of a user account. and guest. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. or 3. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. There are three types of possible accounts: . Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. The default separator is a SPACE character. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. otherwise it returns 0.8.6. Otherwise it is a normal account. normal. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. ". For Windows. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user.2.4.

printf ("-----------------\n"). The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. Example: NSH 11 .Property of BladeLogic. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups. The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n". sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). The numeric GID of the user. NAME. . The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account.blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. GID)’). Inc. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. The default separator is a SPACE character. $ cat showgroups. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. the following dynamic variables are supported. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group.

Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.255.20. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters.Property of BladeLogic.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. and returns the I. The adapter’s I.20. you can use the following dynamic variables. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address. Within these expressions. address in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group.40\"")’ 255.20. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.255. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10.30.30.30. This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query.P. Inc.0 NSH 12 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp". The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation. All of these functions take an expression as an argument. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.P. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation.")’ root. ".

if ($FLAGS & 32. "1Gb". and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. 2. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr.20. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. if ($FLAGS & 64. "NA"))). Inc.40\"")’ 10. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. the function matches all adapters. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec).30. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr. The return value is a 64 bit integer. The interface is running in full duplex mode. 4.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. "Auto"))). NSH 13 . and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. "Half Duplex". Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.Property of BladeLogic.30. "10 Mb". "100 Mb". The return value is a 64 bit integer. The interface is running in half duplex mode. 1. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. "Full Duplex".blq set_variable ("FLAGS".blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr.20. Example: $ cat speed. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. If you do not specify expr. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0.

21.101 255.1 255. NAME. the function returns the maintenance release.0.11. On AIX. Other platforms.255.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n").255. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2. the function returns the kernel release number. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host.1 win2k: 5. On Linux.0 hme0 10.Property of BladeLogic. SUBNET)’).0. Inc. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host.4. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 . $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways. the function returns the Service Pack. On Windows.0. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. IP.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host.0.0 hpux11: B.20. followed by the generic functions. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127. The wrapper functions are described first.8 linux: 7.

Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value. Inc.0800 win2k: 0.5100 linux: 0.4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.Property of BladeLogic.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS.9100 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Not all systems return a value.0300 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system.

expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS". "/C". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Inc.3800 linux: 0.2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. "NET". use the first word of the name to identify the column. or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition.8000 win2k: 0. column. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".Property of BladeLogic. In this case. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "OVER". Check the individual ntop commands for more details. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). "/C". "/C". Some columns have a two word name. ntop_value (type. "/C". "DF". Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. "STATS". the first line of output consists of the column names. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". NSH 16 .

the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0. the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. $HOSTNAME. column. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true).0560 linux3: 0. The first record is 0.2 MB NSH 17 .0890 # # For each server. Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example. the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access. ntop_sum ("DF". If the expression is a numeric. "MEM".1480 linux2: 0. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. If the function does not find any matching records. expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. If you specify an expression as a string.0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911. Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above). "DF" and "PS").0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0. "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME".3800 ntop_sum (type. Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. Example: # # For each server. You may use column names to construct the expression. "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". it returns a value of -1. Inc. If you do not specify an expression. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as. "CAPACITY". Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS".Property of BladeLogic.1200 linux: 0. "FREE") / 1024. the function returns the field value of the first record. the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". a value of -1 means the last record).1f MB".

"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE").4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45. If expr is not given. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. ntop_average ("DF".1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". within an expression string. otherwise it returns 0. Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. you need to escape it.0 MB ntop_average (type. then it return the total number of entries. Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4. $HOSTNAME.6% ntop_record_count (type. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 .1f%%". Therefore. "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE".8 MB 36208. Inc. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists. column. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values.Property of BladeLogic.

REG_LINK. There are no NSH 19 . when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples). REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. etc. int. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. REG_SZ. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1.Property of BladeLogic.) depends on the registry value type. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values. The supported types are: REG_DWORD. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. otherwise it returns 0. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. Inc. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. string. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. REG_BINARY.

In the case of a string. If the service does not exist. service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service. These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). Account name service is run as. or "PENDING". if it is not running. If you do not specify expr. One of "RUNNING". Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". "AUTO_START". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. DESCRIPTION Description of service.Property of BladeLogic. "SYSTEM_START". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. Display name of service (long name). "MANUAL". the function returns the total number of configured services. if you specified an out of range record number.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). "*\\mysqld-nt.exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". One of "BOOT_START". Inc. or "DISABLED". There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. "DISABLED") NSH 20 . service can be either a string or an integer. "STOPPED". the function returns 0. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). If service is an integer. See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0.

DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". to access particular service records. or "DISABLED".exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. (" PENDING: %d\n". This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. "STOPPED". you can use it in other services functions.blq set_variable ("RUNNING". Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". $ blquery win2k -E expr. See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. "SYSTEM_START". Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING". skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. $PENDING). field should be one of the following string values. Returns the display name of service (long name). Once you get this record number. service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". $STOPPED). service_record_count ()). "*\\mysqld-nt. Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. (" RUNNING: %d\n". The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records.blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr.Property of BladeLogic. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). $RUNNING). "AUTO_START". Inc. "MANUAL". (" STOPPED: %d\n". Returns the account name service is run as.exe" is running or not. service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". or "PENDING". NSH 21 .

"MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). If service is an integer. The argument service can be either a string or an integer. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). ntop (NSH). it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . nover (NSH). Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql".exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program.Property of BladeLogic. nmem (NSH). ndf (NSH). "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. In the case of a string.exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". nstats (NSH). ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). nps (NSH). Inc. Returns zero length string. "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt.

the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. the system prompts for a user ID. Inc. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. password. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. When you run bl_srp_agent. If you do not use this option. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. After entering your user information. Inc. and role. After you provide this information. NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX.

After you provide this information. NSH 1 . Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. Inc. and role. When you run bl_srp_agent.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. password. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. After entering your user information. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. the system prompts for a user ID. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. If you do not use this option. Inc.

] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames .. bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files.tbz.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. and Huffman coding. such as MS-DOS.. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors.tbz2 becomes filename. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. and uses the original name with . If no file names are specified.. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output.bz. with the name "original_name. and a warning issued.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag.. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names.. or have serious file name length restrictions.bz becomes filename filename.tar filename.. 1 .bz2". bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files.tar anyothername becomes anyothername. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. In this case. . Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. v1. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. As with compression. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself.tbz becomes filename. Inc. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip. bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time. ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames . as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors. permissions. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file. permissions.tbz2 or . ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored.out appended. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout. specify the −f flag. If you want this to happen.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . ownership as the corresponding original.bz2 becomes filename filename. but they are not identical. . and. Each compressed file has the same modification date. .bz2. when possible.

2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. −d --decompress Force decompression. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations.5%. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. which limits memory use to around the same figure. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. Normally.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. This flag overrides that mechanism. use −s for everything. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). and forces bzip2 to decompress. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. In short. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory.0 or later. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. 2 . but don’t decompress them. As a self-check for your protection. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. in that order. I/O errors. Inc. −s --small Reduce memory usage. bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg. Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. −f --force Force overwrite of output files. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. invalid flags.05 bits per byte. that the check occurs upon decompression. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. bzip2. Be aware. at the expense of your compression ratio. albeit at about half the normal speed. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. decompression and testing. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely).9. Compression is always performed. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. though. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. giving an expansion of around 0. for compression. regardless of the invokation name. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). &c). During compression. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. −s selects a block size of 200k.5 bytes per block byte. Return values: 0 for a normal exit.

bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k. which was sometimes useful. in bytes. Has no effect when decompressing. compressing a file 20. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. For files compressed with the default 900k block size. 200 k . Inc. The relevant flag is -s.−myfilename. about 2300 kbytes.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant.9. Decompression speed is also halved. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. so you should use this option only where necessary. At decompression time. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. license terms and conditions. 3 . Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. −L --license -V --version Display the software version. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. Compression and decompression requirements. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved.9. since the file is smaller than a block. even if they start with a dash. Similarly. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. −v --verbose Verbose mode -. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. or 100k + ( 2. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. for example: bzip2 −.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns. For example. 900 k when compressing.show the compression ratio for each file processed. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed.000 bytes (the default) respectively. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. 0. In general. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size..5 and above. since that maximises the compression achieved.000 bytes through 900.

and decompress those which are undamaged.bz2 > recovered_data" -. Versions 0. this figure was more like 100:1. "rec0002file. as these will contain many blocks.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect. This means that performance.bz2 files.9. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols.. if you want. Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks. bzip2recover takes a single argument. Inc. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors.bz2 file to become damaged. and writes a number of files "rec0001file. both for compressing and decompressing. Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1.lists the files in the correct order. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. and write each block out into its own .bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. etc. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files.141." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files.bz2".bz2 file. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size.622 bytes. the name of the damaged file. Because of this. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size. Each block is handled independently. Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3. small changes to the 4 .bz2 files. like "aabaabaabaab . bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large . Because of this. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. since a damaged block cannot be recovered.for example. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . usually 900kbytes long. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes.. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. "bzip2 -dc rec*file. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. containing the extracted blocks. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. For previous versions.bz2". The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -.

1pl2 cannot do this. lent machines. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files.com/bzip2 http://www.cygnus. gave advice and were generally helpful.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation). but with the following exception: 0. Many people sent patches. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. 0.5.9. helped with portability problems. AUTHOR Julian Seward. versions 0. so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. and many refinements).org. jseward@acm. David Wheeler (again. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be. This manual page pertains to version 1. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. and Alistair Moffat.0 and 0. This could easily be fixed. 0. Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip.9.1pl2.demon. for the Huffman coder). so as to speed up compression.co. I am much indebted for their help.9. support and advice.muraroa. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream.0 of bzip2. Inc. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance. http://sourceware. 5 .0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip).

vis(1). Number the output lines. 1995 1 . control-I. Inc..file2 . cat reads from the standard input. print the contents of file2.2”) specification. or cat -v Considered Harmful". causing the output to be single spaced. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. which are displayed normally. EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. BSD May 2. sh(1)) for more information on redirection.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. less(1). . STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003. $ cat file1 . print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. 1983. The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines.2-1992 (“POSIX.g. The file operands are processed in command-line order. . tail(1). The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). "UNIX Style.CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic. read and output contents of the standard input again. sh(1).] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. starting at 1. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line. then finally output the contents of file3. with the exception of the tab and EOL characters. the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. more(1). Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. can be made visible via the −t option. pr(1). setbuf(3) Rob Pike. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. See the manual page for your shell (e. since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. writing them to the standard output. truncating file3 if it already exists. USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X. The tab character.

CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. 1995 2 . the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2. BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection.

OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . With this option only error messages are output. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. Inc.. To determine which password to use. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set. one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update.. If the registry location is not found/set.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS. In addition. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument.. The name of the hosts to be updated. In addition. To this end. -r -q host . one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password.. If a password was not specified with the -p option. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges.

this option is turned on. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system.’). Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . use the -l option. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. Instead.. DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files.. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). By default.. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown.group file . and consequently a GID is not available for this group. This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric.. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. By default. chgrp [-fhRv?] user. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. New owner of the file (user name or UID). NSH 1 . chgrp changes only the group ownership. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. However. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. To turn it off. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. See the -r option. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. Inc. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin.

Inc. CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. You specified an unknown GID or UID. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. NSH 2 . you may not achieve the ownership change you want. and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). Unknown option or missing file argument. chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine. ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). Unable to get a license to use the software.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected.

and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. special files. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. chmod silently skips it.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . since directories usually have different permissions than files.. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. . This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. See the DESCRIPTION section above. or a series of comma separated instructions. The permissions changes you want to make. mode can be an absolute octal value.. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change.e. If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic.. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. File whose mode you want to change. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions. Inc. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who . regular files. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . etc). If chmod encounters a directory. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. chmod silently skips it. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories.

Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. and read. execute for both the group and other users). Unknown option or missing file argument. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. execute permissions for the owner of the file. NSH 2 . Unable to get a license to use the software. write. chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. write. execute for user. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions.

OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. without changing any ownerships. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file .chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory.. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename. this command changes only the user ownership.. Inc. this option is turned on. New owner of the file (user name or UID). You can turn it off with the -l option. By default. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. However. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown.’) and a group name to the user name. Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. Instead. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system.. See the -r option.group file . NSH 1 . chown [-fhlrRv?] user. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. New group owner of the file (group name or GID).. By default. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin.

chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values).chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unknown option or missing file argument. Unable to get a license to use the software. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). NSH 2 . chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. Inc. ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. Consequently. the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used.

$ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. when you have an existing connection. Your current role is role1. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. you must disconnect. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. provided the active user is authorized for that role. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. NSH 1 . $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. and then reconnect. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. Inc. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. the role selection is ignored. you must specify a new role preference. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role.

the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. and >0 if an error occurs.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file.. Inc.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1. shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division.. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16. See description below. These n bits are the bits from the file.... This is a 32-bit checksum. least significant octet first. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes. For historic reasons. This is a 16-bit checksum. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command.e. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. the total number of octets in the file and the file name. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. Partial blocks are rounded up. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). with a right rotation before each addition. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option. These fields are a checksum CRC. overflow is discarded. the standard input is used and no file name is written. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum. Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. Using this interface. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. If no file name is specified. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . The cksum utility exits 0 on success. NSH 1 . The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16.

EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. A system error message follows the output of the error message. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. Inc.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. Berkeley and its contributors. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. algorithm 1 is used. SEE ALSO sum(1). UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. NSH 2 . $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. cksum(1). With the P_ATT variable set. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. algorithm 2 is used. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior).

find all differences in the files. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other. then cmp uses the standard input. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . NSH 1 . For each difference it finds. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. By default.rhosts chown root.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. If it has. The first file in the comparison.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter. The second file in the comparison. Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file.rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. cmp always considers the files not to be identical. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option.master //oslo/.rhosts file on host oslo has changed. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference. Instead. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files. checking to see if they are identical. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships.root //oslo/. then the offset is read instead of being seeked over. Inc. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. cp rhosts.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. even with the -l option. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/.master //oslo/. When this happens. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. If file1 is ’-’. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference. and the two different character values found in the files. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’).

cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus. Unable to get a license to use the software. NSH 2 . One of the files was not accessible. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. Inc.

8 Last change: NSH 1 . Inc. columns numbered less than the start column will be written.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file. paste(1) SunOS 5.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. cut(1). Input is read from the standard input. SEE ALSO column(1). A column is defined as a single character in a line. If only the start column is specified. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written. If both start and stop columns are specified. not zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . Column numbering starts with one. Berkeley and its contributors. Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight. Output is written to the standard output.

select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Comm exits 0 on success. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. and lines printed in column number three will have one. lines only in file2. all characters participate in line comparisons. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO cmp(1). uniq(1) SunOS 5. and lines in both files. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. For example. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1. Suppress printing of column 2. Suppress printing of column 3. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . which should be sorted lexically. if column number two is being suppressed. >0 if an error occurred. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. sort(1). lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. Inc.

If either the input or output files are not regular files. “. The default is −6. 2008 1 . If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. “. the files are not overwritten. Instead. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). “_Z”. renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified).tgz”. No files are modified (force zcat mode). The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c. Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . The options are as follows: −1. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. Inc. the input file is not removed. access time. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . . −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. but is relatively slow. . Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode). “_gz”. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). If compression would not reduce the size of a file. When uncompressing. “-tgz”. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. the deflate mode of compression is chosen. “-Z”. instead they are converted to “tar”. This option implies −g. file mode. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing.Z”. uncompress. These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g).] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . . but provides a poorer level of compression. Compression factor −1 is the fastest. Additionally. “-gz”. recognising the following extensions: “. the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. . the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding. zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file . user ID. If invoked as compress −g. in compress mode. “-taz”. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file. . copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3. Force compression of file. with compression factor of −1 to −9. see gzip(1) for more information. file flags. described below.Property of BladeLogic. and “_taz”. and the attributes of the input file are not retained. “..Z”. If no files are specified. By default.taz”. this information is not used.9 Use the deflate scheme.. As many of the modification time.gz”. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. “_tgz”. . Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. even if it is not actually reduced in size.

Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified.Property of BladeLogic. If the −v option is specified. if any. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). compress periodically checks the compression ratio. if the compression ratio decreases. List information for the specified compressed files. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. Inc. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. If it is increasing. −N When uncompressing or listing. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). After the bits limit is reached. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. BSD April 3. Print a short help message. use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). Print the license. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. 2008 2 . Use compress mode (the default). Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. Size of the file when uncompressed. However. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size. the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. When compressing. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. When code 512 is reached. for the uncompressed version.

17:6. BSD April 3. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]. and the distribution of common substrings. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. 8−19. STANDARDS The compress. 1984.1. Terry A. SEE ALSO Welch. 2008 3 . 1 if an error occurred. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). uncompress. and takes less time to compute.3 BSD. Typically. June. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. the number of bits per code. or 2 if a warning occurred. IEEE Computer. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". uncompress.. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack).Property of BladeLogic. and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. pp. Inc. The compress.

cp copies multiple files into a directory. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). for example. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. before copying over the new source file. Don’t actually make any changes. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. when cp creates a new file. Synchronize file ownerships. cp creates it and copies the content into it. so that. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. When copying to a directory. In the first form. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. If the destination directory does exist. If a target file already exists. Set the suffix for backup files to suf..c becomes foo. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. To turn on the file backup feature. With his option. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. and access and modification times as the source file. if the target file already exists. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. Synchronize file permissions. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. then cp will create the directory as required. With the -P option. if it exists. By default. cp overwrites it. This also applies to new directories being created. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. then cp overwrites the file. By default. and copies the content into it. When the destination directory does exist. cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. By default. This option turns off the -i option. use the -b command. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. If the target directory does already exist. when cp copies a directory. permissions. With this option. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. Inc. If the destination directory does not exist. If the target directory does not already exist. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. In the second form. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory.. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. If the target file already exists. and is consequently overwritten. By default. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. Preserve parent. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships.

Conditional copy. except that it applies only to the top level file. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. write.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. especially on a large file. When recursing through directories. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. Conditional copy. Inc. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. If you use this option with the -p option. Output a message for each file being copied. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. With the -P option. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. and execute. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. If the file sizes are the same. This is the no parent option. -S and -C. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. This option can be very resource intensive. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. follow symbolic links. then the backup will not be overwritten. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. Conditional copy. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. NSH 2 . This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. This option implies the -S option. See the -u option. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. should it be a symbolic link. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. This option is the same as the -r option. They are -T. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. See the -u option.

cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. indicating that cp cannot copy directories. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. cp will display this message. With the P_ATT variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). then this message appears. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. If cp is not able to create one of these directories. this message will appear. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. ncp(1). NSH 3 . uncp(1). cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. SEE ALSO dsync (1).cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. Unknown option or missing file argument. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. it will display this message. the -i option will override the -f option. the -f option will override the -i option. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear. cp was unable to copy all files requested. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus.

With this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. Inc. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code. OPTIONS -<number> By default.4. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. With this option. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag. Do not output the root node tag. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter. csv2xml generates column names. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. Do not output the XML header entry. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. It uses this header line to name the columns of input.21-4.’) character as the field separator. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. and in turn XML tags.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter. in the format of column-<record number>.

nmem(1). csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters. XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. NSH 2 . ncpu(1). it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record. Inc. ndf(1). ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1). nover(1). csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. nnet(1).csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. csv2xml will not display these additional fields. Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. nstats(1). Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input.

Number ranges consist of a number. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California.. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). and writes them to the standard output. -d. 1 if an error occurred.. overlapping. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. inclusively. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line.. lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges. Column numbering starts from 1. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. that character is used to separate output fields. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 . Inc. Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. and in any order. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second. delimited in the input by a single tab character. a dash (-). Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . Berkeley and its contributors. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter. Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash.. -s The arguments following the options -c. Unless specified. If you do. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number.

a lseek(2) operation is used.. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. If the user does not have read permission for the tape. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point. The number of truncated input records. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. If input reads are short. Otherwise.. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size. If no conversion values other than noerror. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. If the seek operation is past the end of file. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. superseding the ibs and obs operands. Inc. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. the correct number of bytes is read. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output.3BSD-reno systems. When finished. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls. Copy n input files before terminating..) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. For pipes. input data is read and discarded. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. For all other devices. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. ascii. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. value . The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. Any trailing newline character is discarded. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd . are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. Otherwise. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. On input which supports seeks. existing blocks are read and the data discarded.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. On non-tape devices.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . notrunc or sync are specified. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. Write output to file instead of the standard output. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. a lseek(2) operation is used. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values.. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. if any. Read input from file instead of the standard input. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands .

Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. If dd receives a SIGINT signal. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. otherwise NUL bytes are used. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. ibm. the input block is omitted from the output. Inc. the last byte will be ignored during swapping. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. If the sync conversion is not specified. ‘‘k’’. respectively. Swap every pair of input bytes. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. After the end of input is reached. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. NSH 2 . the rest of the block will be written. Do not stop processing on an input error. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. the number is multiplied by 512. swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. When finished. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. Otherwise. Normally. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4. When an input error occurs. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. oldebcdic. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. any remaining output is written as a block. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written.3BSD-reno systems. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. If the sync conversion is also specified. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. Where sizes are specified. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. 1024 (1K).dd(1) Property of BladeLogic.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). a decimal number of bytes is expected.

The files operand and the ascii. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Berkeley and its contributors. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. NSH 3 . oldascii. tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. SEE ALSO cp(1). ibm. ebcdic. oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard. Inc.

Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. If you do not specify any targets. If one of the targets is a directory name only. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report.df(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION For each named target.. this header line will be included for each named target.. The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command. df again uses the current host. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . Inc. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . which may be a directory or host name. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options.

ed(1). while defining string will yield file2. unlike with −c. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . BSD July 21. Inc. differ” if files contain binary characters. It cannot be digested by ed(1). Does not output a list of changes. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. . Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. 2003 1 . which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. However.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. No output is produced if the files are identical. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other.’. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). −e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. Just print a line when the files differ. −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. . but in reverse order. Produces a script similar to that of −e. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s.

−p With unified and context diffs. on text files which are different. Causes diff to report files which are the same. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. context or unified output formats. insertions. Multiple −X options may be specified. “A” will compare equal to “a”. If both arguments are directories. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. E. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. Inc.. −I pattern Ignores changes. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. If a file is found in only one directory. If a file is found only in dir2. beginning with file name. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second. E. For C source code following standard layout conventions. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported.g. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. Will expand tabs in output lines.g. 2003 2 . See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns.. an underscore or a dollar sign. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. Long output format. producing a change list. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. Binary files which differ. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. common subdirectories. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. which are otherwise not mentioned. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. Multiple −x options may be specified. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3).

diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). ZZ. An error occurred. those after pertain to file2. XX. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. where XX. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. 2003 3 . XXdYY At line XX delete the line.ZZ Same as above. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. the standard input is used in its place. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. a diagnostic message is printed. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21. pr(1). FILES /tmp/diff. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. XX. fnmatch(3). Differences were found.YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. −c.QQ from file2. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. XXaYY. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. but append the range of lines. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input. diff3(1). diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. YY. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Thus. Inc. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. XX. Output Style The default (without −e.1-2001 specification.YYcZZ. XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. As in ed(1). ed(1). −w or −i options specified. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. SEE ALSO cmp(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered.QQ Replace the range XX. append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. At (the end of) line XX of file1. comm(1). DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found.YY from file1 with the range ZZ.

Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. Inc. 2003 4 .DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD July 21.

The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. -p. because the security models for file permissions may differ. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. it leaves it alone. Also. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. while preserving the file ownerships. before copying over the new source file. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. however when running dsync. (The -P option is not turned on by default. if it exists. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. it leaves it alone. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). When you run cp as dsync. This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. All options are described here. -f. -m NSH 1 . then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. -b -i Backup the target file. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. By default. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. turned on the following options: -r. By default. By default. and access times. changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. If a target file already exists. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". permissions. and -u. -d Use this option with care. it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. Inc. by default. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. then it will be created. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. then cp overwrites the file.

This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. This also applies to new directories being created.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. especially on a large file. If the target directory does already exist. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. If you use this option with the -p option. If the target directory does not already exist. See the -u option. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. Conditional copy. follow symbolic links. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. Conditional copy. This option is the same as the -r option. permissions. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). See the -u option.c becomes foo. This option implies the -S option. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. With this option. -S and -C. This is the no parent option. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. Conditional copy. With this option. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. Don’t actually make any changes. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. and execute. They are -T. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. This option turns off the -i option. -L -P When recursing through directories. then cp will create the directory as required. if the target file already exists. NSH 2 . If the file sizes are the same. With the -P option. Inc. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. write. Output a message for each file being copied. and access and modification times as the source file. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. This option can be very resource intensive.

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. The second example does the same as the first. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. then dsync outputs this message. dsync outputs this message. Unable to get a license to use the software. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. the -f option will override the -i option. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. it will output this message. it will output this message. indicating that it cannot copy directories. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. it outputs this message. Unknown option or missing file argument. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. With the P_ATT variable set. Inc. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). indicating that the copy may not be complete. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. NSH 3 . it traverses the source directory hierarchy. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. the -i option will override the -f option. it outputs this message.

dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1). NSH 4 . Inc.

(By default.. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename . -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. du counts linked files only once. du counts files with multiple links only once. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. Inc. findings are already reported in KB. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. By default. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. Same as -d. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. Report the directories that du cannot search. With this option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. If you do not specify any files or directories. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. Display a grand total at the end of all computations.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. Same as -d. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks. When the P_BSD variable is set. du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered..) If. du ignores all files with more than one link.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option. output only a summary for all directories searched. while traversing a directory. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. du searches directories recursively. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories.

du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory. du assumes that a block is 1K large.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the P_ATT variable set. the universe flag determines the size of a block. Inc. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). unless you specify the -r option. du does not report errors. du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_ATT variable set. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. NSH 2 . Unable to get a license to use the software. Furthermore.

Inc. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments.] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character.. backslash (OCT 0134. DEC 10. HEX B). HEX D). Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . DEC 8. Unable to get a license to use the software. Argument to be echoed. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. DEC 12. Do not output a new-line at the end. carriage return (OCT 015. $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. NSH 1 . HEX 8). tab (OCT 011. new line (OCT 012. Form feed (OCT 014. vertical tab (OCT 013. HEX 9). File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only. DEC 11.echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. HEX C).. DEC 13. DEC 9. ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus. If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. HEX 5C). The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. DEC 92. HEX A).old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character.

DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. unexpand .expand(1) Property of BladeLogic. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1.tabn] file .tab2. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. If a single tabstop argument is given. Berkeley and its contributors. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. etc.. ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California... then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8. Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand.. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters. Inc.. NSH 1 . If the -a option is given. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns.expand tabs to spaces.) that contain tabs... Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output.. unexpand [-a] file . looking at specific columns. Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default.

It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character. If the field number is 0. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. If you specify a positive field number. the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. such as -2. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specify a negative field number. Inc. A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. If this option is not provided. the entire data row is extracted. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . such as 5. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file.

Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. Inc.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 .

h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file. . For example. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or if it’s some sort of special file. and language tests. or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable).h〉. The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it. so they are performed last. just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. the keyword . or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another).h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names. There are three sets of tests. These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. Don’t do as Berkeley did. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). write a magic. magic number tests. file attempts to guess its language. BSD December 4. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself. People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. symbolic links. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets. For each magic number file. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. preserve these keywords.out. and which of several types thereof. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. performed in this order: filesystem tests.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file . The program checks to see if the file is empty.out file. whose format is defined in 〈a. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats.h〉 and possibly 〈exec. 2004 1 . The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call. Inc. .out(5). The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”.

keep going. ls(1). This version knows more magic. −m magiclist Specify an alternate list. od(1). This prevents problems. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. For example. however. separated by colon characters. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. which are block special files. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1). Normally. BSD December 4. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. magiclist. −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. a. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. Inc. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. 2004 2 . file adds “. strings(1). to test the standard input. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). hexdump(1). of files containing magic numbers.out(5). as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. Defaults to ‘:’. Print the version of the program and exit.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. Cause symlinks to be followed.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files. it will be used instead. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). If a compiled magic file is found alongside. This is only useful if checking a list of files.

see the file LEGAL. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. and contributed by various authors.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. mainly USENET. was written by Ian F. thank you. 1986-1999.h and is_tar. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files.ac. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present. 1973). 1989. If your old file command uses a magic file. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition.com〉.com〉. if a pattern string contains a backslash. 2000. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas. but with some extensions. July. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries.com〉. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright. The order of entries in the magic file is significant. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic.uk〉. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. You know who you are. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. for example. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. The files tar. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. BSD December 4. and are not covered by the above license. used as. in this version. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types.NOTICE in the distribution.orig). it must be escaped. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. based on the System V version. John Gilmore revised the code extensively. Depending on what system you are using. the order that they are put together may be incorrect.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code. This program. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. Toronto. Canada. Darwin. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. making it better than the first version. 2004 3 .

. ndbm(3) or. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support. first word. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e.astron.g. with the flexibility of the System V version.tar.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup. inefficient and requires recompilation to update. 2004 4 . BSD December 4. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte. Regular expression support would make this easy. Regular expression support would make this easy. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. once we have fetched it. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic. This manual page. and particularly this section. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir.YY. Inc. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy. if the others don’t pan out. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line.g. etc. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp.. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files.. it should be possible to use the first guess. We end up removing guesses (e. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name.gz. What is it? Better yet. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). Still. better yet. is too long. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e.g. but is entrenched. first long. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines.

The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. If the referenced file does not exist. is n minutes. If the referenced file does not exist. Inc. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. before their contents.. is n 24-hour periods.e. find visits directories in pre-order i. the file information and type will be for the link itself. the file information and type will be for the link itself.. An alias for the −L option. [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. This option exists for backwards compatibility. not the link itself. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). and the file is skipped. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. space. tab. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. rounded up to the next full minute. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. -print is assumed. Alternatively. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. allowing all file names to be processed safely. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path . In the absence of an expression. 1999 1 . Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. rounded up to the next full minute. By default. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.e. not the link itself. is n minutes. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. BSD December 4. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started.

size in 512-byte blocks. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. These do not describe actual file system types. If the file is a symbolic link. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. -inum n True if the file has inode number n.]. group. . is n minutes. 1999 2 . True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. Inc.]. -links n True if the file has n links.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. file permissions. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name.’ ) . -execdir utility [argument . and pathname. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. rounded up to the next full minute. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. . -exec utility [argument . the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. then gname is treated as a group ID. the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”. last modification time. If the file is a block or character special file. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. Case insensitive. -follow Follow symbolic links. is n 24-hour periods. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. owner. BSD December 4. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. number of hard links. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. . -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. size in bytes. .

Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. Note. If the mode is symbolic. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. If n is followed by a ‘c’. -ok utility [argument . If the mode is not preceded by a dash. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. 1999 3 . then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. . Note. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. followed by a null character. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period.]. It causes find to not descend into the current file. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. -ok. ‘]’. If the mode is octal. If neither -exec. BSD December 4. -ls. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. in 512-byte blocks is n. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. Inc. followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. ‘]’. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. nor -print0 is specified. ‘∗’. rounded up. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. is n 24-hour periods. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -print This primary always evaluates to true. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. . It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. ‘∗’.

The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. then uname is treated as a user ID. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. and neither means “exactly n”. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. It evaluates to true if the expression is false. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”. Inc.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. 1999 4 .

The operator -or was implemented as −o. getgrent(3). -mindepth. and ‘. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated. and the operator -and was implemented as −a.2”).core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. The options and primaries -amin. -iname. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. whereis(1). In particular. These primaries always evaluated to true. ‘)’. BSD December 4. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. -follow. -links.2 (“POSIX.2”) standard. Historically. fts(3). As −print always evaluates to true. ‘!’. -follow. chmod(1). getpwent(3). -execdir. and -xdev. Inc. which(1). locate(1). As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began. the −d. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. strmode(3).’ may have to be escaped from the shell. ‘?’. This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. -inum. ‘[’. -mmin. This is not the case. -maxdepth. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. ‘]’.2 (“POSIX. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗.[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). 1999 5 . ‘(’. -fstype. stat(2). -ls. -empty. the characters ‘∗’. ‘\’. −H. and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. -cmin. xargs(1).

ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present. DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters. expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding. Berkeley and its contributors.User Commands Property of BladeLogic... SunOS 5. breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold . or the standard input if no files are specified. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. Inc.8 Last change: NSH 1 .

<nis> .Property of BladeLogic.com <nis> . OPTIONS -u Print usage.. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> . <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.domaincomponent1.conf like file.domaincomponent1..domaincomponent2. Inc. <local> <dns> .com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts). <dns> host2.conf like file on the operating system. <local> ..conf like file. <nis> NSH 1 .conf like file.domaincomponent2. <local> . <dns> ... This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch... Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host. EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1. and NIS. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.... <nis> ...conf like file. <dns> . No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.... If multiple hostnames are specified.. -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered. DNS.. in that particular sequence. Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database. in that particular sequence.

. <local> host4 host4.Property of BladeLogic.. NSH 2 .com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra.. <dns> ...domaincomponent1.domaincomponent2. <local> . <dns> . Inc.com loghost <dns> .. <local> .domaincomponent2.. SEE ALSO hostname(1)..domaincomponent2. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> .. <dns> host4.domaincomponent3.com host4..domaincomponent1...

ps(1) under Unix). that is.Misc. zip(1L). and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting. See DESCRIPTION for more details. SEE ALSO gzip(1L). o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. . the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode.z i p. for example. This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems. . currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. . unzip(1L).zip  [. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive. i nf o. . zipinfo(1L). funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state.]  funzip [–password]  [. then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. funzip simply creates the directory and exits. zipcloak(1L).] funzip [–password] input. after prompting again for the password. zipnote(1L).z i p . i n f o . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.] funzip [–password] input. nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive).g.93) 1 . If there is an argument. and command-line histories can be read.zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . . This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. Decryption may not be supported at some sites. or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash.zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). To recover. . | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. Inc.gz  [. A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . Given the limitation on single-member extraction. unzipsfx(1L). The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release).zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin. DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line.zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. funzip will reset the terminal properly. .] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. In the case where the first member is a directory.. EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. . The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [.

93) 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. Inc.Misc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.

you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information.raw.dat file can contain multiple entries. Displays the status of each host. Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed.. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. regardless of license status. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license. The putlic command uses license. one entry per line. The license. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic.. a license key. If you do not specify any of these four options. Each entry consists of a hostname. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify. host1 . and writes this data to a file called license.dat to license the remote agents. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. Do not create a license. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command.raw file. and an optional expiration key.. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed. Verbose output.dat. Inc. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license. a product code. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. You can specify multiple options. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 . See the -v option for more details..

By default. follow all symbolic links. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. fgrep . Write only a count of matching lines.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Search binary files. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. but do not attempt to print them. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. If you specified the -R option..file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file .] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. Display version information. Force grep to behave as fgrep. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. in front of the matching line. egrep. Force grep to behave as grep. grep does not follow symbolic links. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. Treat all files as text. You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. If grep searched the standard input. Force grep to behave as egrep. If you specified -R. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern. If you specified the -R option. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input.. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. List the pathname for each file. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns. An empty expression matches every line. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. Perform case insensitive matching. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. Inc. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). it writes the pathname ‘-’. Ignore binary files. NSH 1 . When displaying a matching line. and write the names of these files to standard output. Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. selecting lines that match one or more patterns.

and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s).’ which would otherwise match any character. ‘$. it writes the pathname ‘-’. and write the names of these files to standard output. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. or -q. Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. Align the match from the beginning of the line. No lines were selected. The first line of each file is 1. Add another pattern (see example below). Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. Always print filename headers with output lines. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. grep uses the standard input. If grep searched the standard input. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’).ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes. Suppress normal output. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. Inc. Silent mode. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. An error occurred. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. -l.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines. List the pathname for each file.

20 or 25. Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. NSH 3 .

The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna. File whose first few lines you want to display. If you do not specify any files. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output.. head outputs the file "as is. Inc.head(1) Property of BladeLogic. Instead of displaying count number of lines. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems. CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. display count number of characters.. $ head -20 *.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. You specified an unknown option. If you do not specify any file names. if you are using the -c option) to be n. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. This is done for compatibility purposes. if you are using the -c option) to be count. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . head displays the first few lines from the standard input. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>. This is the default. Measure quantities in lines. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . When you specify the -B option.c files. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all .

zero-filled. three column. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. three column. two-byte units of input data. -o Two-byte octal display. Appending the character b. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. in hexadecimal. The byte count is an optional positive integer. four column. One-byte character display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. Without the -v option. Each format is applied iteration count times. space-filled. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. characters of input data per line. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. Two-byte hexadecimal display. od. offset is interpreted as an octal number. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. any number of groups of output lines. decimal. six column. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). followed by eight space-separated. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. with a leading 0. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . and a format.. With a leading 0x or 0X..ascii. if no files are specified. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. respectively. zero-filled. zero-filled. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. zero-filled. bytes of input data. per line. two-byte quantities of input data. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. hexadecimal. in octal. 1024. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. per line. in a user specified format. For each input file. separated by whitespace. Inc. k. five column. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. or the standard input. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. followed by eight. in octal. xd . per line. or 1048576. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. in unsigned decimal. followed by sixteen space-separated. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. space separated. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. By default. in the order that they were specified. a byte count. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. two byte quantities of input data. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. which defaults to one. per line. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. followed by eight space-separated. otherwise. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. Two-byte decimal display. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them.

’’. Four byte default. %X. %i. %o. zero-padded octal. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. which are displayed as two character strings. four byte counts supported. and x specify the display base as decimal. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. The appended characters d. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. two and four byte counts supported. %_u. with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. %e. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. o. %g One byte counts only. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’. _c Output characters in the default character set. %G. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. Inc. hexadecimal. %c %d. Characters greater than 0xff. names. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. %_p. when all of the input data has been processed. ‘‘n’’. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. ‘‘l’’. Output US ASCII characters. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). %f. Eight byte default. %u. ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. %x %E. octal or hexadecimal respectively. one. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. Output characters in the default character set. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. which is the iteration count times the byte count. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. cumulative across input files. of the next byte to be displayed.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. lower-case.

EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06. If. Berkeley and its contributors.7_Ax\n" "%07. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. and referencing a NULL string.e. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. Inc. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. input data only partially satisfies a format string. ‘‘ ’’. an iteration count is greater than one. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes).7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. If no format strings are specified. the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 . If. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces.

8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 .highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. front-end for grep. but cute. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled. It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep . SunOS 5. Quoting is not handled.

hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides. NSH 1 . Inc. This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. OPTIONS hostname has no options.

-o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. join uses the standard input. -j2 field In file 2.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. -1 field -2 field In file 1. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields. join on the field specified by field. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. and >0 if an error occurs. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. NSH 1 . -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’.field’. In file 2. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join . The default input field separators are tab and space characters. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. The first field in each line is used by default. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output.using the -b option. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join. The join utility exits 0 on success. For example. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. For example. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based. join may not report all field matches. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. Inc. For example. Otherwise. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. join on the field specified by field. The default output field separator is a single space character. -e string Replace empty output fields with string. For example. on the fields on which they are to be joined. Each output line consists of the join field. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). join on the field specified by field. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. join on the field specified by field. Many of the options use file and field numbers.join(1) Property of BladeLogic.’’) or whitespace separated. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. -j1 field In file 1.

Inc. paste(1). uniq(1) NSH 2 . sort(1). This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California. These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification. join(1) -o list .. Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. Berkeley and its contributors. join on the field specified by field.. SEE ALSO awk(1).join(1) Property of BladeLogic. Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option. comm(1).2’’. do not use these options. These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number.field_number’’ as described for the current -o option. In general.

–t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline.8 Last change: NSH 1 .max. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. SunOS 5. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.max Like –f. zeros will be added to make up the field width. each option affects only the file after it. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. Normally.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If min begins with a zero. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. and may be repeated. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. Inc. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. –p min. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. The name ‘–’ means the standard input. pr(1).. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width.max Print line fragments according to the format string min. Berkeley and its contributors. –f min. SEE ALSO join(1). To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1).max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . This option may appear after the last file. and if it begins with a ‘–’.. Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min. The options are described below.

] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). If N is more than the screen size. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. but if N is specified. even if N is more than the screen size. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. . z Like SPACE. The number is used by some commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. called N in the descriptions below. Also. Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). remember this one. only the final screenful is displayed. but scrolls a full screensful. so it can run on a variety of terminals. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). The entire N lines are displayed. Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. BSD January 17. but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement.] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename ..LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. (On a hardcopy terminal. default one window (see option -z below). SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. COMMANDS In the following descriptions. In this mode. d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines. default one half of the screen size. ˆX means control-X. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file. 2003 1 . . default 1. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). h | H Help: display a summary of these commands.. If you forget all the other commands.. for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. as indicated. If N is specified. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting. it becomes the new window size. ESC stands for the ESCAPE key.) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. then "v". ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. Inc.

default half the screen width (see the -# option). Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. Inc. but if N is specified. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. default 1. Like }. If a number N is specified. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. If N is specified. default half the screen width (see the -# option). u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. or if N is not specified and standard input. N should be between 0 and 100. If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. only the final screenful is displayed. Scroll forward. If N is more than the screen size. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket. Like {. 2003 2 . even if N is more than the screen size. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. w Like ESC-v. default one half of the screen size. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. While the text is scrolled. If a number N is specified. discarding any buffered input. The entire N lines are displayed. ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. } ( ) BSD January 17. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. default 1 (beginning of file). default one window (see option -z below). Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. it becomes the new window size. is being read. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. R F Repaint the screen.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. rather than a file. default the end of the file.

For example. BSD January 17. The pattern is a regular expression. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. acts like {. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. as recognized by ed(1). Followed by another single quote. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. (Single quote. For example.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. respectively. That is. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. Certain characters are special. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. Like }. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. 2003 3 . but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. acts like }. Inc. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. that is. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. Followed by a ˆ or $. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. do a simple textual comparison.) Followed by any lowercase letter. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. ˆXˆX Same as single quote. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. N defaults to 1. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. respectively. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. which change this). but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. That is. Search multiple files. marks the current position with that letter. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. Search multiple files. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match.

but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. Inc. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. but in the reverse direction. turn highlighting back on. As in forward searches. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. BSD January 17. If a number N is specified. ESC-u Undo search highlighting. If the previous search was modified by ˆE. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. On such systems. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. Similarly. the N-th next file is examined. the N-th previous file is examined. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. However. the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. the search is done without using regular expressions. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. ESC-N Repeat previous search. If a number N is specified. Examine the previous file in the command line list. two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. but crossing file boundaries. for N-th line containing the last pattern. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". If the filename consists of several files. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. N ESC-n Repeat previous search.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. As in forward searches. 2003 4 . n Repeat previous search. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. you may not be able to use ˆV. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. If the filename is missing. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". If the filename contains one or more spaces. If the previous search was modified by ˆN. Repeat previous search. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line).

if defined. Followed by one of the command line option letters. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. For example. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. If a number N is specified. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. The following four commands may or may not be valid. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. if there were more than one matches for the current tag.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. a new value may be entered after the option letter. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. Inc. Go to the next tag. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. as in the − command.) This does not work for string-valued options. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. If no new value is entered. the N-th file in the list is examined. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. See the −t option for more details about tags. V Prints the version number of less being run.) Like the _ (underscore) command. depending on your particular installation. Examine the first file in the command line list. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. BSD January 17. (Underscore. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. Like the − command. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. Like the −! command. Go to the previous tag.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options. (Double underscore. Like the −+ command. it also prints the length of the file. or a string value (such as -P or -t). If possible. The setting of the option is not changed. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). Remove the current file from the list of files. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. 2003 5 .

you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. to avoid typing "less -options . Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. For example. via the "−" command. For example. 2003 6 . For options like -P which take a following string.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. OPTIONS Command line options are described below. Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. For example. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. or defaults to "sh". thus: "-\?". such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. Inc. not an ordinary file. "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell.. A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. If <m> is . see the -B option). s filename Save the input to a file. --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. If an option appears in the LESS variable. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. see the -j option). in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. This only works if the input is a pipe." each time less is invoked. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. or newline. "!!" repeats the last shell command. so command line options override the LESS environment variable. By default. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". as distinct from --quit-at-eof. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. or two dashes followed by a long option name. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. the current screen is piped. The BSD January 17. −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. the remainder of the name may be in either case.. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. Most options may be changed while less is running. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. Some long option names are in uppercase. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. For example. but not --qui. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less.

The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. less will refuse to open non-regular files. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. By default. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. Inc. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. the entire file is read into memory. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen.]’’. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. If n is -1. buffers are allocated automatically as needed. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. -h0 is implied. any earlier data is lost.]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. when data is read from a pipe. that is. lacks some important capability. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. By default. This option is on by default when invoked as more. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. buffer space is unlimited. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. ’q’ to quit. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. 2003 7 . (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. that is. −g | −-hilite-search Normally.) BSD January 17. the bell is rung).LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

For example. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. tag search. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. that is. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. This applies only when the input file is a pipe. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. Multiple -k options may be specified. BSD January 17. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). 2003 8 . the next is 2. −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. if "-j4" is used. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. it is also used as a lesskey file. then that search does not ignore case. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. the second to the bottom is -2. with the percent into the file. especially with a very large input file. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. not to the file which is currently open. less prompts with a colon. not an ordinary file. By default. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). jump to a line number. When invoked as more.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. This option can be set from within less. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. jump to a file percentage. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. in other words. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. A target line is the object of a text search. and so on. If the file already exists. The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. and so on. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. or jump to a marked position. If the -j option is used.

they will simply report the name of the log file. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable.. BSD January 17. This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. or be terminated by a dollar sign. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". -PM changes the long (-M) prompt.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen." is zero or more characters other than "m". The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. Warning: when the -r option is used. various display problems may result. The bell will be rung on certain other errors. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. such as typing an invalid character. that is. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ .. it is used instead.. rather than being typed in with each less command. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. Thus. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command). the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. Inc. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r.. for example. Without a file name. display the remainder on the next line. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. That is. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. The default is to fold long lines. See the section on PROMPTS for more details. 2003 9 . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. that is. −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern. m where the ". −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung. If the terminal has a "visual bell". −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character).

−xn. For this to work.. tag information must be available. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. The default for n is 8. 33. If only one n is specified. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability. like clearing the screen. Inc. 2003 10 . The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters. they are handled as specified by the -r option. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command. (See http://www. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. Also. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option.... which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. Other backspaces are deleted. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. For example. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags". Sets tab stops. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. that is. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. that is. 25. 17. tab stops are set at multiples of n. and that command is executed to find the tag.org/software/global/global. unless the -J option is in effect. The entire line is highlighted.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability.gnu. if neither -u nor -U is given. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. in which case only the status column is highlighted. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted.. BSD January 17.html). it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option.17 will set tabs at positions 9. followed immediately by a TAG. −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page. The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. along with the preceding character. for example. etc. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. -x9. | −-tabs=n.. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. By default. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags". will edit the file containing that tag. tab stops are set at those positions. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.

changes the open quote to the first character. if the screen is 24 lines. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. the screen is repainted instead. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. that is. and the close quote to the second character. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. not just the first one. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. BSD January 17. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". The default is one screenful. it starts the display at the specified line number (however. If the option starts with ++. Inc. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. 2003 11 . The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. If a command line option begins with +. see the caveat under the "g" command above). If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. a filename for the :e command. If the number specified is zero. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). Note that even after the quote characters are changed. +<number> acts like +<number>g. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. Followed by two characters. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. Followed by a single character. or the pattern for a search command). This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. If the number n is negative. For example. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. By default. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. this changes the quote character to that character. any forward movement causes scrolling. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. As a special case. For example. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. either ˆV or ˆA. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning.

BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. BSD January 17. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. Inc.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the first match is entered into the command line. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. a "/" is appended to the filename. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. and to set environment variables. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. that character is used instead of ˆU. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. 2003 12 . The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. If it matches more than one filename.) Move the cursor one word to the left. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is.) Delete the word under the cursor. Otherwise.less". less uses that as the name of the lesskey file. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously. If it matches more than one filename. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. Delete the entire command line. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line. Otherwise.) Move the cursor one word to the right. KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. If the completed filename is a directory.) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/.

it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. When less closes a file opened in such a way. To set up an input postprocessor.$$ fi . It may include two occurrences of the string "%s".sh %s". 2003 13 . For example. the original filename as entered by the user.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less.sh %s %s". which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. It should create the replacement file. which was output by LESSOPEN. it will call another program. To set up an input preprocessor. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file.sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument. Before less opens a file.$$ ]. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename. but still let less view them directly: lessopen. these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. However. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. which writes the contents of the file to a different file. as normal. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. esac lessclose. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). as normal. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. and so on. and the name of the replacement file. This program receives two command line arguments. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen.. This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. An input pipe. called the replacement file. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. the original filename. called the input postprocessor. that is.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. then echo /tmp/less. To use an input pipe. less uses the original file. as entered by the user. rather than putting the data into a replacement file. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files.

Selects a Russian character set. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example.Z) uncompress -c $1 . a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. and all others are binary. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set. 1. and formfeed are control characters. "bccc4b. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). Same as iso8859.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. and binary. In this case. When an input pipe is used. CR. Selects an EBCDIC character set. For example. NL. and "b" for binary. "c" for control. 4. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. control. Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. The character ". TAB. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set. esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. and 8 is normal.sh %s". all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-". 6 and 7 are binary.. Same as iso8859. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. A decimal number may be used for repetition. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. 2003 14 . and does not necessarily represent any real character set. In this case. 2 and 3 are control." would mean character 0 is binary. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. 5.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen." is used for a normal character. Inc. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. Should not be displayed directly. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. (This is an example. This is the same as ASCII.) BSD January 17. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters.

LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.6b10.g.b9.b.8b6. The line to be used is determined by the X. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. and "∗n" is normal.9b7. etc.33b.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables. if the setlocale interface is also not available. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]". but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). an "m" means use the middle line. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b. a "b" means use the bottom line. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables.b.b. Otherwise.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95. For example.. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility. "∗s" is standout. If that string is not found. or equivalently. the page number of the last line in the input file. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking.b 8bcccbcc18b95.b128. but your system supports the setlocale interface.33b.b. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen. Replaced by the size of the current input file. The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string.10b6.9b5.b. less will use setlocale to determine the character set.3b9. then the default character set is utf-8. "∗u" is underlined. and a "j" means use the "target" line. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e. 2003 15 . 8bcccbcc18b95. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.bb125. "∗d" is bold. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17.8b8. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character. X. as specified by the -j option. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. o. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line.7b 9. 8bcccbcc18b95. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file. Finally. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. 8bcccbcc18b95.8b8. ˆA for control-A). as with the %b option. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191.7b9. d. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". the default character set is latin1. normal attribute is assumed. If the character is a "t". The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". Inc.). but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings.17b3.

a question mark is printed instead. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. of the specified line is known. as with the %b option. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. The line used is determined by the X. BSD January 17. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. True if the size of the current input file is known. Replaced by the name of the current input file. True if there is an input filename (that is. are included in the prompt. The line used is determined by the X. Usually used at the end of the string. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. a condition is evaluated. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. If the condition is false. based on byte offsets. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. 2003 16 . the file size if input is a pipe). as with the %b option. If any item is unknown (for example. up to a period. Inc. if input is not a pipe). Same as %B. True if the line number of the specified line is known. such characters are not included. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. but may appear anywhere. as with the %b option. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. based on line numbers. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. based on byte offsets. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. Replaced by the percent into the current input file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. any characters following the question mark and condition character. if and only if the IF condition is false. True if the percent into the current input file. True if the page number of the specified line is known. of the specified line is known. True if there is more than one input file. True if the percent into the current input file. based on line numbers. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. Replaced by the total number of input files. True if at end-of-file. True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). If the condition is true. Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. The line to be used is determined by the X.

?e(END) ?x. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively). This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. True if there is a next input file (that is. otherwise the byte offset if known.?m(file %i of %m) .. colon... %f Note that this expands to the editor name. The pipe command. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1.?n?m(file %i of %m) . ?n?f%f .. This prompt prints the filename. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings. 2003 17 .%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined.. byte %bB?s/%s.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark. period.?e(END) ?x. if known. otherwise the percent if known. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file.: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s.?e(END) ?x. otherwise the string "Standard input". if known.Next\: %x. if known..Next\: %x. Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. Inc. percent. Otherwise. : byte %bB?s/%s. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%. or has other differences in invocation syntax.Next\: %x. The filename is followed by the line number. if we are at end-of-file. a dash is printed. Finally. Notice how each question mark has a matching period. This prompt would print the filename. followed by the file name. if there is one. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt. For reference.:?pB%pB\%. less runs in a "secure" mode. BSD January 17.?m(file %i of %m) .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. . This is the default prompt...%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f . ?n?f%f .. followed by a + and the line number. the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B". ?f%f . If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. if the current input file is not the last one). Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input.. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. any trailing spaces are truncated. The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm.?m(file %i of %m) . Then.%t ?f%f . .

COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set. Inc. ˆL). LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. The editing command.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 18 . Log files. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. Filename completion (TAB. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. global tags are not used. If not set. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. or in a lesskey(1) file. Metacharacters in filenames. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. Use of lesskey files. See discussion under PROMPTS. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. such as "∗". Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. BSD January 17. non-control characters. Language for determining the character set. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. Use of tags files.

Inc.greenwoodsoftware.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. For more information. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. On such terminals. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable.org〉.com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. In certain cases. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion. LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen.) BSD January 17. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command). If the :e command is used to name more than one file. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. see the less homepage at http://www. See discussion under SECURITY. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode.com/less. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. 2003 19 . as well as to expand filenames. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file. more text than the matching string may be highlighted.

BSD January 17. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). 2003 20 . setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. non-binary files.greenwoodsoftware. See http://www. Also. searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. Inc.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option. On some systems. This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary. To workaround this problem.

less is used. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. by default $HOME/. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. #env Defines environment variables.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. except for the special section header lines. other options and arguments are ignored. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. If the input file is ‘-’. The action is the name of the less action. If no output file is specified. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. by default $HOME/. Otherwise. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys. The string may be a single command key. If the output file already exists.lesskey . Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. from the list below. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. The characters in the string may appear literally. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. this line may be omitted. The input file consists of one or more sections. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. standard input is read. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. If no input file is specified. If −V or −−version is present. lesskey will overwrite it. Otherwise.

see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below. An action may be followed by an "extra" string. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. For example. tab and the backslash itself. the action is performed. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. space. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . When such a command is entered while running less. just as if it were typed in to less.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. and then the extra string is parsed. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

Be aware that #stop can be dangerous.LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands. one per line as in the example below. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. Alternatively. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. For example. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. but not for a "noaction" command. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. In addition. Since all default commands are disabled.

NSH 5 . Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. $HOME/. such as uparrow. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable.less Default lesskey file.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments.lesskey Default lesskey input file. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. Each line consists of an environment variable name. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. in a keyboard-independent manner. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file. FILES $HOME/. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. If environment variables are defined in more than one place.

link always exits with an exit code of 0. Newly created link file. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. only the super user can use the link command. links to files on different partitions. do not use it except in exceptional cases. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. OPTIONS link has only one option. Existing file to be linked. Normally. Unable to get a license to use the software. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. This is not the default for link. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. If you want this behavior.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. you should use the ln command instead. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. Inc. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. Links to directories. NSH 1 . SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. and links across hosts will not work.

-i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. If you use the -f option with the -i option.. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. consist of a special file.] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. Newly created link file. then the target file must be a directory.. With this option. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. Furthermore. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. NSH 1 . then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. OPTIONS -f By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . if the target file already exists. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory. With this option. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column). Symbolic links however.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option. ln does not ask for this confirmation. ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. and it does not have appropriate write permissions. ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file. In the output of the ls command. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. Inc. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-. if the target file of a link already exists. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. In the second case. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. and you can make symbolic links to directories. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file. if the target file already exists. Existing file to be linked.

SEE ALSO link(1). NSH 2 .ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. You should normally use the ln command. it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. One of the files to be removed was not removable. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. and the target file already exists. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. avoid using it except in exceptional cases. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created.4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. The target file is not a directory. Inc. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. then the target file must be a directory. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. This is not possible to do. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. An unknown option was given. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column." (parent directory). then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. When using a multi-column output.. Before ls displays a listing. -x. l.).". If the output is going to a terminal." and ". then the default format depends on two things. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. ls displays the contents of the directory. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 . With the P_BSD variable set. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. and -1 options). By default.) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). This option is similar to the -a option. then the default universe behavior determines the output format. Consequently. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. The remaining programs are derivatives of ls.).. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen. With this option. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. lc. If the COLUMNS variable is not set. a multi-column listing (see the -C. if it is being redirected or piped). This may be the default. ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents.] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). -o. lf. or a stream listing (see the -m option). then ls uses the current directory (. If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). ls is the standard program. if a file contains special characters in the name. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. ls does not display files beginning with a period (. then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information. Inc. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. With the P_ATT variable set. If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory. it uses the default value of 80. This often includes the directories ". it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically. If you do not specify an output format. depending on the universe setting. and -g options).. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. or if it has a value less than 20. Each derivative has a specific option turned on. With this option." (current directory) and ". lr. If you do not specify any file arguments.. ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option). For each file argument. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). By default. however it does not include the directories ". ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). (This is the default behavior.

ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. With this option. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. -s. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). etc. if a file contains special characters in the name. and -r are turned off. By default. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. This makes it easy to identify directories. ls sorts the listing by file name. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. With the P_BSD variable set. This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. Inc. When used with the -t option. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). With the P_ATT variable set. ls does not display the owner name/ID field. By default. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). By default. For each file found. For each file found. -t. This option is similar to the -l option. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. With this option. putting a comma and a space between file names. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. ls treats each file argument as a directory. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. When used with the -u option.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. the options -l. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. Consequently. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format. block/character special. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. By default. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. when an argument is a symbolic link. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. With this option. does a reverse sort by time stamp.. does a reverse sort by user name.. ls sorts the listing by file size. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. Each line contains detailed information about the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option.) When outputting a long listing. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. ls sorts the listing by file name. This option tells ls to output a long listing. while the -a option is turned on. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. This option tells ls to output a long listing. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. If ls comes across a directory. This option is like the -F option. See the options -c and -u for more information. The default time stamp is date of last modification. With this option turned on. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. . Directories are marked with a ’/’. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/). the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable.

With the P_BSD variable set. With the P_ATT variable set. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. -C. With the P_BSD variable set. Instead. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. Inc. the default behavior is to output the group name field. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. There are 25 options for this command.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option. ls ignores column settings less than 20. With the P_ATT variable set. the group name field is also included in long listings. or -x options). ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. ls uses the default screen width of 80. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. If a long listing is not being produced. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. If a long listing is being output. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. then with the P_BSD variable set. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. there are several option conflicts.

The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. man displays the output of the remote man command. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. Inc.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. Unable to get a license to use the software. NSH 1 . No data was returned from the remote host. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. This version of man does not. If you do not specify this option. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. Because of this. using the -h host option. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. Normally.

If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. md5sum takes its input from stdin. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation.. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. This is the default behavior. This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. If you do not specify any files. Light mode.. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. If you specify a file on a remote host. Inc.] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. Do not output warning messages. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file. If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic.

An unknown option was given. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. mkdir creates the missing directory. where mode is an octal value. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777. Set the initial user ownership to user. Unable to get a license to use the software. mkdir will create parent directories as required.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). (This may be altered by the value of current umask. then this error message will appear. NSH 1 . Otherwise a warning message appears. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic.. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). Second. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. With this option. The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. By default. If either directory does not exist. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. Inc. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory.. Otherwise a warning message appears. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. If the mode contains non octal digits.

Inc.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 .

Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1).. NSH 1 . this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. mkfifo was unable to create the special file. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files.mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory.. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name .

mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). The minor number of the character/block special file. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. Unable to get a license to use the software. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. Inc. The major number of the character/block special file. tells mknod to create a character special file. If you create a character or block special file. or a block special file (b). The second argument specifies the type of special file. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. As the second argument. tells mknod to create a block special file. you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). As the second argument. The first argument is the name of the special file. The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. NSH 1 . mknod was unable to create the special file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. a character special file (c). the name of the special file you want to create. As the second argument. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files.

-f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo. then the target file must be a directory. With the -f option. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file .bar to foobar. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. Second. then the target must be a directory. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. mv checks to see if the target file already exists. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. By default. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found. The target file is not a directory. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target). Destination file or directory.. NSH 1 . you can use it to rename files.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. It simply overwrites the file.c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. An error occurred while trying to move a file. $ mv foo. First. then the target file must be a directory. The second examples moves all . mv does not display this prompt. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. then mv overwrites the file. OPTIONS -i With this option. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway.. An unknown option was given. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. Source file. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible. if a target file already exists.

the files are actually copied. The target file could not be created. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). See cp for more details on copying directories. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. Inc. With the P_ATT variable set. the source must be deleted. After having copied the source file to the target file. the -i option will override the -f option. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. NSH 2 . mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). the source file is removed. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the files are actually copied. mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options. the -f option will override the -i option. the files are actually copied. the files are actually copied. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. The target file could not be created.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. There was an error deleting the source file. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. There was an error removing the source file.

. OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied. unless you are using the -d option. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time. These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts. then the <sources> must be absolute path names. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s). sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . These commands provide an alternate interface. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts . The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync..//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. Inc. addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command.P. If you use this option. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>.. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 ..ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. see their respective documentation.. Otherwise... sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. Copy in parallel.

NSH 2 .ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. Inc. cp(1)... EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation. ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus. SEE ALSO dsync(1).... ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts . Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts . uncp(1). dsync. Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts .. ncp.

Refresh screen. Do not show a header on output. Reverse sort order. addresses. In addition. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.2. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. addresses. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. -t NSH 1 . Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.3. Replace the # character with 1. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. See the -f option below. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .Property of BladeLogic. See the -s option below. Quit application. Sort on the specified column. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. ncpu displays the value as a number. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.P. This option overrides the -t option.. Quit application. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.. some systems (for example. This data is not available on all systems. Show only entries that match the given expression. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed.P. Therefore. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. this data may not be available for all servers.. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz.or 5. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string.4. Inc. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU.

ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). see the man page for blexpr. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. but does not mimic it exactly. EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems).8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Switch to system info view. AND. nnet(1). When an expression is used to match a string. including NOT. For full details on expressions. and OR. Inc. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Switch to memory info view. Switch to statistics view. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. nps(1). ndf(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. Switch to disk info view.Property of BladeLogic. host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. Switch to process info view. wildcards are supported. Switch to process summary view. nmem(1). Switch to network info view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.

The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option overrides the -t option. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Inc. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. Do not show a header on output. See the -s option below. Property of BladeLogic.P. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. See the -f option below. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Behave top like. Only show entries which match the given expression. Inc. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available. addresses. Comparisons are made case neutral.P. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. addresses..

Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.5. Switch to process summary view. Inc.4. ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nmem(1). see the man page for blexpr.e. and OR.9.3. Inc. enclose the expression in single quotes). EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. AND. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to system info view. Switch to statistics view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. wildcards are supported.6. ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to memory info view. nnet(1).8. nps(1).7. you can define an expression used to filter the output data. or 0 (10). When an expression is used to match a string. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. The expression should be a single argument (i. Switch to network info view. nover(1). For full details on expressions. Switch to process info view. Property of BladeLogic.. including NOT. Switch to disk info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 .2.

the width is set to 80 characters.. Also compare file sizes. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. The file exists but has different access permissions. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. The file exists but has different file ownerships. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. Inc. Do not output files if they are equal. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. When you specify the -s option. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. -o. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. -t. When you specify the -o option. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code.. and date of latest modification. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. file permissions. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. then depending on which options you specified. When you specify the -p option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . In its base use. By default. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. Traverse directories recursively. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. file ownerships. If the file exists. Also compare file ownerships. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. Also compare file permissions. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . the following codes may also appear. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. and -p options.

ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic.. assume the output device width to be width characters. When calculating the optimal output. it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. These options (-1. When you specify the -t option. ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification. -2 . ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. SEE ALSO cp(1). If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. The default assumption is 80 characters. NSH 2 . Inc. each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. dsync(1).. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns. By default. where N is the number of directories being checked.

Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). Inc. as determined by the current working directory. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. If you specify this option. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 . It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". In addition. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. Without this option. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. LOGNAME. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands. Finally. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. It sets the HOME. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). etc. For more information. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. ksh.g. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. On UNIX agents. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh).. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. Once the remote program has been started. If the program is called explicitly. the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr. which some interactive programs need (e.profile) should be run. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. -l Simulates a login session. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>. . The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed.. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. bash. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine.g.

automatically transcode data. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. Do not transcode input/output. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . Imagine for example. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. Inc. is converted to the local code page. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. In the same way. before it is passed to the application. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. To deal with this nexec will now. This option is available on agents running 7. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. by default. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done. See examples below. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. As such. Release 7. meaning no auto transcoding. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call. the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. It must be a batch (output only) command.0. As such the output will be not very useful. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where.3 or later. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. By default. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment.

nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs. take the following steps. First. Inc. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated. In the first instance. see the nsh man page. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. For more information. host% cat hosts NSH 3 ./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution..nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen.

com Hostname for rome is: rome. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems. NSH 4 .nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. not all commands are available on all hosts. Inc. SEE ALSO rsh(1). Similarly.bletch.bletch. The best example of this is the ps command. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid.bletch. An option may not be universal to all platforms.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs.com In the following example. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus.bletch. Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected.

OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. Inc. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence. It performs a remote login to host. SEE ALSO nexec(1). telnet(1).nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. rlogin. NSH 1 . ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. The name of the remote host you want to log into. and/or ssh. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option).

MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Only show entries which match the given expression. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. This option overrides the -t option. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.. See the -f option below. addresses. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Do not show a header on output. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. Behave top like. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 . Comparisons are made case neutral.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Inc. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available.P. Inc.. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. addresses. See the -s option below. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.P. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. Property of BladeLogic.

see the man page for blexpr. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. nstats(1) NSH 2 . and OR.8.5. When an expression is used to match a string.9. nps(1). wildcards are supported. For full details on expressions. enclose the expression in single quotes).nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to process info view. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to disk info view. including NOT. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1.e. Switch to memory info view. ndf(1).7. nover(1). Property of BladeLogic. nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.. Switch to system info view. you can define an expression used to filter output data. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Inc.2. or 0 (10). nnet(1). -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.3.6. The expression should be a single argument (i. Inc.4. Switch to network info view. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to statistics view. AND.

NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. Do not show a header on output. Subnet mask for the adapter.2 and beyond. addresses.. MAC Adapter MAC address. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. Reverse sort order. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Refresh screen. I.P. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. See the -f option below. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . the MAC address appears as all zeros. NAME Adapter name.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -s option below. nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Not all adapters have a MAC address.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. In addition. Inc. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Quit application. If there is no MAC address. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. With this option.P. This option overrides the -t option. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. addresses. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. NSH 1 . Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. address of the adapter.P. or if you do not have the required permissions. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Quit application. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. Show only entries that match the given expression. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. By default.

or 7. Inc. ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second.6. but does not mimic it exactly. see the man page for blexpr.3.2.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. nstats(1). nnet(1) Sort on the specified column. nover(1). nmem(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Replace the # character with 1. nps(1).5. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.4. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. ndf(1) NSH 2 . The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. For full details on expressions.

. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked.2”) compatible. the standard output is appended to the file nohup. If the standard output is a terminal. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. Otherwise. Inc. the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. BSD June 6. If standard error is a terminal. 1993 1 . . it is directed to the same place as the standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg . SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup.NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.out cannot be created in the current directory.2 (“POSIX.out in the current directory. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored.

SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows.. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. ARCH The system hardware architecture.g. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option overrides the -t option. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. and as not set for Solaris. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information. Only show entries which match the given expression. Inc.. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. See the -f option below. Behave top like. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Property of BladeLogic.P. addresses. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information. Windows systems. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Do not show a header on output. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . the release level for AIX. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. the kernel release for Linux. addresses.P. Inc.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. See the -s option below. Comparisons are made case neutral.

nstats(1) NSH 2 . The expression should be a single argument (i. and OR.6. Inc. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. enclose the expression in single quotes). When an expression is used to match a string. For full details on expressions. Switch to network info view. Switch to process summary view. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2. Switch to statistics view. Property of BladeLogic. or 0 (10). Switch to disk info view.4. nps(1). nmem(1).3. Switch to process info view. Inc.. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.5.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. wildcards are supported. Switch to memory info view.2. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.4. including NOT.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems).21-4. ndf(1). see the man page for blexpr. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. Switch to system info view.9.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. AND. you can define an expression used to filter output data.8.7. nnet(1).e.

This option overrides the -t option. -t NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether. addresses. Quit application. Do not show a header on output.P. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.Property of BladeLogic. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. Inc.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.. See the -f option below. addresses. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether. Refresh screen. Quit application.. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. See the -s option below. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Show only entries that match the given expression. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. Reverse sort order.P.

Switch to network info view. nmem(1). ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). but does not mimic it exactly. see the man page for blexpr. Switch to process summary view. Switch to memory info view. 7 or 8. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nstats(1) NSH 2 .6. Switch to disk info view. including NOT. wildcards are supported.2. Inc. nps(1). Sort on the specified column. Define an expression to filter the output data. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. and OR.5. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Replace the # character with 1. nnet(1).4. When an expression is used to match a string.3. Switch to system info view.Property of BladeLogic. AND. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to process info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Switch to statistics view. For full details on expressions. nover(1).

. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. Show only entries that match the given expression. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display. -t NSH 1 . The parent process ID. The process’ priority. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. The total amount of real memory that the process is using. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. Do not show a header on output. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. See the -s option below. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . With this option. This option overrides the -t option. (This column only appears in the -c output. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. START The start time of the process. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. Inc. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. All Windows processes are currently owned by root.) The process ID.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. Refresh screen. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.

nstats(1) NSH 2 .3. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. ndf(1). you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to disk info view. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. nover(1). 0 indicates column 10. Inc. Switch to network info view.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. Switch to process summary view. Switch to system info view. see the man page for blexpr. Define an expression to filter the output data. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. For example. For full details on expressions. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Switch to statistics view. Replace the # character with 1. but does not mimic it exactly. nmem(1). Inc.4. or 0. Reverse sort order. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. and OR. wildcards are supported.6. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. Switch to process info view. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.8. ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. nnet(1). Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.9. including NOT. SEE ALSO blexpr(1).2. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to memory info view.5. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using.7. AND. Inc.

assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. such as C:. If you have set a root directory. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive. NSH 1 . When you cd to a new host. To access other drives on the computer.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. Inc. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior.Property of BladeLogic. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. If you do not.EXE In Network Shell. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell.0. you should also specify a directory. the \h sequence takes on a new value. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. as the following example illustrates. nor can you access any other drives. You can never access the root of a drive. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh.

For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. enter the command with a fully qualified path. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell./.Property of BladeLogic. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities.. Native commands. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host.. When executing a command. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. to execute the native command. In the following example. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. the command returns the hostid of host2. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. Inc. For example. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 .

the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. but. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. they can be set to use default values. you must perform two steps. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. To add a supported remote command using this method. for example. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 . (White space can be a TAB or SPACE. The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. First. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. Inc. capturing both its standard output and standard error. create a soft link to the program nexec. By entering a value of -. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df.Property of BladeLogic. If this field is not set. First. For example: command_name . The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). In addition to regular DOS commands. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. and reboot. as described earlier.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. This can be unset. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. If. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. There are a few limitations when using redirection. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. halt. To continue with the above example. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. It should be a non-interactive program. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls.

$ZDOTDIR/. is treated the same as the < redirection type. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. Inc. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts.. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command. For example. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . Other values may produce unexpected results.nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option.Property of BladeLogic.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/. Next. THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses. When accessing relatively few remote hosts.. If no arguments are given. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. the shell closes all connections. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. calling the disconnect command is not required. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH.nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection. For efficiency reasons. then a new dynamic network connection is created. the redirection type <>.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above).

Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 . Inc.Property of BladeLogic.

NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path. $buf. (R_OK) Test for read permission. $count = NSH::read ($fd. Network Shell Perl Module 1 .NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. $buf. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::chmod ("bar". processes. 0777)."). int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission. If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". NSH::chmod (char *path.. The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. SYNOPSIS use NSH. $count = NSH::read ($fd. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . 0777). The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API. then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. 0777). DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname.. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). then the file on the current host is used. $fd = NSH::open ("bar". NSH::. 0. If no hostname is included in the argument. 100). NSH::close($fd). NSH::chdir (". 0. NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar".. NSH::rmdir ("bar"). 100). The following examples will help clarify their use. use NSH. (W_OK) Test for write permission.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files. and commands. NSH::unlink("file"). $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::close($fd).

pwd = NSH::getcwd (). int uid. "Hello world\n". and group gid. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). NSH::creat (char *filename. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". NSH::close ($fd). } NSH::closedir ($fd). NSH::fgets (char *buffer. $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". 100. 12). NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. int uid. int size. NSH::fchdir($fd). int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. Inc. Network Shell Perl Module 2 .") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". NSH::write ($fd. print "PWD = $pwd". NSH::close ($fd). NSH::chown ("foo". NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd. while (($filename. 100. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. 200).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". 200). $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n". int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. and group gid. int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. NSH::fchown ($fd. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(".

$prio = NSH::getpriority (100). $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. NSH::kill (int pid. NSH::flock (int fd. $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. know what you are doing with the call. In other words. The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. NSH::getpriority (int which. then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. Inc. and can have any of the following values ORed together. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH). Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). 9). then a SIGTERM is sent. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). 512. Network Shell Perl Module 3 . NSH::ftruncate (int fd. process group or user. 100). int sig) Send a signal to a process. NSH::kill (100. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. If sig is ommitted. Remove lock. } NSH::close ($fd).

2. If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). When creating a file. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". 0777). the pointer is set to offset bytes. 0777). NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). mode is assumed to be 0755. NSH::lseek ($fd. long offset. If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). if the second (and third) argument are not given. If none is given. $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). Network Shell Perl Module 4 . The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. NSH::mkdir ("foo. int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. int mode.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. 0). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). NSH::mknod (char *filename. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("foo. mode is assumed to be 0755. Inc. then the file is opened for reading. If mode is ommitted. If only a single argument is given. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. The second argument controls how the file is opened. int flags = O_RDONLY. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. If mode is ommitted. int maj. the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. As previously mentioned. NSH::lseek (int fd. NSH::link ("file1". NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET). NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link.

NSH::closedir($fd). } NSH::read (int fd. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. Inc. $buf. it is assumed to be ’r’. subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. NSH::popen (char *cmd. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. If mode is ommited. 100)) { print $buf. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). Network Shell Perl Module 5 . $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. char *buffer. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic.

NSH::rewinddir ($fd). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). process group or user. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). int who. $pos). char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). NSH::rename (char *oldname. prio is the new priority to be set. then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). Network Shell Perl Module 6 . Inc. "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::setpriority (int which. } NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. NSH::rename ("foo". NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. NSH::seekdir ($fd.

@PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). stat. [3]). The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). In essence. char *buffer. If either mtime or atime are not given. Inc. NSH::truncate (char *filename. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. foreach $host ("//host1". $release. $nodename. All three (lstat. NSH::write (int fd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". "//host2". fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. will not work outside the Network Shell environment. 200). NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. then the current date of the local host is used. %d\n". [2]). NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename. STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. %d\n". [1]). ($sysname. %d\n". $version. long mtime. exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. In the Network Shell environment. These types of symbolic links however. the following command is generated and executed. The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. [4]). long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. NSH::truncate ("foobar". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . NSH::utime (char *filename. %d\n".

[10]). [8]). %d\n". [7]). [6]). [11]). [12]). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". %d\n". %d\n". NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . %d\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. [9]). Inc. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). %d\n". %d\n".

nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB). Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample. This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host. each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. . use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size. # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . It does not test how fast it can receive data.. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes. perform a bulk write rather than a regular write. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. . done. (52... nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times... By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes). If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data. done. use a file size KB large. (See EXAMPLE.145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51.. Inc. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked.. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes. To determine the optimal write buffer size.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. . DESCRIPTION Depending on the network.. -b When writing data to the remote host. NSH 1 . The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host.. done. .) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size.. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data. done. From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux.173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51.. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux.. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly). This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer..nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. done.012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3.. but sometimes this value may not be optimal. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . . .147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host. OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes. # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes .

nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1). NSH 2 . Inc. cp(1). secure(1).

Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname ..] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine. ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’.nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic. a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine. Inc. NSH 1 ..

P. See the -s option below. By default. Show only entries that match the given expression. Quit application. See the -f option below. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running.6. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Replace the # character with 1. see uptime (1). MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used.5. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. Reverse sort order. or 7. Do not show a header on output. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Inc. For Windows. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. it shows a CPU usage percentage. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. For UNIX. LOAD The system’s current load average. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. With this option. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values. Refresh screen. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average. addresses.P. This option overrides the -t option.4. Quit application. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. The current time on the system.3. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. addresses..nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. -t NSH 1 .2. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Sort on the specified column.

ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). Switch to system info view. nmem(1).03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. ndf(1). Switch to statistics view. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Switch to disk info view. Switch to process summary view. see the man page for blexpr. Inc. including NOT. nps(1). The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. When an expression is used to match a string.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. Switch to network info view. but does not mimic it exactly.00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. and OR. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to process info view. nover(1) NSH 2 .03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. blexpr(1). For full details on expressions. nnet(1). Switch to memory info view. wildcards are supported.00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0. AND.

. nmem(1).ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic...] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nover(1).. Inc. nps. nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . SEE ALSO blexpr(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nps(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf... For more information...] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers. please read the individual man page for each command... nstats(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nover. blquery(1). nmem. ndf(1) NSH 1 .

EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed.

the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config.gz Suppress all warnings. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout. For example. 1 . This option is the default when decompressing. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic. --quiet --verbose Same as -v. Inc.tar. copy the time stamp from the compressed file.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo. gzip -c file1 > foo. Inc. Instead. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed. gzcat. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present.gz is uncompressed. gunzip.gz nunzip foo. File or files to be compressed or decompressed.TGZ. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip.tar. --no-name When decompressing. gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with .GZ. provided that the file has the correct header.gz.gz nunzip --verbose foo. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. --help file Display a help screen and quit. or .nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic.tgz. . . Verbose output. when config.

only the -s option is considered. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. In the syntax shown above. Sorting is alphabetical. the tag field is optional. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. the string order is not changed. The strings are only grouped by tag. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified.txt. The resulting list contains only unique entries. $cat list.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . Remove duplicate entries. Inc.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified. input lines are contained in a file called list. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. If tag fields are provided in the input list. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order. If you provide a tag field. Sort the list in descending order. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. Within each tag group. If you do not provide a sorting option.

txt europe order(1) NSH 2 .txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list. Inc.

Inc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic. NSH 3 .order(1) Property of BladeLogic.

The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. for each instance of ‘-’. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data.e. The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself.. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California.. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste .8 Last change: NSH 1 . This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5. The characters in list are used circularly. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character. the standard input is used.. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. and >0 if an error occurs. unless otherwise specified by the -d option. DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. i. Inc. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order.merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . The paste utility exits 0 on success. standard input is read one line at a time. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. and writes the resulting lines to standard output. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. circularly.

write.. If you do not specify any file operands. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input.. pax operation is independent of the specific archive format. and list the members of an archive file. The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. [file . and write a table of contents to standard output. and copy.] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] .... For a description of tar options.. [-s replstr] .] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] .pax(1) Property of BladeLogic.to_date] [/[c][m]]] ....] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] . and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option..to_date]] . and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns... pax will read an archive file from standard input. [-G group] .. write...... pax will read an archive file from standard input.] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] .. Copy. When an extracted file is a directory. -w -r -w NSH 1 .. If you do not specify any file operands.] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read.. pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. For a list of supported archive formats. The setting of ownership... [pattern . see the -x option.. [-s replstr] ..to_date] [/[c][m]]] . [file . Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax... [-U user] . Write. [-G group] ..to_date]] . The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list.. read. Inc. access and modification times. pax copies the file operands to the destination directory.. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [.. pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. and will copy directory hierarchies.. [-o options] .... All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy... The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted. [-T [from_date] [. The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable.. <none> List. [-T [from_date] [. pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling). [-E limit] [-U user] . [-T [from_date] [. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation. [pattern .. Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands...read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files . and supports a wide variety of different archive formats.tar .. When a file operand is also a directory. [-G group] . When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. [-U user] .. -r Read. see the section below. [-p string] . The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering. [-U user] . the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included... pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format. [-G group] ..... except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below). The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input..

blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. or if it is not of type directory. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. If the directory operand does not exist. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. pax uses the archive’s existing format. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. or archive members of type directory being extracted. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. and file operands. If you try to append to an archive. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. S_IRWXG. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. If you do not specify a block size. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . When a pattern matches a directory. respectively. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. or if it is not writable by the user. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. When required. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. If you do not specify any file operands. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. pax selects all members of the archive. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). Its maximum is 32256 bytes. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. Inc. pattern operands. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. If you do not supply a pattern operand. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname.

Inc. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. someone with all the appropriate privileges. -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. file mode bits. The file times are preserved by default. pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. Do not preserve file modification times. In general. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. o. When pax matches members of type directory. Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. (This option is the letter ell). pax skips the file or archive member. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. group ID. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. If this line consists of a single period. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). its file mode and. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. m. For example. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. if -p eme is specified. and you can specify multiple -p options.the user ID. Link files. Preserve the user ID and group ID. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. NSH 3 . This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. Preserve the file mode bits. Preserve everything -. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. the one(s) given last will take precedence. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. m o p In the preceding list. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. e. file access time. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. In the copy mode ( -r -w). If this line is blank. its modification time. and file modification time. By default. and p (described below). The string consists of the specification characters a. This is intended to be used by root. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. Otherwise. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. file modification times are still preserved. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. Do not overwrite existing files. By default. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line.

For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. -x format Specify the output archive format. terminating with the first successful substitution. The trailing <newline>. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. and copy).pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. read or accessed them. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. During copy. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. for all the other operational modes ( read. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. pax detects the truncation and repairs it.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. or subexpression matching. Inc. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. During a list operation. During write. The old string may also contain <newline> characters. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. You can specify multiple -s expressions. do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 . The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name. old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). write. Otherwise. This format is not very portable. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). The old binary cpio format. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line. the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. Therefore. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option. During read. and is written only after the file has been read or written. with the default format being ustar. is not buffered. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003.

The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. You can use a ’´ to escape the #. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. file size. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). or when starting with a #. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. NSH 5 . link pathname length and the type of the file. The default limit is a small positive number of retries. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. -D This option is the same as the -u option. This is the default mode. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. Inc. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. With a positive limit. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory. hard links.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. a numeric gid. -G group Select a file based on its group name. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. perform a physical file system traversal. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. gid. etc. Do not follow symbolic links. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links).3. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. Instead. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. Checking stops with the first match. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). You can supply multiple -G options. The bytes limit can end with m. uid. Only regular files. respectively. k. soft links. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. 1024 (1K) or 512.

yy. dd. -Y. and -Z) interact as follows. -s. You can supply multiple -T time ranges. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. If you specify neither. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). Checking stops with the first match. or copying files during a copy operation. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. If you specify both c and m. -D. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. etc). and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. pax defaults to using the file modification time only.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -U options. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. -U. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. mm. -v. or when starting with a #. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. group. -i. mode. The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). the names of these selected files. a numeric uid. the last time there was a change of owner. This option is the same as the -u option. If you supply only a from_date. When extracting files during a read operation. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). Checking stops with the first match. -D. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. -G. -u. for example. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. The minute field mm is required. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. -G. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. You can supply multiple -U options. -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. -u. -T. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). When pax is in the write or copy mode. Inc. Time ranges are relative to the current time. -n. file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. the names of these selected files. If you supply only a to_date. -u. A time range is made up of six different fields. This option is the same as the -D option. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. Each field must contain two digits. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. -n. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -T. -T. When archiving files during a write operation. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 . and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. -D. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. -G. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c.ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year.

Inc. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. The command: pax -r -s ’. Extract data from archive. Do not pass over mount points in the file system. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. Do not preserve modification time. Follow symlinks. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . Interactive file rename.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options.pax reads the archive a. Append to the archive. Do not follow symlinks. access/modification times. Verbose operation mode. group ID. Follow command line symlinks only. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use. List contents of the tape. Create an archive. along with the -n option. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. Append to the archive.ˆ//*usr//*. Stop after first error. In this case the following options are supported. NSH 7 . Preserve user ID. with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory.. The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename.’ -f a. file mode. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 .pax.

pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. -U. but continues processing. -G. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. or cannot preserve the user ID. -E. -H. Additionally. -P. pax does not copy the file. pax will not create a second copy of the file. Inc. -T. and the modification and access times may be wrong. sv4crc. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status.pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . dest_dir Property of BladeLogic.pax will extract all files from the archive a. NSH 8 . pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. Berkeley and its contributors. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. group ID. -Y. If. it exits with a non-zero exit status. -Z. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. The options -B. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. sv4cpio. -D. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. the archive formats bcpio. tar. 1 An error occurred. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. -L. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. while doing a copy. or file mode when the -p option is specified.

such as /bin/sh. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command.P. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. It will first determine which packages you want to install. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. address of the host on which you want to install the package. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. /bin/ksh. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. If you do not use this option. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. etc. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. For example. as well as any optional response or admin files. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. including remote servers. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh).P. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. address arguments. You can specify multiple hostname/I.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. admin. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. can reside on any server. The packages you install. Inc. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

Inc. ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. With the P_ATT variable set. the -i option will override the -f option. the -f option will override the -i option.rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). NSH 2 .

the agent closes the connection.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic.If it does not find an entry there. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). the agent closes the connection. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). 2 . the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. then verifies that it is a valid handshake. If the handshake is valid. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. 3 . it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections. it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. 3 . The agent will use this information in further security related checks. it uses the configured port number. This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. the agent defaults to port 4750. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. NSH 1 . it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. Inc. Before the client exits. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly.Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. Next. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection. With this mechanism.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). among other things. 1 . If not. In this case. the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates. If necessary.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . If it finds an entry in the database. See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. determine how the communication between the two should occur. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur. But first. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred. 4 . so that it can run in background mode. When it hears a connection.Based on the client host.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. 2 . This information is found in the secure file and includes. it uses the configured port number. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. If it finds an entry. the encryption type and encryption key or keys.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent.Before going any further. It goes through the following steps: 1 . because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. either from a command line or from a script.

Inc. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. users (1). which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. it decides whether or not the client should have access. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. If there should be overrides.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. If the client is allowed to have access. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. Do not fork. 6 . NSH 2 . secure (1). OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file.Once the daemon has all the relevant information.Once it has the initial handshake data. Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. Output some debug messages. then the daemon sets the final permissions. and what permissions the client should have. ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1). but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. the daemon sets them. If the client is not allowed to have access. Output brief usage description. These are also known as the user overrides.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic.

Normally. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server. To do this. use the -p option. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. For this option to work. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with.. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. If you are accessing multiple hosts.. the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . you will not gain access to the remote server. Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host. With the rsu command..rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). Those permissions govern your access to that host. In other words.. If the remote user is not set up this way. just as if you had entered an incorrect password.. host1 $ NSH 1 . when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell.. Password for root@host3: .] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host. Except when you are using the -p option (see below). $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions. the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. Inc. you will not get access to the host.

Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password. Appropriate entries (rsu=. EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic.. users.. exports (1). rscd(1) NSH 2 . and/or exports file must exist. Inc. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details. ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).) in the users.local.

Depending on what action you are currently performing. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command.. To this end.. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . After encountering the -h option. you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host... -H header By default. where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run.. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header.. hostn] [-e command1 .. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. This option must be the last option. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option..runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. -e cmd . -h host .. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names.. This option specifies the command to execute... The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed. Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name. NSH 1 . The format of this file is one entry per line. which consists of a hostname and directory. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname. hostn] [-e command1 . -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. which consists of a hostname and directory. Inc. For example. runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´).

Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. This is implicit if the program name is runscript. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). Inc. In other words. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Execute a Network Shell script on each host. Output a brief explanation of the available options. Output the effective command executed for each host. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. This can significantly speed things up. you may not want to do things in parallel. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status.

EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l . . -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp.[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 . one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers.] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i.scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line).[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . no OS name extension). scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec). Inc. -o file By default. then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option. The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine.. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. As such. when looking to run a script. If it does not refer to an existing file.e. Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. With this option one can override the staging directory. See also -h -h host [host . Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 . then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name.[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group . If a name is given..AIX ...

nexec (NSH). scriptutil(1) . Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp. Inc.scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 .HP-UX .[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). .

The default is 130 characters. Skip identical lines. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. Minimize diff size. the user is prompted for each set of differences. prompting at each set of differences. BSD March 28. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. for details of which editor. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. See EDITOR and VISUAL. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. Start editing an empty file. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. Start editing file with right set of diffs. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. Quit sdiff. below. Ignore trailing blank spaces. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. In this mode. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. See the −o option for an explanation. is invoked. Start editing file with left set of diffs. if any. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. 2008 1 . Start editing file with both sets of diffs.

the default is vi(1). re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. CAVEATS Although undocumented. If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. SEE ALSO cmp(1). The default is /tmp. Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. diff3(1). VISUAL takes precedence. depending on the current column. ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). diff(1). If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. 2008 2 .SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. vi(1). BSD March 28. TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option.net〉. though some require GNU diff. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data.

it uses the rscd entry. create a hostname entry in the secure file. it uses the default entry. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below). If the client does not find a match.a. Inc. you can provide a host’s IP address. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. For an Application Server. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. Thus.. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a. which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). By default.k. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries.509 certificates. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. including encryption and authentication parameters. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> . CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. On the agent side. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. through an indirect deployment). create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 . By storing passwords in the securecert file. use the special hostname rscd. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. a resolvable host name. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure.. When entering a value for hostname. SSL). default. If the agent does not find a match. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. or hostname.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. use the special hostname default. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. The order of entries in the secure file matters. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents. then the software looks for a default entry. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection.

If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. Inc. the passwords are not revealed.cfg is used. See below for details. that user is typically root. you are prompted to enter the hostname. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. you are prompted to enter the hostname. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. While this is an important security measure. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. When issuing a secadmin command. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. If hostname is not provided. On UNIX-style systems. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. To accomplish this. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. NSH 2 . On Windows. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. If hostname is not provided. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. On UNIX-style systems. then the file secure. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. As mentioned above. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. If hostname is not provided. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. that user is bladmin. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. To accomplish this. you are prompted to enter the hostname. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. in a regular secure file. If no value is entered for file. On Windows. that user is SYSTEM. -down hostname Move the entry down one. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted.

with a higher number indicating better compression. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. If -u is a negative number. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. This option requires a certificate.pem. The default protocol is protocol 5. If you are adding or modifying an entry. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. With the -u option. NSH 3 . To compress data. -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. By default data is not compressed.2. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. -w size -z value Set compression level. supported since release 5. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. This option must be used with the -c option. set value to a number between 1 and 9. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. No authorizations or certificates are required. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below). which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. The default value for -u is 1 minute.

-appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents.10.509 certificate. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 . This value is related to the -appserver_host setting.509 certificate. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. If no hostname is given. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections.255. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. Inc. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname.255. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options. The secadmin utility also provides the following options.168.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic.is the same as giving no redirection host. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon).0 might look something like: @192. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask. Setting hostname to . This field is related to the -appserver_host setting. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option. The password to the private key for a user’s X. Consequently. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host. A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server.

000 255.255.100.255.128 255. enter the following command.168. NSH 5 .168. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192.224 255. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).255.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.255.241/28 @192.255.192 255.225/27 @192.255.secadmin(1) 255.129/25 @192.100.240 255.255.100.255.100.168.193/26 @192. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1). Inc.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file.0/24 @192. To delete the entry for host foo.100.255.255.168. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host.100.168. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.255.168.

A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. . or the standard input if no files are specified. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space.] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands. The −n option suppresses this behavior. but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). not including its terminating newline character. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter).SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The input is then written to the standard output. by default. and deletes the pattern space. . The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. 1993 1 . Inc. appending a newline. Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. sed starts looking again for the first address. only that line is selected. −n By default. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. copies the pattern space to the standard output. The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). [address[. A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . . Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin. into a pattern space.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. . sed cyclically copies a line of input. Normally.

If a regular expression is empty. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. ‘y’. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. however. In a context address. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines.. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. representing zero. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. Also. or two addresses. For example. 1993 2 . one. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. ‘w’. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. You can’t. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. ‘s’. and at run-time. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. [1addr]. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. Inc. as follows: { function function . [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. branch to the end of the script. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . i. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. To embed a newline in the text. BSD December 30. For example. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”.. or [2addr]. precede it with a backslash. 2. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr].e. ‘r’. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. just the delimiter characters are specified. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. not compile-time.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. The argument text consists of one or more lines. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. If the label is not specified. ‘!’. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. ‘t’. Two of the functions take a function-list.. In addition. The ‘b’.

Inc. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. Write the pattern space. Write the pattern space to standard output. Long lines are folded. up to the first newline character to the standard output. If file cannot be read for any reason. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. 1993 3 . Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. text is written to the standard output.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. [2addr]l (The letter ell. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. Note that the current line number changes. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space.

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. also have special meaning to the sh(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory. Consequently you must escape or quote them. An operand of a primitive was missing. Inc. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. Value of the expression is FALSE. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. which can be used for grouping primitives. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. With the P_ATT variable set. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. Unable to get a license to use the software.test(1) Property of BladeLogic. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). test is an executable program. and the directory /etc/security exists. Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. CAVEATS Parentheses. so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn.

If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. the values default to the current year. from 1 to 12. from 0 to 23. The “MM”. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. “DD”. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. BSD April 28. The day of the month. it is created with default permissions. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. When no −r or −t option is specified. is supported. .SS]] file [ . Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day. The second of the minute. The minute of the hour. there are at least two arguments. the year is set in the 21st century. If “YY” is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. where a time format is specified as the first argument. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. Otherwise. The month of the year. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. the value defaults to 0. Change the modification time of the file. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. from 0 to 61.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Do not create the file if it does not exist. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. The second two digits of the year. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). If the file doesn’t exist. even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. a “CC” value of 20 is used. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. Inc. but “CC” is not. Change the access and modification times to the specified time.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. otherwise. 1995 1 . the year is set from 1969 to 1999. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. from 0 to 59. . from 1 to 31. Attempt to force the update. The hour of the day.

Inc.2 (“POSIX. 1995 2 . HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. BSD April 28. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2”) specification.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

1991 1 . A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. In the third synopsis form. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. Shpink October 27. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. In the first synopsis form. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. In the fourth synopsis form. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. In the second synopsis form. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. A backslash followed by 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. Inc. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. If string1 is longer than string2. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’.

Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. otherwise. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. it is interpreted as an octal value. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. English has no equivalence classes. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. and >0 if an error occurs. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. they are ordered after their encoded values. 1991 2 . the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. characters are entered in ascending order. Inc. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. If n is omitted or is zero. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. i. one per line. If n has a leading zero. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. Otherwise. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. see ctype(3) and related manual pages. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class.e. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. inclusively. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1.

Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. Shpink October 27. Inc. Additionally. However. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’. 1991 3 . This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. for example. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. additionally.

BSD January 26. Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). Print the operating system release. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. Print the processor type in more detail.2-1992 (“POSIX. The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output. machine(1).UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. Print the patch level. SEE ALSO hostname(1). Print the machine hardware name.4 BSD.2”). Inc. Print the operating system version. 1994 1 . Print the operating system name. If no options are specified.

This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option. dsync(1). Output a message for each file being renamed.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. it renames them (removes the suffix). This option tells it to look for a different suffix. Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. Do not actually make any changes. The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. When uncp finds files with the specified suffix.. By default. just delete the files.. Inc. The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). uncp looks for the suffix ˜. SEE ALSO cp(1). It does not rename any files. This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up. Set the suffix to suf. NSH 1 .

e. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. the first field is field one.. Inc. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . If specified in conjunction with the −f option. BSD December 8.. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. Field numbers are one based. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file.2”) compatible. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. 2002 1 .UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. Only output lines which have duplicates.e. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent. If additional arguments are specified on the command line. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. the first character is character one. i.2 (“POSIX. Character numbers are one based. the second is used as the name of an output file. followed by a single space. i. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. −u Only output lines which are unique. so it may be necessary to sort the files first.

any user can run the unlink command. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. Unable to get a license to use the software. To restrict its use to the super user. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. without doing any type of error checking. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file .bar The second example removes all . there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. NSH 1 . EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems.. Inc. $ unlink foo. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking. In other words. you should use it only in exceptional cases. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). Normally. unlink always exits with 0. NOTES By default. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. except that it does exactly what it is told to do. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command..old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic.bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*. you should use the rm command.

Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. See –v in OPTIONS below. For example. the path itself cannot. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. z i p is appended. and if that also fails. ARGUMENTS file[. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. zip(1L).zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. as with any other ZIP archive. both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. just specify the . and an ending character. or extract files from a ZIP archive. . ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. immediately after the zipfile specification. creates ZIP archives.Misc. test. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. but none in any subdirectories. a hyphen.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). In particular. ranges are specified by a beginning character. [ c h ] .) If no matches are found. By default. see above. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗.] [–x xfile(s) . If the file specification is a wildcard. the suffix . A companion program. Inc.42) 1 . the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). separated by spaces. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. . test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. Only the filename can be a wildcard. . commonly found on MS-DOS systems.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. .) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. or between the file(s) and the –x option. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive.zip] [file(s) . [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. This option need not appear at the end of the command line. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. . all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. particularly under Unix and VMS. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. Again. it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). Without the –x option. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories.

This option performs the same function as the –f option. [OS/2. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites. update existing files and create new ones if needed. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that..42) 2 . an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. The names. adding to the basic –l info the compression method.Misc. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.g. i. compressed size. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. along with totals for all files specified. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’). If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. and the files are always extracted in binary format. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). a diagnostic screen is printed. the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. in order to support obsolescent hardware. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below).. uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. When no zipfile is specified (that is. the compiler and version used. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted. the target operating system for which it was compiled. ‘‘unzip –T \∗. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled.zip’’) and is much faster. freshen existing files. In addition. test archive files. just as they are stored (no conversions). The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. If the first option on the command line is –Z. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically).e. the –a option is allowed. and the compilation date. Note that under many operating systems. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. extract files to pipe (stdout). list archive files (short format). A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. –v lists archive files verbosely. By default unzip queries before overwriting. unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. In addition to the normal header with release date and version. Inc. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check.

the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. All Macintosh specific info is skipped. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option.) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.. That is.. This is a shortcut for – – –a. just the file’s data. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and NT supports Unicode. see the relevant options below). [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. regardless of the supposed file type. [Unix only. –a is enabled by default. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e.g. [Unix only. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". junk paths. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. OS/2 HPFS.) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.Misc. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). 512-byte record format. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. converting line endings. or similar). this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms. see above). and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files. In the example above. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. (For example. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. convert text files. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. the current one). all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated. In addition. match filenames case-insensitively. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. [BeOS only] junk file attributes. Instead. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’.42) 3 . [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. Inc. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. it is replaced by the info from the extra field. (On Tandem. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output.g. some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive.

skip extraction of all existing files. the extraction methods. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. use the non-echoing. Inc. SF’’). [OS/2. overwrite existing files without prompting. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). (obsolete. etc.##’’ version numbers are stripped. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L).). the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines. the Enter/Return key. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. interactive prompt to enter passwords. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. (And where security is truly important. etc. Also. ‘‘EA DATA. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. in the format file. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. skip the extraction of that file without prompting.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any).42) 4 . By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. however.) may be stored as all-uppercase names. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. overwrite all files. this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. conversion of unsupported characters.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. VMS files can be stored with a version number. but this option allows them to be retained. retain (VMS) file version numbers. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen.ext. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.11. (It is often used with –f. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages.. skip extraction of the current file. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. If a file already exists. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. old MS-DOS FAT. This is a dangerous option. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS.Misc.g. At the end of a screenful of output. which stores filenotes as comments.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter). this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. etc. VMS. NT. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. By default the ‘‘. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation.##. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing. regardless of the originating file system. See –L above. so use it with care. Unlike Unix more(1). unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. however. on some systems. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. never overwrite existing files. Whenever possible. This can be awkward. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user.) Depending on the archiver. or rename the current file.

This may seem awkward or confusing. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default.0. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. Unix. for example. but it is probably most useful with the –a. As suggested by the examples above. Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness. make it match names case-insensitively.42) 5 . acting on the q option. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. considered to be just like any other command-line options. and UNZIP for all other operating systems.. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent). It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. however. UNZIP takes precedence. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. –L. Inc. It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. volume labels are ignored. in effect. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –C. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. For instance. only reporting errors. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them. make it quieter. but under Unix. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s.Misc. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix.g. or security ACLs under Windows NT. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. To cancel both quiet flags. a diskette). –q. For compatibility with zip(1L). To override an environment option. By default. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. This can be done with any option. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. –o.] [MS-DOS. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. and the second is a minus sign. During extraction. For example. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. OS/2. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. In most cases this will require special system privileges. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS.0 to 5.0). OS/2. UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask).

Windows PKZIP 2. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line. DOS PKZIP 2..x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. and our source archives do now include full crypt code. The correct password will always check out against the header. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.04g uses the OEM code page. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly. On EBCDIC systems. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. OS/2 and Win3. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. Inc. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. As noted above. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. Latin-1). UnZip 5. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. OEM code page) to test passwords. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. but at a cost in security. as noted above. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.g.42) 6 . unzip will prompt for another password. if both of these fail. This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. that’s not quite true. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. (In fact.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options.g. entering a null password (that is. If a password is not known.Misc. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. See the description of –f above for details. followed by the alternate one (e. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed. If the first password fails the header check on some file.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. and so on until all files are extracted.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. if a zipfile member is encrypted. US export restrictions have been liberated. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.zip. To check a version for crypt support. However. but due to United States export restrictions.. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. since spring 2000.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled.

and any makefile. both ∗.f. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.) To extract to standard output all members of letters. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer.g.zip (Note that the ‘‘.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1.zip’’ is generally not necessary. being a lazy sort. regardless of case (e.Misc.zip or unzip –l––q file. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2. etc. as in Unix.h.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source. Inc. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards.zip "∗. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗. the compiler with which unzip was compiled.C.: unzip –v In the last five examples. something that is worth making a habit of doing.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.42) 7 .c and ∗. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source. as in the source examples below.1 or later contain no timezone information.c.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file.zip or unzip –l–q file.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive.zip whose names end in .zip "∗.tex. double quotes could have been used instead. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables. Makefile.zip "∗. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’).. whether decryption support was compiled in. ∗.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file. in fact. ∗.

[currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. 51). DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values.42) 8 . a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted). (If even one file is successfully processed. 50. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. except in conjunction with zip. invalid options were specified on the command line.Misc. 9-11 and 80-82. however. scarier-looking things. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s). Inc. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. no matching files were found. but processing completed successfully anyway. where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2.zip. In addition. Processing probably failed immediately. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). the exit status is 1. the disk is (or was) full during extraction.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. one or more warning errors were encountered. This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password.) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. no errors or warnings detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. except under VMS: 0 1 normal. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk.

unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. In fact. fUnZip). as noted above. The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H. this may not be an issue anymore. John Bush (Solaris. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. requiring a reboot. then overwrite just the directory entries (e.info-zip. not always reproducible). Smith. times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). only the [. and David P. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). zipgrep(1L). This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. Harald Denker (Atari. Fail?’’ message. Windows DLLs). NT. older versions of unzip may hang the system. [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette. This problem appears to be fixed. Inc. overwriting or renaming. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). zipnote(1L). Windows 95). QNX. and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes). shared code. unzip’s query only allows skipping. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). NT). Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. because directories only have a creation time associated with them. Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. In addition. Windows 95. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.g. Under DEC Ultrix. block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile.. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). Mark Adler (decompression. Windows 95. MVS). there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Atari). unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Retry. the old version is not overwritten or deleted.Misc.. zipinfo(1L). Chris Herborth (BeOS. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Onno van der Linden (Zip). Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS). it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. directories and symbolic (soft) links. zipcloak(1L). VMS. Hunter Goatley (VMS). zip(1L). This is a limitation of the operating system. MS-DOS. nor are hard-linked files relinked.dir syntax). SEE ALSO funzip(1L). Johnny Lee (MS-DOS.info-zip.foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version.42) 9 . Dates. The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. Amiga). if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. Steve Salisbury (Windows 95.g.org/pub/infozip/ . See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. Paul Kienitz (Amiga. Mike White (Windows GUI. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). Jean-loup Gailly (compression). Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version. NT).

GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42) 10 .31 v5.2 v5.11 v5. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK.1 v5.0 v2. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v2.0 v3.0 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.01 v5. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.1 v4. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Smith Samuel H. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.41 v5.0 v4.12 v5.32 v5.1 v4.4 v5. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.x v3. Inc.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H.Misc.3 v5.

a hyphen. . although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. particularly under Unix and VMS. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match).’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. In particular.) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. . and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. . Despite this. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. For example. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. and an ending character. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. By default. Inc. Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. but none in any subdirectories. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. . then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. ranges are specified by a beginning character. .Misc. and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. [ c h ] . In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v).42) 1 . Among these are the usage (or help) screen. however. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). ‘‘f o o s f x ∗.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. [–x xfile(s) . . Without the –x option.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. for example.

The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. See unzip(1L) for details.exe" zip -A letters. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info). –n (never overwrite). EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS. Alternatively.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters. See unzip(1L) for details. that is. Inc.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS. –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction).letters. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. NT. –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase).zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters.exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx. Once again. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen). MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files). –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. –q (operate quietly). OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.zip letters. NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files. –v and –Z) have been removed. See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options.) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. OS/2. Amiga]). ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. that only adds to the size of the archive. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions.42) 2 .exe zip -A letters.exe (The VMS append command may also be used. –o (overwrite without prompting).exe+letters. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s).exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters. OS/2. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment.Misc. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). All normal listing options (–l. –C (match names case-insenstively). –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).zip letters.) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.exe. The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing.zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support.

g. in order to create working selfextracting archives. and therefore neither are the resulting archives. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS. e. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name. As noted above. see the corresponding man page.42) 3 . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. listing functions and extraction to other directories. are also known to prepend junk. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program.txt To extract everything except the ∗.g.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗. Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. MacOS. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above)..’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS. This is not necessary for simple extraction. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked.txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems. Also. but other compilers may not). recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗. however. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). notably MacBinary. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. MakeSFX. Atari TOS.Misc. only stored and deflated files are supported. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info. ‘‘can’t find myself. (For technically oriented users. or else a full or relative path must be given. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. simple concatenation does not work. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. however (e. Inc. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. but the command to do so then becomes. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path.txt files: letters -x ∗. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options.. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. etc. For some architectures there is limited portability. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one. as noted above). between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well.

zipnote(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L). or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors. zipgrep(1L).org/pub/infozip/ . AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. zipinfo(1L).info-zip. See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. unzip(1L). Inc. zip(1L). zipcloak(1L).info-zip.Misc. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.42) 4 . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.

src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. followed by a number of body lines. NSH 1 . Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. These consist of a character count. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. followed by a newline. Lines preceding a header must not.tar.tar. The character count is a single printing character. Inc.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file . and a string which names the remote file. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space). The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. followed by encoded characters. compresses it. the standard input) into the original form. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). uudecode . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. the file ‘‘src_tree.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. A space separates the three items in the header line. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself. This line consists of one ASCII space. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. uuencodes it and mails it to a user. tar cf . and a trailer line. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. The body consists of a number of lines. Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default.. look like a header. If the size is not a multiple of 3. When uudecode is run on the target system. 6 bits per character.. and represents an integer. of course. Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. Berkeley and its contributors. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero.

uudecode (1). compress(1) NSH 2 .uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1).

SEE ALSO agentinfo(1).5. BladeLogic Network Shell 4.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server.5.0. Inc. ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus.0.version(1) Property of BladeLogic.2002 BladeLogic Inc.2002 BladeLogic Inc.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . NSH 1 . Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.

disallowing all access to external programs. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex. In the ex interface. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file .] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. the session will be a batch mode session. . nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. Start editing in vi mode. For the rest of this manual page. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. . and no startup files or environment variables are read. applicable only to ex edit sessions. and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. as if the command name were ex. it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit.2 interface for the historic “-” argument. ex will read commands from it regardless. exactly as if the −s option had been specified. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. or. Run with the secure edit option set. however. as if the command name was vi. This is the POSIX 1003. Start editing in ex mode. entitled FAST STARTUP. In the vi interface. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. BSD October 10. vi. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page. This is the POSIX 1003. Enter batch mode. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. if standard input is not a terminal. Recover the specified files. if no files are specified. . See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. or the readonly option was set. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. Prompts. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. as if the command name was view. Inc. This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors.) Start editing in read-only mode. list the files that could be recovered. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. . It’s probably enough to get you going. 1996 1 . (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. . the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. . view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. read the section after the options description. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file .

Append new text. too. after the cursor. Move the cursor right one character. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. O or o commands. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. before the cursor. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. Move the cursor up one line. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. and for vi to give information to you. 1996 2 . and start entering text. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi.g.e. Inc. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. There are commands that switch you into input mode. and start entering text.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. i. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. Move the cursor down one line. displaying part of the file on each screen line. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed. vi is a screen editor. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. except for the last line of the screen. Insert new text. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. To start editing a file. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. e. Generally. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. i. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. and move the cursor to its first character. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. It will also display error messages. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on.

[count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. leaving the current line and column as is. vi will refuse to quit). The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. Delete the character the cursor is on. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. If count is not given. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. Quit. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. Delete the line the cursor is on. In each entry below. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1996 3 . discarding any modifications that you may have made. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. if possible. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. Inc. but not saved your changes. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. i. Copy the line the cursor is on. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.e. The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line.

scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. % Move to the matching character. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen. if possible.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. leaving the current line and column as is. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. 1996 4 . 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. Inc. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. the number is decremented. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. the number is incremented. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. If count is not given. without changing the current column. BSD October 10. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor.

“yank” the deleted text into buffer. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] A Enter input mode. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. BSD October 10.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. 1996 5 . n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. If buffer is specified. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. Execute an ex command. [count] . 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. [count] ( Back up count sentences. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. count times. [count] . respectively. [count] . [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. If a count argument is given. Repeat the last character find count times. Reverse find character count times. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. appending the text after the end of the line. Inc. If offset is specified.

[count] G Move to line count. [count] R Enter input mode. 1996 6 . inserting the text at the beginning of the line. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. If a count argument is given. through the current line for the character after the specified character. count times. If buffer is specified. If buffer is specified. Inc. [count] O Enter input mode.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. If a count argument is given. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. appending text in a new line above the current line. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. replacing the characters in the current line. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. or the default buffer if none is specified. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [count] I Enter input mode. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. If a count argument is given. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. [count] J Join lines. If buffer is specified. BSD October 10.

[count] i Enter input mode. If a count argument is given. through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. to the first non-blank character. appending text in a new line under the current line. Inc. [count] o Enter input mode. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] a Enter input mode. 1996 7 . [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. If a count argument is given. appending the text after the cursor. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. If a count argument is given. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. inserting the text before the cursor.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] b Move backwards count words. u Undo the last change made to the file. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. count times. [count] w Move forward count words. count times. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times.

place the line count1 at the top of the screen. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. move to the start of the current line. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. BSD October 10. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. 2 screens before ) . [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. limit the screen size to count2 lines. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. If column is omitted. 1996 8 . The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. Inc. 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. display the screen after the current screen. . [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. display the screen before the current screen. 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. Otherwise. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. Otherwise.e. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. If count1 is given. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. and reset the autoindent level. If count2 is specified. [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion.

1996 9 . the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode. [range] <[< . " A comment. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. . 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. and return to command mode. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. BSD October 10. display the line number of the last line in the file. . In each entry below. .] [count] [flags] Shift lines right.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. each preceded with its line number. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. returning to command mode. or filter lines through a shell command. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. Inc. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. . [range] >[> . If line is not specified. @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer.

1996 10 . [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. screens or tags. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. Background the current screen. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. Foreground the specified screen. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. vi only. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. he[lp] Display a help message. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. Inc. Cscope connections.

] Edit the next file from the argument list. . [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list.. [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. . 1996 11 . q[uit][!] End the editing session. rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. Inc. .] [nooption . [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. .] [option? . res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. editor options and maps to the specified file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines. pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. se[t] [option[=[value]] . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). .. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations. Grow or shrink the current screen. sh[ell] Run a shell program. [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. [Nn][ext][!] [file . . su[spend][!] BSD October 10.] [all] Display or set editor options. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list.

Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. 1996 12 . This section describes the options. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. BSD October 10. their abbreviations and their default values. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. clearing the stack. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. Delete an abbreviation. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. writing the file if it has been modified. Enter vi. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Edit a new file. Inc. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only.

unless otherwise specified. i. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. comment [off ] vi only. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option.e. they are either on or off. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. altwerase [off ] vi only. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . Announce error messages with a bell. autoindent. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. BSD October 10. eb [off ] ex only. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. Skip leading comments in shell. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. beautify. directory. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. autowrite. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. Display the current line automatically. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. ap [on] ex only. errorbells.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. Inc. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. edcompatible. exrc. columns. the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. Most of the options are boolean. 1996 13 . bf [off ] Discard control characters. autoprint. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. C and C++ language files. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. and do not have an associated value. Options apply to both ex and vi modes.

hardtabs. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. This option is not yet implemented. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. BSD October 10. Set the number of lines in the screen. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. leftright [off ] vi only. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. ignorecase. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. modelines. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. li [24] vi only. number. instead of the default hexadecimal. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. matchtime [7] vi only. Do left-right scrolling. This option currently has no effect. Inc. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. read or written. 1996 14 .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. This option will never be implemented. lisp [off ] vi only. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters.

shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. If this option is not set. opt [on] vi only. sections. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. shell. Display a command prompt. Inc. redraw.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. scroll. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. readonly. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. BSD October 10. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. ruler [off ] vi only. the open and visual commands are disallowed. re [off ] vi only. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. 1996 15 . This option is not yet implemented. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. showmatch. sm [off ] vi only. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. sh [environment variable SHELL. optimize. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width. shiftwidth. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. prompt [on] ex only. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental.

Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. tabstop. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. timeout. This option is not yet implemented. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. window. Display an error message for every error. sidescroll [16] vi only. tags. ttytype. This option will never be implemented. term. w. slowopen. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. BSD October 10.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. w300 [no default ] vi only. w9600 [no default ] vi only. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. Select an alternate erase algorithm. wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. smd [off ] vi only. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. taglength. This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. before a ! command. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. Inc. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. warn [on] ex only. w1200 [no default ] vi only. It has no effect in this implementation. 1996 16 . ttywerase [off ] vi only. verbose [off ] vi only. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit.

wm [0] vi only. the wrapmargin value is used. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands. The default is the type “unknown”. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. ex/vi enters the value into the environment.nexrc and $HOME/. The user’s terminal type. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. Break lines automatically. wrapscan. When an interrupt occurs. The user’s home directory. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. Break lines automatically. the wrapmargin value is used. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. FILES BSD October 10. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. Inc. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option).exrc files. wrapmargin. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. writeany. The number of rows on the screen. wl [0] vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. 1996 17 . If interrupted during text input. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set.

/usr/share/doc/usd/12. First choice for user’s home directory startup file. Inc. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. Temporary file directory. Second choice for local directory startup file. The default recovery file directory. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. First choice for local directory startup file. System-wide vi startup file. The "Vi Quick Reference" card.edit/. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. /usr/share/doc/usd/13.ex/. This document is the final reference for the ex editor. input.exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1).exrc . BSD October 10. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor.nexrc .vi/.summary. re_format(7) The default user shell. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code. quoting. there are changes to be made on both sides. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors.viref/. STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003.exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi.2 (“POSIX.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.4 BSD. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual". "Ex Reference Manual". /usr/share/doc/usd/11. "Ex: A Tutorial". /usr/share/doc/usd/12.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.nexrc $HOME/. 1996 18 . The files autowrite.2”).recover $HOME/.vi/vi.

may not properly understand the result. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. This file is located in share/vsh. You should create one log file per session.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic.conf file. Log all terminal output. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output. You can use NSH format to name the log files. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val. All of the above. vshview. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. You can specify multiple log files.CONF The vsh. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh.. an autologout of NSH 1 . meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format. If you specify <nsh>. vsh will automatically terminate the session. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes.<field=val[:val]>. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O.conf file controls the behavior of vsh.conf in the NSH installation directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. Inc. The vsh. You can configure the vsh. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it. the vsh log file viewer.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values.. If you do not specify a shell. vsh itself does not take any arguments.conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout). which is a shell of /bin/sh.]>[.. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead..] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh. Instead.conf VSH. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh.

range 0 to 6. %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99). %% A literal ‘%’ character. %h Current host name. %B The full month name. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). To do this. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. which are expanded at run time. %A The full weekday name. The following macros are supported. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). log file names should be unique for each vsh session. NSH 2 .vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. %w The day of the week as a decimal. %Y The year as a decimal number including the century. and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1). %b The abbreviated month name. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. Sunday being 0. %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). %u Current user name. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23). %a The abbreviated weekday name. %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59).

Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). Therefore. Output only those entries that happened on host. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. shell. (Note that when using this option. logintime. Can be used with -0 and -2. To view the these log files. The second mode (turned on with the -l option)..] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . Output only those entries that relate to user. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. (Note that when using this option. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. Define a search expression (see below). Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input. In either case. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. login. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. host. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. If a given file is a directory. shows a summary of login and logout activity. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. Inc. There are two basic modes to vshview. Can be used with -1 and -2. Instead. logout. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. Output only those entries that happened before this date. just output a summary of vsh sessions.) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). logouttime. Do not show any blank lines.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 . or pid. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. only one minute granularity is available.. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. you need to use the vshview utility. Show terminal (stdout) output. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output.

The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31).vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. The second type are 8 bit characters. Inc. These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1).} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. NSH 2 .| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + . Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence.

0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case).svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . Show the current version. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. Inc.svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . EXAMPLE In this example.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes. Place totals at the end. Provide a quick display with no counts. Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. Provide a visual display. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory. vtree recursively descends into it. Count nodes. Height of tree to examine. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory. and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> . Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system.

Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon. Inc. NSH 2 ." written by David S.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef.

you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). words. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. wc counts lines. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*. With the P_ATT variable set. You specified an unknown option. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. the number of words. The second example counts lines. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. If you do not specify any files. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. wc will also output a total for all files.. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting.c 449 1334 8491 file2. and characters of several source files. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. wc uses the standard input. words. Count the number of words in the file. words.c 347 945 6227 file1.. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings. If you specify more than one file. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers.c 339 917 6051 file3. Count the number of lines in the file. OPTIONS By default. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . the number of characters. and characters. Unable to get a license to use the software. If you do not want counts for all of these things.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files. Inc.

path. For example: t a r c f . Minix. time of last modification. in which case it will read the file from standard input. zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names.3) 1 . An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command.zip. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. foo.3. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. . When given the name of an existing zip archive.04 or zip 2. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input. zipnote. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive. to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d . Amiga and Acorn RISC OS. [ c h ] " . It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems).zip and add foo/file3 to foo. After this.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e .n a me " ∗. For example: z i p . Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. with foo/file2 unchanged from before. For example. then: z i p . zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2. unpacks zip archives.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2. The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution. A companion program (unzip(1L)). zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed. for archiving files. date. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. foo/file2. You must use PKUNZIP 2. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.r .zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. For a brief help on zip and unzip. this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command. For example. . . in which case it will write the zip file to standard output. protection. along with information about the files (name. Note that PKUNZIP 1. MSDOS.04g or unzip 5. Inc.. VMS.Misc.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory. OS/2. zipcloak. and foo/file3. Windows NT. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. zip version 2. allowing zip to take input from another program. If the file list is specified as –@.zip contains foo/file1.04. if foo.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Under UNIX. Atari and Macintosh. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 . allowing the output to be piped to another program. and check information to verify file integrity)..

For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data. Adjust self-extracting executable archive. and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. Inc.. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗.. OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format. File operations (adding. copying over stuff. zip acts as a filter. For example. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made. or just return for no comment. At present. so that zip can see the asterisks. tar cf . –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). updating) are done first. If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them.3) 2 .. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip to the current directory when done.Misc. the extension .zip is added. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive. [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp. Enter the comment followed by return. If the name already contains an extension other than . | zip . compressing standard input to standard output. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option. –c Add one-line comments for each file. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. and all of the files that end with . For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.o (in any path).

For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. Such files cannot be recovered. –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. Resource-forks will be ignored at all. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). -i \∗.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. instead of creating a new one. for example if it has only been truncated. –F Fix the zip archive. After the repair. -u and -o options to work correctly. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. so try this option first. Under MSDOS. Inc. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. if standard error is not a tty. It is not guaranteed to work. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing.c which will include only the files that end in .3) 3 . Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. [OS/2] Use the . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. as in: zip -r foo .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. the archive might become corrupted. –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. If the restoration fails. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.Misc. –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. If this operation fails. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. zip will exit with an error).

gif:. For example. . so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them. By default the relative path will be stored.Z:. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded. the directory is also removed.lst.zip.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. zip will not consider Image files (eg. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo.Misc. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. By default. Strip any prepended data (e. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files.g. This option should not be used on binary files. this option adds an extra CR.gif. a SFX stub) from the archive.3) 4 . Also possible: zip -r foo . zip will store the full path (relative to the current path).tiff:. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not). zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.zip. -i@include. This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file.tiff. . if you have SparkFS loaded. This is useful for conserving disk space.Z. Move the specified files into the zip archive. Inc. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error. or . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. This option should not be used on binary files.lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). If the input files already contain CR LF. store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX). DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. . actually.snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods). The complete path including volume will be stored. This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. By default. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path).zip:. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix. Display the zip license. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive. Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file. but will store any files that end in . to undo the effect of zip -l. but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. When used. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. and do not store directory names. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. For example: zip -rn . Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.

∗". Inc.e. Such files are stored directly in the output archive. If -c is used also. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. dd is the day of the month (1-31).zip. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗.c’ In this case. zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i. By default.". If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. OS/2. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format).zoo:. to the zip archive infamy. dd is the day of the month (1-31). MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.Z:. –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory. In this case. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date.arj." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended). where mm is the month (0-12).zip:. you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.zip. all the files matching ∗.zip" To attempt compression on all files.Misc. including files with names starting with ".zip. since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism.arc:.c –S [MSDOS. For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. where mm is the month (0-12).3) 5 . if desired.gif:. all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo. which are ignored otherwise. Archives.. and yyyy is the year. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n . CFS files and PackDir files). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. since that matches ". –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) . WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. This can be used without any other operations.lzh:. and yyyy is the year.zip. You should not use –r with the name ". –N [Amiga. for example: zip -R foo ’∗.

o. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. ignores the suffix list). (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info. or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX.zip while excluding all the files that end in . Normally. this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files). OS version.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. and stdout is not redirected to a file.zip. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. If the check fails. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.Misc. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. and D Z VAX/VMS). OS/2. to the zip archive infamy. –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. version. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. a diagnostic screen is printed.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. In addition to the help screen header with program name. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period.o which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip into itself when you do this). Then.3) 6 .lst. Inc. and release date. when applied to real operations.lst which will include the contents of foo in foo. including multiple versions of files. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. The default compression level is –6. uid/gid and file times on Unix). When –v is the only command line argument. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. ∧ on MSDOS. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option. Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems.

use the drive name as first file name. To zip up an entire directory. Only one filename per line. files starting with ". Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation." are not included.zip suffix is added automatically. you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive.3) 7 . the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo. making room for the next zip command to function. containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it. unless that archive name given contains a dot already. If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the last created archive is deleted. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). to include these as well: zip stuff . Take the list of input files from standard input. [0–9]). as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. At the completion of each zip command. foo. and the next two add to it. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Inc. and harry.zip. The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. dick. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).Misc. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option.zip. in compressed form (the . The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. without recording the directory name. OS/2. In this case. [MSDOS. If foo contains the subdirectories tom.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

The pattern matching includes the path. if present. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. unexpected end of zip file. no matter what the path prefix is. zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). For each match. by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. using the pattern matching characters described above. In general. In general. on the list of files to be operated on. Processing probably failed immediately. If it finds it. gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values.o match names that end in ". or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes (""). shar(1L). ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. –f. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization.e. tar(1). it then adds it to the list of files to do. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. unless this name matches one given with the –x option. If it does not find it. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. or –d). or does not match any name given with the –i option. unzip(1L). it first looks for the name in the file system. Inc.o". and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. no errors or warnings detected.3) 8 . when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do.Misc. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). and so patterns like \∗. ?∗[]). –u.

9. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names. LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE. and .Misc. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. zip files produced by zip 2. zip cannot match some names. Inc. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. 6. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ).1 or PKZIP 1. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally. and for accepting minor changes to the file format. compression format. scarier-looking things. Wales. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other.3 must not be updated by zip 1. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.10. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR. Richard B.∗. 16. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen.3.3) 9 . type "set file type block" on the Vax.wku. Onno van der Linden. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. However. Under VMS. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. 7. Kai Uwe Rommel. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). and as much additional information as possible. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. that it is not sold for profit. Otherwise OS/2 1. Igor Mandrichenko. P. you do not have to care about this problem. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign. which inspired this project. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. BUGS zip 2. 13. Byrne for his Shrink. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. and that this copyright notice is retained. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.3 and 2.ZIP filename extension.edu. the machine and operating system in use. Under VMS. Under OS/2. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. copy. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.Pas program. For bug reports. 18. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ).1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.10.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. Jean-loup Gailly.10. 2 (error) for the zip values 3. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). Use zip 1. In both cases. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. On OS/2. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability.

Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. C.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. Inc. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm. David Kirschbaum. to Keith Petersen.3) 10 . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. P. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R.Misc. for getting us into this mess in the first place. Rodgers. and most importantly. Rich Wales.

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 . i nf o. . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[.Misc. SEE ALSO egrep(1). ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). unzip(1L). . zipcloak(1L). zipinfo(1L). . i n f o .] [–x xfile(s) . funzip(1L). Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). Inc. . zip(1L).zip] [file(s) .z i p . zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function.] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p.z i p. zipnote(1L).

and the like. This option excludes all others. however. see below.] [–x xfile(s) . . list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. particularly under Unix and VMS. headers. trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. . but allow headers (–h). multi-page format. the suffix . see above. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. Identical to the –s output. See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. . and an ending character. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. the path itself cannot. is also listed. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). Such information includes file access permissions. Again. Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members.] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. one per line.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. Inc. list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. If the file specification is a wildcard.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive.zip] [file(s) . OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. expressed as a percentage.) If no matches are found. . ranges are specified by a beginning character. . list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. This is the default behavior. list zipfile information in verbose. . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). encryption status. . list header line. except that the compression factor. . a hyphen. .32) 1 . one per line. The archive name. just specify the . the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. . on some systems. It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. list filenames only. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. and if that also fails.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. a link to it). [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. as well.] [–x xfile(s) . z i p is appended. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. version and operating system or file system of compressing program.Misc. Only the filename can be a wildcard. ARGUMENTS file[. type of compression.zip] [file(s) . each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.

Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below).9 of zip. If neither exists. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. (3) is writable. These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it.0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. The fifth field consists of two characters.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--.0 hpf 1.hpfs 4096 b. The default date format is a more standard. if only the totals line is being printed.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. but if the file is encrypted. At the end of a screenful of output.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. or. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. that is also displayed as part of the filename. Since it comes from Unix.TXT. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. their uncompressed and compressed total sizes. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. Inc. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file.macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format.exe. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary.com. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen.cmd and . if the reverse. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field. ‘l’.9 unx 2802 t. The second character may also take on four values. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. either of which may take on several values. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). and Macintosh.32) 2 . (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.bat. Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. is not encrypted. (2) is readable (always true). on some systems. MS-DOS. . The example below. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. Unlike Unix more(1). and their overall compression factor is printed. if there is an extended local header but no extra field. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i. ‘x’. .e. list totals for files listed or for all files. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. and its name.R. thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized. . print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. Also. SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip. which is presumably the case here. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is). zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. respectively. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. The number of files listed.1 fat 1. the Enter/Return key. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’. the values for the entire archive are given.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename.. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size.R 0.Misc.btm files are assumed to be so). and if both exist. If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. ‘X’. on the other hand. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’).hhmmss). they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS). The case of the filename is respected.

reducing.. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. and so on. yet Unix-like.0 hpf 95 b. shrinking. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary. 1. In addition. 1.rw. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression). 1.def compressed: 63. and four levels of deflating (superfast. Inc. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip.0% The header line gives the name of the archive..5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. and the total number of files. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. which can override or add to the defaults. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed.. In brief. The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory. OS/2 extended attributes. imploding.rw. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly.i8:3 26-Jun-92 . defN.Misc. etc. environment options. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . 13386 bytes uncompressed. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly.2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. and explicit options given by the user.0 hpf 8753 b. their total uncompressed size. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format.32) 3 . the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used.2660 In this example. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. there is some underlying logic. The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression.os2 15:29 os2unzip. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees). the header and trailer lines are not listed. fast. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1. VMS filesystem info.rw. the trailer gives the number of files listed.def 17:51 zipinfo.134804 perms.2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. (6) is hidden. if any. 1. tokn..0 hpf 98 b.5 unx 2802 t.. which can override or add to either of the above.) Nevertheless. (Try not to laugh. however. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. i4:2. and defX. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes. re:2. the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second. If.stor 21-Aug-91 . Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. manner. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. one or more file(s) are provided. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions. i8:3. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five. and defS.. maximum compression).5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. shrk.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . re:1. defF. and deflating.0 hpf 3710 b.. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size.0 hpf 730 b. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). etc. and (7) is a system file. Macintosh resource forks. instead: -rw-rws--1. 1.rw. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile. tokenizing (never publicly released). its total size. normal.zip 5453 bytes 5 files . In addition to individual file information. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2.rw. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive.c 15:34 unzip. Finally.

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. Inc. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. like –m and –l. As suggested above. unless otherwise specified. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. the user dislikes the trailer line. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format.32) 4 .zip. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. short-format listing of the first example again. only the header and/or footer are printed. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. override any default listing of member files. The first hyphen is the regular switch character. in this example. long-format listing (not verbose). use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. when used by themselves or with each other. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. Note that both the –h and –t options. however. as noted above. To turn off the totals line by default. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1). use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full.g. ZIPINFO takes precedence. including header and totals lines. in addition. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. For compatibility with zip(1L). as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined. however. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). with both header and totals lines. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. EXAMPLES To get a basic. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l. since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option.. Nothing was indicated about the header.Misc. so the –s option was sufficient. includes headers and footers by default. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage.

32) 5 . AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. zipnote(1L). This assumes the default short-listing format.c The specification of any member file. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified.org/pub/infozip/ . the proper sort(1) option would be +7. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. the seventh field).) SEE ALSO ls(1). in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well. Inc.Misc. on other systems. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size. use the verbose option.e. if –m or –l is used. to see the most recently modified files in the archive. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. In addition. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order. and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i.info-zip. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output.info-zip. (This is not to say that it will be. unzip(1L). will override the default header and totals lines. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options. zip(1L).. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. zipcloak(1L). unzipsfx(1L). For multiple files. in medium format. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or. as in this example. This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. as noted above. copy/rename the executable.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. BUGS As with unzip. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. funzip(1L). it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. create a link or create a command file with the name ii). This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others.

Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite. and a host of other features. a history mechanism.cs.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.uni–trier.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.gmd.cs.4 Last change: October 26. programmable command completion.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://www. Zsh has command line editing. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections. Of the standard shells.org>. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.elte.0.elte.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date.gov.dgac.org>.cena.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.cenatls. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.dk>. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh.zsh.hu instead of the primary site. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features.zsh.cs. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.ips.fu–berlin. Inc.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.org>.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4.zsh.funet. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.zsh. builtin spelling correction. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh. shell functions (with autoloading). 2001 1 . This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.elte.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite.

To subscribe or unsubscribe.win.net.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp.rge.zsh.org.lysator.math.uiuc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp. zsh 4.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.lut.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite.technion.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.dk> User discussions.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite. development. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers.uit.4 Last change: October 26.ac.ac.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.kfki.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.unina. 2001 2 .dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.ne.nisiq.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.il/pub/zsh/ http://www. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp. <zsh–workers@sunsite.dk> Hacking.technion.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.math.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.icm.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.liu. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users. bug reports and patches.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.ac.edu.dk> Announcements about releases.0.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.zsh. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.siol.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.kappa. Inc.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite.roedu.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.

rather than being used as a positional parameter. hierographic. Like other option syntaxes. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation. send mail to <listmaster@zsh. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. It is intended to complement the manual. For further options. or downright mystifying (for example.org/FAQ/. If any further arguments are given. or at http://www.auc. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on. 2001 3 .org>. the first one is assigned to $0. So.0.unix.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above. and thus ignored.org>. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. Unlike other option syntaxes.org>.org/. For example. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh.zsh. of SunSITE Denmark. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.dk/Guide/. zsh 4. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp. There is also a hypertext archive. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. but takes a following string as the option name. available at http://www. Force shell to read commands from the standard input.dk>. for example. When this is done. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh.zsh. The mailing lists are archived. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input. Force shell to be interactive.4 Last change: October 26. –o acts like a single–letter option.org>. see zshoptions(1). Options may be specified by name using the –o option. At the time of writing. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’.zsh. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist).org/mla/.org>.sunsite. Inc. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. ‘– –option–name’. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete.

if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). HISTCHARS. HISTSIZE. fignore. status. NO_HUP. PROMPT4. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. command substitution. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. path. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.profile. Option processing may be finished.4 Last change: October 26. HISTFILE. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively. argv. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. NO_BANG_HIST. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SH_GLOB. in two ways. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). PROMPT3. PROMPT. Secondly. NO_NOMATCH. watch. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. mailpath. PROMPT_BANG. SH_WORD_SPLIT. MODULE_PATH. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. GID. EGID. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. NO_BG_NICE. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. the shell becomes restricted. NO_EQUALS. USERNAME. SHELL. Also. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. KSH_ARRAYS. GLOB_SUBST. Inc. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. more precisely. MANPATH. module_path. 2001 4 . The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. prompt. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. cdpath. path. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. NO_MULTIOS. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. RM_STAR_SILENT. LOCAL_OPTIONS. fpath. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. then exits successfully. then exits successfully. ‘– –help’ is also handled. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. Furthermore. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. manpath. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO.0. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. POSIX_BUILTINS. psvar. EUID. Firstly. UID. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. NO_NOTIFY. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. PROMPT2. allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments.

any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. the compiled file will be used instead. Finally.zshrc.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. If ZDOTDIR is unset. Inc. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. no history file will be saved. this cannot be overridden. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile. the files $ZDOTDIR/. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. 2001 5 . if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. then ..e. In particular. the logout files are not read.0. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files.zshenv. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option.4 Last change: October 26.’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. HOME is used instead.. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. it is important that it be kept as small as possible. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file. the former affects all startup files.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if the shell is a login shell. zsh 4. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins. i. However. Then. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv. When a login shell exits. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the . if the shell is interactive. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/. If the shell is a login shell. depending on the installation.zlogin are read. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. If one of the options is unset at any point.

’.0.. which will alter how the command is interpreted. Where commands are separated by ‘’.’ or newline. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘.. More generally. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. For example. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. ‘&’. The value of a simple command is its exit status. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). and the remaining words. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background).. including the complex commands below. or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. If a command name is given. unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. 2001 1 . A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero. or ‘&!’.)’ or ‘{. it is executed as a coprocess. are arguments to the command. A sublist is either a single pipeline. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. with optional redirections interspersed. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero). the value of the sublist is that return value. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. ‘&!’. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word. If job control is active. ‘&’. or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. The first word is the command to be executed. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value). echo foo is a simple command with arguments. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. or a newline. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. Inc. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’. which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. For example. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines.4 Last change: October 26. For example. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. ‘&’. if any. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. If it does not.. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. For example. A pipeline is either a simple command. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist.}’.

use the positional parameters. list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated.. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or . executing list each time.. for (( [expr1] . [expr2] .. then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. if any. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or .. list is then executed n times. It has no effect in non–interactive shells. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. which must evaluate to a number n.. If the in word is omitted. rather than a shell function or builtin.0. Otherwise.4 Last change: October 26. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words.& rather than . The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. the value of the parameter name is set to null.. 2001 2 .. as it is interpreted immediately. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. Print the set of words. This continues until either a list is terminated with . the selection list is printed again... COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] . and set the parameter name to each of them in turn.. the then list is executed.. If the in word is omitted. Otherwise.. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. Inc. The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation. rather than a shell function or external command.. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero. the following list is also executed. for name [ in word . If the list that is executed is terminated with . builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. each preceded by a number. the then list is executed. or the esac is reached. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . the else list is executed. If each elif list returns nonzero. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status... Expand the list of words.. or else standard input. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. before any parsing is done. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words. zsh 4. [ else list ] fi The if list is executed.&) ] . the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string. to terminate the words. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. use the positional parameters instead of the words. and if it returns a zero exit status. select name [ in word . until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. If this line is empty. ) list (. If any expression is omitted. exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command.

. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command.. ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. [expr2] . in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited.... Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list. but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies.. while and until commands. Execute list. Inc. for name ( word . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell.. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter. For the for. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works.. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary. See the section ‘Functions’. ]]’ or ‘(( .. if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or . () [ term ] { list } word . otherwise. These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’.4 Last change: October 26. The body of the function is the list between the { and }. for (( [expr1] . zsh 4. If pipeline is omitted... [ () ] [ term ] { list } word .... ) sublist A short form of for.. Normally. ))’. [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. function word . time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed. repeat.. such as by ‘[[ . else the end of the test will not be recognized. See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set. 2001 3 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. for name [ in word .. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells. the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case. Another short form of for. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. since the test is not suitably delimited. only one word is provided. print statistics about the shell process and its children.. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . For the if. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps.0. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead.

in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote.4 Last change: October 26. Therefore. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. ) list end Another form of for. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set... But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat. e. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it. while list { list } An alternative form of while. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. and ‘$’.&) ] . RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. If the text ends with a space.. Inc. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 2001 4 . A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. ) list (. case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. zsh 4... If so. or if the alias is global. but one single quote if it is set. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word. } An alternative form of case. parameter and command substitution occur..0. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. if an alias is defined for the word foo. ‘‘’. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. ‘" ’. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted. until list { list } An alternative form of until.. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command).. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. A short form of select. \foo.. Inside double quotes (" " ). ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored. For example. QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin.g.

Otherwise. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. becomes the standard input. ‘$’. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. If the file exists. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. The resulting document. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. If the file does not exist then it is created. No parameter expansion. it is truncated to zero length. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. this causes an error. parameter and command substitution occurs. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. If the file does not exist. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. Otherwise. ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. or to an end–of–file. Inc. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). If <<– is used.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. even if CLOBBER is unset. > word >! word Same as >. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document. 2001 5 . zsh 4. >> word >>! word Same as >>.0. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. and the CLOBBER option is unset. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. called a here–document. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. otherwise. If the file does not exist then it is created. and the CLOBBER option is unset. except that the file is created if it does not exist. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. this causes an error. otherwise. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. the file is created. This is known as a here–string.4 Last change: October 26. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. even if CLOBBER is unset. Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input.

as it is by default. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is. assuming there’s at least one. 2001 6 . >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. For example: . 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. similar to tee. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. fname). you can do ∗’.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1. If one of the above is preceded by a digit. similar to cat. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified.. (Without the MULTIOS option. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor.0. provided the MULTIOS option is set. thus zsh 4. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. and also pipes it to cat. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly.4 Last change: October 26. file) association at the time of evaluation. If the MULTIOS option is set.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files. Inc..ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). If the order of redirections were reversed. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’. provided the MULTIOS option is set.

Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. the shell attempts to locate it. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. but no command name. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. the builtin is invoked. Otherwise. Thus to define functions for autoloading. Such a function has no body.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). If the search is unsuccessful. all files redirected to are actually opened. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. zsh can behave in several ways. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. If there exists a shell function by that name. and write ‘foo’ into baz. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). a typical sequence is: zsh 4. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. If the MULTIOS option is unset. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. Inc. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. and the file is not a directory. However. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. with paging if that is a terminal.0. 2001 7 . If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. Otherwise. then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller.4 Last change: October 26. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. Shell functions are read in and stored internally. an error is caused. When the function is first executed. it is assumed to be a shell script. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions.

zsh 4. Otherwise. It may include other function definitions as well. taken to be the definition for function. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. which is executed in the context of the function execution.. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element. This will normally define the function in question. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen.4 Last change: October 26. including any arguments. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 . the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set.. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. within a directory. For each element in fpath. } print func is initialized then ‘func. element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files.0.e. the extension was explicitly given by the user). a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. and may therefore define local parameters. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file. element/function. but those are neither loaded nor executed. but may also perform initialization. the file’s contents will be executed. in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath. 2001 8 . with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. the shell looks for three possible files.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call.zwc file is created. the order of searching is. If the definition is not found. and third.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. and a call to the shell function. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined. which is expected to contain the definition for function. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. and the other message on the second and subsequent calls. Inc. as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. If element already includes a . the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. in fact.}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. In summary. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. first.. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix.zwc extension (i. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. element/function A file of zsh command text. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used. at the end. For example. second.. the function itself is not re–executed.zwc A file created with zcompile.

If a function of this form is defined and null.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. For example. otherwise it is an empty string. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath.. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits.. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function. if defined. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. Inc. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided). However.. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed.4 Last change: October 26. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed. TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command. just before a prompt. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. In fact. because all comments are discarded from defined functions. precmd Executed before each prompt. 2001 9 . A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body.0. preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin.. zsh 4. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds.

Inc. and print another prompt. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. %– Previous job. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. nor when it is continued with bg. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. After startup. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. then that job is immediately disowned. and assigns them small integer numbers. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. If the NOTIFY option is not set. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’.4 Last change: October 26. rather than in their own function environment. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. putting it in the background with the bg command. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. and is not subject to the job control features described here. If you set this tty option. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. You can then manipulate the state of this job. printed by the jobs command. 2001 10 . The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. %string Any job whose command line begins with string. %% Current job. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’.0. whose process ID was 1234. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. It keeps a table of current jobs. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. it does not have a place in the job table. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. either using the builtin let.. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’).. Otherwise." ’. require quoting. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. This can be tested. the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. the last encountered is used. Since many of the arithmetic operators. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. More precisely. the rightmost value in the given output base. where it acquires the output base 8. if the HUP option is set. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active. Integers can be in bases other than 10. For example. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin.. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available.)). any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used. If you do this or immediately try to exit again. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’. or via a substitution of the form $((. for example ‘[##16]’. if the number appears unchanged... an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. then no base prefix is output. ‘((. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. in which case base 10 is used. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted. zsh 4. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. If the # is doubled. for example. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. the shell will not warn you a second time. For integers. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax..))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . You may use the jobs command to see what they are. for example ‘[#16]’. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation. The base# may also be omitted. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. each is evaluated separately. the precision is at least 8 bytes. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. the suspended jobs will be terminated. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. as well as spaces. 2001 11 .

division. OR. Likewise. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. floating point argument. logical NOT.post}{in. For example.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format. ‘<<’. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2. as described for the typeset builtin. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. modulus (remainder) +– addition. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. ‘&’. and associativity of expressions in C. and XOR operators. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. there are two types. i.4 Last change: October 26. ‘∧ ‘%’. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions.e. {pre. differing only in their output format. as it will be taken for a parameter name. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. In addition. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. zsh 4. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. ‘’. 2001 12 . floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . Inc. ‘’. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax.0. but the exponent character e or E may not. ‘&&=’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. complement. precedence. but its use is deprecated. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus.

then the current process has permission to search in the directory. true if file exists and is executable by current process. true if file exists and is a character special file. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. in the loop for (( f = 0. true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. –o option true if option named option is on. true if file exists and is readable by current process.0. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. true if file exists and is a directory. option may be a single character. true if file exists and is a block special file.1 )). CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared. If file exists and is a directory. in which case it is a single letter option name. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link.4 Last change: October 26. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). so that the loop will fail. This can have unforeseen consequences. true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. true if file exists. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. true if file exists and is a regular file. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set.0’. zsh 4. f < 1. f += 0. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0. –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. true if file exists and is a symbolic link. 2001 13 . Inc. For example.

exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true.0. string and pattern arguments. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. However. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern. true if exp is false. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket. 2001 14 . zsh 4. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. Inc. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.4 Last change: October 26. similar to the effect of double quotes. where n is an integer. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. see zshexpn(1). string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. In each of the above expressions. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. If an integer follows the ‘%’. With a negative integer.0. zsh 4. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The current value of $SHLVL. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. the message ‘File exists. trailing components of the hostname are shown. am/pm format. in 24–hour format. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded. The hostname up to the first ‘. If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. in 12–hour. If it starts with $HOME. Current history event number. zero means the whole path. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set. A negative integer specifies leading components. The full machine hostname. if the complete condition is true.. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. command substitution and arithmetic expansion. As %d and %/. Present working directory ($PWD). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’.)). %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode.. $USERNAME. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists.’. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode.4 Last change: October 26. and if so. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string. with seconds. i.e. For example. %–1d specifies the first component. See zshexpn(1).’ is printed. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show. Current time of day. Inc. 2001 15 . %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. Current time of day in 24–hour format. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. A ‘)’.

a ‘%’ if not. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. The character following the x is arbitrary. See strftime(3) for more details. or.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit.0. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. The definition of ‘privileged’. Clears to end of line. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show.true–text. %(x.1e capabilities are supported. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt. The date in yy–mm–dd format. which defaults to zero. If there is none. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix.%%)’. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. for these purposes. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. %E %# %v %{. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. Equivalent to ‘%(!. i.e. zsh 4. has at least n elements.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. whichever was started most recently. Negative integers count from the end of the array. if POSIX. The status of the parser. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’. The test character x may be any of the following: c . or shell function given by %N. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function. sourced file. Brace pairs can nest. A negative integer specifies leading components. This separator may not appear in the true–text.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors.. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. sourced file. including further ternary expressions. except as part of a %–escape sequence. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. with prefix replacement. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. The date in day–dd format.#.4 Last change: October 26. ˜ / C t True if the current path. zero means the full path. Inc. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter.. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. The date in mm/dd/yy format. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. 2001 16 . If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped. The line number currently being executed in the script. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. is that either the effective user ID is zero.

If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string.<%/’ will expand to ‘. True if the effective uid of the current process is n.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. True if the effective gid of the current process is n. True if at least n shell constructs were started. or in fact any character. Without the ‘%<<’. zsh 4. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. the prompt ’%10<. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. Unless ‘%C’ is used. %C Trailing component of $PWD.<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory. 2001 17 . in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<.g. tilde contraction is performed first.0. True if the exit status of the last command was n. In this string. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. For example.e. the terminating character (‘<’. True if the array psvar has at least n elements. followed by a space. which ever comes first. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. note when using print –P. a truncation with argument zero (e.. In particular.. True if the shell is running with privileges. respectively. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. The numeric argument.. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate).. however. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line. i. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. completely replacing the truncated string. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0). followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’.e.. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’.. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. the prompt ‘%8<. it will appear in full. note this does not undergo prompt expansion. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i. True if the day of the month is equal to n. For example. ‘>’ or ‘]’). The third.e/pike’." ’. Inc. deprecated. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/.4 Last change: October 26. %c %. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’.

beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. no history expansion occurs. Immediately before execution. each command is saved in the history list. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. Conversely. By default. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. Double quotes will not work for this. and may occur anywhere on the command line. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. After these expansions. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. which is ‘!’ by default.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. is always done last. it refers to the previous command. Filename Generation This expansion. For example. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. 2001 1 . respectively. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. commonly referred to as globbing.0. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. if neither of these designators is present. if it is the only history reference in a command. However. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. The one most recent command is always retained in any case.4 Last change: October 26. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1). Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. history expansions do not nest. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. Inc. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter.

The nth argument. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. each preceded by a ‘:’. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command).0. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. Modifiers After the optional word designator. except when followed by a blank. replacing the string foo with bar. Refer to command–line n. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. The first argument. except where noted. newline. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. Refer to the current command–line minus n. ! Start a history expansion. ∗’. you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. That is. ‘=’ or ‘(’. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. 1. By itself. All the arguments. The last argument. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. A range of words. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. 2001 2 . the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. Refer to the previous command.4 Last change: October 26. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). Word designators include: ’. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. respectively. Refer to the most recent command starting with str.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. x defaults to 0. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. In the list below. More precisely. Anything else results in an error. ‘∧ ’. or a null value if there are none. of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. although the error may not be the most obvious one. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). zsh 4... A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. !# !{. Inc. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. this expansion repeats the previous command.

Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words.4 Last change: October 26. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Print the new command but do not execute it. ‘[’. 2001 3 . f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. leaving the root name. Convert the words to all uppercase. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Repeat the previous s substitution. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. Remove all leading pathname components. may be preceded immediately by a g. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. Unless preceded immediately by a g. Does not work with parameter expansion. Only works with history expansion. or ‘}’. the closing delimiter should be ’)’. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. if ‘(’.xxx’. ‘]’. Substitute r for l as described below. If < is used. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but character strings. Remove all but the extension. leaving the tail. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. Inc. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. leaving the head. in the right–hand–side r. opening parentheses are handled specially. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions.0. Like s. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. F. with no colon between. F:expr: Like f. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. but break into words at whitespace. This works like ‘dirname’. the command argument will be a named pipe. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. The character ‘&’. This works like ‘basename’. the shell runs process list asynchronously. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. Like q. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. In the case of the < or > forms. otherwise. For example. The following f. Convert the words to all lowercase. Quote the substituted words. respectively. this applies to each word of the expanded text. escaping further substitutions. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. see above. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. For arrays and for filename generation. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs).

PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. and subscript notation to access individual array elements.4 Last change: October 26. If name is an array parameter. otherwise substitute word. In both cases.0. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. the expansion results in one word only. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. In both forms. with KSH_ARRAYS. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. if the programme does not actually open the file. associative arrays. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. and arithmetic expansion. ${name} The value. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set. In the former case. In addition. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. digit. command substitution. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. substitute word. the name. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. 2001 4 . including arrays. pastes the results together. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. if any. one element per word. exceptions. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. in the second form. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’. of the parameter name is substituted. all of which work with or without braces.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. In addition to the following operations. ${name:?word} zsh 4. this is the first element of an array. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. unconditionally set name to word. If = is used. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. then the value of each element of name is substituted. If name is missing. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. In the second case. the value of the parameter is then substituted. Inc. Note that these patterns. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. ‘˜’. Otherwise.

0.e. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. In the first form. then a standard message is printed. then the shell only checks whether name is set. the flags M. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. otherwise. The repl may be an empty string. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. even at the start. just substitute the value of name. not whether its value is null. the largest matching pattern is preferred. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. If word is omitted. R. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’.4 Last change: October 26. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. otherwise. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. the second form all occurrences. the largest matching pattern is preferred. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. print word and exit from the shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. then substitute the empty string. in the second form. otherwise. in which case it must match at the end of the string. E and N are not useful. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. or ‘%’. ${#spec} zsh 4. or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used. just substitute the value of name. B. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon. otherwise substitute nothing. 2001 5 . ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. In the first case. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). a quoted backslash). ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. just substitute the value of name. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. however. In the following expressions. while in the second ∗e case. Inc. For example. To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. otherwise. In the first form. in the second form.

When this option is set. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined..}’. Each name or nested ${. If spec is an array expression...g. ‘${. In double quotes. If a ${.}. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec.} type parameter expression or a $(. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays.. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo). This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. The form with $(. turn it off. the repetitions need not be consecutive. This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. if the ‘˜’ is doubled. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted...}’. When this option is set. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. which still applies within each array element.... ’. below. substitute the number of elements of the result. if the ‘=’ is doubled.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar..} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1). Assignment is made before sorting or padding. each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). turn it ’ off. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words. turn it off. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context.g. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed. s or z flags. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options. using IFS as a delimiter.:=.. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below.. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted.. for example. if the ‘∧ is doubled. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’). for example.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. there are two sets of quotes. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1]. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. Inc. Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. create an associative array parameter. array elements are put into separate words. Internally.::=.$var[2]. and ‘˜’.0. E... it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name. for example. one surrounding the whole expression. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’). Create an array parameter with ‘${.=..) type command substitution is used in place of name above. E. see the examples below. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" .}’ or ‘${. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution.. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec.. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4. If this flag is given twice. This is done by default in most other shells. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions...4 Last change: October 26..... 2001 6 . depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT.

Sort the resulting words in ascending order. the words are quoted in double quotes. Quote the resulting words with backslashes. when creating an associative array. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. Capitalize the resulting words. With o or O. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values.4 Last change: October 26. not to words that result from field splitting. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. ${(P)${foo}}. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times... as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. If name refers to an associative array. For example. Perform parameter expansion. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. the strings ${(P)foo}. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. ‘float’ or ‘association’. count the total number of characters in an array. If this flag is given twice. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array.0.}’ to activate field splitting. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. sort case–independently. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. If it is given four times. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’. ‘array’. 2001 7 . However. whose value will be used where appropriate. ‘integer’. Split the result of the expansion to lines. Sort the resulting words in descending order. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). it can be one of ‘scalar’.

. Note that this is done very late. The following flags are meaningful with the ${. force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys. or the matching pairs ‘(.. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word.. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted.} forms... with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string.)’.}..0... If both string1 and string2 are given.e. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored... With the ${.. With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported. or with ${. This only applies when searching for substrings. Any character. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words... to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’.. Inc.#.} or ${. count words in arrays or strings... substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element.//. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4. specifies non–greedy matching. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument.. either with the S flag. With ${#name}. 2001 8 .. So to access single words in the result. i..//.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case..} or ${. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right.} forms.. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown.. S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends.%. s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string. Without the flag they are silently ignored.. Used with k.. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible. before padding. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’..%%.]’.. Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide. i.. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.} and ${. With substitution via ${.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. as for the ‘(s)’ flag.e.. ‘[....>’. taking into account any quoting in the value. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator./.} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted).} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${.%. or ‘<... V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).}’../. The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given....4 Last change: October 26.. r:expr::string1::string2: As l. Used with subscripts. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter. Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below..} forms. Likewise.. The default is to take the first match. ‘{../.. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.

1. such as ${var[3]}. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}. Thus if var is an array. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. i. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar. Subscripts are evaluated left to right. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution. At each level. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array.. for example. ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. Include the matched portion in the result. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value.4 Last change: October 26. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter. 4.e. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and the substitution appears in double quotes. but not to " ${${foo[2. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. multiple subscripts can appear. 5. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution.} forms are present. Note that ${foo[2. If the (j) flag is present. is applied. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript.. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. by default a space. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’. Include the length of the match in the result. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. possibly adjusted for quoting. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes. but ${var[2. 2. Inc. zsh 4. Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution. ‘witch’. As with 2. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. Some particular examples are given below.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). and no (@) flag is present at the current level.}.. 3. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’.0. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. ${. but in reverse order. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result.e.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array).. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. 2001 9 . Note that.. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. Any number of subscripts may appear.

11. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. which makes the entire content of the file a single string..)’ flags is applied. and joining did not take place at step 4. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. The outer substitution " ${. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value. Modifiers Any modifiers.. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set.. produces a single word result " bar baz" . so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character.. zsh 4. Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present.. as specified by a trailing ‘#’. or 9. 2001 10 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" . The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’).[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’. this rule is skipped.fill. too.fill.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. 7.0. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’. which has no array (@) flag. or the same inside double quotes. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. Note this step. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution. First. In this case.g. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array. ‘1’. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS. If a single word is not required. The outer substitution " ${(@). suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’.. 8. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. which divides the file up by words. ‘b’ and ‘1’. 12. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. are applied to the words of the value at this level. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’.)’ or ‘(r.. 10.[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8. For example. Inc. ‘%’. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’. ${=var}). Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b.4 Last change: October 26.. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines. 9.

as it is not in double quotes. Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. If either number begins with a zero. This construct may be nested. then the word up to a ‘/’. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. with any trailing newlines deleted. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes. If so. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here.. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value.yy. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. and then split to give ‘a’. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. the output is eligible for filename generation. in the manner of a search set..zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). In that case.0. In particular. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. where n1 and n2 are integers. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’.. As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. Inc. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack. it is left unchanged. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign. 2001 11 . zsh 4. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD.. In either case. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. which is joined to give " ax bx" . They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. An expression of the form ‘{n1.)’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space).n2}’. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated.‘’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. Left–to–right order is preserved. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. like ‘‘. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. respectively.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place.. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. or quoted with grave accents. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. is replaced with its standard output. like ‘$(. ‘ b’ and ‘’. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). The final empty string will then be elided. If it does.

’ are not treated specially. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. In other instances of pattern matching. or ‘?’. If a command exists by that name. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number.0... in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. the ‘=’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set. Like [. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. inclusive. the ‘/’ and ‘. except when the directory is / itself. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. a ‘. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. unless the GLOB option is unset.] [!.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. zsh 4. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’.] [∧ . Matches any character... In filename generation. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set.’ or ‘. a pattern for filename generation. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix. it is regarded as ∗’.. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’. If an alias exists by that name. Matches any of the enclosed characters. Inc. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter. 2001 12 . ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph. e. ‘<’. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. ‘[’.. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set. Named character sets can be used alongside other types. ‘’. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. including the null string. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters. In this case. the EQUALS option is also respected. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. or unless the NOMATCH option is unset..’.. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. the [. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion. These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set.g. The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. the word is replaced with the text of the alias.4 Last change: October 26.. There are also several named classes of characters. for instance). also. If no matching pattern is found. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern..] form is more efficient. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. To match individual digits. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3).]. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command. in which case the word is deleted. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’. when the shell prints a path. If so. [. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment. the shell gives an error message. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon). ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. in which case the word is left unchanged. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory..User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together.. a pattern already followed by ‘##’.))’..)#’. while a ‘’ must do so..)’. In the exclusion pattern (y)..) Matches the enclosed pattern. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’.. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation).) Match any number of occurrences. This is a trap for the unwary. This operator has high precedence. but the ‘(’ must be. or ‘!’..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’. 2001 13 . but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. (Like ‘(. ‘˜’.. ‘’ (lowest). a character. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories. x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set.. ∗’ (. or a parenthesised expression). This operator has lower precedence than any other.. with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i.. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit. ‘/’ and ‘. rather than ‘(12)#’./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’.. ‘[. ‘<.) Match the pattern in the parentheses. This operator has high precedence.]’.) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. as detailed below..0. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’). to avoid interpretation as a pipeline.. ‘∗ ‘+’. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar. the remaining operators are ’.’ except ‘. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects.... and so on. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way. then a ‘@’. and the ‘∗ will match any others. The ∗’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead.)##’. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Match zero or one occurrence. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’.) Matches anything except the pattern x. This is used for grouping.>’.e. (Like ‘(. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. (Like ‘(∧ (.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially..) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y..’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing. This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’.. For example. (Like ‘(. rather than ‘(12)##’.) ?(. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’.. ‘∗ ‘+’. As mentioned above.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.)’.) Match at least one occurrence. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses.) !(. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example. ‘?’ ∗’. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated.. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘.. simply treated from left to right as part of a string.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x.. foo/any/anyother/bar.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’. @(. in case statements and tests within ‘[[. a ‘/’ is not special.’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available. (Like ‘(. ‘?’.) +(.. zsh 4.]]’)..) ∗ ∗(..4 Last change: October 26. for example. Inc. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. If the KSH_GLOB option is set.. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. this includes an empty string. foo/any/bar. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example.

e. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. and the indices of the end in the array $mend. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option. not local to a group. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. although sets of parentheses may be nested. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. this does not work in filename generation. such as ${array#pattern}. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts.0. and so on. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. 2001 14 . use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. See the example for the m flag below. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. or a global substitution. For example. zsh 4. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. The parameters $MATCH. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. Inc. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. i. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern.4 Last change: October 26. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. and the start and end indices are set to –1. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. such as ${param//pat/repl}. only the data for the last match remains available. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. as otherwise the string matched is obvious. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation. B m Deactivate backreferences. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1]. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. respectively.

Four types of error are recognised: 1. A character missing in the target string. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba. When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. as in fooxbar and fooybar.. but not by (#l)FOOXX. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). and all slashes in filenames. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. An extra character appearing in the target string. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. ∗’ test/at/start. For example. For example. 4. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. Similarly. Transposition of characters. as with the pattern road and target string rod.. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four.e. e Deactivate the m flag. as with stove and strove. Thus. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once.. as in banana and abnana. since all the ? must match. Unlike backreferences.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in/test/middle. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. these have only a local effect. zsh 4. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. i. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method.0. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X.. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. Inc. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i. M anum s. Another use is in parameter substitution. but not strings of length two.] groups. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. at/end/test. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. Different characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example.e. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. is potentially slow. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. 3. Approximate Matching When matching approximately. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. there is no speed penalty for using match references. 2001 15 . by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. all vowels) into uppercase. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately). Unlike the other flags. match anywhere except at the start of the string. 2. hence no references to match data will be created.4 Last change: October 26. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. Finally. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo.0. in that case. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. Apart from exclusions. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. Thus. which may not occur in the dog section. For example. 2001 16 .4 Last change: October 26. however. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. where approximation is turned off.ME but not READ_ME. As a shorthand. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. Inc. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. however. bling the parentheses. for example. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . there is only one overall error count. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. This form does not follow symbolic links. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. However. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. and this can be delimited by grouping.

Thus. If none of these characters is given. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. ‘s’. if a ‘g’ is given. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. ‘}’. and ‘t’. zsh 4. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). with a ‘+’. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. ‘}’. ‘{’. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. the bits in the number must not be set. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. ‘x’. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. and execute permission. which overrides the value of REPLY. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. while any other character matches itself. and ‘>’. or a ‘–’. and for which other group members have no rights. ‘w’. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. and ‘a’. Inc. The ‘=’. those for the owner of the file are used. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. ‘o’. ‘w’ for write access. those of the group are checked. followed by a ‘=’. or a octal digit. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. If a ‘u’ is given. The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. and ‘>’ respectively. or a ‘–’. ‘+’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. estring The string will be executed as shell code. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. a ‘+’. ‘[’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. a ‘+’. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. ‘{’. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. independent of the permissions for other users. The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. If set to an array. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. write. if combined with a ‘=’. In addition. ‘g’. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. 2001 17 . and ‘<’ match ‘]’.0. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. respectively. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. and with a ‘–’. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’.4 Last change: October 26. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’.

hence the first name in the list is the youngest file.e. and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. greater than ct (+). m. ‘m’ (‘M’). Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). and ‘>’ respectively. ‘w’. if d. Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n).g. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). respectively. ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days). but sorts in descending order. like ‘o’.g. ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames. weeks. ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. Note that a.0. or inode change respectively. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’. except that it uses the file modification time. if not. except that it uses the file inode change time. ‘{’. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). and ‘<’ match ‘]’. ‘}’.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option. megabytes. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). i. if a. Note the quotation marks. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. more than n bytes (+). ‘h’. Oc zsh 4. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 2001 18 .4 Last change: October 26. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier.g. or exactly n bytes in length. files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. hours. For instance. Inc. minutes or seconds instead of days. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. if l they are sorted by the number of links. modification. and c compare the age against the current time. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. m.

More than one of these lists can be combined. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[. E.[ch](∧ l1) ∗.h. ‘n’.c and parse. ‘o’. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory.c. Inc.g. Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions.. ‘N’. and ls ∗ ∗(W.. zsh 4. affect all matches generated.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1. however.]’). separated by commas. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file. ‘D’.. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse). the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. Some qualifiers. independent of the sublist in which they are given. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp.4 Last change: October 26.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:.3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files.h. ignoring symlinks. parse.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[.0. ‘T’. 2001 19 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. lex.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories. These are the qualifiers ‘M’.

To declare the type of a parameter.0.... value may be a scalar (a string). ‘?’. However.))’. an integer. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts.4 Last change: October 26. Special parameters cannot have their type changed. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute. ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. To create an empty array (including associative arrays). The ∗’. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. In the parameter lists that follow. A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. the braced form is the only one that works. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar... the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. or ‘!’.. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. –i. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. Note that this assigns to the entire array. use the typeset builtin. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’. a value.. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. indexed by name). The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays..) Every key must have a value in this case. it is replaced by a new array. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. name=(value . ‘$’. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. is set for name. write one of: set –A name value . use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript. an ordinary array parameter is created.. Inc. 2001 1 . ‘–’. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode.) If no parameter name exists. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list. and a number of attributes. The elements are numbered beginning with 1. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. an array (indexed numerically). ‘#’. To refer to the value of a parameter. name=(key value . and they stay special even if unset. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value .

and ‘$foo[1. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’. then ‘echo $FOO[2. (Associative arrays are unordered. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset. For example. then the nth element from the end of the array is used.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. respectively). this means the value of the key ‘0’.. or the comma in a range. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??.0. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. inclusive. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag. zsh 4. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys. Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators. in no particular order.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. (This is not supported for associative arrays. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. The subscript used is the number of the matching element. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters.. with elements separated by newlines.(r)f∗ are possible. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. The default word separator is whitespace. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. For associative arrays. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. if it is a scalar. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. assign ‘()’ to that element. if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] . as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. but see Subscript Flags below). in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis." ’. Arrays do not nest.5]’ prints ‘ooba’.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number. and so do not support ranges. Inc. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo. To delete an element of an ordinary array.. i. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array.4 Last change: October 26. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). See Subscript Parsing below for details.e. substring or word (if the parameter is an array.’.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys). say –n. To delete an element of an associative array. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. 2001 2 . If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes..3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??.

and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. Like ‘i’. However. For associative arrays. ‘i’ or ‘I’. because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. etc. this behaves like ‘r’. and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. ‘i’ or ‘I’. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. ‘R’. but gives the last match. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. but gives the index of the last match. ‘R’. Like ‘r’. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). R i Like ‘r’. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. If used on another type of parameter. ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). behaves like ‘r’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. because of the standard shell quoting rules. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values. flags). gives all possible matches. makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. 2001 3 . Therefore.0. On the left side of an assignment. zsh 4. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. For associative arrays. If used in a subscript on an associative array. Inc. word. ‘i’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. ‘R’. but not for assigning to associative arrays. but gives the index of the match instead. However. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. However. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’). makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). so the rules have two important differences. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. for example. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). For associative arrays. or character (if expr evaluates to n). See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting.4 Last change: October 26. this may not be combined with a second argument. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. and the first matching key found is the result.

thus ‘$argv[n]’. zsh 4. As in true double–quoting. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. 2001 4 . Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first. integer. parentheses. and its alternative forms declare. for example. where n is a number.) One final note. (Parameters are dynamically scoped. This has two effects: first. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values. etc. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. is the nth positional parameter. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. For complex patterns. once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. Inc. ‘${2[3. brackets. In a reverse subscript. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. shell script. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter.5]’. but ‘$2[3. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. see the section ‘Invocation’. rather than as a pattern.4 Last change: October 26. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially.. to refer to the value of that key. Therefore.. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression.0. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern.. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed..) The typeset builtin. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. from the innermost subscript outwards. positional parameters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. Note that. backslashes are interpreted twice. or the shell itself.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. local and readonly (but not export). The parameter n. because the positional parameters form an array. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed. because then the backslashes. That is. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. second. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. and also the section ‘Functions’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. etc. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. a subscript expression. they are removed only once.)’ is allowed. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression. it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. the subscript is a plain string in that case. by assigning to the argv array.

CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model).. An array containing the positional parameters. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param. The number of positional parameters in decimal. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers).’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command.0.) However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. q. (That is. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value.v. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden. as determined at run time. 2001 5 . even when argv is not set.. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local. Special parameters may also be made local. the sequence ‘$#–. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. or declaring a new parameter with export.4 Last change: October 26. you may change the zsh 4. status <S> <Z> Same as ?. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. Also. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. but argv is not itself a local ∗. If you have sufficient privileges. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function. The name used to invoke the current shell. Inc. parameter. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. In particular. assigning to a non–existent parameter.

MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). or shell function being executed. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. If you have sufficient privileges. If you have sufficient privileges. 2001 6 . then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment. as determined at compile time. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. sourced file.0. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). as determined at compile time. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session. GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. PWD The present working directory. If this parameter is assigned a value. This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). zsh 4. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. OLDPWD The previous working directory. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter.4 Last change: October 26. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. OSTYPE The operating system. LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. command)’ HOST The current hostname. Inc. whichever was started most recently.

These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. they retain their special properties when recreated. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. in this case. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. as determined at compile time. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session.0. If the stack gets larger than this. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command.4 Last change: October 26. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. If you have sufficient privileges. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. 2001 7 . In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. if any. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. signals An array containing the names of the signals. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. e. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. If you have sufficient privileges.g. such as path and PATH. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. Inc. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. ARGV0 If exported. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. and not the modem. it will be truncated zsh 4. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other.

that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option. newline and NUL).4 Last change: October 26. then it is read and executed in the current environment. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism. than these files are completed anyway. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. Inc. LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting. setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. (Deprecated. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions.0. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). ’). for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. However. 2001 8 . the history is not saved. tab. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. If unset. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field. Any characters from the set space.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If an executable file is found. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. in hundredths of seconds.

Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. The manpath array can be useful. change this to :. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. If set to zero. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command.) For security reasons. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session. For csh–like behavior. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. 2001 9 . module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. LISTMAX In the line editor. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. Defaults to cat. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. unset this parameter. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and vice versa. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. If the value is negative. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. This is initialized to a standard pathname. the number of matches to list without asking first. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’. The message will undergo parameter expansion. When this parameter is set. however. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. For sh/ksh behavior. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. since setting it also sets MANPATH.

STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. respectively. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. In sh or ksh emulation. printed before a command is read. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. reply As REPLY. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. Defaults to more. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. zsh 4. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. and vice versa. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt.0. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. Inc. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. 2001 10 . see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. PS2. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. The default is ‘%_> ’. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. but for array values rather than strings.4 Last change: October 26. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. PS3 and PS4. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. the default is ‘%m%# ’. All other prompt escapes are also allowed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. The default is ‘?# ’. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. the default is ‘+ ’. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. It is expanded in the same way as PS1.

This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. these will not be local to the command. as if it were not suspended. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. zsh terminates. If no trap is set. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display.. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. CPU seconds spent in user mode.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. even if the value does not change (e. i. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’. The CPU percentage.’. The observed action. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. Inc. Elapsed time in seconds. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. it is reported. if a login/logout event matches all of them. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. zsh 4. "logged on" or "logged off". If there is a trap on SIGALRM. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME.e. then all login/logout events are reported. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). ‘TERM=$TERM’). If it contains the single word ‘all’. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. The full hostname of the remote host. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). computed as (%U+%S)/%E. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background.g. 2001 11 .4 Last change: October 26. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt.0. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. The hostname up to the first ‘. An entry in this list may consist of a username. The line (tty) the user is logged in on. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. This is used when looking up termcap sequences. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. The name of this job. the whole name is printed. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’.

This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. the entire expression is omitted in this case. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect.zshrc. and the false–text is skipped. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. but both separators must be present in any case. in 24–hour format.0. if not $HOME. If the result is ‘true’. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. The time. in 12–hour. am/pm format. Ternary expressions may be nested. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. ‘n’. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash.4 Last change: October 26. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. or it may be ‘a’. this gives a string of characters. Either or both of the branches may be empty. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. If ‘false’. zsh 4. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. etc). the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. Inc. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. ‘m’ or ‘M’. 2001 12 . %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. The character following the x is arbitrary. ZBEEP If set. for example.

as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. Thus. 2001 1 . This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. <K>.4 Last change: October 26. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. When listing options (by ‘setopt’. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. sh. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. zsh 4. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. For example. trailing whitespace will be ignored. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. ALL_EXPORT (–a. Similarly.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Some options also have one or more single letter names. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. That is. ‘noexec’. ‘unsetopt’. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. ksh. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup.0. and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. or with the set. those set by default only in csh. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. setopt and unsetopt builtins. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. For example. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. and the command is the name of a directory. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. This inversion can only be done once. perform the cd command to that directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. Inc. and a full completion is inserted. rather than overwrite it. in the order they are killed. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. <S>. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. <Z> as appropriate. ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’).

‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession. the automatically added character is deleted. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. See the section ‘Filename Generation’.’. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. If AUTO_MENU is set. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion.). AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. etc. C_BASES zsh 4. treating the character ‘!’ specially.0.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. print an error message.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. csh–style. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. Inc. the pattern will be left unchanged. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack. remove the slash. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. 2001 2 . treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. ‘:’. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. if it contains no ‘’. (Otherwise. This option is set by default. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE.4 Last change: October 26. a slash. (If this option is unset. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences.

CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list. with it set. CLOBBER (+C.’ is used. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command.. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default). try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’). done’. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. and ‘>>’ to create files. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. end’ instead of ‘do list.. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. i.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed.e. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. ‘foo/.. Inc. or if ‘. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. ‘cd /foo/bar/.. instead resolve the path to the physical directory. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP.’ would be removed from the path. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 2001 3 . Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved.. a ‘. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files.’ changes to /foo. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset. For example. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod. and does not begin with a slash. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS.. else such jobs will be killed automatically. defaulting to the previous command. it changes to /alt.4 Last change: October 26.’ is the first part of the path. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format.0. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal. Without this option set. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES. Without this option. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). This option has no effect on the choice of the output base.

Inc. and exit. and cannot be nested. FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. If the option is unset. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file.0. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell.) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set. GLOB (+F. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. EXEC (+n. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. In double–quoted strings.4 Last change: October 26. Without this option. This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). zsh 4. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. but not executed. These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. etc. delete the pattern from the argument list. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. execute the ZERR trap. ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands. Command substitutions are only expanded once. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). float. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion. Overrides NOMATCH. 2001 4 . The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’.) ERR_EXIT (–e. if set. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly. integer. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’.

Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. Inc. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘.). If this option is unset. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list.4 Last change: October 26. etc. ∗)’) with this option set. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run. when CORRECT is set. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events. This makes the first completion slower. avoiding a path search. filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line. This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e. etc. including inside local startup files (. no path hashing is done at all. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset. so it works not only for files but for any completion. 2001 5 . The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. /etc/zshrc. However. GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. not globbing.g. make sure the entire command path is hashed first.zshrc. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set. zsh 4. as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path. even if the duplicates are not contiguous. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted. the startup files /etc/zprofile. This actually uses pattern matching. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’). hash the directory containing it. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. user names. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation. HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there.g.0. such as options. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history. otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor.

zsh 4. but can exceed this value between trimmings.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. Require the use of exit or logout instead. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. 2001 6 . HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. not for completion widgets. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input. type a space and press return. However. HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion. Also. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell.0. Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. This works only for normal widgets.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. don’t execute the line directly. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message. If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer.) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. INTERACTIVE (–i. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space. instead.

array elements are numbered from zero. all options are shown. float. and must define the function itself. in other words. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. More accurately. LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. (By default. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. However. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function. zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. word splitting does not take place in those cases. export. ‘?’ or ∗’. 2001 7 . only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. the corresponding file is merely executed. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted. LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set. are processed. LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. ‘!’. ‘off’ otherwise. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands.0. integer. Inc. the function is defined to the contents of the file.4 Last change: October 26. This means that when a function is autoloaded. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. that is. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally. not under it as usual. with it. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. Otherwise. Without this option. If this option is set. including declare. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. the second match is to the right of the first one. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion. local and readonly. that is done without a completion list being displayed. ‘∗ ‘+’. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’).

in echo foo=˜/bar:˜/rod. etc. unsetopt localtraps trap – INT fn() { setopt localtraps. NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. The argument is not otherwise treated specially. where expression has a leading ‘˜’ or ‘=’) performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment. ksh: –X) Append a trailing ‘/’ to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing). MARK_DIRS (–8. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting. For example. } will restore normally handling of SIGINT after the function exits. This option overrides AUTO_MENU. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately. Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar statements. then the previous status of the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits. it is passed to the command as a single argument. instead of leaving it unchanged in the argument list. For example. insert the first match immediately. trap ’’ INT. This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option. sleep 3. NULL_GLOB (–G) If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. and not used as an actual parameter assignment. rather than waiting until just before printing a prompt. LOGIN (–l. MAIL_WARNING (–U) Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked. the value on exit from the function is irrelevant. go back to the first one again. If this option is not explicitly set.4 Last change: October 26. Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function. MULTIOS <Z> Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section ‘Redirection’). print an error. both occurrences of ˜ would be replaced. it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly restored by a function. LONG_LIST_JOBS (–R) List jobs in the long format by default. the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a ‘–’. delete the pattern from the argument list instead of reporting an error. When there are no more matches.0. Set by default in interactive shells. NOTIFY (–5. MONITOR (–m. However.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. MENU_COMPLETE (–Y) On an ambiguous completion. ksh: –l) This is a login shell. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. Overrides NOMATCH. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function. 2001 8 . ksh: –m) Allow job control. reverse–menu–complete may be used to loop through the list in the other direction. Then when completion is requested again. MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST All unquoted arguments of the form ‘anything=expression’ appearing after the command name have filename expansion (that is. In other words. remove the first match and insert the second match. zsh 4. Inc. if both options are in effect. instead of listing possibilities or beeping.

builtin.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored. local. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’.2–1992 (ISO 9945–2:1993). This option disables sourcing user startup files. declare. Sourcing ˜/. This also applies to the . This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID. Parameter assignments specified before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin. OVERSTRIKE Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.0. PRIVILEGED (–p. continue. per IEEE Std 1003. readonly. export. eval. POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S> When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell builtin commands. source. Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in this form. Turning this option off causes the effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs./’ or ‘. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. trap and unset. parameter expansion. 2001 9 . Special builtins are . PROMPT_SUBST <K> If set. :. PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z> If set. PATH_DIRS (–Q) Perform a path search even on command names with slashes in them. etc. PROMPT_CR (+V) <D> Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor. and changing it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern. set. This option is not necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)). ‘%’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. integer. ‘!’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. times. and he or she types ‘X11/xinit’. PRINT_EIGHT_BIT Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists. Inc.’ or the current directory appear in the command search path. break. for example./’ are not subject to the path search. ksh: –p) Turn on privileged mode. ‘. PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS Don’t push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack. This option cannot be changed using the –m option of setopt and unsetopt. exit. return.. Thus if ‘/usr/local/bin’ is in the user’s path. the command ‘/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit’ will be executed (assuming it exists). This takes place before any search indicated by this option. This is on by default as multi–line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. command substitution and arithmetic expansion are performed in prompts. zsh 4. date and time strings with leading zeroes. If zsh is invoked as ‘sh’ or ‘ksh’ with this option set. and regardless of whether ‘. /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive shells).4 Last change: October 26. shift. OCTAL_ZEROES <S> Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal. Commands explicitly beginning with ‘/’. PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (–1) Print the exit value of programs with non–zero exit status. sort the filenames numerically rather than lexicographically. This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of. PROMPT_BANG <K> If set.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous.. but you can toggle this on and off with the set–local–history zle binding. REC_EXACT (–S) In completion. you may wish to turn SHARE_HISTORY off. history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines. RC_EXPAND_PARAM (–P) Array expansions of the form ‘foo${xx}bar’. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. it is performed after brace expansion.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. PUSHD_TO_HOME (–D) Have pushd with no arguments act like ‘pushd $HOME’. . 2001 10 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) PUSHD_MINUS Exchanges the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack.0. PUSHD_SILENT (–E) Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd. Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $’. SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S> Perform filename expansion (e. This avoids the problem of reflexively answering ‘yes’ to the query when one didn’t really mean it. where a backslashed single quote can be used. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). If this option is unset. The history lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off reading the file after it gets re–written). /etc/zlogin. The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the ‘∗ in ZLE ∗’ (with tab). This option cannot be changed using unsetopt. /etc/zshrc. but any of the others will not be.’. thing typed in that time. and setting it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.zshrc.zlogout files. See the section ‘Restricted Shell’. so things like ‘˜$USERNAME’ and ‘˜{pfalstad. It is also possible to create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported commands.rc}’ will work. /etc/zprofile. and also causes your typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY).g.zlogin. source the . RESTRICTED (–r) Enables restricted mode. it can be set at any time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced. INC_APPEND_HISTORY on. ˜ expansion) before parameter expansion. SHARE_HISTORY <K> This option both imports new commands from the history file. arithmetic expansion and brace expansion. and some include them. zsh 4. RM_STAR_SILENT (–H) <K> <S> Do not query the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ ∗’ ∗’. RCS (+f) <D> After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup. RM_STAR_WAIT If querying the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ first wait ten seconds and ignore any∗’ ∗’.zshenv. By default. .. RC_QUOTES Allow the character sequence ‘’’’ to signify a single quote within singly quoted strings. as described in the section ‘Files’.zprofile. command substitution. and . . the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced. and then manually import commands whenever you need them using ‘fc –RI’. If this option is unset.. If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported.

This also affects the value of the – special parameter. SH_WORD_SPLIT (–y) <K> <S> Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) SH_GLOB <K> <S> Disables the special meaning of ‘(’. if. Otherwise they are treated as an error. VERBOSE (–v. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. ksh: –x) Print commands and their arguments as they are executed. 2001 11 . ZLE (–Z) Use the zsh line editor. Note that this option has nothing to do with word splitting. This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small. ignore the trailing backquote. UNSET (+u. ‘)’ and ’<’ for globbing the result of parameter and command substitutions. and function constructs. OPTION ALIASES Some options have alternative names. any argument that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal positional parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. These aliases are never used for output. Commands are read from standard input if no command is specified with –c and no file of commands is specified. and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns. If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line. but can be used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell. unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command line. ksh: –v) Print shell input lines as they are read. XTRACE (–x. SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (–L) If a line ends with a backquote. SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S> If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and setopt) like ksh does. ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z> Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting. SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z> Allow the short forms of for. Inc. zsh 4. SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (–M) <K> Use single–line command line editing instead of multi–line. use ‘:’ instead (see the section ‘Redirection’). SH_NULLCMD <K> <S> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections. This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal. and there are an odd number of backquotes on the line.) SINGLE_COMMAND (–t. and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it.0. select. Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running – that is purely an indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input. ksh: –t) If the shell is reading from standard input. it exits after a single command has been executed. ‘’. SHIN_STDIN (–s. ksh: –s) Commands are being read from the standard input. This also makes the shell non–interactive. (See the section ‘Parameter Expansion’.

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

BRACE_EXPAND NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility) DOT_GLOB GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility) HASH_ALL HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility) HIST_APPEND APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility) HIST_EXPAND BANG_HIST (bash compatibility) LOG NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility) MAIL_WARN MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility) ONE_CMD SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility) PHYSICAL CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility) PROMPT_VARS PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility) STDIN SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility) TRACK_ALL HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)
SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS Default set

–0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –B –C –D –E –F –G –H –I –J –K –L –M –N –O –P

CORRECT PRINT_EXIT_VALUE NO_BAD_PATTERN NO_NOMATCH GLOB_DOTS NOTIFY BG_NICE IGNORE_EOF MARK_DIRS AUTO_LIST NO_BEEP NO_CLOBBER PUSHD_TO_HOME PUSHD_SILENT NO_GLOB NULL_GLOB RM_STAR_SILENT IGNORE_BRACES AUTO_CD NO_BANG_HIST SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK SINGLE_LINE_ZLE AUTO_PUSHD CORRECT_ALL RC_EXPAND_PARAM

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

12

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–Q –R –S –T –U –V –W –X –Y –Z –a –e –f –g –h –i –k –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –w –x –y –C –X –a –b –e –f –i –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –x
Also note

PATH_DIRS LONG_LIST_JOBS REC_EXACT CDABLE_VARS MAIL_WARNING NO_PROMPT_CR AUTO_RESUME LIST_TYPES MENU_COMPLETE ZLE ALL_EXPORT ERR_EXIT NO_RCS HIST_IGNORE_SPACE HIST_IGNORE_DUPS INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE CHASE_LINKS XTRACE SH_WORD_SPLIT NO_CLOBBER MARK_DIRS ALL_EXPORT NOTIFY ERR_EXIT NO_GLOB INTERACTIVE LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE XTRACE Used by set for setting arrays Used on the command line to specify end of option processing Used on the command line to specify a single command Used by setopt for pattern–matching option setting Used in all places to allow use of long option names

sh/ksh emulation set

–A –b –c –m –o

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

13

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–s

Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

14

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

NAME

zshbuiltins – zsh built–in commands
SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

– simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. . file [ arg ... ] Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment. If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory containing file. Files in the current directory are not read unless ‘.’ appears somewhere in $path. If a file named ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed. : [ arg ... ] This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on shell parameters. A zero exit code is returned. alias [ {+–}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ] For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion. If the –g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position. For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any. With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases. If the –m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed. When printing aliases and the –g or –r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or regular aliases, respectively. Using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’, or ending the option list with a single ‘+’, prevents the values of the aliases from being printed. If the –L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup script. The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined. autoload [ {+–}UXmt ] [ –wkz ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to functions –u, with the exception of –X/+X, –w, –k and –z. The flag –X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name. It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments. This replaces the previous definition of the function. If no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it. The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it was found. This does not replace any existing definition of the function. The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined or when no definition was found. In the latter case the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X may be combined with either –k or –z to make the function be loaded using ksh–style or zsh–style autoloading, respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With ksh–style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

With the –w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading. bg [ job ... ] job ... & Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified. bindkey See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1). break [ n ] Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one. builtin name [ args ... ] Executes the builtin name, with the given args. bye cap Same as exit. See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

cd [ –sLP ] [ arg ] cd [ –sLP ] old new cd [ –sLP ] {+–}n Change the current directory. In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified. If arg is ‘–’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory. Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath. If no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory. In that case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table. The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory. The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains symlinks. If the –P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values. If the –L option is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option. chdir clone Same as cd. See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

command simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. comparguments See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compcall See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compctl See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compdescribe See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

compfiles See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compgroups See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compquote See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptags See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptry See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compvalues See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). continue [ n ] Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, break out of n–1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop. declare Same as typeset. dirs [ –v ] [ arg ... ] With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack. If the –v option is given, number the directories in the stack when printing. Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands. If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack. disable [ –afmr ] name ... Temporarily disable the named hash table elements. The default is to disable builtin commands. This allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command. The –a option causes disable to act on aliases. The –f option causes disable to act on shell functions. The –r options causes disable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled. Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command. disown [ job ... ] job ... & job ... &! Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped. If no job is specified, disown the current job. echo [ –neE ] [ arg ... ] Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one. If the –n flag is not present, print a newline at the end. echo recognizes the following escape sequences: \a \b \c \e \f \n \r \t \v bell character backspace suppress final newline escape form feed linefeed (newline) carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

3

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

\\ backslash \0NNN character code in octal \xNN character code in hexadecimal The –E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences. In the latter case, –e flag can be used to enable them. echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1). echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1). emulate [ –LR ] {zshshkshcsh} Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible. csh will never be fully emulated. If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zshmisc(1) . If the –R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered. If the –L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. enable [ –afmr ] name ... Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable. The default is to enable builtin commands. The –a option causes enable to act on aliases. The –f option causes enable to act on shell functions. The –r option causes enable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled. Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command. eval [ arg ... ] Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command in the current shell process. exec simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. exit [ n ] Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit code from the last command executed. An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set. export [ name[=value] ... ] The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. Equivalent to typeset –gx. If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope. false [ arg ... ] Do nothing and return an exit code of 1. fc [ –e ename ] [ –nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ] fc –ARWI [ filename ] Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current history event number. A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string. All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

4

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

If the –l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output. If the –m flag is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown. Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events. If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used. If ename is ‘–’, no editor is invoked. When editing is complete, the edited command is executed. If first is not specified, it will be set to –1 (the most recent event), or to –16 if the –l flag is given. If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to –1 if the –l flag is given. The flag –r reverses the order of the commands and the flag –n suppresses command numbers when listing. Also when listing, –d prints timestamps for each command, and –f prints full time–date stamps. Adding the –E flag causes the dates to be printed as ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’. Adding the –i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy–mm–dd’ format. With the –D flag, fc prints elapsed times. ‘fc –R’ reads the history from the given file, ‘fc –W’ writes the history out to the given file, and ‘fc –A’ appends the history out to the given file. If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed. If the –I option is added to –R, only those events that are not already contained within the internal history list are added. If the –I option is added to –A or –W, only those events that are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written. In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries. fg [ job ... ] job ... Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground. If no job is specified, resume the current job. float [ {+–}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted. functions [ {+–}UXmtu ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to typeset –f. getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1). getln [ –AclneE ] name ... Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name. Equivalent to read –zr. getopts optstring name [ arg ... ] Checks the args for legal options. If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters. A valid option argument begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’. An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’, or the argument ‘– –’, ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg begins with a ‘+’. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG. The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND. OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function. OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts. If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored. The option itself is still stored in name in this case. A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to ‘?’ for an unknown option and to ‘:’ when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message when an option is invalid. The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options. hash [ –Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash table. Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table). The choice of hash table to work on is determined by the –d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash table is used. Given no arguments, and neither the –r or –f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full. The –r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied. It will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion. The –f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt immediately. For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this adds all users’ home directories. These two options cannot be used with any arguments. The –m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are printed. This is the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements. For each name with a corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the selected hash table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’. In the command hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by ‘value’. In the named directory hash table, this means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘˜name’. For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table. If an appropriate value can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged. The –v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specification. If has no effect if used with –f. If the –L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash. history Same as fc –l. integer [ {+–}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted. jobs [ –dlprs ] [ job ... ] jobs –Z string Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted. The –l flag lists process IDs, and the –p flag lists process groups. If the –r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed and if the –s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown. If the –d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown. The –Z option replaces the shell’s argument and environment space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit. This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings. This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state. kill [ –s signal_name ] job ... kill [ –sig ] job ... kill –l [ sig ... ] Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes. Signals are given by number or by names, without the ‘SIG’ prefix. If the signal being sent is not ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list. In the third form, kill –l, if sig is not specified the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed. let arg ... Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’ for a

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

6

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

description of arithmetic expressions. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise. limit [ –hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ... Set or display resource limits. Unless the –s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the shell. If –s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children. If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value. If the –h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits. If no resource is given, print all limits. resource can be one of: addressspace Maximum amount of address space used. aiomemorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations. aiooperations Maximum number of AIO operations. cachedthreads Maximum number of cached threads. coredumpsize Maximum size of a core dump. cputime Maximum CPU seconds per process. datasize Maximum data size (including stack) for each process. descriptors Maximum value for a file descriptor. filesize Largest single file allowed. maxproc Maximum number of processes. maxpthreads Maximum number of threads per process. memorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM. memoryuse Maximum resident set size. resident Maximum resident set size. sockbufsize Maximum size of all socket buffers. stacksize Maximum stack size for each process. vmemorysize Maximum amount of virtual memory. Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system. resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix. limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows: nh nk nm [mm:]ss hours kilobytes (default) megabytes or minutes minutes and seconds

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

7

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

local [ {+–}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ... Same as typeset, except that the options –g, and –f are not permitted. In this case the –x option does not force the use of –g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions. log List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter. logout [ n ] Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell. noglob simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. popd [ {+–}n ] Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory. With no argument, the current top entry is removed. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form –n counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. print [ –bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ –un ] [ –R [ –en ]] [ arg ... ] With no flags or with flag ‘–’, the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M–x’ metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), ‘\C–x’ produces a control character (‘\C–@’ and ‘\C–?’ give the characters NUL and delete), and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’. Finally, if not in an escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is not printed. –r –R Ignore the escape conventions of echo. Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless the –e flag is given. The –n flag suppresses the trailing newline. Only the –e and –n flags are recognized after –R; all other arguments and options are printed. Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1). Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern. Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output. Do not add a newline to the output. Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces. Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls. Print the arguments sorted in ascending order. Print the arguments sorted in descending order. If given together with –o or –O, sorting is performed case–independently. Print the arguments in columns. Print the arguments to file descriptor n. Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess. Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces. Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ˜ expressions, as appropriate. Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

–b –m –s –n –l –N –o –O –i –c –un –p –z –D –P pushd [ arg ] pushd old new pushd {+–}n

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

8

. If arg is not specified. The first field is assigned to the first name. the second field to the second name. pwd [ –rLP ] Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory. ] Equivalent to print –nz. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) Change the current directory.. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command. All are assigned to the first name. without word splitting. without word splitting. or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the –L flag is not given. arg is interpreted as it would be by cd. With this flag set the return value is zero only if the character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’. except as noted below. Note that num must be in the argument word that follows –k. the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –e flag is used. In the first form.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This option may also be used within zle widgets.. –z Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name. If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays. change to the second directory on the stack (that is. If the –c flag is given. even if used with the –p or –u or –z flags or with redirected input. –r –q Raw mode: a ‘\’ at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote the following character and are not removed. If the –l flag is given. the directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed. not in the same word. These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the –K flag to compctl). This flag is ignored when the –k or –q flags are present. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. the words of the current command are read. This option may also be used within zle widgets. or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack. the printed path will not contain symbolic links. and push the old current directory onto the directory stack. 2001 9 . –k [ num ] Read only one (or num) characters. The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output. ] Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators. The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it. no input is assigned to the parameters. Inc. Text is pushed onto the stack with ‘print –z’ or with push–line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).4 Last change: October 26.. Note that this always reads from the terminal. If the –r or the –P flag is specified.0. change the current directory to arg. the whole line is assigned as a scalar. Read only one character from the terminal and set name to ‘y’ if this character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ otherwise. See –u. etc. This flag is ignored when –q is present. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set.. The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list. read [ –rzpqAclneEt ] [ –k [ num ] ] [ –un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name . with leftover fields assigned to the last name. exchange the top two entries). Otherwise. pushln [ arg . Input is read from the terminal unless one of –u or –p is present. r Same as fc –e –. If both flags are –e –E –A –c –l zsh 4. The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd. If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set. starting with zero.

This is not available when reading from the editor buffer with –z. Input is read from file descriptor n. all arrays are printed. ‘read –t –k 2’ can still block on the second character. With zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the trap). Note that the command name is word number 1. With –l. However. and that when the cursor is at the end of the line. Test if input is available before attempting to read. or as described for –q. Input is read from the coprocess. if no name is specified. when reading from the terminal with –k this is automatically handled. The –c or –l flags cancel any and all of –kpquz. sched See the section ‘The zsh/sched Module’ in zshmodules(1). rehash Same as hash –r. 2001 10 . If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function.. [ {+–}A [ name ] ] [ arg . –u and –z flags is undefined. For the meaning of the other flags. in which an entire line is read at a time. Otherwise the positional parameters are set. set [ {+–}options  {+–}o option_name ] . If no arguments are –un –p –t zsh 4. If n is omitted. the number of the word the cursor is on is read. The default mode is canonical input. Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. Presently –q cancels all the others. readonly Same as typeset –r. –p. not word 0. or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to test for input. –l is used and –c is ignored. –q. where n is a single digit and must not be separated from –u by any whitespace. –n Together with –c. the effect is different for zero and non–zero return status. return [ n ] Causes a shell function or . If the –A flag is specified. the shell wi