BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

addresses of the hosts for which you want information. use either the ncpu or nover commands.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. You can also specify the names or I. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading.P. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.3. List one host per line. If the current directory is on the local host.3. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format.0. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message.3.160 solarishost SunOS 5.P. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts.160 NSH 1 . agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host. nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6.. By default. You can turn off the header line with the -H option. Put a space between each host name. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. by design.0. Inc. With no arguments. agentinfo displays a message to that effect.P. hostname The names or I. Put a space between each host name. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.4..2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname .8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that.0. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6. Do not output a header. the CSV file includes a header line.

agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc. SEE ALSO ncpu (1).8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5.3.0.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH. version(1) NSH 2 . nover (1).

-c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. upload the license file created by the getlic command. autolic processes all the hosts you specify. Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing. Debug output.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. In most cases. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 . Inc.. regardless of their license status. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. host1 . you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information.. You can specify more than one option. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. List one host per line. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website.. License hosts that are currently un-licensed. Apply the licenses with the putlic command.. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. Login to the BladeLogic support website. and then download the generated license. do not use this option.dat file. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. If you do not include any of these four options.

NSH 2 . Instead. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy.mycompany.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy. putlic(NSH).mycompany.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required.com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example. the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy. Inc. based on the your current customer/prospect status. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent). do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. agentinfo(NSH).autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. by a firewall). ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH). the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type.conf (from the NSH install directory). Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic. For autolic to function properly.

use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’. The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. an open brace (‘()’). $2.. This is convenient when working with multi-line records. or ‘while’ statement. DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. expression. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. or by the value of RS. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input. Normally. If RS is null. nawk . -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line. Additionally. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. any number of blanks separate fields.’). a logical AND (‘&&’).. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). -safe Disable file output (print >. not a filename. print >>). a logical OR (‘||’). print |. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. while $0 refers to the entire line. Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. see the section on variables below). ‘for’.. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . The fields are denoted $1.. An action is a sequence of statements. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . process creation (cmd | getline. A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename.. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit. or 1 if n is not specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . In order to set the field separator to a single blank. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator.. This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . . after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. If FS is null. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement.. any number of -v options may be present. the input line is split into one field per character. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. a missing pattern always matches. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens. A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. Set debug level to n. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. or by the regular expression FS.

. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. open next. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. String constants are quoted "". Inc.+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present)... using the operators ˜ and !˜. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma. non-null members are taken as filenames. array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. newlines or right braces. and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match). Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. Multiple subscripts such as [i. The operators ! ++ -. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). An empty expression-list stands for $0. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)). a relational expression. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement .) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. A conditional is an arithmetic expression.. and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). separated by the current output field separator. not necessarily numeric. NSH 2 . Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). Array subscripts may be any string. Argument array. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [.. expr. /re/ is a constant regular expression. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. in this case. the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second. Variables are initialized to the null string. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these). status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate.j. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. or a Boolean combination of these.. assignable. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr. Variables may be scalars. and terminated by the output record separator. . assignable. file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. this allows for a form of associative memory.k] are permitted..cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. the constituents are concatenated.

Return the sine of x.6g"). string. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. gsub() returns the number of replacements. String Functions gsub(r. srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. Return the natural logarithm of x. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. Output record separator (default newline). s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. Return the square root of x. FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. Return a random number. FILENAME The name of the current input file. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. Output format for numbers (default "%. Output field separator (default blank). t. Ordinal number of the current record. If expr is omitted. index(s. where x is in radians. subscripts are names. Regular expression used to separate fields. also settable by option -F fs. such that 0<=n<1. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. where x is in radians. Return x truncated to an integer value. or 0 if it does not. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. NSH 3 .6g"). ENVIRON Array of environment variables. input/output and general. Inc.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. n. Input record separator (default newline). SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034). FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. the time of day is used instead. RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. Return the exponential of x.

fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. getline returns 1 for a successful input. If file is not open. and -1 for an error. sub(r. a[2].. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. or -1 if no match is found. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs.. a. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. NR. or of $0 if no argument is given. . 0 for end of file. . cat(1) match(s. 0 for end of file.. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. If the stream is not open. toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’).. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. the variables $0 and NF are set. As long as the stream remains open. If s is not given. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. substr(s.. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. Otherwise var is set. $0 is used. it is opened. according to the printf(3) format fmt. Inc. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). split(s. sub() returns the number of replacements. . m. NSH 4 . and FNR. getline returns 1 for a successful input. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. t. This form of getline sets the variables NF. As long as the stream remains open.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic.) The string resulting from formatting expr. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. a[n] and returns n. and -1 for an error. The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. sprintf(fmt. it is opened. Otherwise var is set. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character... If var is omitted. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file. expr. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. If var is omitted. the variables $0 and NF are set. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. If n is omitted. or 0 if it does not. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1.

.. The AWK Programming Language. and P. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. 1988. $1 } Add up first column. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . " average is". Parameters are local to the function. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. and by reference if array name. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. all other variables are global. printf(1). b. i++) printf "%s ". modify. with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". B. V. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. printf(3) A. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). Aho. sed(1). Addison-Wesley. copy. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. lex(1). return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar.[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. Inc. c) { .. $1 } Same.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. functions may be called recursively. J. Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. s. the syntax is worse. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. Kernighan. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. W. i < ARGC. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. Weinberger. print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is".

ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. DATA OR PROFITS. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 . written prior permission. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. Inc. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE.

id.509 certificate in a file named id. Inc. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. such as /home/johnk.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.pem. Once a certificate is created on a client. NSH 1 .Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic.bladelogic. In Windows. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. id. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. On UNIX. the user is prompted for a private key password. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic.

This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. If you do not use this option. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. NSH 1 . Inc. and role. password. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. When you run bl_srp_agent. After you provide this information. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. the system prompts for a user ID. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. Inc.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. After entering your user information. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background.

and trusted certificates. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. To use blcred on a client machine. And.e. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X. If you are using SRP authentication. Inc. Provisioning Manager. session credentials. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles. add. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. Network Shell. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. Configuration Manager. and trusted certificates. a BladeLogic client application (i. and delete authentication profiles. or Network Shell Proxy Server. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. session credentials.xml NSH 1 . This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file.. The utility lets you show. Application Server.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles. which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. Using that session credential.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. you must also provide a user name and password. a Kerberos TGT). Using the information you provide.509 certificates. To log into a BladeLogic system. you must have Operations Manager installed. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. you must provide an authentication profile and other information.

the user is prompted for a user name and password. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. including the client IP address. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. To acquire a session credential. which holds trusted X. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. the default credential cache file is used. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. Inc. authentication type.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. the default keystore file is used. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES.dat) using the -i parameter.509 certificates. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache.pkcs12 for Windows. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified. If the username option is present. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. and service ticket. Default credential caches are unique per user. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. issuing service URL. and expiration time of session credentials. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. If a name is not specified. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info. NSH 2 . the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore. Default trust keystores are unique per user. destination service URLs. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/. When selecting an SRP profile.conf file. If an authentication profile name is not specified. the user is prompted for a name. If the time option is present.bladelogic/client_keystore.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. Alternatively.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. Named authentication profile did not exist.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. Cached credential did not match named authentication profile. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. Inc. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store. and -type parameters. The profile name. cache contained credential with desired properties. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. NSH 3 . Authentication Service.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. such as -acquire -profile profile_name. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. Additionally. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. cert –list Lists all X. The -all parameter deletes all certificates.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). Users are prompted for omitted information. -host.

d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. It prints the result to stdout. CR. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function. It takes all of its arguments as input.c.mm 0xABC a. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. You can use whitespaces (SPACE. DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator.. LF) as optional operand/operator separators.. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 . If you do not specify any arguments.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. then creates and evaluates an expression.b. TAB. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr . OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators. An expression consists of operands and operators. Inc.P. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn.

max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value.0. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail.. If the argument is a string. 3. min_val. . 4)’ 2. 3.) Return the average of all arguments given. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . If it is. 5. then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. then proceeds with the operation. In the case of the three numeric types. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. it returns 0 (false).5") * 2. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). Inc. with the resulting value also being a floating point value. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value. 2. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. then divides by the number of arguments.. The supported functions are: average (arg1.. Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. arg1. 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types.14"). . If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point. 7. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world"). blexpr adds the arguments. 1. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero)..14)’ 12 equals_any (val. and floating point numbers. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. 3. decimal numbers. arg2.5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1.

Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME".) sprintf (format. $FIRSTNAME. otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3"). "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME". 10. The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP".. The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles.. The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970). Inc. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12.) Both these functions generate a formatted output. it returns true_val. Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format. args . If val is true.. false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string. 27)’ 14 printf (format. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -.20. args .9s". address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional .P. true_val. 14.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote.30.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic.40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n".m].%s %s --\n". NSH 3 ..

"bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". val) strstr can be used in one of two ways. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. strlen returns a length of 0. The optional format arguments specifies output format. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation.40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. Inc. You define the name of the variable with string. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. and you define the value of the variable with expr. "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. Once you have created a variable this way.30. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. $IP.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string.20. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). If you supply a value that is not a string. $IP). you should use the respective macros supported by the call.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP. If you do not specify a format.

Inc. id. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.pem.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.bladelogic. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic.Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 1 . Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. In Windows. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. such as /home/johnk. the user is prompted for a private key password.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. On UNIX. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. Once a certificate is created on a client.509 certificate in a file named id. id.

e. "Inconsistent"." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].g. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].g.. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed.. as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent". [TARGET].. If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. e. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. COMMAND_OPTIONS..Property of BladeLogic..." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status. and TARGETS NSH 1 . or "Unknown.... [TARGET]. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks. the status displays as "Unknown... Inc.. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host.

executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data). //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp". makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones. Inc.g. As a result. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.Property of BladeLogic. e.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list. the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 . Exercising the p option.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes.log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp".

SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 . Inc.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. Inc.Property of BladeLogic.log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.

. logman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands.. as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. [TARGET]. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 . [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]... Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. COMMAND_OPTIONS... DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks.Property of BladeLogic. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS. Inc.. [TARGET].. Use only when copying a signature file. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file... bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution..

privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host. For example. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file.log NSH 2 . signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found.1" does not already exist. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. To execute this command. this option returns a status as "Unknown. You can request the status of all the log files on a host. Inc. "Inconsistent". or "Unknown. logfile Full path to local log file.Property of BladeLogic. or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple.log. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent".log.1. This command is intended to be used for client side verification. Use only when rotating a signature file. certificate file. you must have the corresponding signature file. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with." assuming "rscd. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host. and private key file on the local host. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log" to "rscd. Note: All files needed for this command should be local.

You cannot use this command for remote logfiles. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. Inc.log.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included.log.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.log.0 release. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.Property of BladeLogic.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd.log. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.pem All files need to be on the local host.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd. Inc.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 .sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.3.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future.

you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file. host1 . Instead. otherwise it returns 0. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. otherwise it returns 0. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. If you specify server names..then blquery reads input from stdin. If you do not specify a host name. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. In addition to specifying host names on the command line. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. NSH 1 . To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers. To create comment lines. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. Inc. just omit any server names. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. hostN The hosts you want to query. blquery will query the local server. Expression to run against the given hosts. or against any number of remote servers. If file is a . otherwise it returns 0. output only the resulting value.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 .. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS).. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. Do not include the hostname as part of the output. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout.. To query the local host. and the subsequent escaping thereof. A file containing the expression you want to run.

patches. otherwise it returns 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. and bundles. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. NSH 2 . If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. they mostly support the general concept of software installations.

The NSH 3 . All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. These functions take an expression as their argument. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with.Property of BladeLogic. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. so the values are not guaranteed to be set. Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. with the exception of Linux. which does not support patches.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. Inc.

Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2. $ blquery solaris8 -E patch. if (DATE <= 0.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". NAME.7-8 . you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. you can also use them for reporting. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines.blq cracklib-2. include the printf call inside of the given expression.Property of BladeLogic. Inc.7-8 . patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number. patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches.A password-checking library. making it seem like two different patches are installed. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field). NAME)’). "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr. you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions. Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. show_date (DATE. these functions may still have a universal appeal. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software.blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s .The standard CrackLib dictionaries. these functions return a zero length string. To do this. In this case. Example: $ cat patch. Not all software has a version number. "Unknown install date". Because these functions scan through all entries.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n".blq NSH 4 . DESCRIPTION. By using these functions.

Inc. skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. For UNIX and Linux systems. $0)").’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. The skip parameter is optional. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file.. The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. expr. If you use it. the function returns the total number of records. $N for each respective field in the current record. If you omit the expression. $1 . it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". NSH 5 . The first record/field is 0. For Windows systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files. "/"). The expr argument is optional.. As its second parameter. The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record.Property of BladeLogic. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile.

"/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. config_record_number ($PASSWD.Property of BladeLogic. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". record. "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". Inc. If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from. Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". records occur in a config file in no particular order. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. 0. config_record_number ($INI. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. $RECORD. In many cases. then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". "$5 = $USRBIN"). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". 0)’ bin NSH 6 . "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI".

but ones that do include Windows . "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. $RECORD. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record. The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. Details are included below. however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. On its own this function has limited value. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. Although config files are generally treated as flat files.BNI". The numeric UID of the user. Inc. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. record. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. 0) = $CUSTDB)").BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". and returns the value of field field. the following dynamic variable are supported.Property of BladeLogic. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. config_record_number ($INI. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts. record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. FULLNAME The configured name of the user. then the record does not have a parent record. These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. Not all config files have a hierarchy. If the function returns a negative number (-1).

If the date and time is not known this value is 0. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. expr. On Windows systems. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. \"Normal Account\"). On Windows systems. accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. . BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type.Property of BladeLogic. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . Inc. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . NAME. On Windows systems. UID)"). This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. \"Super User Account\". LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0).

Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. When it is set. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. that field is returned. On Windows. On Windows. If the user does not exist. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. the function returns an error message. the function returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user.Property of BladeLogic. Inc. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. that field is returned. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. the function refers to a start script.

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. Otherwise it is a normal account.8. otherwise it returns 0.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs. the function returns 0. the function returns an error message.0. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. Inc. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user.6. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. or 3.2. If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. There are three types of possible accounts: . these are inherent attributes of a user account.9.7. The default separator is a SPACE character. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. For Windows. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password.5. The default separator is a SPACE character. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . with respective return values of 1. administrator. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs.3. use the show_date () function. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0.Property of BladeLogic. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs. ". To display the date of last login in human readable form. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". For UNIX systems. 2. normal. For Windows systems. and guest.4. If the user does not exist.")’ 1.

Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. .Property of BladeLogic. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. NAME. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group. group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. Example: NSH 11 . printf ("-----------------\n"). group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n". sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). Inc. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups. the following dynamic variables are supported. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. The numeric GID of the user. $ cat showgroups. The default separator is a SPACE character. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. GID)’).blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 .

The adapter’s I. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address.20. you can use the following dynamic variables. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10. address in the standard 4 octet notation.40\"")’ 255. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr.")’ root.0 NSH 12 . This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.30. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation.255.255.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.Property of BladeLogic. ".P.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. and returns the I. Within these expressions. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation.30.P.30. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10. Inc. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr.20.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10. All of these functions take an expression as an argument.20. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp".

and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. 1. The interface is running in half duplex mode. Inc. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0.20. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.30. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. NSH 13 . If you do not specify expr. "10 Mb". and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr.20.40\"")’ 10. "Auto"))). and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr. "Full Duplex". The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec.30. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. Example: $ cat speed. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. 4. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.blq set_variable ("FLAGS". "100 Mb". 2. The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. "Half Duplex".Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec). The return value is a 64 bit integer. The interface is running in full duplex mode.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. The return value is a 64 bit integer. "1Gb". the function matches all adapters. if ($FLAGS & 32. if ($FLAGS & 64. "NA"))).

It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information.Property of BladeLogic.0 hme0 10.20. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5.0 hpux11: B. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2.8 linux: 7. On Windows. the function returns the maintenance release. SUBNET)’). Inc. IP.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n").00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host.11.1 255. NAME.0. the function returns the kernel release number. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host.21.1 win2k: 5. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters. The wrapper functions are described first.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127.0. Other platforms.4. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. On AIX. followed by the generic functions.101 255.255. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 . os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters.2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system.0. the function returns the Service Pack. On Linux. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways.255.0.

5100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value.0100 linux: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system.9100 win2k: 0.0800 win2k: 0.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0.4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.0300 win2k: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS. Not all systems return a value.

or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. "/C". ntop_value (type. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. "STATS". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). the first line of output consists of the column names. Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. column. "DF". "/C".3800 linux: 0. Inc. expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS". NSH 16 . "NET".Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". "OVER".8000 win2k: 0. In this case.2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". Some columns have a two word name. Check the individual ntop commands for more details. use the first word of the name to identify the column. A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command.

0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911. the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). "CAPACITY".0560 linux3: 0. You may use column names to construct the expression. If the expression is a numeric. the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as.0890 # # For each server. column.1f MB".Property of BladeLogic.1200 linux: 0. "FREE") / 1024.1480 linux2: 0. "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0. Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example.3800 ntop_sum (type. Example: # # For each server. the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. The first record is 0. "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME". expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". the function returns the field value of the first record. If you do not specify an expression. ntop_sum ("DF". the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. "DF" and "PS"). Inc. "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". If the function does not find any matching records. "MEM". a value of -1 means the last record). When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). If you specify an expression as a string. Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above). Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0.0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". it returns a value of -1. $HOSTNAME.2 MB NSH 17 .

4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13.8 MB 36208. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 . otherwise it returns 0. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE"). Inc.0 MB ntop_average (type. then it return the total number of entries.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated. Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. If expr is not given.1f%%". for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE". within an expression string. column. Therefore. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values. Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example. "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45.Property of BladeLogic. you need to escape it. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS".6% ntop_record_count (type. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. $HOSTNAME. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists. ntop_average ("DF".

There are no NSH 19 . The supported types are: REG_DWORD. REG_SZ. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. string.) depends on the registry value type. etc. otherwise it returns 0. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. Inc.Property of BladeLogic. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. int. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. REG_BINARY. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. REG_LINK. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note.

These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). One of "RUNNING". PROGRAM Name of executable used by service. service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. Display name of service (long name). Inc. Account name service is run as. One of "BOOT_START".exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". If service is an integer. "STOPPED". There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. In the case of a string. If the service does not exist. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". or "PENDING". or "DISABLED". If you do not specify expr. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). "DISABLED") NSH 20 . Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0. if you specified an out of range record number. "*\\mysqld-nt. service can be either a string or an integer. DESCRIPTION Description of service. the function returns the total number of configured services. "AUTO_START". "SYSTEM_START". WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. "MANUAL". service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name).Property of BladeLogic. if it is not running.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. the function returns 0.

exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. you can use it in other services functions. The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records. Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". or "PENDING". Returns the account name service is run as. $STOPPED). Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. $RUNNING). service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. $ blquery win2k -E expr. field should be one of the following string values. (" STOPPED: %d\n". "STOPPED". Returns the display name of service (long name).blq set_variable ("RUNNING". (" PENDING: %d\n". "AUTO_START".blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. (" RUNNING: %d\n". service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". $PENDING). service_record_count ()).exe" is running or not. "*\\mysqld-nt. Once you get this record number. to access particular service records. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING". service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". NSH 21 .Property of BladeLogic. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". "MANUAL". Inc. or "DISABLED". "SYSTEM_START". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr.

ntop (NSH). It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. The argument service can be either a string or an integer. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. Inc. NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. Returns zero length string.Property of BladeLogic. "MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). nps (NSH). nmem (NSH). nstats (NSH). ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). If service is an integer. ndf (NSH).exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt.exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql". nover (NSH). "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). In the case of a string.

the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. Inc. Inc.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not use this option. the system prompts for a user ID. After you provide this information. password. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. and role. After entering your user information. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. When you run bl_srp_agent. NSH 1 . set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX.

the system prompts for a user ID. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. After entering your user information. If you do not use this option. After you provide this information. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. When you run bl_srp_agent. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. NSH 1 . OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. and role. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. Inc.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic.

such as MS-DOS. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames . permissions. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file. v1. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.bz2". and a warning issued. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags. .tar filename. In this case. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output.. As with compression.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. and uses the original name with . Each compressed file has the same modification date. ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames . bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor.bz.. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. when possible.tar anyothername becomes anyothername. If no file names are specified. specify the −f flag. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename.tbz. ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm..tbz2 becomes filename.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . . and. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files.bz2 becomes filename filename. bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored. as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. If you want this to happen.. bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files.out appended... 1 .bz2. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors.tbz becomes filename.bz becomes filename filename. with the name "original_name. . ownership as the corresponding original. or have serious file name length restrictions. Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported.tbz2 or . but they are not identical. Inc. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout. and Huffman coding.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. permissions.

It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. 2 . Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). regardless of the invokation name. Be aware. This flag overrides that mechanism. In short. decompression and testing. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. which limits memory use to around the same figure. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. and forces bzip2 to decompress. invalid flags. −f --force Force overwrite of output files. but don’t decompress them. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory. &c).bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. Normally.0 or later. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. During compression. As a self-check for your protection. giving an expansion of around 0. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. use −s for everything. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. that the check occurs upon decompression. bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. though. at the expense of your compression ratio. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. for compression.5 bytes per block byte. in that order. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0.5%.05 bits per byte. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. −s selects a block size of 200k.9. Inc. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. I/O errors. bzip2. −d --decompress Force decompression. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. −s --small Reduce memory usage. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. Compression is always performed. albeit at about half the normal speed.

−v --verbose Verbose mode -. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file.9.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. 200 k . and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. compressing a file 20. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions. In general. For example. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. about 2300 kbytes. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. since the file is smaller than a block. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. Has no effect when decompressing. license terms and conditions. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. Inc.−myfilename. so you should use this option only where necessary. since that maximises the compression achieved. in bytes. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. or 100k + ( 2. Similarly. even if they start with a dash. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0.000 bytes through 900. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine. which was sometimes useful. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed. Decompression speed is also halved. for example: bzip2 −. The relevant flag is -s.5 and above..000 bytes (the default) respectively. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. 900 k when compressing. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. 0.show the compression ratio for each file processed. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. At decompression time. Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. −L --license -V --version Display the software version. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size. For files compressed with the default 900k block size. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k.9. Compression and decompression requirements. 3 .

the name of the damaged file. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes.9.bz2".bz2 files. both for compressing and decompressing. etc. as these will contain many blocks. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1. small changes to the 4 . and decompress those which are undamaged.bz2 files. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. Each block is handled independently. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large .bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. bzip2recover takes a single argument. "rec0002file.622 bytes. and write each block out into its own . Because of this. For previous versions.bz2 > recovered_data" -.for example. Versions 0. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -. Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect.bz2 file. since a damaged block cannot be recovered. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files.bz2 file to become damaged.." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal. "bzip2 -dc rec*file. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones. usually 900kbytes long. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size. and writes a number of files "rec0001file. This means that performance. this figure was more like 100:1. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. Because of this. Inc.lists the files in the correct order. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files. The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern. if you want. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size. It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. containing the extracted blocks.bz2". Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC.. like "aabaabaabaab . and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file.141.

0. This manual page pertains to version 1. so as to speed up compression.co. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be. Many people sent patches.0 and 0. helped with portability problems. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements.org. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance. gave advice and were generally helpful. support and advice.muraroa. and Alistair Moffat. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading. but with the following exception: 0.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.cygnus.1pl2. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. 0.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation).0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches. I am much indebted for their help. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation. so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long.0 of bzip2.com/bzip2 http://www. and many refinements). Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip. This could easily be fixed. 5 . lent machines. AUTHOR Julian Seward. versions 0. jseward@acm. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip). David Wheeler (again.1pl2 cannot do this. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files.9.demon. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases.5.9. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms. http://sourceware. for the Huffman coder). Inc.9.

file2 . cat reads from the standard input. . USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. vis(1). Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. The tab character.g. then finally output the contents of file3. since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)).2-1992 (“POSIX. Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. Inc. Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. 1983. more(1). less(1). can be made visible via the −t option.2”) specification. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line. Number the output lines. print the contents of file2. STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003. read and output contents of the standard input again. or cat -v Considered Harmful". The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. The file operands are processed in command-line order. EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. "UNIX Style.CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic. tail(1). 1995 1 . truncating file3 if it already exists. sh(1). See the manual page for your shell (e. $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. with the exception of the tab and EOL characters.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). causing the output to be single spaced. which are displayed normally. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X. sh(1)) for more information on redirection. control-I.. BSD May 2.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. pr(1). $ cat file1 . If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. . starting at 1. writing them to the standard output.

Inc. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2. 1995 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification.CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

If the registry location is not found/set. In addition. By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. The name of the hosts to be updated.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. With this option only error messages are output. -r -q host . one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. To this end. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS.. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. Inc. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set.. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. To determine which password to use. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user.. When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server.. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly. In addition. If a password was not specified with the -p option.

. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. this option is turned on. To turn it off. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. New owner of the file (user name or UID). DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files. chgrp changes only the group ownership. Instead.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. chgrp [-fhRv?] user. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . use the -l option. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin..’).group file . and consequently a UID is not available for this user. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. NSH 1 . By default. See the -r option. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. However. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. By default.. Inc..

ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). Unknown option or missing file argument. you may not achieve the ownership change you want. Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). You specified an unknown GID or UID. CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change. NSH 2 .

and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions. special files. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. Inc. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who .chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . File whose mode you want to change. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. The permissions changes you want to make. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list..e. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. or a series of comma separated instructions. See the DESCRIPTION section above. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. chmod silently skips it. If chmod encounters a directory. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. mode can be an absolute octal value.. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. chmod silently skips it. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change. . This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. regular files. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . since directories usually have different permissions than files. etc)..

chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters. write. execute for both the group and other users). and read. Unable to get a license to use the software. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Inc. NSH 2 . write. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read. chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. Unknown option or missing file argument.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. execute permissions for the owner of the file. execute for user.

. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. this command changes only the user ownership. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed.. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. New owner of the file (user name or UID). You can turn it off with the -l option. this option is turned on. However.. NSH 1 .chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. Instead. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). By default. Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively.. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. By default. See the -r option. chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename.’) and a group name to the user name. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file . you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. Inc. without changing any ownerships. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename.group file .

Consequently. the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used. chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. NSH 2 . When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). Unknown option or missing file argument. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. Inc.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected.

you must specify a new role preference. you must disconnect. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. the role selection is ignored. $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. and then reconnect. Inc. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. when you have an existing connection. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. NSH 1 . provided the active user is authorized for that role. Your current role is role1. $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected.

M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i. This is a 16-bit checksum.. with a right rotation before each addition. The cksum utility exits 0 on success.e. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. For historic reasons. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. and >0 if an error occurs. Inc. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. These fields are a checksum CRC. the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1. NSH 1 .. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility. the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. Using this interface. shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm.. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum. The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically.. overflow is discarded. Partial blocks are rounded up. See description below. the total number of octets in the file and the file name.. If no file name is specified. These n bits are the bits from the file. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. This is a 32-bit checksum. Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. least significant octet first. the standard input is used and no file name is written. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16.

NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected. $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. SEE ALSO sum(1). When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. Berkeley and its contributors. Inc.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the P_ATT variable set. A system error message follows the output of the error message. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. cksum(1). algorithm 1 is used. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. algorithm 2 is used.

then the offset is read instead of being seeked over. If file1 is ’-’. By default. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. checking to see if they are identical.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other. cp rhosts. Inc. cmp always considers the files not to be identical.root //oslo/. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference. find all differences in the files. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference. and the two different character values found in the files. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other.rhosts file on host oslo has changed. For each difference it finds. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’). NSH 1 . When this happens.master //oslo/. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. even with the -l option. The first file in the comparison.rhosts chown root. Instead. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code.master //oslo/. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. If it has. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the .rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. then cmp uses the standard input. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. The second file in the comparison.

Inc. One of the files was not accessible. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus. NSH 2 .cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software.

paste(1) SunOS 5. Input is read from the standard input.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. not zero. If both start and stop columns are specified. Inc. Column numbering starts with one. A column is defined as a single character in a line. Berkeley and its contributors. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written. Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. SEE ALSO column(1).8 Last change: NSH 1 . ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. columns numbered less than the start column will be written. Output is written to the standard output. Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file. cut(1). If only the start column is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm .

and lines printed in column number three will have one.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. Berkeley and its contributors. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . >0 if an error occurred. For example.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Suppress printing of column 3. lines only in file2. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. Suppress printing of column 2. Comm exits 0 on success. SEE ALSO cmp(1). and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. all characters participate in line comparisons. ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. which should be sorted lexically. Inc. lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. if column number two is being suppressed. sort(1). uniq(1) SunOS 5. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. and lines in both files.

“. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file . No files are modified (force zcat mode). the deflate mode of compression is chosen. Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode). file flags. the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c.. Additionally. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. see gzip(1) for more information. If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). “_tgz”. As many of the modification time. “_gz”.taz”. the files are not overwritten. even if it is not actually reduced in size. The default is −6. 2008 1 . Compression factor −1 is the fastest.tgz”.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . By default.Property of BladeLogic. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal.Z”. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given.. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). Inc. recognising the following extensions: “. If either the input or output files are not regular files.9 Use the deflate scheme. It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. user ID. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. This option implies −g. Instead. . −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. “. . If compression would not reduce the size of a file. Force compression of file. but provides a poorer level of compression. uncompress. “-taz”.Z”. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. If invoked as compress −g. Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. instead they are converted to “tar”. “. file mode. and the attributes of the input file are not retained.] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . . and “_taz”. . this information is not used.gz”.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. When uncompressing. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. “-gz”. in compress mode. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3. described below. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g). . “-tgz”. with compression factor of −1 to −9. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . but is relatively slow. The options are as follows: −1. If no files are specified. the input file is not removed. access time. “-Z”. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file. . “_Z”.

If it is increasing. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. Size of the file when uncompressed. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. If the −v option is specified. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. Use compress mode (the default). 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. 2008 2 . −N When uncompressing or listing. When code 512 is reached. List information for the specified compressed files. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. Inc. −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. compress periodically checks the compression ratio. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. After the bits limit is reached. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. When compressing. if any. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). for the uncompressed version. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). Print the license. However. use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size.Property of BladeLogic. the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. BSD April 3. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories. if the compression ratio decreases. the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. Print a short help message. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch.

or 2 if a warning occurred. uncompress. 17:6. and takes less time to compute. pp. the number of bits per code. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt].3 BSD. STANDARDS The compress. BSD April 3. 8−19. IEEE Computer. Typically. 1 if an error occurred. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack).1. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. uncompress. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. and the distribution of common substrings. June. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". SEE ALSO Welch. or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). 1984. 2008 3 . and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. Inc. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. Terry A.. The compress.

OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. If the target directory does not already exist. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. Preserve parent. If the destination directory does exist. and is consequently overwritten. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. By default. and access and modification times as the source file. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. if it exists. Synchronize file permissions. use the -b command. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. When copying to a directory. If the target directory does already exist.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. By default. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. With this option. In the second form. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. With the -P option. then cp overwrites the file. If the target file already exists. Don’t actually make any changes. Inc. for example.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. when cp creates a new file.. Synchronize file ownerships. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. If the destination directory does not exist.. By default. cp copies multiple files into a directory. To turn on the file backup feature. so that. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). Set the suffix for backup files to suf. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. and copies the content into it. cp overwrites it. With his option. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. When the destination directory does exist. In the first form. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. By default. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. If a target file already exists. then cp will create the directory as required. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. This option turns off the -i option. before copying over the new source file. if the target file already exists. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. cp creates it and copies the content into it. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files. when cp copies a directory. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. This also applies to new directories being created.c becomes foo. permissions. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file.

These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. This is the no parent option. They are -T. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. Conditional copy. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. then the backup will not be overwritten. and execute. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. If you use this option with the -p option. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Conditional copy. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. write. See the -u option. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). Output a message for each file being copied. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. Conditional copy. follow symbolic links. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. especially on a large file. This option is the same as the -r option. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. This option implies the -S option. When recursing through directories. should it be a symbolic link. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. except that it applies only to the top level file. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. NSH 2 . If the file sizes are the same. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. With the -P option. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. Inc. See the -u option. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. -S and -C. This option can be very resource intensive.

ncp(1). this message will appear. uncp(1). then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. Unknown option or missing file argument. SEE ALSO dsync (1). cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . indicating that cp cannot copy directories. Unable to get a license to use the software. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set. cp will display this message. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. the -f option will override the -i option. If cp is not able to create one of these directories. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. it will display this message. then this message appears. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. cp was unable to copy all files requested. NSH 3 . this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. Inc.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. this message will appear. cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree.

21-4. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter. With this option. in the format of column-<record number>. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. csv2xml generates column names. Do not output the root node tag.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. Inc.4.’) character as the field separator. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. With this option. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5. OPTIONS -<number> By default.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Do not output the XML header entry. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. and in turn XML tags. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. It uses this header line to name the columns of input. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code.

Inc. nover(1). XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. nnet(1). csv2xml will not display these additional fields. nmem(1). nstats(1). csv2xml will add empty fields to the record.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters. ndf(1). NSH 2 . ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. ncpu(1). If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record.

Inc. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. and writes them to the standard output. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. inclusively. -s The arguments following the options -c. Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Column numbering starts from 1. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default).. that character is used to separate output fields. delimited in the input by a single tab character. and in any order. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 . and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. -d. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter.. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . Number ranges consist of a number.. Berkeley and its contributors. If you do. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges. Unless specified. 1 if an error occurred. lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. a dash (-). which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. overlapping.. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters.

3BSD-reno systems. a lseek(2) operation is used. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls. a lseek(2) operation is used. Otherwise. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. Copy n input files before terminating. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. Inc. notrunc or sync are specified. the correct number of bytes is read. if any. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. The number of truncated input records. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. Read input from file instead of the standard input. Write output to file instead of the standard output. If the user does not have read permission for the tape.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. On input which supports seeks. If input reads are short. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. Any trailing newline character is discarded. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. NSH 1 .] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. value . On non-tape devices. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. If no conversion values other than noerror. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. If the seek operation is past the end of file.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic.. superseding the ibs and obs operands. Otherwise. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd . space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block.. For pipes. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. input data is read and discarded. For all other devices.. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying.. When finished. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. ascii. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point.

any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. Swap every pair of input bytes. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. otherwise NUL bytes are used. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. Do not stop processing on an input error. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. Normally. any remaining output is written as a block. 1024 (1K). ‘‘k’’. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4. oldebcdic. NSH 2 . On input files which are not tapes or pipes. If the sync conversion is not specified. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. a decimal number of bytes is expected. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. the number is multiplied by 512. Where sizes are specified. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. ibm. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. If the sync conversion is also specified. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. Inc. When finished. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. the last byte will be ignored during swapping.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. After the end of input is reached. Otherwise. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. If dd receives a SIGINT signal. the rest of the block will be written.3BSD-reno systems. respectively. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. When an input error occurs. the input block is omitted from the output. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message.

NSH 3 . dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. Inc.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. ebcdic. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. The files operand and the ascii. ibm. Berkeley and its contributors. SEE ALSO cp(1). oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard. tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. oldascii.

. OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . which may be a directory or host name. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report. df again uses the current host. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host.] DESCRIPTION For each named target. If you do not specify any targets. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output..df(1) Property of BladeLogic. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory. If one of the targets is a directory name only. this header line will be included for each named target. Inc.

Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. while defining string will yield file2. However. No output is produced if the files are identical. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. . BSD July 21. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. 2003 1 . Just print a line when the files differ. Produces a script similar to that of −e. It cannot be digested by ed(1). so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. differ” if files contain binary characters. ed(1).’. which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. Does not output a list of changes. .DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. Inc. −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. but in reverse order. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. unlike with −c. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). −e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context.

In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. If both arguments are directories. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. −I pattern Ignores changes. which are otherwise not mentioned. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. common subdirectories. this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. Long output format. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. Will expand tabs in output lines. beginning with file name. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. If a file is found only in dir2. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. context or unified output formats. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. If a file is found in only one directory. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal.. insertions.g. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header. an underscore or a dollar sign. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. on text files which are different.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3). E. producing a change list. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. Causes diff to report files which are the same. Multiple −X options may be specified. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. Inc. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second.g. 2003 2 .. E. −p With unified and context diffs. Binary files which differ. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. “A” will compare equal to “a”. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns. Multiple −x options may be specified. For C source code following standard layout conventions.

Differences were found. ZZ. pr(1). a diagnostic message is printed. XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. comm(1). XXdYY At line XX delete the line. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003.YYcZZ. −c. DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. Output Style The default (without −e. where XX. At (the end of) line XX of file1. diff3(1). The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. XX.ZZ Same as above. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. but append the range of lines. 2003 3 . XX. As in ed(1). XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input. Inc.QQ Replace the range XX. XX. XXaYY. the standard input is used in its place.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. FILES /tmp/diff. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. −w or −i options specified. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. An error occurred. fnmatch(3). diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). ed(1). If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1. those after pertain to file2. SEE ALSO cmp(1).YY from file1 with the range ZZ. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21.1-2001 specification. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. YY. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered. Thus. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1.YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number.QQ from file2.

Inc.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 4 . BSD July 21. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences.

if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. Also. By default. it leaves it alone. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. turned on the following options: -r. This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. All options are described here. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. by default. then cp overwrites the file. it leaves it alone. permissions. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. By default. If a target file already exists. (The -P option is not turned on by default. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. because the security models for file permissions may differ. however when running dsync. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. By default. -d Use this option with care. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. if it exists. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. before copying over the new source file. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. then it will be created. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. -p. -b -i Backup the target file. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. -m NSH 1 . See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. and access times. When you run cp as dsync. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. and -u. -f. while preserving the file ownerships.

especially on a large file. This is the no parent option. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. If the target directory does already exist. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. Inc. Don’t actually make any changes. write. If you use this option with the -p option. and execute. If the file sizes are the same. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. NSH 2 . Conditional copy. if the target file already exists. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. This option implies the -S option. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. Output a message for each file being copied.c becomes foo. follow symbolic links. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. then cp will create the directory as required. This also applies to new directories being created. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. Conditional copy. Conditional copy. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. and access and modification times as the source file. See the -u option. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. This option turns off the -i option. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option is the same as the -r option. This option can be very resource intensive. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. See the -u option. If the target directory does not already exist. With this option. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. They are -T. With the -P option. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. permissions. With this option. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. -S and -C. -L -P When recursing through directories. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists.

dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. NSH 3 . this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. Unable to get a license to use the software. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. Inc. it will output this message. it will output this message. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. then dsync outputs this message. along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). indicating that the copy may not be complete. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. it outputs this message. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. the -i option will override the -f option. Unknown option or missing file argument. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. it outputs this message. the -f option will override the -i option. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. With the P_ATT variable set. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. The second example does the same as the first. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). dsync outputs this message. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. indicating that it cannot copy directories.

dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1). NSH 4 .

du(1) Property of BladeLogic. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. while traversing a directory.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. With this option. Report the directories that du cannot search. By default. NSH 1 . This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. du ignores all files with more than one link. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. Inc.) If. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks.. du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only. du searches directories recursively. (By default. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. When the P_BSD variable is set. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. output only a summary for all directories searched. du counts linked files only once. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename .. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. Same as -d. If you do not specify any files or directories. Same as -d. findings are already reported in KB. du counts files with multiple links only once. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected.

ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. the universe flag determines the size of a block. With the P_ATT variable set. Inc.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the P_ATT variable set. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). du does not report errors. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. Furthermore. unless you specify the -r option. du assumes that a block is 1K large. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. NSH 2 . Unable to get a license to use the software. du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).

old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character. DEC 8. File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only.] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. HEX A). HEX C). HEX D). HEX 8). DEC 9. Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus. NSH 1 .echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. carriage return (OCT 015. Do not output a new-line at the end. DEC 12. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010.. HEX 5C). $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. HEX B). DEC 10. new line (OCT 012.. DEC 13. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. vertical tab (OCT 013. Form feed (OCT 014. HEX 9). tab (OCT 011. You specified an unknown option. backslash (OCT 0134. DEC 11. DEC 92. Argument to be echoed. Inc. If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument.

.. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1. unexpand [-a] file . Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting.) that contain tabs. Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand.tabn] file . NSH 1 . DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks.expand(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the -a option is given. unexpand ..expand tabs to spaces. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8.tab2.. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters.. ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns. Inc. Berkeley and its contributors. etc... Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output. looking at specific columns. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default. If a single tabstop argument is given.. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations.

A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. such as 5. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. such as -2. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character. If you specify a negative field number. If the field number is 0. If this option is not provided. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row. the second field from the end of the data row is extracted.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specify a positive field number. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. the entire data row is extracted.

NSH 2 . Inc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic.

The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call. or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. and language tests. The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. symbolic links. Don’t do as Berkeley did. and which of several types thereof. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. BSD December 4. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names. preserve these keywords.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file .out. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. or if it’s some sort of special file. performed in this order: filesystem tests. The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic.h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets. For each magic number file. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a.h〉 and possibly 〈exec. just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). whose format is defined in 〈a. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file. . The program checks to see if the file is empty. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another). Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. magic number tests. There are three sets of tests. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. the keyword . People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. 2004 1 . Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. For example.h〉. Inc.h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. so they are performed last. or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). file attempts to guess its language. These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. . When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself.out file.out(5). write a magic.

BSD December 4. This is only useful if checking a list of files. file adds “. ls(1). because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. For example. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files. to test the standard input.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. strings(1). −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. hexdump(1). 2004 2 . −m magiclist Specify an alternate list. which are block special files. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1).out(5). −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. Defaults to ‘:’. Print the version of the program and exit. keep going. Cause symlinks to be followed. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. however. Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. magiclist. This version knows more magic. a. If a compiled magic file is found alongside. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. separated by colon characters. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. it will be used instead.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. Inc. This prevents problems. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). Normally. od(1). Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. of files containing magic numbers. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases.

orig). The files tar. based on the System V version. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. for example. 2004 3 . Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. You know who you are.NOTICE in the distribution. The order of entries in the magic file is significant. it must be escaped. if a pattern string contains a backslash. BSD December 4. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. Darwin. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types. mainly USENET.ac. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries. see the file LEGAL.com〉. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. If your old file command uses a magic file. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. John Gilmore revised the code extensively. Inc. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files.com〉. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic. 1986-1999. used as.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. but with some extensions. Depending on what system you are using. and are not covered by the above license. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here.uk〉. in this version.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code. This program. and contributed by various authors. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. 1989.h and is_tar. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition. was written by Ian F. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. 1973). thank you.com〉. 2000. Toronto.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright. July. Canada. making it better than the first version.

Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e.astron. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is. etc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir.. and particularly this section. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands.. 2004 4 .g. ndbm(3) or. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file.tar.. but is entrenched. first long. Inc. We end up removing guesses (e. with the flexibility of the System V version. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X.gz. first word. This manual page. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte.g. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support. better yet. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup. is too long. once we have fetched it. Still. BSD December 4.g. if the others don’t pan out. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files. inefficient and requires recompilation to update.YY. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. What is it? Better yet. It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line. Regular expression support would make this easy. it should be possible to use the first guess. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Regular expression support would make this easy. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:").

allowing all file names to be processed safely.. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. rounded up to the next full minute. and the file is skipped. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. is n minutes. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . space. If the referenced file does not exist.e. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1).. [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. the file information and type will be for the link itself. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. before their contents. This option exists for backwards compatibility. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). not the link itself. If the referenced file does not exist. 1999 1 .FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -print is assumed. In the absence of an expression. An alias for the −L option. the file information and type will be for the link itself. BSD December 4. Inc. The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. not the link itself. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path . −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. find visits directories in pre-order i. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. rounded up to the next full minute. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. is n 24-hour periods. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. is n minutes. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. Alternatively. By default.e. tab. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs.

then gname is treated as a group ID. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. group. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. -exec utility [argument . The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. file permissions.’ ) . -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. is n minutes. The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. . utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. -execdir utility [argument . . If gname is numeric and there is no such group name.]. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. . -inum n True if the file has inode number n. . rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. is n 24-hour periods. last modification time. Case insensitive.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. size in 512-byte blocks. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”.]. rounded up to the next full minute. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. If the file is a symbolic link. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. Inc. If the file is a block or character special file. These do not describe actual file system types. -follow Follow symbolic links. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. 1999 2 . -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”. size in bytes. number of hard links. -links n True if the file has n links. owner. and pathname. True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. BSD December 4.

If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. . the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. It causes find to not descend into the current file. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. -ok. in 512-byte blocks is n. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. Inc. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . BSD December 4. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. followed by a null character. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. If neither -exec. -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. . It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. is n 24-hour periods. a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. If the mode is not preceded by a dash. If n is followed by a ‘c’. Note. -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. Note. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. -ls. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . rounded up. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. -ok utility [argument . followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. If the mode is octal.].FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. nor -print0 is specified. ‘]’. this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. ‘∗’. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. -print This primary always evaluates to true. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. ‘]’. ‘∗’. If the mode is symbolic. 1999 3 .

and neither means “exactly n”.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. then uname is treated as a user ID. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. 1999 4 . All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”. Inc. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators. It evaluates to true if the expression is false. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type.

but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. ‘?’. These primaries always evaluated to true.2 (“POSIX. The operator -or was implemented as −o. -mindepth. whereis(1). ‘\’. This is not the case. BSD December 4. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. -follow. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. fts(3). getgrent(3). -links. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗.2 (“POSIX. and -xdev. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”.’ may have to be escaped from the shell.2”).FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -cmin. and ‘. ‘)’. the characters ‘∗’. -execdir. -mmin. ‘(’. -inum. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated. Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. -fstype. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. -maxdepth. -iname. ‘!’. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. locate(1). An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”. xargs(1). which(1). -empty. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. The options and primaries -amin. As −print always evaluates to true. Historically. chmod(1).[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). In particular. stat(2). ‘]’. getpwent(3). strmode(3). 1999 5 . and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. ‘[’. This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. -ls.2”) standard. Inc. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. -follow. and the operator -and was implemented as −a. −H. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. the −d.

DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters.. Berkeley and its contributors. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding.8 Last change: NSH 1 . breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters.fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. SunOS 5.. or the standard input if no files are specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold .

Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host.domaincomponent1. <local> . <dns> .com <nis> .Property of BladeLogic.. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered.conf like file. OPTIONS -u Print usage. DNS. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> . If multiple hostnames are specified.. <nis> .. <nis> NSH 1 .domaincomponent2.conf like file on the operating system... EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1.. This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. <local> ... -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch..com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts). -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. <dns> host2... <local> <dns> . and NIS. <nis> .. in that particular sequence. No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.conf like file.conf like file. Inc. in that particular sequence. <dns> .domaincomponent2.domaincomponent1..conf like file...

Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> .domaincomponent2.domaincomponent2.domaincomponent1.domaincomponent1.Property of BladeLogic.. SEE ALSO hostname(1). <local> ..com host4.domaincomponent2.domaincomponent3... <dns> ... <local> .com loghost <dns> ... <dns> .. Inc. <local> host4 host4. <dns> host4..com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra. NSH 2 ...

and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting. This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. unzip(1L). run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. zipinfo(1L).zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . i n f o .zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test.Misc. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line. for example.] funzip [–password] input. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode.]  funzip [–password]  [. . . zipcloak(1L). This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. . funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console.z i p . unzipsfx(1L).] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. To recover. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [. | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. zip(1L). . EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . If there is an argument. or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.z i p. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Decryption may not be supported at some sites.] funzip [–password] input. zipnote(1L).zip  [.g. Given the limitation on single-member extraction. . that is. DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter.. it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. . if any) by prefixing the password with a dash.gz  [. ps(1) under Unix). See DESCRIPTION for more details.zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. i nf o. funzip will reset the terminal properly. nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive). . funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems. then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. . SEE ALSO gzip(1L). In the case where the first member is a directory. The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release).zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test.93) 1 . after prompting again for the password. BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. funzip simply creates the directory and exits. Inc. and command-line histories can be read. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive.

93) 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.Misc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license.raw.raw file. The putlic command uses license. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic. Displays the status of each host. Inc. Do not create a license. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command. a license key. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. one entry per line. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. The license. If you do not specify any of these four options. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license... Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed.dat. You can specify multiple options..dat to license the remote agents. See the -v option for more details. host1 . a product code. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 .. and an optional expiration key. regardless of license status. Verbose output.dat file can contain multiple entries. hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. and writes this data to a file called license. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license. Each entry consists of a hostname. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments.

Force grep to behave as grep.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Force grep to behave as egrep. If grep searched the standard input.. Inc. follow all symbolic links. An empty expression matches every line. Recursively search the subdirectories you specify.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns.file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. If you specified -R. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. but do not attempt to print them. in front of the matching line. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match. By default. and write the names of these files to standard output. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. Treat all files as text. List the pathname for each file. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. it writes the pathname ‘-’. Force grep to behave as fgrep. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). fgrep . If you specified the -R option. When displaying a matching line. grep does not follow symbolic links. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern.. Display version information. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. Search binary files. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. Ignore binary files. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. Write only a count of matching lines. NSH 1 . Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. If you specified the -R option. egrep. Perform case insensitive matching. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep.

-l.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’). or -q. Silent mode. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . grep uses the standard input. ‘$. An error occurred. Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. List the pathname for each file. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. Align the match from the beginning of the line.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘. Inc. No lines were selected. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected. Add another pattern (see example below). The first line of each file is 1. it writes the pathname ‘-’.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. Always print filename headers with output lines. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes.’ which would otherwise match any character. Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. If grep searched the standard input. Suppress normal output. and write the names of these files to standard output. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern.

20 or 25. NSH 3 . Inc.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19.

You specified an unknown option. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file .c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. if you are using the -c option) to be n. $ head -20 *... Instead of displaying count number of lines. If you do not specify any file names. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . This is the default. File whose first few lines you want to display. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Inc. If you do not specify any files.head(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. Unable to get a license to use the software. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna. if you are using the -c option) to be count. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. This is done for compatibility purposes. Measure quantities in lines. When you specify the -B option. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. head outputs the file "as is.c files. display count number of characters. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing.

otherwise. space separated.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. per line. in the order that they were specified. hexadecimal. in hexadecimal. od. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. zero-filled. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. The byte count is an optional positive integer. per line. By default. offset is interpreted as an octal number. Two-byte decimal display. xd . characters of input data per line. zero-filled. a byte count. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. followed by sixteen space-separated. in octal. or the standard input. three column. which defaults to one. Appending the character b. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. For each input file. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. four column. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. per line. and a format. zero-filled. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)).ascii. if no files are specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. space-filled. Inc. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. six column. five column. Two-byte hexadecimal display. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . Display the input offset in hexadecimal. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. two-byte units of input data. One-byte character display. in unsigned decimal. in a user specified format. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. followed by eight space-separated. -o Two-byte octal display. two-byte quantities of input data. with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . 1024. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. k. respectively. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. bytes of input data. decimal. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. two byte quantities of input data. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. offset is interpreted as a decimal number.. zero-filled. followed by eight. or 1048576. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. Without the -v option. separated by whitespace. per line. in octal. With a leading 0x or 0X. Each format is applied iteration count times. Display the input offset in hexadecimal.. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. followed by eight space-separated. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. any number of groups of output lines. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. with a leading 0. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. three column.

%X. Output US ASCII characters. Inc. of the next byte to be displayed. %f. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’. when all of the input data has been processed. with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. cumulative across input files. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. o. which is the iteration count times the byte count. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). _c Output characters in the default character set. Output characters in the default character set. zero-padded octal. %g One byte counts only. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. %G. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. Characters greater than 0xff. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. Eight byte default. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. %x %E. ‘‘n’’. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. which are displayed as two character strings. and x specify the display base as decimal. %o. ‘‘l’’. hexadecimal. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. %_u. %i. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. octal or hexadecimal respectively. two and four byte counts supported. lower-case. %u. one. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data.’’. %_p. %c %d. The appended characters d. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. %e. Four byte default. names. four byte counts supported.

If. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. and referencing a NULL string. the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07.e. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 . the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option.7_Ax\n" "%07. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. input data only partially satisfies a format string. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. If. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. an iteration count is greater than one. Berkeley and its contributors. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). If no format strings are specified. Inc. ‘‘ ’’.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred.

DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. SunOS 5. but cute. front-end for grep. Quoting is not handled.8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 .highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep .

Inc.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. OPTIONS hostname has no options. Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides. NSH 1 . ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1).

A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. Otherwise. -j1 field In file 1. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join . The default output field separator is a single space character. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. Many of the options use file and field numbers. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. join on the field specified by field. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. join uses the standard input. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. -j2 field In file 2. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. The first field in each line is used by default. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1.’’) or whitespace separated. Each output line consists of the join field. -e string Replace empty output fields with string. join on the field specified by field.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. For example. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). join on the field specified by field. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. NSH 1 . In file 2. on the fields on which they are to be joined.field’.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. The join utility exits 0 on success. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. join on the field specified by field. Inc. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields.using the -b option. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based. For example. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. and >0 if an error occurs. For example. -1 field -2 field In file 1. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. For example.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output. join may not report all field matches.

do not use these options. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California. In general. These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number. join on the field specified by field..field_number’’ as described for the current -o option. comm(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. Berkeley and its contributors. Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option. SEE ALSO awk(1). These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification.2’’. Inc.join(1) Property of BladeLogic.. sort(1). paste(1). uniq(1) NSH 2 . This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1. join(1) -o list .

SunOS 5. The name ‘–’ means the standard input.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This option may appear after the last file. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width.max. each option affects only the file after it.8 Last change: NSH 1 . EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line.max Like –f. The options are described below. SEE ALSO join(1).. pr(1). –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. Berkeley and its contributors. Normally. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. Inc. If min begins with a zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min.max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. –f min. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active. zeros will be added to make up the field width.. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output.max Print line fragments according to the format string min. and if it begins with a ‘–’. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). –p min. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline. and may be repeated. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted.

ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. z Like SPACE. h | H Help: display a summary of these commands. The entire N lines are displayed. default one half of the screen size. but scrolls a full screensful. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). BSD January 17. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. .) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. so it can run on a variety of terminals. Inc. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. it becomes the new window size. called N in the descriptions below. for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". remember this one. as indicated. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. In this mode. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals.] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . Commands may be preceded by a decimal number... Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). If N is more than the screen size. default 1. but if N is specified. but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. then "v".. (On a hardcopy terminal. . ESC stands for the ESCAPE key. The number is used by some commands. only the final screenful is displayed. 2003 1 . Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. Also. even if N is more than the screen size. ˆX means control-X. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. default one window (see option -z below). If N is specified. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting. lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. If you forget all the other commands. d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines. COMMANDS In the following descriptions.

rather than a file. default half the screen width (see the -# option). ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. If a number N is specified. or if N is not specified and standard input.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. Inc. default the end of the file. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. While the text is scrolled. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. } ( ) BSD January 17. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. N should be between 0 and 100. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. default half the screen width (see the -# option). but if N is specified. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. default one half of the screen size. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. R F Repaint the screen. default 1 (beginning of file). The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. If N is specified. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. only the final screenful is displayed. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. discarding any buffered input. 2003 2 . If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. even if N is more than the screen size. default 1. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Scroll forward. is being read. default one window (see option -z below). Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. If N is more than the screen size. w Like ESC-v. Like {. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. it becomes the new window size. The entire N lines are displayed. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. If a number N is specified. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. Like }.

they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. respectively.) Followed by any lowercase letter. Search multiple files. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. Certain characters are special. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. acts like {. acts like }. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. Like }. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. that is. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. BSD January 17. Inc. Search multiple files. 2003 3 . as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. as recognized by ed(1). That is. That is. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. N defaults to 1. Followed by a ˆ or $. ˆXˆX Same as single quote. For example. which change this). returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. (Single quote. respectively. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. do a simple textual comparison. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. marks the current position with that letter. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. For example. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. The pattern is a regular expression. Followed by another single quote. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match.

regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. However. If the previous search was modified by ˆN. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. you may not be able to use ˆV. the N-th next file is examined. the search is done without using regular expressions. turn highlighting back on. If a number N is specified. the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. Inc. Examine the previous file in the command line list. the N-th previous file is examined. n Repeat previous search. If the previous search was modified by ˆE. If a number N is specified. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. If the filename is missing. but crossing file boundaries. N ESC-n Repeat previous search. Repeat previous search. A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. for N-th line containing the last pattern. the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). As in forward searches. On such systems. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. ESC-u Undo search highlighting. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. but in the reverse direction. ESC-N Repeat previous search. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". 2003 4 . BSD January 17. If the filename contains one or more spaces. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. If the filename consists of several files. Similarly. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. As in forward searches. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line).

depending on your particular installation. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. For example. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. (Double underscore. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. (Underscore. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. Followed by one of the command line option letters. Like the −! command. (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. the N-th file in the list is examined. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. if defined.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. Inc. Like the −+ command. See the −t option for more details about tags. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. The setting of the option is not changed.) This does not work for string-valued options. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. If possible. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. Go to the next tag. BSD January 17. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. Examine the first file in the command line list. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. as in the − command. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options.) Like the _ (underscore) command. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). 2003 5 . but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. If no new value is entered. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. The following four commands may or may not be valid. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. a new value may be entered after the option letter. it also prints the length of the file. Go to the previous tag. Like the − command. V Prints the version number of less being run. Remove the current file from the list of files. If a number N is specified. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. or a string value (such as -P or -t).

in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. to avoid typing "less -options . the current screen is piped." each time less is invoked. or two dashes followed by a long option name. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. For example. Some long option names are in uppercase. --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. the remainder of the name may be in either case. thus: "-\?". as distinct from --quit-at-eof. or defaults to "sh". The BSD January 17. If an option appears in the LESS variable. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". or newline. OPTIONS Command line options are described below. 2003 6 . "!!" repeats the last shell command. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command).. "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. For example. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. For example.. so command line options override the LESS environment variable. For example. A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. but not --qui. not an ordinary file.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. If <m> is . you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". it may be necessary to quote the question mark. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. By default. This only works if the input is a pipe. Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. Most options may be changed while less is running. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. s filename Save the input to a file. see the -j option). via the "−" command. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. see the -B option). Inc. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. For options like -P which take a following string.

]’’. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. −g | −-hilite-search Normally. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. This option is on by default when invoked as more. Inc. when data is read from a pipe.]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. that is. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. By default. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. the bell is rung). −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. buffer space is unlimited. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. lacks some important capability. If n is -1. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. the entire file is read into memory.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. By default. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. any earlier data is lost. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. ’q’ to quit. 2003 7 . This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. -h0 is implied. that is. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. buffers are allocated automatically as needed. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. By default. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command.) BSD January 17. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. less will refuse to open non-regular files. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.

When invoked as more. then that search does not ignore case. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. A target line is the object of a text search. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. tag search. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. it is also used as a lesskey file. BSD January 17. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. If the -j option is used. If the file already exists. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. and so on. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. By default. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. Inc. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. For example. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. with the percent into the file. less prompts with a colon. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. the second to the bottom is -2. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. especially with a very large input file. This applies only when the input file is a pipe.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. in other words. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. if "-j4" is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. the next is 2. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. Multiple -k options may be specified. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. not an ordinary file. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. not to the file which is currently open. and so on. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). jump to a file percentage. or jump to a marked position. 2003 8 . The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. that is. jump to a line number. This option can be set from within less. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem.

but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line.. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. Inc. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. Thus. If the terminal has a "visual bell". -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. rather than being typed in with each less command. Warning: when the -r option is used. display the remainder on the next line. Without a file name. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command). See the section on PROMPTS for more details. it is used instead. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". -P= changes the message printed by the = command." is zero or more characters other than "m". The default is to fold long lines. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. The bell will be rung on certain other errors. for example. −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung.. m where the ". they will simply report the name of the log file. or be terminated by a dollar sign. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence. that is. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ . This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. That is. that is. BSD January 17. 2003 9 . such as typing an invalid character. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string.. various display problems may result..

but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted.org/software/global/global. etc. For example. which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. for example. (See http://www. Inc. For this to work. and that command is executed to find the tag. that is. 17. it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags". If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. unless the -J option is in effect.. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page. in which case only the status column is highlighted. -x9. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option.. tag information must be available.. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. BSD January 17. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".html). The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal.. 2003 10 . backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability. that is. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary.. tab stops are set at multiples of n. will edit the file containing that tag. 25. | −-tabs=n. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. −xn. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. The entire line is highlighted. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. followed immediately by a TAG. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. Sets tab stops. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. like clearing the screen.gnu.. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.17 will set tabs at positions 9. Other backspaces are deleted. tab stops are set at those positions. Also. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. 33. The default for n is 8. By default. if neither -u nor -U is given. along with the preceding character. they are handled as specified by the -r option. If only one n is specified.

either ˆV or ˆA. the screen is repainted instead. For example. any forward movement causes scrolling. if the screen is 24 lines. not just the first one. BSD January 17. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. If the number n is negative. Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. The default is one screenful. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). this changes the quote character to that character. Note that even after the quote characters are changed. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. or the pattern for a search command). The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. Inc. This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. As a special case. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. If the number specified is zero. By default. changes the open quote to the first character. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. that is. Followed by a single character. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. For example. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. a filename for the :e command. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). If a command line option begins with +. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. and the close quote to the second character. 2003 11 . +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. If the option starts with ++. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. see the caveat under the "g" command above). it starts the display at the specified line number (however. +<number> acts like +<number>g. Followed by two characters.

Inc. and to set environment variables. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. Otherwise. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. that character is used instead of ˆU. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings.less". KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. the first match is entered into the command line.) Move the cursor one word to the right. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING).) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. If the completed filename is a directory. Otherwise. 2003 12 . a "/" is appended to the filename. The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. If it matches more than one filename. or cancel the command if the command line is empty.) Move the cursor one word to the left. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. BSD January 17. less uses that as the name of the lesskey file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Delete the entire command line. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit).) Delete the word under the cursor. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. If it matches more than one filename. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is.

. these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. as entered by the user.sh %s".LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. To use an input pipe. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. However. rather than putting the data into a replacement file. but still let less view them directly: lessopen. that is. It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". esac lessclose. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. less uses the original file. and so on. and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. Before less opens a file. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. then echo /tmp/less. it will call another program. and the name of the replacement file. which writes the contents of the file to a different file.$$ fi . The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file. which was output by LESSOPEN. To set up an input postprocessor. the original filename as entered by the user. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. When less closes a file opened in such a way. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen. 2003 13 .sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN).sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less. An input pipe. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. This program receives two command line arguments. To set up an input preprocessor. as normal.sh %s %s". called the input postprocessor. the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). It should create the replacement file. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. Inc.$$ ]. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. called the replacement file. the original filename. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename. For example.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less. as normal.

For example. and all others are binary. CR. 2003 14 . 2 and 3 are control. TAB. NL. Selects a Russian character set. "bccc4b. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used. The character ". 6 and 7 are binary. Same as iso8859. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal. 4. When an input pipe is used. (This is an example. Inc. A decimal number may be used for repetition. In this case. and "b" for binary." is used for a normal character. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. 1. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. Same as iso8859. This is the same as ASCII. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-". and formfeed are control characters. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example. control. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services.Z) uncompress -c $1 . esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set. "c" for control. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up.sh %s". Selects an EBCDIC character set. 5. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. and 8 is normal. The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set.) BSD January 17. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal.." would mean character 0 is binary. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. and binary. Should not be displayed directly. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. In this case.

but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings. ˆA for control-A). 2003 15 .b128. less will use setlocale to determine the character set. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables.b. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line.33b. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b.8b8.b.8b6. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file. as specified by the -j option. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. the page number of the last line in the input file. For example. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility. or equivalently. 8bcccbcc18b95.6b10. Otherwise. etc. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191. The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character.8b8. If that string is not found. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. X. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially.9b7. and a "j" means use the "target" line. d. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used. normal attribute is assumed.b.33b.9b5. Replaced by the size of the current input file. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]".. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.g.b.10b6. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video).b9. o.b. 8bcccbcc18b95. a "b" means use the bottom line.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set.7b 9. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17. as with the %b option. if the setlocale interface is also not available. Inc.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables. an "m" means use the middle line. If the character is a "t". but your system supports the setlocale interface. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e.7b9.bb125. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file. "∗s" is standout. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. "∗d" is bold.).3b9.b 8bcccbcc18b95. 8bcccbcc18b95. Finally. and "∗n" is normal.17b3. "∗u" is underlined. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used. the default character set is latin1. then the default character set is utf-8. The line to be used is determined by the X.

Replaced by the name of the current input file. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. of the specified line is known. If any item is unknown (for example. based on byte offsets. as with the %b option. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. The line used is determined by the X. The line used is determined by the X. Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. True if the page number of the specified line is known. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. are included in the prompt. based on line numbers. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. of the specified line is known. See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. but may appear anywhere. Inc. based on byte offsets. if input is not a pipe). A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. Replaced by the total number of input files.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. up to a period. BSD January 17. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. 2003 16 . True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). The line to be used is determined by the X. If the condition is true. a condition is evaluated. any characters following the question mark and condition character. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). as with the %b option. If the condition is false. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. if and only if the IF condition is false. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. True if there is more than one input file. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. based on line numbers. True if at end-of-file. the file size if input is a pipe). such characters are not included. True if the percent into the current input file. a question mark is printed instead. True if the line number of the specified line is known. Same as %B. True if the percent into the current input file. True if there is an input filename (that is. True if the size of the current input file is known. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. Usually used at the end of the string. as with the %b option.

. This is the default prompt. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively). a dash is printed. This prompt prints the filename. followed by the file name. if the current input file is not the last one). otherwise the byte offset if known. Otherwise..Next\: %x. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark.?m(file %i of %m) .:?pB%pB\%. .?e(END) ?x. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L.. The filename is followed by the line number.%t ?f%f . This prompt would print the filename. byte %bB?s/%s.%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L.Next\: %x. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only. any trailing spaces are truncated.?e(END) ?x.. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%.?m(file %i of %m) .?e(END) ?x.. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash. Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash.Next\: %x. The pipe command. True if there is a next input file (that is. Finally. if we are at end-of-file... ?n?f%f .: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s.. Then.%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined. : byte %bB?s/%s. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B". Notice how each question mark has a matching period. otherwise the percent if known. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. period. If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input. otherwise the string "Standard input". ?f%f . if there is one. For reference. BSD January 17.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-.. if known. less runs in a "secure" mode.%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. followed by a + and the line number. if known. Inc. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1. percent. 2003 17 . the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file.?m(file %i of %m) . or has other differences in invocation syntax.?n?m(file %i of %m) . colon. This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command. %f Note that this expands to the editor name. ?n?f%f . The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm. if known.

or in a lesskey(1) file. Metacharacters in filenames. Use of tags files. Use of lesskey files. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. Language for determining the character set. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). The editing command. LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Log files. See discussion under PROMPTS. 2003 18 . BSD January 17. Inc. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. non-control characters. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). ˆL). such as "∗". LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. global tags are not used. If not set. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command. Filename completion (TAB. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual.

org〉.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD.) BSD January 17. See discussion under SECURITY. If the :e command is used to name more than one file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. see the less homepage at http://www. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen.greenwoodsoftware. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. 2003 19 . as well as to expand filenames. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).com/less. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell. On such terminals. For more information. Inc. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file.com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. In certain cases. Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion. LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. more text than the matching string may be highlighted.

com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text. 2003 20 . setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. To workaround this problem. non-binary files. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence.greenwoodsoftware. See http://www. Inc. BSD January 17. On some systems. Also. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary.

Otherwise. except for the special section header lines. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. If no input file is specified.less is used. The characters in the string may appear literally. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. The input file consists of one or more sections.lesskey . If the input file is ‘-’. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. by default $HOME/. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. If the output file already exists. other options and arguments are ignored. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. lesskey will overwrite it. The action is the name of the less action. #env Defines environment variables. from the list below. or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). by default $HOME/. this line may be omitted. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. If no output file is specified. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. If −V or −−version is present. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . standard input is read. Otherwise. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. The string may be a single command key.

LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. tab and the backslash itself. space. When such a command is entered while running less. just as if it were typed in to less. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. For example. see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below. An action may be followed by an "extra" string. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. and then the extra string is parsed. the action is performed.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

Since all default commands are disabled.LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands. In addition. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. For example. in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. one per line as in the example below. but not for a "noaction" command. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. Alternatively. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands.

less Default lesskey file.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments.lesskey Default lesskey input file. /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. such as uparrow. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. Each line consists of an environment variable name. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. FILES $HOME/. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys. NSH 5 . LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. in a keyboard-independent manner. $HOME/. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored.

link(1) Property of BladeLogic. do not use it except in exceptional cases. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. only the super user can use the link command. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. Links to directories. If you want this behavior. since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. Unable to get a license to use the software. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. Newly created link file. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. and links across hosts will not work. links to files on different partitions. Normally. Inc. Existing file to be linked. link always exits with an exit code of 0. This is not the default for link. OPTIONS link has only one option. NSH 1 . you should use the ln command instead. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1.

ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file. OPTIONS -f By default. if the target file already exists. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option. Symbolic links however. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . NSH 1 . You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists.. If you use the -f option with the -i option. With this option. ln does not ask for this confirmation. In the output of the ls command. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. and it does not have appropriate write permissions..2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. Existing file to be linked. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. if the target file already exists.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. Inc. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory. With this option. Newly created link file. consist of a special file. In the second case. if the target file of a link already exists. then the target file must be a directory. and you can make symbolic links to directories. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file.] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column). Furthermore. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. It simply deletes the current version of the target file.

ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. You should normally use the ln command. This is not possible to do. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. then the target file must be a directory.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. An unknown option was given. NSH 2 . SEE ALSO link(1). ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created.4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. avoid using it except in exceptional cases. and the target file already exists. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. The target file is not a directory. One of the files to be removed was not removable. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename.

l. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on).. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 . By default. ls does not display files beginning with a period (. lr. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen. If you do not specify any file arguments. then the default format depends on two things. With this option. The remaining programs are derivatives of ls. and -g options). ls is the standard program. -x. With this option. then ls uses the current directory (. depending on the universe setting. If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory. This option is similar to the -a option." (current directory) and ".. or a stream listing (see the -m option). then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. a multi-column listing (see the -C.). This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column. Before ls displays a listing. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. With the P_ATT variable set.. or if it has a value less than 20.". then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification. When using a multi-column output. if it is being redirected or piped). ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically. -o. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls. If the COLUMNS variable is not set. By default. For each file argument. If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). With the P_BSD variable set. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. it uses the default value of 80. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . If the output is going to a terminal. ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable. Consequently. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). Inc. If you do not specify an output format." and ". however it does not include the directories ". lc. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. and -1 options). This often includes the directories ". ls displays the contents of the directory.) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). This may be the default." (parent directory). ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. then the default universe behavior determines the output format.] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. Each derivative has a specific option turned on. if a file contains special characters in the name. ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option).). (This is the default behavior. lf..

if a file contains special characters in the name. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. With this option.. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. When used with the -u option. For each file found. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . and sockets are marked with a ’=’. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. block/character special. when an argument is a symbolic link. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing).ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. -t. ls sorts the listing by file name. With this option turned on. the options -l. Each line contains detailed information about the file. This option is similar to the -l option. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. If ls comes across a directory. ls sorts the listing by file size. This makes it easy to identify directories. By default. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. When used with the -t option. By default. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format. By default. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. . This option is like the -F option. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. With this option. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. With the P_ATT variable set. does a reverse sort by time stamp. ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). putting a comma and a space between file names. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. ls sorts the listing by file name. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. By default. Consequently. while the -a option is turned on. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. does a reverse sort by user name. With this option. The default time stamp is date of last modification. See the options -c and -u for more information. For each file found. This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. ls treats each file argument as a directory. etc. and -r are turned off. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory.. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). This option tells ls to output a long listing. Inc. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. ls does not display the owner name/ID field.) When outputting a long listing. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. -s. With the P_BSD variable set. This option tells ls to output a long listing. Directories are marked with a ’/’. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/).

Instead. EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. With the P_ATT variable set. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. With the P_ATT variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. the default behavior is to output the group name field. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. ls uses the default screen width of 80. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. If a long listing is being output. the group name field is also included in long listings. Inc. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. There are 25 options for this command. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. there are several option conflicts. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. If a long listing is not being produced. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names. With the P_BSD variable set. -C. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. then with the P_BSD variable set. With the P_ATT variable set. or -x options). a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. ls ignores column settings less than 20. With the P_BSD variable set.

The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. If you do not specify this option. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. man displays the output of the remote man command. Normally. No data was returned from the remote host. using the -h host option. NSH 1 . Unable to get a license to use the software. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. Because of this. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. This version of man does not. man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it.

This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. This is the default behavior. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. If you specify a file on a remote host. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation.. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . Inc.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file.. md5sum takes its input from stdin. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file. OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). If you do not specify any files. the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. Do not output warning messages. Light mode. -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 .] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value.

With this option. If the mode contains non octal digits. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. where mode is an octal value.. Set the initial user ownership to user. An unknown option was given. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist.. (This may be altered by the value of current umask. then this error message will appear. mkdir creates the missing directory. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777. Unable to get a license to use the software.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. Second. NSH 1 . This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. Otherwise a warning message appears. If either directory does not exist. Otherwise a warning message appears. By default. The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. Inc. mkdir will create parent directories as required. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname .

mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Inc.

mkfifo was unable to create the special file.. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. Unable to get a license to use the software. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1).mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. Inc. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name .. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. NSH 1 . You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists.

As the second argument. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. a character special file (c). tells mknod to create a block special file. Unable to get a license to use the software. Inc. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. The first argument is the name of the special file. If you create a character or block special file. NSH 1 . The major number of the character/block special file. tells mknod to create a character special file. The minor number of the character/block special file. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. The second argument specifies the type of special file. As the second argument. As the second argument. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. mknod was unable to create the special file. or a block special file (b). tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). the name of the special file you want to create. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files.mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic.

OPTIONS -i With this option. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. $ mv foo. then the target must be a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y.. The second examples moves all . Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. Inc. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. if a target file already exists. First. It simply overwrites the file. Destination file or directory.. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway. With the -f option. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . Source file. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. By default.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. mv does not display this prompt. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. The target file is not a directory. An unknown option was given. NSH 1 . mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found.bar to foobar. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. Second. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target).c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*. you can use it to rename files. An error occurred while trying to move a file. then mv overwrites the file. then the target file must be a directory. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. then the target file must be a directory. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible. mv checks to see if the target file already exists.

mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. The target file could not be created. mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. See cp for more details on copying directories. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the source file is removed. the files are actually copied. the files are actually copied. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the -i option will override the -f option. After having copied the source file to the target file. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the source must be deleted. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). the files are actually copied. Inc. the files are actually copied. There was an error deleting the source file. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. There was an error removing the source file. The target file could not be created. the -f option will override the -i option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. NSH 2 .

.. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations. If you use this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. Copy in parallel.. unless you are using the -d option.. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s). addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync... <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. Inc. see their respective documentation. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 .. These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts .ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . then the <sources> must be absolute path names. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. Otherwise.//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . These commands provide an alternate interface.P. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files..

. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts .. Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts .. NSH 2 . ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus. Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation.. cp(1). dsync.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic... ncp. EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts . SEE ALSO dsync(1). uncp(1). Inc.

Quit application. Quit application. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Therefore. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.P. Sort on the specified column. This data is not available on all systems. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. this data may not be available for all servers. Inc. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .or 5. This option overrides the -t option. Refresh screen. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. addresses.2.4. addresses.. In addition. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. ncpu displays the value as a number.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . -r -s field Sort in reverse order.. Do not show a header on output. See the -f option below. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Show only entries that match the given expression.P.3.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. some systems (for example. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies. -t NSH 1 . See the -s option below. Replace the # character with 1. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. Reverse sort order... <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.Property of BladeLogic. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline.

nmem(1).Property of BladeLogic.8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. Switch to disk info view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nps(1). Switch to memory info view. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. and OR. Switch to process summary view. AND. nnet(1). see the man page for blexpr. ndf(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). Inc. Switch to statistics view. When an expression is used to match a string. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. but does not mimic it exactly. Switch to process info view. host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to network info view. For full details on expressions. nstats(1) NSH 2 . including NOT. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. wildcards are supported. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to system info view.

-h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. Behave top like. -r -s field Sort in reverse order..P. This option overrides the -t option. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . The field should be one of the column headers as described above. See the -f option below. addresses. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. Comparisons are made case neutral. Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. Only show entries which match the given expression. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. Property of BladeLogic. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. addresses.. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Inc.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.P. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . See the -s option below. Inc. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Do not show a header on output. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf.

Inc.. AND. Switch to memory info view. Property of BladeLogic. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. including NOT. nover(1). Inc. nmem(1). Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to network info view.4.7. Switch to system info view. nnet(1). or 0 (10).e. For full details on expressions.3.9. Switch to statistics view. Switch to disk info view. Switch to process info view.8.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option.5. enclose the expression in single quotes). you can define an expression used to filter the output data. The expression should be a single argument (i. and OR. see the man page for blexpr. Switch to process summary view. nps(1). nstats(1) NSH 2 . Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. wildcards are supported. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.6.2. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1.

ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses.. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. then depending on which options you specified. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. file permissions. When you specify the -p option. In its base use. -t. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. -o. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . Will only appear if you specified the -p option.. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. and date of latest modification. file ownerships. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. The file exists but has different access permissions. Do not output files if they are equal. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. the width is set to 80 characters. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. When you specify the -s option. The file exists but has different file ownerships. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. Also compare file permissions. If the file exists. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. Also compare file sizes. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. Inc. By default. Also compare file ownerships. the following codes may also appear. When you specify the -o option. and -p options. Traverse directories recursively. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons.

Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus.. By default. it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. These options (-1.. When calculating the optimal output. SEE ALSO cp(1). dsync(1).ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. assume the output device width to be width characters. -2 . where N is the number of directories being checked. Inc. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. When you specify the -t option. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output. NSH 2 . ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns. The default assumption is 80 characters.

bash. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>. For more information. On UNIX agents. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. Inc. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). In addition. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh).. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. It sets the HOME. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. Without this option. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr.g. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. LOGNAME. -l Simulates a login session. If the program is called explicitly. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 . where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. Once the remote program has been started. etc. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. which some interactive programs need (e.profile) should be run. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways.g. ksh. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine. as determined by the current working directory. If you specify this option. Finally.. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. .

Inc. As such. This option is available on agents running 7. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . It must be a batch (output only) command. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. By default. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where. This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment. before it is passed to the application. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call. automatically transcode data. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues.0.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. Do not transcode input/output. Imagine for example.3 or later. by default. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). See examples below. is converted to the local code page. As such the output will be not very useful. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). meaning no auto transcoding. In the same way. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. Release 7. As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). To deal with this nexec will now.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.

see the nsh man page. For more information. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. First. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. In the first instance. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. take the following steps. nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs.. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. Inc. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. host% cat hosts NSH 3 . # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd .

Similarly. SEE ALSO rsh(1). An option may not be universal to all platforms. Inc. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.bletch. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems.com In the following example. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected.bletch. NSH 4 .com Hostname for rome is: rome.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon.bletch. Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems.bletch. not all commands are available on all hosts. The best example of this is the ps command. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs.

It performs a remote login to host. NSH 1 . Inc. The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. The name of the remote host you want to log into. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). telnet(1). nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence. rlogin. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. SEE ALSO nexec(1). The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines.nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. and/or ssh. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet.

<SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 . Property of BladeLogic. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. Inc.. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Only show entries which match the given expression.. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. This option overrides the -t option. Behave top like.P. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. Comparisons are made case neutral. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Do not show a header on output. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. See the -s option below. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. addresses. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. See the -f option below. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Inc. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available. addresses. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.P. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option.

Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nover(1). Switch to memory info view. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to disk info view. nps(1). Inc.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Property of BladeLogic. including NOT. or 0 (10). CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.e.2.. Switch to network info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. The expression should be a single argument (i. Switch to process summary view.6. wildcards are supported. -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. ndf(1). Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. and OR.3. you can define an expression used to filter output data. nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. AND. enclose the expression in single quotes). Switch to system info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 .5.8. For full details on expressions. nnet(1). Switch to process info view. Inc.4. see the man page for blexpr.7. Switch to statistics view.9. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).

or if you do not have the required permissions. I.. In addition.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Do not show a header on output.P. With this option. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. NAME Adapter name. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. the MAC address appears as all zeros. Not all adapters have a MAC address. This option overrides the -t option.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. Refresh screen. See the -f option below. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. By default. Reverse sort order. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. MAC Adapter MAC address. addresses. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Quit application.P. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. If there is no MAC address. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Inc. nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Quit application. Subnet mask for the adapter. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. address of the adapter.P.2 and beyond. NSH 1 . The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. See the -s option below. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Show only entries that match the given expression. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. addresses.. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name.

nnet(1) Sort on the specified column.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic.6.5. ndf(1) NSH 2 . nmem(1).4.2. nstats(1). nover(1). nps(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Inc.3. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. or 7. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. For full details on expressions. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Replace the # character with 1. see the man page for blexpr. Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. but does not mimic it exactly.

If the standard output is a terminal.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored. Otherwise. Inc. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup. If standard error is a terminal. BSD June 6.NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.out cannot be created in the current directory. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file. the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.out in the current directory. the standard output is appended to the file nohup.2”) compatible. it is directed to the same place as the standard output. . .2 (“POSIX. 1993 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg .

The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic.P. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. Only show entries which match the given expression. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. Do not show a header on output. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. Windows systems. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. Inc.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Comparisons are made case neutral. Inc. addresses. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. See the -f option below.g. This option overrides the -t option. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS. addresses. Behave top like. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. ARCH The system hardware architecture. Property of BladeLogic. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . the kernel release for Linux. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. the release level for AIX. See the -s option below. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off).. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information.. Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information. and as not set for Solaris. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.

including NOT. Property of BladeLogic.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.21-4. nnet(1). EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems). Switch to system info view.e. you can define an expression used to filter output data. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).5. or 0 (10). The expression should be a single argument (i. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2. nmem(1).4. ndf(1). and OR. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. enclose the expression in single quotes). see the man page for blexpr. Switch to process info view. nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.7. When an expression is used to match a string.3.. nstats(1) NSH 2 . wildcards are supported.4. AND. nps(1). Inc.6.2. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to memory info view.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option.8. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to network info view. For full details on expressions. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to statistics view. Inc.9. Switch to process summary view. Switch to disk info view.

addresses.P. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. Do not show a header on output.P. -t NSH 1 . Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Reverse sort order.. Quit application. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether. Quit application. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. Inc. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display. Show only entries that match the given expression. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether.. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. See the -s option below. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. See the -f option below. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.Property of BladeLogic.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. Refresh screen. This option overrides the -t option. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. addresses. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.

CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Inc. including NOT. see the man page for blexpr. nover(1). nps(1). nstats(1) NSH 2 . See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to statistics view. wildcards are supported. and OR.3. Switch to network info view.Property of BladeLogic. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nmem(1). When an expression is used to match a string. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.2. nnet(1). Switch to process info view.4. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. AND.5. Switch to system info view. but does not mimic it exactly. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Define an expression to filter the output data. 7 or 8. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Switch to memory info view. For full details on expressions. Sort on the specified column. Switch to process summary view. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).6. Replace the # character with 1. Switch to disk info view.

. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display.) The process ID. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. (This column only appears in the -c output. The total amount of real memory that the process is using. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Refresh screen. -t NSH 1 . With this option. Inc. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. This option overrides the -t option. The process’ priority. START The start time of the process. The parent process ID. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. Show only entries that match the given expression. Do not show a header on output. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. See the -s option below. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values..

Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. see the man page for blexpr. and OR. Replace the # character with 1.9. SEE ALSO blexpr(1).2. When an expression is used to match a string. For full details on expressions.4. sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. nmem(1). Switch to statistics view. Property of BladeLogic. Reverse sort order. ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. For example. Define an expression to filter the output data. nnet(1). Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. ndf(1). 0 indicates column 10.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic.5. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.3. Switch to process summary view. including NOT.6.7. nover(1). you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. wildcards are supported. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. AND. Switch to system info view. or 0. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Switch to disk info view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. Switch to network info view. Switch to process info view.8. Inc. Switch to memory info view. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes. but does not mimic it exactly. Inc. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.

You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine.0. If you have set a root directory. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell.assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. you should also specify a directory.EXE In Network Shell. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. such as C:. You can never access the root of a drive. When you cd to a new host. nor can you access any other drives. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. the \h sequence takes on a new value. To access other drives on the computer. NSH 1 . SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -. If you do not.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host. as the following example illustrates.Property of BladeLogic.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works.

the command returns the hostid of host2.Property of BladeLogic. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. When executing a command. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. For example. In the following example. the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell.. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities. Inc. For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. enter the command with a fully qualified path./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges. Native commands. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory./. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory.. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 . Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. to execute the native command. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory.

and reboot. the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. Inc. It should be a non-interactive program. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. they can be set to use default values. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps.Property of BladeLogic. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. for example. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. you must perform two steps. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. First. the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). as described earlier. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted. If. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. To continue with the above example. If this field is not set. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. In addition to regular DOS commands. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. To add a supported remote command using this method. halt. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. This can be unset. The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. There are a few limitations when using redirection. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. create a soft link to the program nexec. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. capturing both its standard output and standard error. For example: command_name . the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. By entering a value of -. but. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. First. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 .

especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts. then a new dynamic network connection is created.nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option. Inc.. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. is treated the same as the < redirection type. If no arguments are given. the redirection type <>. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH. The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above). THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses.nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. Other values may produce unexpected results. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. For example. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. the shell closes all connections. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. For efficiency reasons. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. When accessing relatively few remote hosts. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command.Property of BladeLogic.. calling the disconnect command is not required. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/. Next. $ZDOTDIR/.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process.

Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 . Inc.

and commands. The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology."). $count = NSH::read ($fd. 100). int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. NSH::chmod ("bar". NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". NSH::. 0. The following examples will help clarify their use. (W_OK) Test for write permission. Inc.. then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. NSH::unlink("file"). $buf. If no hostname is included in the argument. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". $buf. then the file on the current host is used. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK).Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). NSH::close($fd). int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. NSH::rmdir ("bar"). NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". 0. 0777). $count = NSH::read ($fd. 0777). NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path. NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname. NSH::chdir (". $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". 0777).. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. (R_OK) Test for read permission. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". 100). use NSH. processes. SYNOPSIS use NSH. Network Shell Perl Module 1 .. NSH::chmod (char *path. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . $fd = NSH::open ("bar". NSH::close($fd). The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API.

Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. print "PWD = $pwd". $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. Network Shell Perl Module 2 . NSH::fchdir($fd). int uid. NSH::creat (char *filename. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. "Hello world\n". while (($filename. 12). $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). NSH::close ($fd). Inc. NSH::fgets (char *buffer. pwd = NSH::getcwd ().") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". 200). int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". 100. 200). NSH::close ($fd). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::write ($fd. NSH::fchown ($fd. 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". and group gid. NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. and group gid. } NSH::closedir ($fd). NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd. $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n". 100. int uid. NSH::chown ("foo". int size.

The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Network Shell Perl Module 3 . then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. In other words. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. then a SIGTERM is sent. long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. 100). int sig) Send a signal to a process. NSH::getpriority (int which.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. process group or user. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. NSH::kill (int pid. NSH::kill (100. 9). Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). NSH::flock (int fd. $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH). NSH::ftruncate (int fd. Remove lock. 512. If sig is ommitted. } NSH::close ($fd). $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). and can have any of the following values ORed together. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. Inc. $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. know what you are doing with the call.

NSH::lseek (int fd. NSH::lseek ($fd. int maj. int mode. NSH::mkdir ("foo. Inc. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). mode is assumed to be 0755. When creating a file. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. As previously mentioned. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. If mode is ommitted. Network Shell Perl Module 4 . int flags = O_RDONLY. NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). If none is given. 0). NSH::link ("file1". NSH::mknod (char *filename. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. 0777). int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. the pointer is set to offset bytes. NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. if the second (and third) argument are not given. mode is assumed to be 0755. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. 2. The second argument controls how the file is opened. The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. long offset. If only a single argument is given. If mode is ommitted. $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. NSH::mkdir ("foo. 0777). NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. then the file is opened for reading. then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename.

$fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. 100)) { print $buf.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option. If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). char *buffer. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). $buf. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack. Network Shell Perl Module 5 . If mode is ommited. NSH::popen (char *cmd. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. it is assumed to be ’r’. int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. } NSH::read (int fd. Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. NSH::closedir($fd).

"bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. } NSH::closedir($fd). ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. NSH::setpriority (int which. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. NSH::seekdir ($fd. int who. $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. prio is the new priority to be set. Network Shell Perl Module 6 . NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). process group or user. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). NSH::rewinddir ($fd). NSH::rename ("foo". NSH::rename (char *oldname. $pos). ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Inc. NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory.

All three (lstat. %d\n". 200). NSH::utime (char *filename. long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar").NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. "//host2". $nodename. long mtime. [3]). "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). Inc. NSH::write (int fd. exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. then the current date of the local host is used. [2]). int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. In essence. $version. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). If either mtime or atime are not given. $release. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. In the Network Shell environment. NSH::truncate ("foobar". %d\n". foreach $host ("//host1". The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. NSH::truncate (char *filename. ($sysname. [4]). stat. These types of symbolic links however. [1]). will not work outside the Network Shell environment. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). char *buffer. long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. %d\n". the following command is generated and executed.

%d\n". %d\n". %d\n". [8]). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". [9]). %d\n". %d\n". %d\n". Inc. NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 .NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. [12]). [10]). [7]). @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). [11]). [6]).

.147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus. # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . To determine the optimal write buffer size. # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes .) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size.145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51... Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. . done. This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. . but sometimes this value may not be optimal. (See EXAMPLE. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host. each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. NSH 1 . then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly). If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data.. Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample.173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes. (52. done. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes).. This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host.. done. From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux. Inc. use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51.012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3... perform a bulk write rather than a regular write. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer. use a file size KB large.. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data. .. done... OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes. . It does not test how fast it can receive data. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes.. nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times. DESCRIPTION Depending on the network. . done. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size.. -b When writing data to the remote host. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB).nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. .

Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1). NSH 2 .nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp(1). Inc. secure(1).

Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname . a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine.nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine. Inc. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’... NSH 1 .

Inc. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. See the -f option below. The current time on the system. Sort on the specified column. or 7. With this option..5.3. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics.. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. For UNIX. see uptime (1). With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.P. By default. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used. Do not show a header on output. Refresh screen.P. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. it shows a CPU usage percentage. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . addresses. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values. Reverse sort order. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. For Windows. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Quit application. addresses. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics.2. Quit application. This option overrides the -t option. See the -s option below. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. Replace the # character with 1.6.4. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. LOAD The system’s current load average. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. Show only entries that match the given expression.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. -t NSH 1 .

nps(1). See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. see the man page for blexpr. AND. nover(1) NSH 2 .00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. nmem(1). and OR. wildcards are supported.00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0. ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). Switch to statistics view. blexpr(1). Switch to process info view.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. Switch to memory info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to network info view.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to system info view. including NOT. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nnet(1).nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. Inc. Switch to process summary view. but does not mimic it exactly. Switch to disk info view. For full details on expressions. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. ndf(1).

please read the individual man page for each command.ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic.. nmem(1).. nstats(1).. nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host ..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . For more information.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host ..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Inc.. nps(1).. nover(1). blquery(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf. SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nps.. ndf(1) NSH 1 .. nmem. nover..

Inc. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.

gz gzip -c file2 >> foo. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present. gzcat. Inc. provided that the file has the correct header.gz nunzip foo. --quiet --verbose Same as -v. gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with . Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.tar. Verbose output. when config. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout. 1 .tgz. This option is the default when decompressing. --help file Display a help screen and quit. For example.GZ.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic.gz. Instead.gz is uncompressed. copy the time stamp from the compressed file.tar. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. gunzip.TGZ. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip. . gzip -c file1 > foo. or . File or files to be compressed or decompressed. Inc.gz nunzip --verbose foo.gz Suppress all warnings. --no-name When decompressing. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic. the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config. .

Sort the list in descending order. only the -s option is considered. input lines are contained in a file called list. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. Remove duplicate entries. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’.txt. Sorting is alphabetical. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. If you do not provide a sorting option. In the syntax shown above. If you provide a tag field. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. $cat list. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. The resulting list contains only unique entries. The strings are only grouped by tag. Inc. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order. the string order is not changed. the tag field is optional. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. If tag fields are provided in the input list. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. Within each tag group.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.

txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.txt europe order(1) NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list. Inc.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list.

Inc.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 3 .

The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. circularly. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. and writes the resulting lines to standard output. If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. the standard input is used. The characters in list are used circularly. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. standard input is read one line at a time. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. Berkeley and its contributors.8 Last change: NSH 1 . the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order.e...merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. i. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5.. DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. and >0 if an error occurs. for each instance of ‘-’. The paste utility exits 0 on success. unless otherwise specified by the -d option.

The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [. [-o options] .to_date] [/[c][m]]] .. For a list of supported archive formats. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation. When a file operand is also a directory... [file .... The setting of ownership... Write. [file . [-G group] . pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format. write.. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax.... When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. and will copy directory hierarchies. pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic... pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. [-s replstr] . pax will read an archive file from standard input. The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted. [-G group] . The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list. -w -r -w NSH 1 . pax operation is independent of the specific archive format. [-G group] . and supports a wide variety of different archive formats. and copy.. write. For a description of tar options. except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below)... Inc. Copy. pax copies the file operands to the destination directory. and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns.... [-U user] ...to_date]] .. [-T [from_date] [.. access and modification times...... The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input.] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] ..] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] . pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. When an extracted file is a directory.. [-U user] . [-G group] .to_date] [/[c][m]]] . -r Read.. [-s replstr] .... <none> List. and write a table of contents to standard output. If you do not specify any file operands..] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read. read.. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input. pax will read an archive file from standard input. If you do not specify any file operands.... [-U user] . the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included.. [-T [from_date] [...] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] ... [-T [from_date] [.. see the section below. [pattern . [pattern . and list the members of an archive file. [-E limit] [-U user] . and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option. All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy. The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns..tar . The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering..] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] .read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files . Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands... see the -x option. [-p string] .to_date]] . pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar.

When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. pax selects all members of the archive. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. respectively. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. pax uses the archive’s existing format. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. or archive members of type directory being extracted. and file operands. or if it is not of type directory. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. If you try to append to an archive. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. If you do not supply a pattern operand.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). using a format different from the archive’s existing format. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. When required. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. If you do not specify a block size. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. If you do not specify any file operands. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). S_IRWXG. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. Inc. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. pattern operands. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. When a pattern matches a directory. If the directory operand does not exist. or if it is not writable by the user. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 .

the user ID. Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. and file modification time. When pax matches members of type directory. o. If this line consists of a single period. Preserve the user ID and group ID. its file mode and. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. group ID. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. pax skips the file or archive member. By default. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. By default. Do not preserve file modification times. The string consists of the specification characters a. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. For example. and p (described below). options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. m o p In the preceding list. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. e. NSH 3 . in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. Preserve the file mode bits. Inc. (This option is the letter ell). In the copy mode ( -r -w). -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. file modification times are still preserved. This is intended to be used by root. its modification time. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. In general. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). If this line is blank. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. The file times are preserved by default. Otherwise. pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. file mode bits. if -p eme is specified. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. file access time. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. the one(s) given last will take precedence. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. and you can specify multiple -p options. Do not overwrite existing files. m. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. Link files. someone with all the appropriate privileges. Preserve everything -. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags.

and copy). -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. The old string may also contain <newline> characters. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. with the default format being ustar. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 . Inc. Otherwise. pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. -x format Specify the output archive format. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line. The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. The old binary cpio format. During copy. During write. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. During read. is not buffered. This format is not very portable. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. Therefore. You can specify multiple -s expressions. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. terminating with the first successful substitution. The trailing <newline>. or subexpression matching. write. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links).pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. read or accessed them. and is written only after the file has been read or written. for all the other operational modes ( read. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. During a list operation. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr.

Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). respectively. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. 1024 (1K) or 512. Inc. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. gid. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. soft links. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. You can use a ’´ to escape the #. This is the default mode. -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. The default limit is a small positive number of retries. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). pax detects the truncation and repairs it. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. etc. You can supply multiple -G options. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. file size. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. -D This option is the same as the -u option. link pathname length and the type of the file. or when starting with a #. Do not follow symbolic links.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory.3. a numeric gid. Instead. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. The bytes limit can end with m. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). pax detects the truncation and repairs it. uid. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. k. Checking stops with the first match. -G group Select a file based on its group name. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. With a positive limit. perform a physical file system traversal. hard links. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). Only regular files. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. NSH 5 .

-n. -U options. Checking stops with the first match. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. -i.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -D. -G. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. -T. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. You can supply multiple -U options. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c. or copying files during a copy operation. -s. This option is the same as the -D option. Each field must contain two digits. group. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). or when starting with a #. -u. If you supply only a to_date. Time ranges are relative to the current time. The minute field mm is required. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. the names of these selected files. -n. -D. Checking stops with the first match. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. and -Z) interact as follows. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. -U. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. -T. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. If you supply only a from_date. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). When extracting files during a read operation. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 . Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname.ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. If you specify both c and m. and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. mm. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. yy. etc). When archiving files during a write operation. This option is the same as the -u option. for example. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. -v. If you specify neither.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -G. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. -D. When pax is in the write or copy mode. -T. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. Inc. file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. -Y. A time range is made up of six different fields. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). a numeric uid. dd. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. -u. the names of these selected files. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). You can supply multiple -T time ranges. The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). mode. -G. the last time there was a change of owner. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -u. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12).

with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory. List contents of the tape. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use.. Stop after first error. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options. In this case the following options are supported.’ -f a. Inc. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. Do not follow symlinks. access/modification times. group ID. file mode. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 . The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic.pax. Verbose operation mode.pax reads the archive a. Do not preserve modification time. Follow symlinks.ˆ//*usr//*. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. along with the -n option. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . Follow command line symlinks only. The command: pax -r -s ’. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. NSH 7 . Interactive file rename. Append to the archive. Create an archive. Append to the archive. Preserve user ID. Do not pass over mount points in the file system. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update. Extract data from archive.

pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. Additionally.pax will extract all files from the archive a. -H. or file mode when the -p option is specified. pax does not copy the file. it exits with a non-zero exit status. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status. Berkeley and its contributors. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. -U. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. sv4crc. -D. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. -E. the archive formats bcpio. Inc. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. -Y. NSH 8 .pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. -T. 1 An error occurred. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. -G. and the modification and access times may be wrong. while doing a copy. The options -B. or cannot preserve the user ID. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive. group ID. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. tar. -L. If. -Z.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. -P. sv4cpio.pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. pax will not create a second copy of the file. but continues processing.

it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server.P. You can specify multiple hostname/I. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. /bin/ksh. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. including remote servers. can reside on any server. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. address of the host on which you want to install the package. address arguments. It will first determine which packages you want to install. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts. as well as any optional response or admin files. admin. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. If you do not use this option. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. such as /bin/sh. Inc. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. etc. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. For example. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 .P.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. The packages you install. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). the -i option will override the -f option. NSH 2 . Inc. the -f option will override the -i option. Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. With the P_ATT variable set. ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1).rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic.

If it finds an entry. 2 . it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. the encryption type and encryption key or keys. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. 3 . the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. either from a command line or from a script. 1 . it uses the configured port number.Before going any further. determine how the communication between the two should occur. Next. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. 4 . so that it can run in background mode. then verifies that it is a valid handshake. In this case. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. This information is found in the secure file and includes. For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. With this mechanism. it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections. It goes through the following steps: 1 . NSH 1 . The agent will use this information in further security related checks. Inc. the agent closes the connection. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. the agent closes the connection.If it does not find an entry there. among other things.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. If necessary. When it hears a connection. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. If not. If it finds an entry in the database. 3 . the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database.Based on the client host. it uses the configured port number. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection).Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent. 2 . See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. But first. the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. If the handshake is valid.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. the agent defaults to port 4750. Before the client exits.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd .

NSH 2 . the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. Output some debug messages. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. and what permissions the client should have. secure (1). This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. If the client is allowed to have access. OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. 6 . users (1). The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user. Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . then the daemon sets the final permissions. Do not fork. These are also known as the user overrides. the daemon sets them. it decides whether or not the client should have access. Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. Inc.Once the daemon has all the relevant information. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. If the client is not allowed to have access. ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1). If there should be overrides.Once it has the initial handshake data. Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). Output brief usage description.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic.

] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine. The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. host1 $ NSH 1 . the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server. you will not gain access to the remote server.. you will not get access to the host.. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host. In other words. If you are accessing multiple hosts. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. To do this. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell. If the remote user is not set up this way. Inc. Those permissions govern your access to that host..rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host. just as if you had entered an incorrect password. the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). Except when you are using the -p option (see below). EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with.. With the rsu command. use the -p option. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host.. Password for root@host3: . Normally. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. For this option to work. Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions.. the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password.

rscd(1) NSH 2 .. Appropriate entries (rsu=.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).local. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details. exports (1). EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password.. and/or exports file must exist. users.) in the users.

This option specifies the command to execute. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. For example. The format of this file is one entry per line. To this end. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names. Inc. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). The -H header option lets you specify a custom header. All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces.. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name.. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. -h host ... which consists of a hostname and directory. runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed.. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed. Depending on what action you are currently performing. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host. hostn] [-e command1 ..runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. -e cmd ... commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name. which consists of a hostname and directory. -H header By default. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering. After encountering the -h option. The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. NSH 1 ... commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed.. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command. -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header.. hostn] [-e command1 . This option must be the last option.

if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. you may not want to do things in parallel. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . In other words. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. Execute a Network Shell script on each host. This is implicit if the program name is runscript. This can significantly speed things up. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Output a brief explanation of the available options. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel. Output the effective command executed for each host. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option. Inc.

Inc. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option. With this option one can override the staging directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 . -o file By default.. If a name is given. See also -h -h host [host ...[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group .AIX . the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit.[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group .[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 . then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task.. The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l .] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec). If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers.e. If it does not refer to an existing file. .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. As such. when looking to run a script. no OS name extension). With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp. Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers.

scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. scriptutil(1) . nexec (NSH).[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). Inc. . Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp. NSH 2 .HP-UX .

prompting at each set of differences. BSD March 28. the user is prompted for each set of differences. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. if any. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. Start editing file with left set of diffs. below. Start editing file with right set of diffs. The default is 130 characters. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. Skip identical lines. See EDITOR and VISUAL. See the −o option for an explanation. In this mode. 2008 1 . with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. is invoked. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. Start editing file with both sets of diffs. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. Quit sdiff. Start editing an empty file.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. Minimize diff size. Ignore trailing blank spaces. for details of which editor.

Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. diff3(1). If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). BSD March 28.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. diff(1). the default is vi(1). re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option. depending on the current column. vi(1). Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. 2008 2 . SEE ALSO cmp(1).net〉. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. CAVEATS Although undocumented. TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. though some require GNU diff. The default is /tmp. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. VISUAL takes precedence.

it uses the rscd entry. then the software looks for a default entry. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. create a hostname entry in the secure file. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. it uses the default entry. On the agent side. The order of entries in the secure file matters. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. use the special hostname rscd. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. including encryption and authentication parameters.a. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters.k. Inc. a resolvable host name. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients.. If the agent does not find a match. default. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> . SSL). or hostname. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below).509 certificates. Thus. If the client does not find a match. By default. By storing passwords in the securecert file. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. For an Application Server. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. use the special hostname default. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). When entering a value for hostname. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. through an indirect deployment). If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a.. you can provide a host’s IP address. which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 .

you are prompted to enter the hostname. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. If hostname is not provided. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. On Windows. that user is bladmin. If hostname is not provided. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. then the file secure. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. To accomplish this. NSH 2 .cfg is used. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. If hostname is not provided.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. When issuing a secadmin command. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. you are prompted to enter the hostname. See below for details. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. If no value is entered for file. that user is SYSTEM. the passwords are not revealed. you are prompted to enter the hostname. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. As mentioned above. On UNIX-style systems. that user is typically root. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). While this is an important security measure. To accomplish this. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. On Windows. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. in a regular secure file. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. On UNIX-style systems. -down hostname Move the entry down one. If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers.

Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. This option must be used with the -c option. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below). This option requires a certificate. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. If -u is a negative number. -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. with a higher number indicating better compression. The default value for -u is 1 minute. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line.pem. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes. If you are adding or modifying an entry. NSH 3 . No authorizations or certificates are required. Inc. set value to a number between 1 and 9. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. To compress data.2. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. -w size -z value Set compression level. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. By default data is not compressed. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. With the -u option. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. supported since release 5. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. The default protocol is protocol 5.

Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 . all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host.255. Setting hostname to . BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon). A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server.255.168. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option. Consequently. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections.0 might look something like: @192. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server.10. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting. If no hostname is given. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. Inc.509 certificate. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options.509 certificate. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname.is the same as giving no redirection host. The secadmin utility also provides the following options. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. The password to the private key for a user’s X.

168.193/26 @192. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).255. Inc.128 255.100.0/24 @192.255.255. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.255.secadmin(1) 255.240 255.168. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host.168.255.000 255.255.255.100.168.100. enter the following command. NSH 5 .225/27 @192.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file.100.241/28 @192.255. To delete the entry for host foo.100.255. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).129/25 @192.224 255.255.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.192 255.100.255.168.168.

. The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. The −n option suppresses this behavior. only that line is selected. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. not including its terminating newline character. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. The input is then written to the standard output. but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files).] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . appending a newline. The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. . and deletes the pattern space. . Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. copies the pattern space to the standard output. [address[. 1993 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file .] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). sed starts looking again for the first address. Inc. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. into a pattern space. Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. sed cyclically copies a line of input. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). or the standard input if no files are specified. Normally.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. by default. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands. . −n By default.

one.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. however. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. The argument text consists of one or more lines. For example.. For example. i. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. just the delimiter characters are specified. To embed a newline in the text. not compile-time. In addition. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. ‘t’. The ‘b’. BSD December 30.. and at run-time. or two addresses. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. ‘s’. In a context address.. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. ‘w’. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters.e. representing zero. Inc. as follows: { function function . If the label is not specified. 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. ‘!’. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . Also. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. branch to the end of the script. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. precede it with a backslash. Two of the functions take a function-list. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. You can’t. or [2addr]. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. ‘r’. [1addr]. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. 1993 2 . If a regular expression is empty. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. ‘y’.

Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. [2addr]l (The letter ell. text is written to the standard output. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space. Inc. [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. Write the pattern space to standard output.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Write the pattern space. If file cannot be read for any reason. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. Long lines are folded. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. up to the first newline character to the standard output. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. Note that the current line number changes. 1993 3 . with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle.

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

With the P_ATT variable set. the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. An operand of a primitive was missing. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. which can be used for grouping primitives. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. Inc. Value of the expression is FALSE. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. CAVEATS Parentheses. Consequently you must escape or quote them. and the directory /etc/security exists. also have special meaning to the sh(1). which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).test(1) Property of BladeLogic. test is an executable program. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory.

SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. from 0 to 23. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. If the file doesn’t exist. . where a time format is specified as the first argument. it is created with default permissions. Change the modification time of the file. Change the access and modification times to the specified time. The “MM”. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. The second two digits of the year. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. The minute of the hour. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. the values default to the current year. BSD April 28. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. otherwise. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. but “CC” is not.SS]] file [ . . even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. from 0 to 61. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the value defaults to 0. from 1 to 12. Otherwise. “DD”. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. Attempt to force the update. from 1 to 31. 1995 1 . The second of the minute. Do not create the file if it does not exist. If “YY” is specified.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. is supported. Inc. When no −r or −t option is specified. from 0 to 59.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. the year is set in the 21st century. The month of the year. a “CC” value of 20 is used. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day. The day of the month. there are at least two arguments. The hour of the day. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected.

2”) specification.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. 1995 2 . Inc. BSD April 28.2 (“POSIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.

In the first synopsis form. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. In the fourth synopsis form. Inc. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. In the second synopsis form. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. A backslash followed by 1. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. Shpink October 27. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. 1991 1 . In the third synopsis form. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. If string1 is longer than string2. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters.

For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. it is interpreted as an octal value. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. see ctype(3) and related manual pages. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. and >0 if an error occurs. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. characters are entered in ascending order. otherwise. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. Otherwise. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. English has no equivalence classes. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. i. Inc. they are ordered after their encoded values. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. one per line. 1991 2 . If n has a leading zero. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. inclusively. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. If n is omitted or is zero.e. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1.

Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. 1991 3 . The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’. Additionally.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. additionally. Shpink October 27. However. Inc. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. for example.

Print the processor type in more detail.2”).2-1992 (“POSIX. Print the machine hardware name. Print the operating system name. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4. If no options are specified. The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. 1994 1 . Inc. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. Print the operating system version.4 BSD. SEE ALSO hostname(1). machine(1). Print the patch level. BSD January 26.UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). Print the operating system release.

Output a message for each file being renamed. It does not rename any files... DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place. This option tells it to look for a different suffix. This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up. it renames them (removes the suffix). The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). SEE ALSO cp(1). Set the suffix to suf. uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. By default. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). dsync(1). Do not actually make any changes. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. NSH 1 . When uncp finds files with the specified suffix.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. uncp looks for the suffix ˜. just delete the files. Inc. OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names. This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option. The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 .

2”) compatible. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. Character numbers are one based. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. Only output lines which have duplicates. the first character is character one. the first field is field one.. so it may be necessary to sort the files first.e..UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If specified in conjunction with the −f option. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. the second is used as the name of an output file. −u Only output lines which are unique. 2002 1 . i. BSD December 8. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . i.e. followed by a single space. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.2 (“POSIX. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. Field numbers are one based. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. If additional arguments are specified on the command line. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. Inc. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons.

. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files. unlink always exits with 0. you should use the rm command. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems.. In other words. Normally. you should use it only in exceptional cases. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). NOTES By default. any user can run the unlink command. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. without doing any type of error checking. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking.old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam. except that it does exactly what it is told to do.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. To restrict its use to the super user. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file . Inc. NSH 1 .bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*. Unable to get a license to use the software.bar The second example removes all .old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. $ unlink foo. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500.

ranges are specified by a beginning character. zip(1L). both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. Inc.) If no matches are found. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory.) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. If the file specification is a wildcard. For example. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. . The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive. Without the –x option. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. [ c h ] .Misc. particularly under Unix and VMS. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). or extract files from a ZIP archive. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. and an ending character. . (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. . the path itself cannot. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. a hyphen. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). separated by spaces. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed.42) 1 . see above.zip] [file(s) . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. . By default. as with any other ZIP archive. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. In particular. creates ZIP archives. test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. or between the file(s) and the –x option. Only the filename can be a wildcard.] [–x xfile(s) . just specify the .] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. ARGUMENTS file[. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. test. commonly found on MS-DOS systems. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). A companion program. immediately after the zipfile specification.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. z i p is appended. but none in any subdirectories. [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. See –v in OPTIONS below. and if that also fails. . This option need not appear at the end of the command line. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). the suffix . Again. .

This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. list archive files (short format). By default unzip queries before overwriting. If the first option on the command line is –Z. extract files to pipe (stdout). If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted.zip’’) and is much faster. [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one.Misc. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check. the target operating system for which it was compiled. and the files are always extracted in binary format. Note that under many operating systems. compressed size. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. –v lists archive files verbosely. See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. the compiler and version used. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. The names. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. just as they are stored (no conversions). a diagnostic screen is printed.. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. test archive files.g. Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). When no zipfile is specified (that is. [OS/2. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. ‘‘unzip –T \∗. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. in order to support obsolescent hardware. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’).. In addition. along with totals for all files specified. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. This option performs the same function as the –f option. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. the –a option is allowed.42) 2 . unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. i. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. In addition to the normal header with release date and version. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. freshen existing files. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’). an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). and the compilation date. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below). update existing files and create new ones if needed.e. Inc. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.

or similar). specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. regardless of the supposed file type. Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format.g. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases.. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). That is. –a is enabled by default. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. In addition. just the file’s data. (For example. [BeOS only] junk file attributes. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms.. All Macintosh specific info is skipped.g. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. Inc. OS/2 HPFS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. 512-byte record format. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated. The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. junk paths. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. Instead. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. In the example above. the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. converting line endings. [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). see above).) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa.Misc. This is a shortcut for – – –a. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. [Unix only. it is replaced by the info from the extra field. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text. (On Tandem. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. [Unix only. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the current one). match filenames case-insensitively. and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. convert text files. and NT supports Unicode. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default.42) 3 . Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. see the relevant options below). Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation.) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.

This can be awkward.). there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.) may be stored as all-uppercase names. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. conversion of unsupported characters.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). files archived under single-case file systems (VMS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. which stores filenotes as comments. If a file already exists. skip extraction of all existing files. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing. etc. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. ‘‘EA DATA. overwrite all files. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. the Enter/Return key. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. This is a dangerous option.42) 4 . (obsolete. however. unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. retain (VMS) file version numbers. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5. (It is often used with –f. use the non-echoing. Also. By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists.Misc. regardless of the originating file system. skip extraction of the current file. At the end of a screenful of output. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. but this option allows them to be retained. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). (And where security is truly important. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user. See –L above. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed.11. NT. etc. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. [OS/2. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. so use it with care. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. etc. interactive prompt to enter passwords. on some systems. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. however. this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase.ext.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Unlike Unix more(1).) Depending on the archiver. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter).g. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. or rename the current file. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. overwrite existing files without prompting. Whenever possible. in the format file. never overwrite existing files. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. VMS files can be stored with a version number. SF’’). old MS-DOS FAT. By default the ‘‘. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). VMS.##’’ version numbers are stripped. the extraction methods..##. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen.

UNZIP takes precedence. As suggested by the examples above. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. but it is probably most useful with the –a. but under Unix. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. For compatibility with zip(1L). or security ACLs under Windows NT. Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. however. OS/2. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. –C. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). –o.0. –L..] [MS-DOS. It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). a diskette). This may seem awkward or confusing.42) 5 .0). and the second is a minus sign. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. In most cases this will require special system privileges. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. By default. acting on the q option. or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix. so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. considered to be just like any other command-line options. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. only reporting errors. This can be done with any option. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. During extraction. UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –q. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. in effect. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them. volume labels are ignored.Misc. For example. for example. make it match names case-insensitively. OS/2. Inc. For instance. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. To cancel both quiet flags. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups.0 to 5. To override an environment option. make it quieter.g. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent). to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. Unix. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable.

Inc. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. OEM code page) to test passwords. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. To check a version for crypt support.zip. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. unzip will prompt for another password. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. However. (In fact.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters.Misc. but at a cost in security. and our source archives do now include full crypt code. See the description of –f above for details. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. if both of these fail. Windows PKZIP 2. UnZip 5. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. On EBCDIC systems. Latin-1). older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. OS/2 and Win3.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly. The correct password will always check out against the header.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else. As noted above. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled.04g uses the OEM code page. followed by the alternate one (e.. and so on until all files are extracted. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid.. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. since spring 2000. If a password is not known. If the first password fails the header check on some file. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. as noted above. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. that’s not quite true. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally.g. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel. DOS PKZIP 2.g. if a zipfile member is encrypted. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed. This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. entering a null password (that is. US export restrictions have been liberated. but due to United States export restrictions. EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems.42) 6 . so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory.C.zip or unzip –l–q file. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.42) 7 .c.zip whose names end in . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on). the compiler with which unzip was compiled. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source. as in the source examples below. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗.tex. ∗. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Makefile.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files. as in Unix..dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1.zip "∗.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. double quotes could have been used instead.zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.f. whether decryption support was compiled in.: unzip –v In the last five examples. in fact. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’).zip "∗.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards.zip’’ is generally not necessary. regardless of case (e.) To extract to standard output all members of letters.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source.c and ∗.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file.zip "∗. something that is worth making a habit of doing. and any makefile.Misc. both ∗. being a lazy sort.1 or later contain no timezone information. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables.g.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗. etc. ∗.h.zip or unzip –l––q file.zip (Note that the ‘‘. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive. Inc.

DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. but processing completed successfully anyway.Misc. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. no errors or warnings detected. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. In addition. one or more warning errors were encountered. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8.zip. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. invalid options were specified on the command line. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. the disk is (or was) full during extraction. (If even one file is successfully processed. except in conjunction with zip. 51). scarier-looking things. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). Processing may have completed successfully anyway. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. the exit status is 1. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s). the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. 9-11 and 80-82. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. Processing probably failed immediately.’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted). unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. except under VMS: 0 1 normal. This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well. 50.42) 8 . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. however.) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. no matching files were found.

Mike White (Windows GUI. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. SEE ALSO funzip(1L). shared code. Under DEC Ultrix. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. older versions of unzip may hang the system. The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H.info-zip.foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. This is a limitation of the operating system.org/pub/infozip/ . block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile. NT). Smith. QNX. NT. See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. Windows 95. zipnote(1L). Inc. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. nor are hard-linked files relinked. Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. then overwrite just the directory entries (e.. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). Windows DLLs).g. unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Windows 95. Amiga). zipcloak(1L). [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes). Mark Adler (decompression. Johnny Lee (MS-DOS. Paul Kienitz (Amiga. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). the old version is not overwritten or deleted. not always reproducible). AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). requiring a reboot. Windows 95). and David P. John Bush (Solaris. unzip’s query only allows skipping. Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. In fact. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. MS-DOS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. zip(1L). This problem appears to be fixed.. directories and symbolic (soft) links. Jean-loup Gailly (compression).Misc. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. Retry. Chris Herborth (BeOS. and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. In addition. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. this may not be an issue anymore. VMS. Harald Denker (Atari. [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette. as noted above. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). Hunter Goatley (VMS). only the [.dir syntax). Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). Onno van der Linden (Zip).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. Atari). because directories only have a creation time associated with them. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version. This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. Dates. zipgrep(1L). Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS).42) 9 . overwriting or renaming. MVS).g. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. fUnZip). Fail?’’ message. NT). zipinfo(1L).info-zip.

Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK.x v3.41 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.12 v5. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.4 v5. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.32 v5.11 v5.0 v2.0 v4. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v2. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.31 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H.1 v4. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.1 v4.0 v5.01 v5.Misc.42) 10 .0 v3. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5.3 v5.1 v5. Smith Samuel H. Inc. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.

Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. . unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created.42) 1 . Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. . the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce. In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. however. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. Despite this. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. . Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. For example. In particular. ‘‘f o o s f x ∗. and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one. but none in any subdirectories. By default. . will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. particularly under Unix and VMS.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v). the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). . Among these are the usage (or help) screen. These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket.) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing.Misc. Inc. a hyphen.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets.]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. and an ending character. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. Without the –x option. Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. [ c h ] . ranges are specified by a beginning character.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). for example. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. [–x xfile(s) .

letters. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions. Inc. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). –o (overwrite without prompting). The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).zip letters. See unzip(1L) for details.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS. EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters.) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. –C (match names case-insenstively). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info).Misc. –n (never overwrite).zip letters. The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen).exe (The VMS append command may also be used.exe+letters. –q (operate quietly). EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files. OS/2. –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction). note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). Alternatively. NT. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. Amiga]).exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters.exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx.exe zip -A letters. OS/2. that only adds to the size of the archive. See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters. See unzip(1L) for details. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment. –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase). but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing. All normal listing options (–l. NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. –v and –Z) have been removed.exe" zip -A letters.42) 2 . Once again.) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters. –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS.zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions.exe. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files). that is. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives.

Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.txt files: letters -x ∗.g. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. however (e. only stored and deflated files are supported. etc. in order to create working selfextracting archives. and therefore neither are the resulting archives.42) 3 . If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one. Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. Inc. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. As noted above.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. e. listing functions and extraction to other directories. but the command to do so then becomes. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above).txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems. Atari TOS. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name.’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗.txt To extract everything except the ∗. MacOS. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name.. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗.g. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well. see the corresponding man page. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). as noted above). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.Misc. Also. the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. but other compilers may not). unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS. ‘‘can’t find myself. or else a full or relative path must be given.. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info. however. are also known to prepend junk. simple concatenation does not work. This is not necessary for simple extraction. (For technically oriented users. For some architectures there is limited portability. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. notably MacBinary. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). MakeSFX.

Misc.42) 4 . zip(1L).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors. zipinfo(1L). Inc.info-zip. zipgrep(1L). unzip(1L). See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. zipcloak(1L). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zipnote(1L). AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX.org/pub/infozip/ .info-zip. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L).

Berkeley and its contributors. and a trailer line. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands.. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default.tar. This line consists of one ASCII space.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. 6 bits per character. A space separates the three items in the header line. look like a header. uuencodes it and mails it to a user.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. Lines preceding a header must not. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. of course. The character count is a single printing character. followed by a number of body lines. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero. followed by a newline. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. followed by encoded characters. The body consists of a number of lines. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. compresses it. Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. These consist of a character count. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space). NSH 1 . Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. tar cf . The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself. the file ‘‘src_tree.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. If the size is not a multiple of 3. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. uudecode . and a string which names the remote file.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file .tar.. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. When uudecode is run on the target system. the standard input) into the original form. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). and represents an integer. Inc.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1).uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. compress(1) NSH 2 . uudecode (1).

494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .0.2002 BladeLogic Inc.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Inc. SEE ALSO agentinfo(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server.version(1) Property of BladeLogic. BladeLogic Network Shell 4.5. NSH 1 .494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus.0. Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.5.

−e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program. 1996 1 . and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. . list the files that could be recovered. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . disallowing all access to external programs. Start editing in ex mode. This is the POSIX 1003. This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors. Enter batch mode. entitled FAST STARTUP. Prompts.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . .] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment. .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.2 interface for the historic “-” argument. as if the command name was view. however. or. The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. In the ex interface. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. exactly as if the −s option had been specified. nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. This is the POSIX 1003. Inc. if standard input is not a terminal. . read the section after the options description. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. For the rest of this manual page. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file. view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. . In the vi interface. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. or the readonly option was set. as if the command name was vi. if no files are specified. and no startup files or environment variables are read. . ex will read commands from it regardless. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page. the session will be a batch mode session. (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. BSD October 10. It’s probably enough to get you going.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. vi. as if the command name were ex. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.) Start editing in read-only mode. applicable only to ex edit sessions. Start editing in vi mode. Run with the secure edit option set. Recover the specified files. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off.

Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other. except for the last line of the screen. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. and start entering text. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. after the cursor. and start entering text. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. Inc. before the cursor. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed.e. To start editing a file. Generally. Move the cursor up one line. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. i. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. There are commands that switch you into input mode. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. too. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. 1996 2 . You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. and move the cursor to its first character. displaying part of the file on each screen line. i. O or o commands. and for vi to give information to you. Move the cursor right one character. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10.g. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. e. Insert new text. vi is a screen editor. Append new text. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. Move the cursor down one line. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. It will also display error messages.

Inc. In each entry below. Quit. i. discarding any modifications that you may have made.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. vi will refuse to quit). The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. if possible. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. Delete the line the cursor is on. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. If count is not given. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. Delete the character the cursor is on. leaving the current line and column as is.e. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. Copy the line the cursor is on. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. 1996 3 . but not saved your changes.

〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. If count is not given. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. BSD October 10. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen. the number is incremented. 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. % Move to the matching character. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. without changing the current column. leaving the current line and column as is. 1996 4 . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. if possible. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. Inc. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. the number is decremented. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.

Repeat the last vi command that modified text. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. [count] A Enter input mode. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. [count] ( Back up count sentences. If a count argument is given. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If offset is specified. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. respectively. Execute an ex command. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If buffer is specified. BSD October 10. 1996 5 . Repeat the last character find count times. [count] . appending the text after the end of the line. Reverse find character count times. [count] . /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. count times. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. Inc. [count] . 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character.

[count] J Join lines. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. replacing the characters in the current line. appending text in a new line above the current line. [count] O Enter input mode. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If a count argument is given. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] I Enter input mode. If a count argument is given. If buffer is specified. through the current line for the character after the specified character. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. count times. or the default buffer if none is specified. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. [count] G Move to line count. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. If buffer is specified. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. BSD October 10. If buffer is specified. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. [count] R Enter input mode. Inc. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. 1996 6 . If a count argument is given.

[count] w Move forward count words. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. inserting the text before the cursor. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. [count] b Move backwards count words. Inc. If a count argument is given. appending text in a new line under the current line. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. count times.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. count times. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. appending the text after the cursor. [count] a Enter input mode. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. [count] i Enter input mode. to the first non-blank character. 1996 7 . through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. BSD October 10. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. If a count argument is given. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. If a count argument is given. u Undo the last change made to the file. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. [count] o Enter input mode. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text.

[buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. display the screen before the current screen. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. 2 screens before ) . [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. and reset the autoindent level. If column is omitted. Otherwise. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. move to the start of the current line. If count2 is specified. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. . 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. place the line count1 at the top of the screen.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Otherwise. BSD October 10. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. 1996 8 . Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. Inc. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs.e. If count1 is given. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. limit the screen size to count2 lines. display the screen after the current screen. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen.

or filter lines through a shell command. returning to command mode.] [count] [flags] Shift lines right. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. each preceded with its line number. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. Inc. display the line number of the last line in the file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and return to command mode. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode. . @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer. 1996 9 . The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. In each entry below. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. If line is not specified. . 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. . ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. [range] >[> . 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. " A comment. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. . [range] <[< .

[line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. BSD October 10. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. he[lp] Display a help message. screens or tags. 1996 10 . vi only. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. Foreground the specified screen. chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. Background the current screen. Inc. Cscope connections.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. .] [all] Display or set editor options. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. editor options and maps to the specified file. 1996 11 .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.] Edit the next file from the argument list. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines. [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. su[spend][!] BSD October 10.] [nooption . sh[ell] Run a shell program. [Nn][ext][!] [file . [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. . rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list..] [option? . se[t] [option[=[value]] . q[uit][!] End the editing session. Grow or shrink the current screen. [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. . [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations. . rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. . .. Inc. [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line.

[Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. writing the file if it has been modified. BSD October 10. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. clearing the stack. Delete an abbreviation. their abbreviations and their default values. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. 1996 12 . The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. This section describes the options. Edit a new file. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. Enter vi. Inc.

bf [off ] Discard control characters. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. directory. eb [off ] ex only. exrc. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. Inc. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . Skip leading comments in shell. the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. autowrite. BSD October 10. autoindent.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. edcompatible.e. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. comment [off ] vi only. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. Announce error messages with a bell. C and C++ language files. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. Display the current line automatically. 1996 13 . aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. ap [on] ex only. columns. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. and do not have an associated value. they are either on or off. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. beautify. i. Most of the options are boolean. unless otherwise specified. altwerase [off ] vi only. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. autoprint. errorbells.

li [24] vi only. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. leftright [off ] vi only. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. Do left-right scrolling. lines. instead of the default hexadecimal.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. lisp [off ] vi only. hardtabs. matchtime [7] vi only. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. This option will never be implemented. This option currently has no effect. read or written. BSD October 10. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. Inc. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. Set the number of lines in the screen. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. This option is not yet implemented. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. modelines. ignorecase. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. number. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. 1996 14 .

Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. sm [off ] vi only. sh [environment variable SHELL. BSD October 10.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. shiftwidth. readonly. redraw. opt [on] vi only. Inc. shell.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. re [off ] vi only. sections. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. scroll. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. prompt [on] ex only. This option is not yet implemented. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width. Display a command prompt. If this option is not set. 1996 15 . ruler [off ] vi only. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. the open and visual commands are disallowed. optimize. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. showmatch. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited.

sidescroll [16] vi only. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. w9600 [no default ] vi only. Display an error message for every error. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. window. tabstop. This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. before a ! command. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. warn [on] ex only. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. It has no effect in this implementation. BSD October 10. 1996 16 . Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. Select an alternate erase algorithm. w300 [no default ] vi only. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. verbose [off ] vi only. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. tags. w. taglength. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. ttywerase [off ] vi only. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. smd [off ] vi only. This option will never be implemented. slowopen. This option is not yet implemented. timeout. ttytype. w1200 [no default ] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. term. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. Inc.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose.

SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). the wrapmargin value is used. The number of rows on the screen. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. FILES BSD October 10. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information.exrc files. the wrapmargin value is used. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. wrapmargin. When an interrupt occurs. Break lines automatically. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. Break lines automatically.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option).nexrc and $HOME/. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. 1996 17 . ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. Inc. wrapscan. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. The user’s home directory. SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. The user’s terminal type. SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. writeany. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. wl [0] vi only. The default is the type “unknown”. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. wm [0] vi only. If interrupted during text input.

/usr/share/doc/usd/12. System-wide vi startup file. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file.4 BSD. The default recovery file directory. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors. /usr/share/doc/usd/12.2”). The "Vi Quick Reference" card. Second choice for local directory startup file. Inc. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. BSD October 10.nexrc $HOME/. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places. there are changes to be made on both sides. input.edit/.exrc . /usr/share/doc/usd/11. This document is the final reference for the ex editor. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual". Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi. The files autowrite.exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1). STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003.summary. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". "Ex Reference Manual".recover $HOME/.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.vi/.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.viref/.nexrc . re_format(7) The default user shell.exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. Temporary file directory. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. quoting. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor. First choice for local directory startup file.vi/vi. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code. 1996 18 . "Ex: A Tutorial". HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. First choice for user’s home directory startup file.ex/.2 (“POSIX.

it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. vsh itself does not take any arguments.conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry.. Instead. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format.]>[. You can use NSH format to name the log files.. The vsh. vsh will use /bin/sh by default.conf file.<field=val[:val]>. This file is located in share/vsh. Log all terminal output. which is a shell of /bin/sh.CONF The vsh. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh.. If you specify <nsh>. You can specify multiple log files.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead. You should create one log file per session.conf file controls the behavior of vsh. Inc. If you do not specify a shell.. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values. vsh will automatically terminate the session. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed. an autologout of NSH 1 . All of the above.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it.conf in the NSH installation directory.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. You can configure the vsh. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O. may not properly understand the result. vshview. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout). the vsh log file viewer.conf VSH. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u.

%Y The year as a decimal number including the century. %w The day of the week as a decimal. %a The abbreviated weekday name. which are expanded at run time. %b The abbreviated month name. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99).vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. To do this. Inc. %h Current host name. %B The full month name. Sunday being 0. and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1). %% A literal ‘%’ character. %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23). %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer.vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). The following macros are supported. %u Current user name. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. %A The full weekday name. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). log file names should be unique for each vsh session. range 0 to 6. NSH 2 . %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61).

logout. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. (Note that when using this option. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). just output a summary of vsh sessions.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. host. Output only those entries that relate to user. Show terminal (stdout) output. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. or pid. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . (Note that when using this option. Inc. only one minute granularity is available..) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. logouttime. To view the these log files. Therefore. Output only those entries that happened before this date. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. shows a summary of login and logout activity. Can be used with -0 and -2. Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. shell. There are two basic modes to vshview. In either case. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached. If a given file is a directory. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. you need to use the vshview utility. Instead. login. Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 .. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). Do not show any blank lines. Can be used with -1 and -2. logintime. Output only those entries that happened on host. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. Define a search expression (see below). you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator.

These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1). Inc.| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + .vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . The second type are 8 bit characters. The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31).} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence.

Inc. and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory. vtree recursively descends into it.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> .svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . EXAMPLE In this example.0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display. Provide a quick display with no counts. Height of tree to examine. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case). It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system. Show the current version. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes. Count nodes.svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . Place totals at the end.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory. Provide a visual display.

Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef. NSH 2 .vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic." written by David S.

c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. wc counts lines. If you specify more than one file.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. words. wc will also output a total for all files. the number of words. If you do not specify any files. Count the number of lines in the file. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files. wc uses the standard input. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings. and characters.c 449 1334 8491 file2.. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. and characters of several source files. The second example counts lines. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_ATT variable set. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . words. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. the number of characters. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not want counts for all of these things.c 347 945 6227 file1. words. Inc. OPTIONS By default. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . You specified an unknown option.c 339 917 6051 file3. Unable to get a license to use the software.. Count the number of words in the file. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*.

You must use PKUNZIP 2. Under UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. zipcloak. Windows NT. and foo/file3. Minix.3) 1 .0p1 (or later versions) to extract them. For example: t a r c f . . Inc.zip. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed. . zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 . in which case it will read the file from standard input. and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name. . this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.zip contains foo/file1. if foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.r . The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. MSDOS. and check information to verify file integrity). protection.. A companion program (unzip(1L)). zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names. along with information about the files (name. OS/2.04g or unzip 5. For example. foo. allowing zip to take input from another program. time of last modification. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. unpacks zip archives.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.3. in which case it will write the zip file to standard output.  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. When given the name of an existing zip archive. For example: z i p . then: z i p . It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems). Amiga and Acorn RISC OS.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it). to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d . Note that PKUNZIP 1. zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . with foo/file2 unchanged from before. path. zip version 2. for archiving files. foo/file2.Misc. For example. date.04. For a brief help on zip and unzip. After this.n a me " ∗. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. [ c h ] " . zipnote. allowing the output to be piped to another program.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. If the file list is specified as –@.04 or zip 2. VMS.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command.. Atari and Macintosh. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive.

and all of the files that end with . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. At present. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them.Misc. For example. –c Add one-line comments for each file. [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). | zip . and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file. OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. zip acts as a filter. Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package.. updating) are done first. or just return for no comment.. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. Enter the comment followed by return. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. Adjust self-extracting executable archive. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made.. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive.3) 2 . because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. tar cf . enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive.zip to the current directory when done. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk. This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. If the name already contains an extension other than . File operations (adding. the extension .o (in any path). If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged. compressing standard input to standard output. so that zip can see the asterisks. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option.zip is added. For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. copying over stuff.

For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged. Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. -i \∗. If this operation fails. instead of creating a new one. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. Resource-forks will be ignored at all.Misc. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. for example if it has only been truncated. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Such files cannot be recovered. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. zip will exit with an error). so try this option first. Inc. [OS/2] Use the . –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options.3) 3 . After the repair. Under MSDOS. –F Fix the zip archive. If the restoration fails.c which will include only the files that end in . the archive might become corrupted. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. if standard error is not a tty. The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. as in: zip -r foo . Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. -u and -o options to work correctly. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. It is not guaranteed to work.

Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons. [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). to undo the effect of zip -l. so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. Strip any prepended data (e.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. this option adds an extra CR. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. if you have SparkFS loaded. but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error.g. The complete path including volume will be stored. a SFX stub) from the archive. Also possible: zip -r foo . -i@include. Display the zip license. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. For example.Misc. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive.tiff:. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix. This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file.snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods). zip will store the full path (relative to the current path). actually. Inc.lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include. This option should not be used on binary files. This is useful for conserving disk space. By default. By default the relative path will be stored. This option should not be used on binary files.zip. and do not store directory names.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. If the input files already contain CR LF. When used. .zip.tiff. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path).gif:. . or .Z:. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. Move the specified files into the zip archive. By default.lst. but will store any files that end in . Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not). store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX). zip will not consider Image files (eg.Z.gif. zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. the directory is also removed.zip:.3) 4 . For example: zip -rn . DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. .

If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. since that matches ". use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.zip. and yyyy is the year. dd is the day of the month (1-31).arj. For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. dd is the day of the month (1-31).".arc:. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. In this case. all the files matching ∗.zip" To attempt compression on all files.gif:.lzh:.3) 5 .zip to the latest time of the entries in foo. Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive. you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes. CFS files and PackDir files).." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended). and yyyy is the year. This can be used without any other operations. WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date. If -c is used also.Z:.c –S [MSDOS. –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory.c’ In this case. By default. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗.∗". use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n .zip. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. where mm is the month (0-12).zip. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) . Archives.e. Such files are stored directly in the output archive. where mm is the month (0-12). –N [Amiga. since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism. which are ignored otherwise. if desired. for example: zip -R foo ’∗.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. OS/2. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments.zip:.zoo:. You should not use –r with the name ". –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date.Misc.zip. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i. to the zip archive infamy. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. including files with names starting with ". all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo.

zip. version. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files). as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. and stdout is not redirected to a file. OS version. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory. ignores the suffix list). Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive. and release date.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. uid/gid and file times on Unix). Inc.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. when applied to real operations.lst. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name.o. ∧ on MSDOS.3) 6 .lst which will include the contents of foo in foo.o which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding all the files that end in . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. In addition to the help screen header with program name. –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option. OS/2. or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. and D Z VAX/VMS). and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. Then. When –v is the only command line argument. Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.Misc. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. including multiple versions of files. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info. The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. Normally. to the zip archive infamy. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If the check fails. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. The default compression level is –6.zip into itself when you do this). a diagnostic screen is printed. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2.

unless that archive name given contains a dot already. making room for the next zip command to function. [0–9]). Inc. the last created archive is deleted. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. [MSDOS. foo.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it.3) 7 . The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. OS/2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. in compressed form (the . to include these as well: zip stuff .zip suffix is added automatically. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space.zip. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX.Misc. At the completion of each zip command. If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory. and harry. you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo." are not included. In this case. Take the list of input files from standard input. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo.zip. use the drive name as first file name.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. and the next two add to it. dick. and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. Only one filename per line. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation. To zip up an entire directory. If foo contains the subdirectories tom. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). without recording the directory name. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). files starting with ".

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. it first looks for the name in the file system. ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. Inc. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. If it does not find it. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). or –d). –u. and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. In general. In general. or does not match any name given with the –i option. zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. it then adds it to the list of files to do.o".o match names that end in ". Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. no errors or warnings detected. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. The pattern matching includes the path. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization.Misc. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. if present.3) 8 . unzip(1L). shar(1L). –f. If it finds it. using the pattern matching characters described above. or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").e. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. unexpected end of zip file. For each match. tar(1). and so patterns like \∗. no matter what the path prefix is. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. ?∗[]). unless this name matches one given with the –x option. Processing probably failed immediately. on the list of files to be operated on. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds.

BUGS zip 2. In both cases. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. zip cannot match some names.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. However. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. and for accepting minor changes to the file format. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names.wku. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally. 13. Jean-loup Gailly. Use zip 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. Kai Uwe Rommel. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. Otherwise OS/2 1.3 must not be updated by zip 1. scarier-looking things. Under VMS. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.1 or PKZIP 1. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format. and as much additional information as possible. LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE.3. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. 6. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. Under OS/2. 9. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. Onno van der Linden. and . On OS/2. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ). 7. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. 18.Misc. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. Under VMS. For bug reports.10. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. type "set file type block" on the Vax. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1. which inspired this project. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.Pas program. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗.3 and 2. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. compression format. 2 (error) for the zip values 3. copy. Byrne for his Shrink.10. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. Wales. the machine and operating system in use. Igor Mandrichenko. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files.ZIP filename extension. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ).3) 9 . Richard B. that it is not sold for profit. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). 16.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. Inc. zip files produced by zip 2. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device.edu. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). P. you do not have to care about this problem. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax.∗.10. and that this copyright notice is retained.

Rich Wales. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm. to Keith Petersen. C. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. for getting us into this mess in the first place. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc.3) 10 . Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use. and most importantly.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. David Kirschbaum. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Rodgers.Misc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. P. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R.

] [–x xfile(s) . ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1).z i p. AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. zip(1L). i nf o. . zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. . SEE ALSO egrep(1). i n f o . or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function.Misc.z i p . zipnote(1L). zipinfo(1L). funzip(1L).] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 .zip] [file(s) . zipcloak(1L). . . unzip(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[.

. . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. list header line. If the file specification is a wildcard.32) 1 . . anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). a link to it).] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below. is also listed. expressed as a percentage. a hyphen. actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. headers. Only the filename can be a wildcard. Inc. trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts.] [–x xfile(s) . Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. multi-page format. however.zip] [file(s) . e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. version and operating system or file system of compressing program. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. The archive name. but allow headers (–h). . one per line. This is the default behavior. This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio.] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. z i p is appended.zip] [file(s) . ARGUMENTS file[. Again.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. the suffix . Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. . Such information includes file access permissions. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). on some systems. Identical to the –s output. type of compression. encryption status. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. This option excludes all others. particularly under Unix and VMS. . list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. see above. the path itself cannot. and if that also fails. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output. except that the compression factor. list zipfile information in verbose. see below.] [–x xfile(s) .) If no matches are found. . . [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. .zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). . as well. and the like. list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. list filenames only. and an ending character. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. just specify the . ranges are specified by a beginning character.Misc. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. one per line. OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.

. The second character may also take on four values.btm files are assumed to be so). thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized. The example below. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and if both exist. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. If neither exists. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. ‘x’.R. the values for the entire archive are given.TXT.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. on some systems. the Enter/Return key. if there is an extended local header but no extra field. The case of the filename is respected. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field. OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.. which is presumably the case here. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. Also. (3) is writable. they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). If the file was zipped with a stored directory name.exe. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. if the reverse. The default date format is a more standard. .32) 2 . that is also displayed as part of the filename.9 unx 2802 t. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. . On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.0 hpf 1. The number of files listed. on the other hand. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). The fifth field consists of two characters. list totals for files listed or for all files.hpfs 4096 b.e. their uncompressed and compressed total sizes. Unlike Unix more(1).2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file.9 of zip. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd.Misc. respectively. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes.cmd and . ‘l’.hhmmss). (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary. Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. if only the totals line is being printed. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and.bat.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. is not encrypted. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’.R 0. Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). but if the file is encrypted. ‘X’. SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip.com. either of which may take on several values.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. (2) is readable (always true). and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is).defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. Inc. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. MS-DOS. and Macintosh.1 fat 1. Since it comes from Unix. At the end of a screenful of output. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. and their overall compression factor is printed. Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS).0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i.macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format. and its name. or.

and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. (Try not to laugh. and (7) is a system file. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info. 1. which can override or add to the defaults. the trailer gives the number of files listed. In brief. maximum compression). however. OS/2 extended attributes. i8:3.. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile.134804 perms. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. re:1. if any. 1. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format. normal. manner. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary.rw.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. environment options. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly.5 unx 2802 t. Finally.rw. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2. re:2. 1. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly. yet Unix-like.) Nevertheless. and so on. defN. the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second.def 17:51 zipinfo.2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1.. its total size.0 hpf 98 b..Misc.rw. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed.. and explicit options given by the user. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size. 13386 bytes uncompressed. shrk. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five. and the total number of files.32) 3 .0 hpf 8753 b. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip.2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. tokenizing (never publicly released). Macintosh resource forks.2660 In this example..i4:3 26-Jun-92 . i4:2.c 15:34 unzip. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive.def compressed: 63. defF.0 hpf 95 b. VMS filesystem info.. and four levels of deflating (superfast. 1. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). the header and trailer lines are not listed.0 hpf 730 b. their total uncompressed size. 1.stor 21-Aug-91 . fast. and defX. If.os2 15:29 os2unzip. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression). imploding.0% The header line gives the name of the archive. one or more file(s) are provided. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. there is some underlying logic..i8:3 26-Jun-92 . etc.zip 5453 bytes 5 files .rw. which can override or add to either of the above.rw.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . etc. and defS.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files. the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes. Inc.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. In addition.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive.0 hpf 3710 b. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees). both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions. and deflating. (6) is hidden. tokn. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. instead: -rw-rws--1. The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression. In addition to individual file information. reducing. shrinking.

like –m and –l. however.zip. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. short-format listing of the first example again. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. only the header and/or footer are printed. EXAMPLES To get a basic. when used by themselves or with each other. the user dislikes the trailer line. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1).g. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line.32) 4 . as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). as noted above. given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. unless otherwise specified. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. ZIPINFO takes precedence. As suggested above. so the –s option was sufficient. Nothing was indicated about the header. use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined..Misc. however. but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. For compatibility with zip(1L). the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. in this example. use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full. Note that both the –h and –t options. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. including header and totals lines. long-format listing (not verbose). The first hyphen is the regular switch character. in addition. with both header and totals lines. To turn off the totals line by default. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. includes headers and footers by default. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). override any default listing of member files. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l.

It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix. unzip(1L). use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well. will override the default header and totals lines. in medium format. In addition. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. create a link or create a command file with the name ii). and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional.) SEE ALSO ls(1). funzip(1L). specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the proper sort(1) option would be +7. AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read.Misc. zipnote(1L). Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. as in this example. BUGS As with unzip.c The specification of any member file. This assumes the default short-listing format. and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i. use the verbose option. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others. Inc. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size.info-zip.. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or. on other systems. if –m or –l is used. zipcloak(1L). zip(1L). This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file.32) 5 . The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing.info-zip. For multiple files.org/pub/infozip/ . to see the most recently modified files in the archive.e.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive. as noted above. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. (This is not to say that it will be. the seventh field). This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. copy/rename the executable. unzipsfx(1L). in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order.

shell functions (with autoloading). The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp.0.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp.cena.org>.fu–berlin. Of the standard shells. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.cenatls. programmable command completion.zsh. a history mechanism. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections.cs.ips. This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor.4 Last change: October 26.org>. builtin spelling correction.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite. 2001 1 .elte.funet.gmd.elte.org>.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.hu instead of the primary site. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.dk>. Inc.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://www. and a host of other features.zsh.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.cs.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4.cs.dgac. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.gov.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.elte.org/pub/zsh/ http://www. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp.zsh. Zsh has command line editing.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.zsh.uni–trier.

icm.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite.ne.ac.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.technion. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.org.kfki.liu.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp. Inc.uit.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.zsh.ac.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.technion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite.dk> Announcements about releases.dk> Hacking.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.kappa.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp.net.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.dk> User discussions.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.4 Last change: October 26.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp. 2001 2 .roedu.edu.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp. development.lysator. bug reports and patches.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp.zsh.siol.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users.math. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers.nisiq.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.win.0. <zsh–workers@sunsite.ac.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.rge. To subscribe or unsubscribe.uiuc. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.unina.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite.lut.math.il/pub/zsh/ http://www. zsh 4.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp.

of SunSITE Denmark. for example. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’.org>.org/. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. The mailing lists are archived.org/FAQ/. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name. the first one is assigned to $0.zsh. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Options may be specified by name using the –o option. –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options.org/mla/. Force shell to be interactive.org>.zsh. Force shell to read commands from the standard input.org>. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. or downright mystifying (for example.dk/Guide/. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. send mail to <listmaster@zsh. but takes a following string as the option name.dk>. Unlike other option syntaxes.auc. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation.org>. There is also a hypertext archive. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above. available at http://www. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp. It is intended to complement the manual. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. At the time of writing. or at http://www.zsh. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given. see zshoptions(1). For further options. If any further arguments are given.unix.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list.org>. When this is done. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists. rather than being used as a positional parameter.4 Last change: October 26. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. and thus ignored. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. 2001 3 . rather than reading commands from a script or standard input.org>. So. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’.0. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o.sunsite. For example. Like other option syntaxes. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. Inc. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. zsh 4. –o acts like a single–letter option. ‘– –option–name’. hierographic.

0. Inc. KSH_ARRAYS. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. the shell becomes restricted. PROMPT2. fpath. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. NO_NOTIFY. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). NO_MULTIOS. NO_NOMATCH. HISTSIZE. cdpath. POSIX_BUILTINS. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. command substitution. MODULE_PATH. NO_HUP. in two ways. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. HISTFILE. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. PROMPT_BANG. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. EUID. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. mailpath. RM_STAR_SILENT. LOCAL_OPTIONS. MANPATH. NO_EQUALS. PROMPT3. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. then exits successfully. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. watch. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. psvar. USERNAME. SHELL. prompt. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. SH_WORD_SPLIT. GID. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. status. manpath. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. Furthermore. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). path. UID. EGID. then exits successfully. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell.profile. module_path. GLOB_SUBST. PROMPT4. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. path. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. NO_BG_NICE. NO_BANG_HIST. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively. SH_GLOB. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). Option processing may be finished. Firstly. fignore. HISTCHARS. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. Also. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. 2001 4 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. argv. ‘– –help’ is also handled. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). more precisely. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments. PROMPT. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. Secondly. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN.

i. HOME is used instead.4 Last change: October 26. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands.zshenv. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. if the shell is interactive. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. Inc. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. this cannot be overridden. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.zshrc. the compiled file will be used instead. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the . Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. Then.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. it is important that it be kept as small as possible. depending on the installation. if the shell is a login shell. If one of the options is unset at any point. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). 2001 5 . no history file will be saved.’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv. zsh 4. If ZDOTDIR is unset. In particular. the logout files are not read. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory.zprofile. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. the former affects all startup files. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.0. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. If the shell is a login shell. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files.zlogin are read. When a login shell exits.e. then .zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read.. However. the files $ZDOTDIR/. Finally.

unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. echo foo is a simple command with arguments.)’ or ‘{. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value). More generally. The value of a simple command is its exit status. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. If it does not.. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero).User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. ‘&’. The first word is the command to be executed. or ‘&!’. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’.0. Where commands are separated by ‘’. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell.’. which will alter how the command is interpreted. zsh 4. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline.}’. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background). the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. if any. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. A sublist is either a single pipeline. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’.. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. ‘&’. the value of the sublist is that return value. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. 2001 1 . or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. and the remaining words. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. ‘&!’. For example. If job control is active. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero.’ or newline. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines.. For example. If a command name is given. it is executed as a coprocess. For example. ‘&’. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. Inc. with optional redirections interspersed. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. A pipeline is either a simple command.4 Last change: October 26. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. For example. including the complex commands below. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. or a newline. are arguments to the command. which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next.

.0.&) ] . exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking... The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. to terminate the words. [expr2] .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the esac is reached. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or . or else standard input.. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. the following list is also executed. as it is interpreted immediately. then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1.. Otherwise. the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. executing list each time. the then list is executed. 2001 2 . If this line is empty. [ else list ] fi The if list is executed. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status. and if it returns a zero exit status. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). If the in word is omitted. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word.. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] . The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation.& rather than . The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero. ) list (.. Print the set of words. use the positional parameters. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. If each elif list returns nonzero.. Otherwise. for name [ in word . It has no effect in non–interactive shells. nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words.. use the positional parameters instead of the words. If the list that is executed is terminated with . list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. and set the parameter name to each of them in turn... rather than a shell function or external command. the then list is executed. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. Inc. the else list is executed.. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. See the section ‘Filename Generation’.. for (( [expr1] . zsh 4. the value of the parameter name is set to null. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . If the in word is omitted... The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. the selection list is printed again. This continues until either a list is terminated with . before any parsing is done. select name [ in word .. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. rather than a shell function or builtin. If any expression is omitted. if any. which must evaluate to a number n. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. each preceded by a number.4 Last change: October 26. Expand the list of words. list is then executed n times.

..4 Last change: October 26. For the if. 2001 3 .. only one word is provided. time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed. for name [ in word . otherwise.. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’. ]]’ or ‘(( . () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or . Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list. () [ term ] { list } word . Define a function which is referenced by any one of word. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. ))’. Normally.... [expr2] . but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead. For the for. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps. [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. function word . These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. ) sublist A short form of for.. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells. Another short form of for. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word...0. The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set... zsh 4. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works. the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case.. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command. Execute list. See the section ‘Functions’.. for (( [expr1] . The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form... while and until commands. Inc.. and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms. if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. for name ( word . since the test is not suitably delimited. such as by ‘[[ . print statistics about the shell process and its children. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. else the end of the test will not be recognized. If pipeline is omitted. repeat. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell.. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word . The body of the function is the list between the { and }.

Inside double quotes (" " )... zsh 4. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. if an alias is defined for the word foo. ‘" ’. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. while list { list } An alternative form of while. e. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. Therefore.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. parameter and command substitution occur. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin... repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat.. ) list end Another form of for. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. If so. print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin.0. ‘‘’.&) ] . ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. and ‘$’. \foo. a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. For example. A short form of select. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . } An alternative form of case.. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command). and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted. ) list (. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored.4 Last change: October 26. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it. until list { list } An alternative form of until. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word. But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. If the text ends with a space.g. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape. in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. or if the alias is global... 2001 4 . case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . Inc. A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set. but one single quote if it is set.

no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. The resulting document. even if CLOBBER is unset. 2001 5 . command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. this causes an error. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. otherwise. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. If the file does not exist then it is created. this causes an error. becomes the standard input. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. parameter and command substitution occurs. If the file exists. ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. zsh 4. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active. If the file does not exist. This is known as a here–string.0. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. >> word >>! word Same as >>. If <<– is used. > word >! word Same as >. Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. Inc. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input. ‘‘’ and the first character of word.4 Last change: October 26. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. Otherwise. called a here–document.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. Otherwise. even if CLOBBER is unset. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. it is truncated to zero length. otherwise. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document. No parameter expansion. the file is created. ‘$’. and the CLOBBER option is unset.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If the file does not exist then it is created. except that the file is created if it does not exist. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). and the CLOBBER option is unset. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. or to an end–of–file.

assuming there’s at least one.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’. file) association at the time of evaluation. you can do ∗’. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. thus zsh 4.0. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. similar to tee.4 Last change: October 26. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor. For example: .. (Without the MULTIOS option. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’.ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’.. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly. Inc. similar to cat. provided the MULTIOS option is set. If the MULTIOS option is set. 2001 6 . 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. provided the MULTIOS option is set. fname). If one of the above is preceded by a digit. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. If the order of redirections were reversed. as it is by default. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. and also pipes it to cat. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. If the MULTIOS option is unset. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions. If there exists a shell function by that name. it is assumed to be a shell script. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. (See the section ‘Command Execution’.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. When the function is first executed. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. an error is caused. 2001 7 . the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. zsh can behave in several ways. Otherwise. with paging if that is a terminal. However. Otherwise. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. and write ‘foo’ into baz. the shell attempts to locate it. then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. all files redirected to are actually opened. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. the builtin is invoked. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. If the search is unsuccessful. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). but no command name. Such a function has no body. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. Thus to define functions for autoloading. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable.0. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. if the parameter NULLCMD is set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Shell functions are read in and stored internally.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. and the file is not a directory. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’.

the file’s contents will be executed.. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call. the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath. and a call to the shell function. the order of searching is. the function itself is not re–executed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. which is expected to contain the definition for function.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. If the definition is not found. This will normally define the function in question. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes... a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. taken to be the definition for function. the extension was explicitly given by the user).zwc A file created with zcompile. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined. second. element/function.e. but those are neither loaded nor executed. first. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set. and the other message on the second and subsequent calls.4 Last change: October 26. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used. Inc. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen. as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. zsh 4. which is executed in the context of the function execution. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 . including any arguments. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command.. In summary. } print func is initialized then ‘func. the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. in fact.}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file.zwc extension (i. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. 2001 8 . element/function A file of zsh command text.0. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. but may also perform initialization. For example. and may therefore define local parameters.zwc file is created. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. If element already includes a . Otherwise. and third. It may include other function definitions as well. within a directory. the shell looks for three possible files. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . For each element in fpath. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. at the end. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function.

preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed..0. If a function of this form is defined and null.. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions. just before a prompt. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. In fact. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. otherwise it is an empty string. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function. However. if defined. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result.. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. Inc. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed. because all comments are discarded from defined functions.. For example. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’. 2001 9 . size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided).4 Last change: October 26. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. precmd Executed before each prompt. zsh 4. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command.

it does not have a place in the job table.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then that job is immediately disowned. and assigns them small integer numbers. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. 2001 10 . If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. Inc. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. You can then manipulate the state of this job. %string Any job whose command line begins with string. %% Current job.4 Last change: October 26. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. If the NOTIFY option is not set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. %– Previous job. If you set this tty option. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. whose process ID was 1234. The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. printed by the jobs command. It keeps a table of current jobs. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. nor when it is continued with bg. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. zsh 4. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. and print another prompt. putting it in the background with the bg command. rather than in their own function environment. After startup.0. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. and is not subject to the job control features described here. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process.

either using the builtin let. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let.. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. if the HUP option is set. Inc. for example ‘[##16]’.))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . the shell will not warn you a second time. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). require quoting...0. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. the last encountered is used. where it acquires the output base 8. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’..4 Last change: October 26. each is evaluated separately. Otherwise. The base# may also be omitted. for example ‘[#16]’. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. if the number appears unchanged. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. For integers. This can be tested. For example. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’. If you do this or immediately try to exit again. If the # is doubled. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. Integers can be in bases other than 10. the precision is at least 8 bytes. zsh 4. the rightmost value in the given output base. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted." ’. or via a substitution of the form $((. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. then no base prefix is output. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. the suspended jobs will be terminated.. Since many of the arithmetic operators.. 2001 11 . the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. in which case base 10 is used. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation.)). As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. ‘((. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. for example. More precisely. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on. as well as spaces. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression.

post}{in. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. logical NOT. For example. ‘&’. complement. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. ‘&&=’. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. but the exponent character e or E may not. Likewise. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. there are two types. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. but its use is deprecated. as described for the typeset builtin. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. OR. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’.e. In addition. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. ‘<<’. differing only in their output format. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. precedence. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. i. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . division. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. modulus (remainder) +– addition. ‘∧ ‘%’. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. ‘’.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. as it will be taken for a parameter name.0. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.4 Last change: October 26. {pre. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. and XOR operators. Inc. floating point argument. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. 2001 12 . The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. ‘’. and associativity of expressions in C.

do # use $f done if f has not already been declared. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. f < 1. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. For example. –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. true if file exists and is a regular file. true if file exists and is a character special file. true if file exists and is a directory. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings.0’.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero. f += 0. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. option may be a single character. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0. –o option true if option named option is on. true if file exists and is readable by current process.1 )). true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. This can have unforeseen consequences. 2001 13 . true if file exists and is a block special file. so that the loop will fail. zsh 4. If file exists and is a directory.4 Last change: October 26. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case. Inc. true if file exists and is executable by current process. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. true if file exists and is a symbolic link. in which case it is a single letter option name. in the loop for (( f = 0. true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process.0. true if file exists. then the current process has permission to search in the directory.

zsh 4. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. see zshexpn(1). In each of the above expressions. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. where n is an integer. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. 2001 14 . Inc. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. similar to the effect of double quotes. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. true if exp is false.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket.4 Last change: October 26. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. string and pattern arguments. However.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2.

a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number.’. Current time of day in 24–hour format. trailing components of the hostname are shown. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. A ‘)’. $USERNAME.. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists.4 Last change: October 26. %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. the message ‘File exists. The current value of $SHLVL. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show.e. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. %–1d specifies the first component.)). but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. Present working directory ($PWD). The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. A negative integer specifies leading components. am/pm format. If it starts with $HOME.’ is printed. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set. If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. i. in 12–hour. Inc. If an integer follows the ‘%’. With a negative integer. command substitution and arithmetic expansion. Current history event number. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’. and if so. See zshexpn(1). 2001 15 . if the complete condition is true. The full machine hostname.. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. Current time of day. with seconds. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. The hostname up to the first ‘. As %d and %/. in 24–hour format. zero means the whole path. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. For example.0. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’.

The test character x may be any of the following: c . The date in mm/dd/yy format.1e capabilities are supported. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. ˜ / C t True if the current path. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter. except as part of a %–escape sequence. with prefix replacement. sourced file.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. The date in day–dd format. If there is none. Brace pairs can nest. Inc.0. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors..#. is that either the effective user ID is zero. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. The line number currently being executed in the script. 2001 16 . The status of the parser. The character following the x is arbitrary. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. zsh 4. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. %(x. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially. or shell function given by %N. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. The definition of ‘privileged’. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. whichever was started most recently. This separator may not appear in the true–text. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’.%%)’. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. which defaults to zero.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. A negative integer specifies leading components. has at least n elements.e.. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. i. Equivalent to ‘%(!. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. or.true–text. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array.4 Last change: October 26. The date in yy–mm–dd format. if POSIX. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. See strftime(3) for more details. for these purposes. including further ternary expressions. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. %E %# %v %{. Clears to end of line. Negative integers count from the end of the array. zero means the full path. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. sourced file. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped. a ‘%’ if not.

In particular. tilde contraction is performed first.0. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i.e/pike’. Without the ‘%<<’.. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. ‘>’ or ‘]’). the prompt ‘%8<. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). which ever comes first. it will appear in full. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0). zsh 4..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. a truncation with argument zero (e. True if the array psvar has at least n elements. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. True if the exit status of the last command was n..g. or in fact any character. For example. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<.4 Last change: October 26. i. True if the day of the month is equal to n. Unless ‘%C’ is used. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. note when using print –P. however. deprecated.e. %c %. %C Trailing component of $PWD. Inc. completely replacing the truncated string. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string.. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. True if the shell is running with privileges. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. True if at least n shell constructs were started. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. the prompt ’%10<.<%/’ will expand to ‘. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/. The third. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’. True if the effective gid of the current process is n.. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. For example.e. followed by a space. In this string. the terminating character (‘<’..<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory. respectively." ’. 2001 17 . True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. The numeric argument. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). note this does not undergo prompt expansion. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line.

The one most recent command is always retained in any case. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. For example. which is ‘!’ by default. 2001 1 . Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). Immediately before execution. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number. Inc. respectively. Double quotes will not work for this. no history expansion occurs. After these expansions. so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. commonly referred to as globbing. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. history expansions do not nest. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. if neither of these designators is present. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells. is always done last. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. and may occur anywhere on the command line. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. if it is the only history reference in a command. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. it refers to the previous command. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).4 Last change: October 26. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. By default. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above.0. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. Conversely. Filename Generation This expansion. However. each command is saved in the history list.

! Start a history expansion. 2001 2 . The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. newline. or a null value if there are none. Refer to the current command–line minus n. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. The first argument. ‘∧ ’. ‘=’ or ‘(’. the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. The last argument.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. That is.0.. Modifiers After the optional word designator. this expansion repeats the previous command. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. zsh 4.. More precisely. Refer to the most recent command starting with str.4 Last change: October 26. By itself. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. each preceded by a ‘:’. A range of words. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’. Refer to the previous command. All the arguments. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. The nth argument. of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. In the list below. Refer to command–line n. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. Inc. although the error may not be the most obvious one. except when followed by a blank. !# !{. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. ∗’. except where noted. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. x defaults to 0. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. Anything else results in an error. respectively. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. replacing the string foo with bar. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). Word designators include: ’.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Convert the words to all lowercase. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Substitute r for l as described below. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. If < is used. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. Inc. in the right–hand–side r. the shell runs process list asynchronously. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. The character ‘&’. F. opening parentheses are handled specially. Unless preceded immediately by a g. this applies to each word of the expanded text. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. but break into words at whitespace. leaving the root name. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’.4 Last change: October 26. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. the closing delimiter should be ’)’. escaping further substitutions. Remove all leading pathname components. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. Convert the words to all uppercase. Only works with history expansion. Like s. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. This works like ‘basename’. Quote the substituted words. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. ‘[’. This works like ‘dirname’. ‘]’. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. leaving the head. Print the new command but do not execute it. The following f. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. with no colon between. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. Remove all but the extension. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. Repeat the previous s substitution. Like q. the command argument will be a named pipe. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. 2001 3 . For example. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep.xxx’. In the case of the < or > forms. F:expr: Like f. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. Does not work with parameter expansion. otherwise. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). see above. For arrays and for filename generation. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n.0. leaving the tail. but character strings. or ‘}’. if ‘(’. may be preceded immediately by a g. respectively. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’.

or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. In both forms. the expansion results in one word only. Otherwise. Note that these patterns. if the programme does not actually open the file. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. with KSH_ARRAYS. command substitution. this is the first element of an array. In the former case. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. Inc. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. If = is used. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. If name is an array parameter. in the second form. If name is missing. In the second case. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. otherwise substitute word. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. one element per word. ${name} The value. digit. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set. In addition. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. the value of the parameter is then substituted.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. In both cases. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. exceptions. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. of the parameter name is substituted. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. associative arrays. including arrays. 2001 4 .0. if any. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. ${name:?word} zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26. In addition to the following operations. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. pastes the results together. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. then the value of each element of name is substituted. ‘˜’. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. the name. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. and arithmetic expansion. substitute word. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. all of which work with or without braces. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. unconditionally set name to word.

E and N are not useful. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted.e. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here.4 Last change: October 26. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). The repl may be an empty string. For example. If word is omitted. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. In the first case. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. ${#spec} zsh 4. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. otherwise. or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used. a quoted backslash). In the following expressions. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. not whether its value is null. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. the largest matching pattern is preferred. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. otherwise. just substitute the value of name.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. otherwise substitute nothing. then a standard message is printed. 2001 5 . in which case it must match at the end of the string. while in the second ∗e case. R. To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. just substitute the value of name. or ‘%’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. the flags M. just substitute the value of name. however. otherwise. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. in the second form. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. in the second form. the largest matching pattern is preferred. Inc.. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. then the shell only checks whether name is set.0. the second form all occurrences. In the first form. even at the start. B. print word and exit from the shell. then substitute the empty string. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. otherwise. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. In the first form.

If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. Create an array parameter with ‘${. Assignment is made before sorting or padding.. for example. for example. the repetitions need not be consecutive. If a ${. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar.. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’. turn it off. This is done by default in most other shells.. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’). below. there are two sets of quotes.g. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below.. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo). The form with $(... turn it off. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec... the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. see the examples below. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’. E.. for example. turn it ’ off.}’. When this option is set. Inc.. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context..}’ or ‘${. if the ‘∧ is doubled..}’. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags. In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’). ’. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name.. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f.. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1.=. in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" ..0. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. using IFS as a delimiter.g. In double quotes. E.. This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. ‘${. If this flag is given twice.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1]..}. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT.} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1). the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4. if the ‘=’ is doubled.. s or z flags.. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted. and ‘˜’. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. If spec is an array expression. if the ‘˜’ is doubled. create an associative array parameter. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined. Internally.4 Last change: October 26. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions..::=. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. 2001 6 . When this option is set.} type parameter expression or a $(....:=. one surrounding the whole expression. each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes. Each name or nested ${. which still applies within each array element. substitute the number of elements of the result.$var[2]. array elements are put into separate words...

as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. Inc. Perform parameter expansion. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects.0. whose value will be used where appropriate. If it is given four times.. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution. However. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. ‘float’ or ‘association’. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. If this flag is given twice.}’ to activate field splitting. If name refers to an associative array. Quote the resulting words with backslashes.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’. the words are quoted in double quotes. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. 2001 7 . Capitalize the resulting words. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. not to words that result from field splitting. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times. when creating an associative array. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. With o or O. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. ‘integer’. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. Sort the resulting words in descending order. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. For example.. it can be one of ‘scalar’. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. sort case–independently. the strings ${(P)foo}.4 Last change: October 26. ‘array’. count the total number of characters in an array. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. Split the result of the expansion to lines. ${(P)${foo}}.

. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4.. This only applies when searching for substrings. Likewise.} or ${.. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’.. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown.. If both string1 and string2 are given.//.... s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option.e. ‘[. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right.} forms..//...} or ${. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator. Any character./..e. Inc. With substitution via ${. specifies non–greedy matching.. The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given.. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).} forms.. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced.%%. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument.#. or with ${. before padding... with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string.. With the ${. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.../. to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’.. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument.}.>’. Used with subscripts...}’. Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide... i. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element. So to access single words in the result. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case.%. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence. With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported.. Used with k. as for the ‘(s)’ flag... either with the S flag.]’.. Note that this is done very late..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. i. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word...} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${. ‘{. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string. 2001 8 . Without the flag they are silently ignored. taking into account any quoting in the value.} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted). r:expr::string1::string2: As l./. The default is to take the first match.. The following flags are meaningful with the ${. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters... this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter. With ${#name}. S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends... l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left.. or the matching pairs ‘(.. count words in arrays or strings.4 Last change: October 26.} and ${....} forms.. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter.)’.%. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted. Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below.0. force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words. or ‘<..

Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${. ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. but not to " ${${foo[2. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. and the substitution appears in double quotes. by default a space.4 Last change: October 26. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript. the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). ${. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes. Any number of subscripts may appear. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}.. At each level. 2001 9 . Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. Some particular examples are given below. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’..e. 1. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2. Subscripts are evaluated left to right.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). 2. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. for example. Note that. As with 2. 4.0. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution. If the (j) flag is present. such as ${var[3]}. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value. i. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution. the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. Include the length of the match in the result.} forms are present. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i.. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution.. 3. is applied. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. Inc. but ${var[2.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). but in reverse order.}. multiple subscripts can appear. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. Note that ${foo[2. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. possibly adjusted for quoting. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. ‘witch’. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). zsh 4. Include the matched portion in the result. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions.. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution.e. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. Thus if var is an array. 5. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’.

fill. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. First. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’.4 Last change: October 26. Modifiers Any modifiers.g. zsh 4. Note this step. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. 10. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b. Inc. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’.. as specified by a trailing ‘#’. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’. too. ‘1’.. ${=var}). this rule is skipped. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value.. produces a single word result " bar baz" . takes place at all levels of a nested substitution. and joining did not take place at step 4. are applied to the words of the value at this level. For example. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. 12.0.fill.[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’... or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8. 7. 9. which makes the entire content of the file a single string. The outer substitution " ${(@). or 9. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6.)’ flags is applied. 8. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines. The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). In this case. ‘b’ and ‘1’.. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. which divides the file up by words. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. or the same inside double quotes. If a single word is not required.[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array. so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character. which has no array (@) flag. 11. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. 2001 10 . the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS.. The outer substitution " ${.)’ or ‘(r. ‘%’. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" .. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions. Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result.

An expression of the form ‘{n1. This construct may be nested. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. ‘ b’ and ‘’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space). In that case. where n1 and n2 are integers.0. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack. and then split to give ‘a’. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack.. A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.yy. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here.. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. Left–to–right order is preserved. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. The final empty string will then be elided.4 Last change: October 26. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. If so. or quoted with grave accents.n2}’. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign. like ‘‘. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. zsh 4. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. which is joined to give " ax bx" . As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated. then the word up to a ‘/’. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. 2001 11 . this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. as it is not in double quotes.. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. In either case. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set.‘’. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes.. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’. with any trailing newlines deleted. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width. the output is eligible for filename generation. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set.zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. If either number begins with a zero. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. it is left unchanged. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. is replaced with its standard output. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system.)’. like ‘$(. If it does. respectively. in the manner of a search set. In particular. Inc.. Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. zsh 4. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set.]. the shell gives an error message.4 Last change: October 26. the ‘=’. Inc. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set. If an alias exists by that name.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number. e. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter.] [∧ . If no matching pattern is found. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’. it is regarded as ∗’. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command. ‘<’. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. In this case. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters.. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell.’. also.] form is more efficient.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character.’ are not treated specially. the [. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix. except when the directory is / itself. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’.. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3). or unless the NOMATCH option is unset. for instance).. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon). Matches any character. In filename generation. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. If so. The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. in which case the word is deleted. any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. the EQUALS option is also respected. a ‘. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. in which case the word is left unchanged. In other instances of pattern matching. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. including the null string. or ‘?’.. 2001 12 .g. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. the word is replaced with the text of the alias. a pattern for filename generation.. [. ‘[’. unless the GLOB option is unset. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. There are also several named classes of characters.. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set.. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. To match individual digits. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace. If a command exists by that name. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set.] [!. Named character sets can be used alongside other types.’ or ‘. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion. when the shell prints a path. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’.. the ‘/’ and ‘. Like [. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’. inclusive.. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. ‘’. Matches any of the enclosed characters..0.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab..

‘?’.... and the ‘∗ will match any others. The ∗’. as detailed below. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds..) Match the pattern in the parentheses. or a parenthesised expression). a character. ‘∗ ‘+’. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially.. (Like ‘(. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’. ‘∗ ‘+’. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way.) Match any number of occurrences..) Match at least one occurrence.4 Last change: October 26. (Like ‘(. (Like ‘(. and so on. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set... ‘[.)’. Inc.. foo/any/bar..)’. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories.) Matches the enclosed pattern.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’. ∗’ (. with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation)... in case statements and tests within ‘[[.’ except ‘. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’).’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x.) !(.) +(.) Match zero or one occurrence. (Like ‘(. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example. the remaining operators are ’. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string. or ‘!’... zsh 4. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.e..) Matches anything except the pattern x. This operator has high precedence. In the exclusion pattern (y). ‘?’ ∗’.) ?(. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set..))’... ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’.. foo/any/anyother/bar.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar. ‘<. (Like ‘(∧ (. If the KSH_GLOB option is set.’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x.) Match anything but the expression in parentheses./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. This is used for grouping.. x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit. As mentioned above.) ∗ ∗(... This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. then a ‘@’.]]’).. This operator has lower precedence than any other. For example. This is a trap for the unwary. 2001 13 . this includes an empty string. @(. but the ‘(’ must be.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. to avoid interpretation as a pipeline.. a pattern already followed by ‘##’. ‘’ (lowest). so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y. while a ‘’ must do so.]’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead. ‘˜’. This operator has high precedence. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. a ‘/’ is not special..)##’. simply treated from left to right as part of a string. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example. rather than ‘(12)##’. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects..) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together. rather than ‘(12)#’.0.)#’..>’. for example. ‘/’ and ‘.

so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. 2001 14 . Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. For example. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. and the start and end indices are set to –1. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. such as ${array#pattern}. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. not local to a group. Inc. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string.0. such as ${param//pat/repl}. only the data for the last match remains available. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. this does not work in filename generation. and the indices of the end in the array $mend. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. or a global substitution. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option.4 Last change: October 26. as otherwise the string matched is obvious. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. B m Deactivate backreferences. See the example for the m flag below. i. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. although sets of parentheses may be nested. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. The parameters $MATCH. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. and so on. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1]. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. zsh 4. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. respectively. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation.e.

Unlike backreferences. 4. zsh 4. there is no speed penalty for using match references. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. and all slashes in filenames.. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. match anywhere except at the start of the string.4 Last change: October 26. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. these have only a local effect. as with stove and strove. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. Four types of error are recognised: 1. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. Approximate Matching When matching approximately.0. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. as in banana and abnana.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.] groups. at/end/test. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. Another use is in parameter substitution. hence no references to match data will be created. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. Finally. 2. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. Inc. is potentially slow. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character).. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. but not strings of length two. all vowels) into uppercase. e Deactivate the m flag. i. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. as in fooxbar and fooybar.e. An extra character appearing in the target string. since all the ? must match. Unlike the other flags. in/test/middle. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. M anum s.. Thus. A character missing in the target string. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type.e.. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. Similarly. For example. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately). 3. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. Different characters. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. 2001 15 . For example. Transposition of characters. but not by (#l)FOOXX. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. as with the pattern road and target string rod. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. ∗’ test/at/start. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba.

for example. note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories. in that case.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. Thus.0. (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. and this can be delimited by grouping.ME but not READ_ME. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / .4 Last change: October 26. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. Apart from exclusions. so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. As a shorthand. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. Inc. there is only one overall error count. which may not occur in the dog section. where approximation is turned off. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. However. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. bling the parentheses. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. however. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. 2001 16 . For example. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. This form does not follow symbolic links. however. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set.

The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. If none of these characters is given. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. a ‘+’. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. zsh 4. 2001 17 . ‘{’. and for which other group members have no rights. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. the bits in the number must not be set. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. ‘x’. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. followed by a ‘=’. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. If a ‘u’ is given. a ‘+’. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). ‘}’. ‘o’. respectively. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. ‘+’. or a ‘–’. Inc. ‘w’ for write access. if a ‘g’ is given. and ‘a’. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. or a octal digit. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. or a ‘–’. estring The string will be executed as shell code. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. if combined with a ‘=’. with a ‘+’. If set to an array. independent of the permissions for other users. ‘{’. and ‘>’ respectively.4 Last change: October 26. ‘}’.0. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. and execute permission. while any other character matches itself. which overrides the value of REPLY. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. write. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’. ‘w’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. The ‘=’. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. those of the group are checked. and ‘>’. Thus. In addition. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘[’. and with a ‘–’. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. ‘s’. those for the owner of the file are used. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. and ‘t’. ‘g’.

Note that a. ‘{’. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. if l they are sorted by the number of links. modification. hence the first name in the list is the youngest file.4 Last change: October 26. hours. and c compare the age against the current time. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option. m. except that it uses the file modification time. 2001 18 . weeks. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e.g. except that it uses the file inode change time. ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. minutes or seconds instead of days.g.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. Oc zsh 4. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). For instance.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. like ‘o’. and ‘>’ respectively. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). if not. but sorts in descending order. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. Note the quotation marks. ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. Inc. or exactly n bytes in length. ‘h’. ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days). m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. if a. ‘w’. more than n bytes (+). and ‘<’ match ‘]’. respectively. m. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files.e. i. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. greater than ct (+). megabytes. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago.g. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. ‘}’. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. ‘m’ (‘M’). or inode change respectively. Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). if d.

]’).0. independent of the sublist in which they are given. separated by commas.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list. More than one of these lists can be combined. 2001 19 . Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’. affect all matches generated. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. ‘T’. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory.h. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’).h. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). ‘o’.c and parse. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[. Some qualifiers.. ‘n’. ‘N’. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. These are the qualifiers ‘M’. Inc. however. ‘D’.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. ignoring symlinks.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files. and ls ∗ ∗(W. E.. zsh 4. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1..∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot.[ch](∧ l1) ∗. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse). parse. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[.g. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions. If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed.4 Last change: October 26.c. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories. lex.

and they stay special even if unset.) Every key must have a value in this case. the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. it is replaced by a new array.... Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript. or ‘!’. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details. use the typeset builtin.. name=(value . write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. However.. ‘–’. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. To create an empty array (including associative arrays). the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value . The ∗’. write one of: set –A name value . ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero.. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. name=(key value . ‘#’. Special parameters cannot have their type changed. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. a value.. ‘$’. and a number of attributes. the braced form is the only one that works. –i. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment.4 Last change: October 26. The elements are numbered beginning with 1. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp..0. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. an integer. indexed by name). In the parameter lists that follow.))’. A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. an ordinary array parameter is created. Note that this assigns to the entire array. an array (indexed numerically). thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. 2001 1 .. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar. is set for name. To refer to the value of a parameter. ‘?’. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute.. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. value may be a scalar (a string). To declare the type of a parameter.) If no parameter name exists. The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays.

Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators.0. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. i. (This is not supported for associative arrays.. The default word separator is whitespace. but see Subscript Flags below). 2001 2 . there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case. zsh 4. if it is a scalar. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag).exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo." ’. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] .(r)f∗ are possible. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. or the comma in a range. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??. To delete an element of an ordinary array. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys). See Subscript Parsing below for details. For example. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag.’. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. this means the value of the key ‘0’. (Associative arrays are unordered. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given.e. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??. respectively). then ‘echo $FOO[2. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters. Arrays do not nest.. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. inclusive.5]’ prints ‘ooba’.. in no particular order.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number. as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. say –n. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. and so do not support ranges.. assign ‘()’ to that element. The subscript used is the number of the matching element. if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . To delete an element of an associative array. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. with elements separated by newlines. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array. and ‘$foo[1. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. For associative arrays. Inc. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26.

4 Last change: October 26. For associative arrays. Inc. If used in a subscript on an associative array. but gives the index of the match instead. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. because of the standard shell quoting rules. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. ‘i’ or ‘I’. However. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. word. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. but not for assigning to associative arrays. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. However. this may not be combined with a second argument. Like ‘i’. or character (if expr evaluates to n). R i Like ‘r’. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. but gives the index of the last match. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). Therefore. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. ‘R’. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. If used on another type of parameter. etc. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. Like ‘r’. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. this behaves like ‘r’. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). This flag is ignored when the array is associative. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. ‘R’. ‘i’ or ‘I’. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. so the rules have two important differences. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. flags). makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. For associative arrays. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. On the left side of an assignment. and the first matching key found is the result. zsh 4. 2001 3 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. but gives the last match. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. gives all possible matches. behaves like ‘r’. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. However. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. for example. because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns. ‘i’. ‘R’. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’). this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values. For associative arrays.

Inc. and also the section ‘Functions’. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression.. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. see the section ‘Invocation’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment. 2001 4 . local and readonly (but not export). but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. positional parameters. zsh 4.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. shell script. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. The parameter n. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. or the shell itself. but ‘$2[3. because then the backslashes. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. ‘${2[3. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. because the positional parameters form an array. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. by assigning to the argv array. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. where n is a number. a subscript expression. For complex patterns. etc. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed. rather than as a pattern.. Note that.)’ is allowed.) One final note. brackets. the subscript is a plain string in that case. second. and its alternative forms declare. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. they are removed only once. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes.4 Last change: October 26. for example.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. Therefore. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. This has two effects: first. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern. (Parameters are dynamically scoped. once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern.. from the innermost subscript outwards. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. That is. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. integer. to refer to the value of that key. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. thus ‘$argv[n]’. In a reverse subscript.) The typeset builtin. As in true double–quoting. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed.0. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. is the nth positional parameter.5]’. parentheses. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. etc.. backslashes are interpreted twice.

Special parameters may also be made local.0. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. or declaring a new parameter with export. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). as determined at run time. (That is.) However. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. If you have sufficient privileges. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. the sequence ‘$#–. q. the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. The name used to invoke the current shell. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. status <S> <Z> Same as ?. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends. even when argv is not set. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. you may change the zsh 4. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. 2001 5 .. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function.v. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. assigning to a non–existent parameter. Also. parameter. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. In particular. CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. The number of positional parameters in decimal. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities. An array containing the positional parameters. but argv is not itself a local ∗.. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command.

RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. Inc. OSTYPE The operating system.0. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. as determined at compile time. zsh 4. OLDPWD The previous working directory. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call. sourced file. as determined at compile time. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). Also (assuming sufficient privileges). The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. If this parameter is assigned a value. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. whichever was started most recently. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment.4 Last change: October 26. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 2001 6 . This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. If you have sufficient privileges. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session. PWD The present working directory. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. command)’ HOST The current hostname. or shell function being executed. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. If you have sufficient privileges.

If you have sufficient privileges. if any. they retain their special properties when recreated. If the stack gets larger than this.4 Last change: October 26. These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. Inc. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. If you have sufficient privileges. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. signals An array containing the names of the signals. as determined at compile time. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh.g. 2001 7 . The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. and not the modem. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). such as path and PATH. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). command)’ VENDOR The vendor. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty.0. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. in this case. it will be truncated zsh 4. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. e. ARGV0 If exported. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process.

this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. tab. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. However. setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences.4 Last change: October 26. Any characters from the set space. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. Inc. in hundredths of seconds. LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. 2001 8 .) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits.0. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). then it is read and executed in the current environment. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. than these files are completed anyway. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically. ’). If an executable file is found. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option. newline and NUL). If unset. (Deprecated. the history is not saved. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS.

any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. however. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. Note that zsh does not use message catalogs.0. For csh–like behavior. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. the number of matches to list without asking first. unset this parameter. The message will undergo parameter expansion. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. If the value is negative. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. Defaults to cat. the shell looks for mail in the specified file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This is initialized to a standard pathname. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits.) For security reasons.4 Last change: October 26. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. LISTMAX In the line editor. When this parameter is set. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. The manpath array can be useful. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. and vice versa. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. If set to zero. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. change this to :. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command. since setting it also sets MANPATH. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. Inc. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session. For sh/ksh behavior. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. 2001 9 .

prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. 2001 10 . but for array values rather than strings. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. Inc. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. Defaults to more. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt. PS2. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. respectively. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. the default is ‘%m%# ’. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and vice versa. The default is ‘%_> ’. In sh or ksh emulation. the default is ‘+ ’. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command.0. PS3 and PS4. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. reply As REPLY. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. The default is ‘?# ’. printed before a command is read. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. All other prompt escapes are also allowed. REPORTTIME If nonnegative.4 Last change: October 26. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. zsh 4. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it.

This is used when looking up termcap sequences. zsh terminates. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. ‘TERM=$TERM’). Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it.0. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. zsh 4. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. The full hostname of the remote host. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. The name of this job. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. it is reported. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. the whole name is printed. if a login/logout event matches all of them. even if the value does not change (e. 2001 11 . and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME. The CPU percentage.. Elapsed time in seconds. then all login/logout events are reported.e.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). The hostname up to the first ‘. The observed action. as if it were not suspended. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. these will not be local to the command. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. The line (tty) the user is logged in on. An entry in this list may consist of a username. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal.4 Last change: October 26. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). "logged on" or "logged off".g.’. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. If it contains the single word ‘all’. computed as (%U+%S)/%E. If there is a trap on SIGALRM. Inc. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. CPU seconds spent in user mode. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. i. This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. If no trap is set. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero.

The character following the x is arbitrary. etc). ‘m’ or ‘M’. but both separators must be present in any case. The time. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option.4 Last change: October 26. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. or it may be ‘a’. Either or both of the branches may be empty. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. am/pm format. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode.0. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). for example. ZBEEP If set. Ternary expressions may be nested. that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. the entire expression is omitted in this case. in 24–hour format. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. If the result is ‘true’. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. and the false–text is skipped. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). If ‘false’. zsh 4. 2001 12 . which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. in 12–hour. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. ‘n’. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. Inc. this gives a string of characters. if not $HOME.zshrc.

and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. in the order they are killed. The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. and a full completion is inserted. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. For example. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. ‘noexec’. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. <Z> as appropriate. and the command is the name of a directory.4 Last change: October 26. <S>. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. sh. perform the cd command to that directory. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. Inc. Thus. ‘unsetopt’. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. For example. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. trailing whitespace will be ignored. ALL_EXPORT (–a. as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. Similarly. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. When listing options (by ‘setopt’. Some options also have one or more single letter names. ksh. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. those set by default only in csh. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). or with the set. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. That is. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. rather than overwrite it. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on.0. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. <K>. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. 2001 1 . This inversion can only be done once. zsh 4. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. setopt and unsetopt builtins. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion.

‘:’. the pattern will be left unchanged. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. if it contains no ‘’. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’.4 Last change: October 26. (If this option is unset. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. print an error message. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. remove the slash. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. etc. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. Inc. a slash. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. 2001 2 .). so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. If AUTO_MENU is set. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. This option is set by default.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’.’. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. C_BASES zsh 4. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. the automatically added character is deleted. treating the character ‘!’ specially. (Otherwise. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession. csh–style.

The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd .0. or if ‘. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory. done’.’ is the first part of the path.e. with it set.. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. else such jobs will be killed automatically. For example. Without this option set. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset.. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’. CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line. a ‘. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed.’ changes to /foo. defaulting to the previous command.’ would be removed from the path. Without this option.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘cd /foo/bar/.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. 2001 3 . try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’). the last part of $PWD would be deleted).. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS. and does not begin with a slash. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES.. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default). COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. instead resolve the path to the physical directory. i. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. end’ instead of ‘do list. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file..’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list..’ is used. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. Inc. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP. it changes to /alt. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. and ‘>>’ to create files.4 Last change: October 26. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory. CLOBBER (+C. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal. ‘foo/. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base.

Command substitutions are only expanded once. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. GLOB (+F. Without this option. float. The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’. This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). In double–quoted strings. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. but not executed. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. and cannot be nested. integer. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. 2001 4 . and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. if set. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands. and exit. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. EXEC (+n. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag.0. If the option is unset. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor. execute the ZERR trap. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. etc. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell. zsh 4. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. delete the pattern from the argument list. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion.4 Last change: October 26. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’. Inc. DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly.) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script.) ERR_EXIT (–e. Overrides NOMATCH.

This makes the first completion slower. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. This actually uses pattern matching. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. etc. zsh 4. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation.g. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line. hash the directory containing it. so it works not only for files but for any completion. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list. GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time. etc. otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. However.). including inside local startup files (. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted.g. Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run. /etc/zshrc. when CORRECT is set. This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset.zshrc. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. ∗)’) with this option set. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. such as options. Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion. the startup files /etc/zprofile. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. avoiding a path search. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’). no path hashing is done at all. HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set. You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events. even if the duplicates are not contiguous. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. user names. If this option is unset.0. as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘. 2001 5 . filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e. make sure the entire command path is hashed first. not globbing.

allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion. but can exceed this value between trimmings. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. type a space and press return. Also. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked. Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. not for completion widgets. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input.0. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. don’t execute the line directly. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. INTERACTIVE (–i. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). Inc. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space. 2001 6 . HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list. instead. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. However. older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. Require the use of exit or logout instead. zsh 4. If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command.) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. This works only for normal widgets. HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion.

0. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function. Inc. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. the corresponding file is merely executed. with it. More accurately. marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. ‘?’ or ∗’. the function is defined to the contents of the file. including declare. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. (By default. local and readonly. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. If this option is set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. word splitting does not take place in those cases. array elements are numbered from zero. zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment. in other words.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. Otherwise. float. 2001 7 . LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. Without this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion. are processed. ‘∗ ‘+’. that is. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. and must define the function itself. LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’). A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. integer. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands. However. export. This means that when a function is autoloaded. ‘!’. LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally.4 Last change: October 26. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. that is done without a completion list being displayed. not under it as usual. ‘off’ otherwise. only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored. all options are shown. the second match is to the right of the first one.

LOGIN (–l. Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar statements. insert the first match immediately. delete the pattern from the argument list instead of reporting an error. } will restore normally handling of SIGINT after the function exits. ksh: –m) Allow job control. Overrides NOMATCH. rather than waiting until just before printing a prompt. go back to the first one again. reverse–menu–complete may be used to loop through the list in the other direction. sleep 3. This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option. it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly restored by a function. NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. if both options are in effect. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function. MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST All unquoted arguments of the form ‘anything=expression’ appearing after the command name have filename expansion (that is. etc. NULL_GLOB (–G) If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. ksh: –l) This is a login shell. both occurrences of ˜ would be replaced. Inc. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. trap ’’ INT. and not used as an actual parameter assignment. unsetopt localtraps trap – INT fn() { setopt localtraps. Then when completion is requested again.4 Last change: October 26. zsh 4. ksh: –X) Append a trailing ‘/’ to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing). LONG_LIST_JOBS (–R) List jobs in the long format by default. instead of leaving it unchanged in the argument list. the value on exit from the function is irrelevant. If this option is not explicitly set. 2001 8 . In other words. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting.0. it is passed to the command as a single argument. MONITOR (–m. This option overrides AUTO_MENU. For example. Set by default in interactive shells. MARK_DIRS (–8. MAIL_WARNING (–U) Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked. where expression has a leading ‘˜’ or ‘=’) performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment. instead of listing possibilities or beeping. the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a ‘–’. For example. then the previous status of the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits. When there are no more matches. NOTIFY (–5. MULTIOS <Z> Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section ‘Redirection’). MENU_COMPLETE (–Y) On an ambiguous completion. print an error. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. The argument is not otherwise treated specially. Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function. remove the first match and insert the second match. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. in echo foo=˜/bar:˜/rod.

PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS Don’t push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack. break. set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. PROMPT_SUBST <K> If set..2–1992 (ISO 9945–2:1993). POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S> When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell builtin commands. ‘!’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. This option disables sourcing user startup files. This takes place before any search indicated by this option. ‘. Commands explicitly beginning with ‘/’. Thus if ‘/usr/local/bin’ is in the user’s path. declare. and regardless of whether ‘. readonly. ksh: –p) Turn on privileged mode. per IEEE Std 1003. parameter expansion. This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of. Turning this option off causes the effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs. command substitution and arithmetic expansion are performed in prompts.0. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored. PROMPT_CR (+V) <D> Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. Sourcing ˜/. source. PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (–1) Print the exit value of programs with non–zero exit status. If zsh is invoked as ‘sh’ or ‘ksh’ with this option set. OVERSTRIKE Start up the line editor in overstrike mode. and he or she types ‘X11/xinit’. Parameter assignments specified before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin. This is on by default as multi–line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears. /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive shells).4 Last change: October 26. eval. and changing it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. :. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. builtin. This option cannot be changed using the –m option of setopt and unsetopt. sort the filenames numerically rather than lexicographically. 2001 9 . PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z> If set. This also applies to the ./’ or ‘./’ are not subject to the path search. This option is not necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)). Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in this form. times. shift. exit. ‘%’ is treated specially in prompt expansion.. PROMPT_BANG <K> If set. Inc. etc. trap and unset. return. continue. integer. PATH_DIRS (–Q) Perform a path search even on command names with slashes in them. OCTAL_ZEROES <S> Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal. zsh 4. PRINT_EIGHT_BIT Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists. Special builtins are . local. PRIVILEGED (–p. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern.’ or the current directory appear in the command search path. for example. the command ‘/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit’ will be executed (assuming it exists). export. date and time strings with leading zeroes.

zshrc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) PUSHD_MINUS Exchanges the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack. INC_APPEND_HISTORY on.4 Last change: October 26. RCS (+f) <D> After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup. This avoids the problem of reflexively answering ‘yes’ to the query when one didn’t really mean it. . . and then manually import commands whenever you need them using ‘fc –RI’. history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines. it can be set at any time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced. command substitution. By default. . but you can toggle this on and off with the set–local–history zle binding.’. RM_STAR_WAIT If querying the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ first wait ten seconds and ignore any∗’ ∗’. so things like ‘˜$USERNAME’ and ‘˜{pfalstad. If this option is unset. arithmetic expansion and brace expansion. but any of the others will not be. it is performed after brace expansion. REC_EXACT (–S) In completion. PUSHD_SILENT (–E) Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.g. RC_QUOTES Allow the character sequence ‘’’’ to signify a single quote within singly quoted strings. Inc. you may wish to turn SHARE_HISTORY off. PUSHD_TO_HOME (–D) Have pushd with no arguments act like ‘pushd $HOME’.zlogout files. recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous.. RESTRICTED (–r) Enables restricted mode.. thing typed in that time. and also causes your typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY).rc}’ will work. SHARE_HISTORY <K> This option both imports new commands from the history file. 2001 10 . as described in the section ‘Files’. The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the ‘∗ in ZLE ∗’ (with tab). It is also possible to create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported commands.zlogin. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. /etc/zprofile. source the . and setting it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced. See the section ‘Restricted Shell’. ˜ expansion) before parameter expansion.zshenv. /etc/zshrc. The history lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off reading the file after it gets re–written). This option cannot be changed using unsetopt. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported. and some include them. RM_STAR_SILENT (–H) <K> <S> Do not query the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ ∗’ ∗’. SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S> Perform filename expansion (e.. If this option is unset. where a backslashed single quote can be used. zsh 4. /etc/zlogin. Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $’.0. RC_EXPAND_PARAM (–P) Array expansions of the form ‘foo${xx}bar’. and .zprofile.

use ‘:’ instead (see the section ‘Redirection’). SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (–L) If a line ends with a backquote. SHIN_STDIN (–s. If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line. This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh. ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z> Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting. unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command line.0. ‘’. if. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line.4 Last change: October 26. Otherwise they are treated as an error. Note that this option has nothing to do with word splitting. (See the section ‘Parameter Expansion’. 2001 11 . select. and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns. These aliases are never used for output. ksh: –t) If the shell is reading from standard input. zsh 4. Commands are read from standard input if no command is specified with –c and no file of commands is specified. SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S> If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and setopt) like ksh does. ksh: –v) Print shell input lines as they are read. ksh: –x) Print commands and their arguments as they are executed. it exits after a single command has been executed. UNSET (+u. and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line.) SINGLE_COMMAND (–t. VERBOSE (–v. and there are an odd number of backquotes on the line. but can be used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) SH_GLOB <K> <S> Disables the special meaning of ‘(’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal. This also affects the value of the – special parameter. and function constructs. ksh: –s) Commands are being read from the standard input. SH_NULLCMD <K> <S> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections. SH_WORD_SPLIT (–y) <K> <S> Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions. any argument that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal positional parameter. SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z> Allow the short forms of for. Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running – that is purely an indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input. ignore the trailing backquote. ‘)’ and ’<’ for globbing the result of parameter and command substitutions. OPTION ALIASES Some options have alternative names. XTRACE (–x. This also makes the shell non–interactive. SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (–M) <K> Use single–line command line editing instead of multi–line. This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small. ZLE (–Z) Use the zsh line editor. Inc.

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

BRACE_EXPAND NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility) DOT_GLOB GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility) HASH_ALL HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility) HIST_APPEND APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility) HIST_EXPAND BANG_HIST (bash compatibility) LOG NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility) MAIL_WARN MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility) ONE_CMD SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility) PHYSICAL CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility) PROMPT_VARS PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility) STDIN SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility) TRACK_ALL HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)
SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS Default set

–0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –B –C –D –E –F –G –H –I –J –K –L –M –N –O –P

CORRECT PRINT_EXIT_VALUE NO_BAD_PATTERN NO_NOMATCH GLOB_DOTS NOTIFY BG_NICE IGNORE_EOF MARK_DIRS AUTO_LIST NO_BEEP NO_CLOBBER PUSHD_TO_HOME PUSHD_SILENT NO_GLOB NULL_GLOB RM_STAR_SILENT IGNORE_BRACES AUTO_CD NO_BANG_HIST SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK SINGLE_LINE_ZLE AUTO_PUSHD CORRECT_ALL RC_EXPAND_PARAM

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

12

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–Q –R –S –T –U –V –W –X –Y –Z –a –e –f –g –h –i –k –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –w –x –y –C –X –a –b –e –f –i –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –x
Also note

PATH_DIRS LONG_LIST_JOBS REC_EXACT CDABLE_VARS MAIL_WARNING NO_PROMPT_CR AUTO_RESUME LIST_TYPES MENU_COMPLETE ZLE ALL_EXPORT ERR_EXIT NO_RCS HIST_IGNORE_SPACE HIST_IGNORE_DUPS INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE CHASE_LINKS XTRACE SH_WORD_SPLIT NO_CLOBBER MARK_DIRS ALL_EXPORT NOTIFY ERR_EXIT NO_GLOB INTERACTIVE LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE XTRACE Used by set for setting arrays Used on the command line to specify end of option processing Used on the command line to specify a single command Used by setopt for pattern–matching option setting Used in all places to allow use of long option names

sh/ksh emulation set

–A –b –c –m –o

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

13

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–s

Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

14

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

NAME

zshbuiltins – zsh built–in commands
SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

– simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. . file [ arg ... ] Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment. If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory containing file. Files in the current directory are not read unless ‘.’ appears somewhere in $path. If a file named ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed. : [ arg ... ] This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on shell parameters. A zero exit code is returned. alias [ {+–}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ] For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion. If the –g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position. For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any. With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases. If the –m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed. When printing aliases and the –g or –r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or regular aliases, respectively. Using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’, or ending the option list with a single ‘+’, prevents the values of the aliases from being printed. If the –L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup script. The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined. autoload [ {+–}UXmt ] [ –wkz ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to functions –u, with the exception of –X/+X, –w, –k and –z. The flag –X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name. It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments. This replaces the previous definition of the function. If no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it. The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it was found. This does not replace any existing definition of the function. The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined or when no definition was found. In the latter case the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X may be combined with either –k or –z to make the function be loaded using ksh–style or zsh–style autoloading, respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With ksh–style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

With the –w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading. bg [ job ... ] job ... & Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified. bindkey See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1). break [ n ] Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one. builtin name [ args ... ] Executes the builtin name, with the given args. bye cap Same as exit. See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

cd [ –sLP ] [ arg ] cd [ –sLP ] old new cd [ –sLP ] {+–}n Change the current directory. In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified. If arg is ‘–’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory. Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath. If no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory. In that case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table. The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory. The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains symlinks. If the –P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values. If the –L option is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option. chdir clone Same as cd. See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

command simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. comparguments See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compcall See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compctl See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compdescribe See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

compfiles See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compgroups See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compquote See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptags See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptry See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compvalues See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). continue [ n ] Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, break out of n–1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop. declare Same as typeset. dirs [ –v ] [ arg ... ] With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack. If the –v option is given, number the directories in the stack when printing. Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands. If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack. disable [ –afmr ] name ... Temporarily disable the named hash table elements. The default is to disable builtin commands. This allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command. The –a option causes disable to act on aliases. The –f option causes disable to act on shell functions. The –r options causes disable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled. Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command. disown [ job ... ] job ... & job ... &! Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped. If no job is specified, disown the current job. echo [ –neE ] [ arg ... ] Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one. If the –n flag is not present, print a newline at the end. echo recognizes the following escape sequences: \a \b \c \e \f \n \r \t \v bell character backspace suppress final newline escape form feed linefeed (newline) carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

3

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

\\ backslash \0NNN character code in octal \xNN character code in hexadecimal The –E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences. In the latter case, –e flag can be used to enable them. echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1). echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1). emulate [ –LR ] {zshshkshcsh} Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible. csh will never be fully emulated. If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zshmisc(1) . If the –R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered. If the –L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. enable [ –afmr ] name ... Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable. The default is to enable builtin commands. The –a option causes enable to act on aliases. The –f option causes enable to act on shell functions. The –r option causes enable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled. Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command. eval [ arg ... ] Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command in the current shell process. exec simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. exit [ n ] Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit code from the last command executed. An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set. export [ name[=value] ... ] The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. Equivalent to typeset –gx. If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope. false [ arg ... ] Do nothing and return an exit code of 1. fc [ –e ename ] [ –nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ] fc –ARWI [ filename ] Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current history event number. A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string. All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

4

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

If the –l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output. If the –m flag is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown. Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events. If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used. If ename is ‘–’, no editor is invoked. When editing is complete, the edited command is executed. If first is not specified, it will be set to –1 (the most recent event), or to –16 if the –l flag is given. If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to –1 if the –l flag is given. The flag –r reverses the order of the commands and the flag –n suppresses command numbers when listing. Also when listing, –d prints timestamps for each command, and –f prints full time–date stamps. Adding the –E flag causes the dates to be printed as ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’. Adding the –i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy–mm–dd’ format. With the –D flag, fc prints elapsed times. ‘fc –R’ reads the history from the given file, ‘fc –W’ writes the history out to the given file, and ‘fc –A’ appends the history out to the given file. If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed. If the –I option is added to –R, only those events that are not already contained within the internal history list are added. If the –I option is added to –A or –W, only those events that are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written. In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries. fg [ job ... ] job ... Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground. If no job is specified, resume the current job. float [ {+–}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted. functions [ {+–}UXmtu ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to typeset –f. getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1). getln [ –AclneE ] name ... Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name. Equivalent to read –zr. getopts optstring name [ arg ... ] Checks the args for legal options. If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters. A valid option argument begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’. An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’, or the argument ‘– –’, ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg begins with a ‘+’. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG. The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND. OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function. OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts. If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored. The option itself is still stored in name in this case. A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to ‘?’ for an unknown option and to ‘:’ when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message when an option is invalid. The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options. hash [ –Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash table. Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table). The choice of hash table to work on is determined by the –d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash table is used. Given no arguments, and neither the –r or –f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full. The –r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied. It will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion. The –f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt immediately. For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this adds all users’ home directories. These two options cannot be used with any arguments. The –m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are printed. This is the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements. For each name with a corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the selected hash table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’. In the command hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by ‘value’. In the named directory hash table, this means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘˜name’. For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table. If an appropriate value can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged. The –v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specification. If has no effect if used with –f. If the –L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash. history Same as fc –l. integer [ {+–}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted. jobs [ –dlprs ] [ job ... ] jobs –Z string Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted. The –l flag lists process IDs, and the –p flag lists process groups. If the –r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed and if the –s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown. If the –d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown. The –Z option replaces the shell’s argument and environment space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit. This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings. This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state. kill [ –s signal_name ] job ... kill [ –sig ] job ... kill –l [ sig ... ] Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes. Signals are given by number or by names, without the ‘SIG’ prefix. If the signal being sent is not ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list. In the third form, kill –l, if sig is not specified the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed. let arg ... Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’ for a

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

6

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

description of arithmetic expressions. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise. limit [ –hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ... Set or display resource limits. Unless the –s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the shell. If –s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children. If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value. If the –h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits. If no resource is given, print all limits. resource can be one of: addressspace Maximum amount of address space used. aiomemorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations. aiooperations Maximum number of AIO operations. cachedthreads Maximum number of cached threads. coredumpsize Maximum size of a core dump. cputime Maximum CPU seconds per process. datasize Maximum data size (including stack) for each process. descriptors Maximum value for a file descriptor. filesize Largest single file allowed. maxproc Maximum number of processes. maxpthreads Maximum number of threads per process. memorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM. memoryuse Maximum resident set size. resident Maximum resident set size. sockbufsize Maximum size of all socket buffers. stacksize Maximum stack size for each process. vmemorysize Maximum amount of virtual memory. Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system. resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix. limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows: nh nk nm [mm:]ss hours kilobytes (default) megabytes or minutes minutes and seconds

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

7

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

local [ {+–}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ... Same as typeset, except that the options –g, and –f are not permitted. In this case the –x option does not force the use of –g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions. log List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter. logout [ n ] Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell. noglob simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. popd [ {+–}n ] Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory. With no argument, the current top entry is removed. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form –n counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. print [ –bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ –un ] [ –R [ –en ]] [ arg ... ] With no flags or with flag ‘–’, the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M–x’ metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), ‘\C–x’ produces a control character (‘\C–@’ and ‘\C–?’ give the characters NUL and delete), and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’. Finally, if not in an escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is not printed. –r –R Ignore the escape conventions of echo. Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless the –e flag is given. The –n flag suppresses the trailing newline. Only the –e and –n flags are recognized after –R; all other arguments and options are printed. Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1). Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern. Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output. Do not add a newline to the output. Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces. Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls. Print the arguments sorted in ascending order. Print the arguments sorted in descending order. If given together with –o or –O, sorting is performed case–independently. Print the arguments in columns. Print the arguments to file descriptor n. Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess. Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces. Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ˜ expressions, as appropriate. Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

–b –m –s –n –l –N –o –O –i –c –un –p –z –D –P pushd [ arg ] pushd old new pushd {+–}n

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

8

With this flag set the return value is zero only if the character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) Change the current directory. the words of the current command are read. change to the second directory on the stack (that is. pwd [ –rLP ] Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory. This option may also be used within zle widgets. –k [ num ] Read only one (or num) characters. If arg is not specified. Inc. r Same as fc –e –. If the –c flag is given. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command.. pushln [ arg . the whole line is assigned as a scalar. and push the old current directory onto the directory stack.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. –z Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. Note that num must be in the argument word that follows –k. The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output. ] Equivalent to print –nz.0. arg is interpreted as it would be by cd. not in the same word. The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd. The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it. This flag is ignored when the –k or –q flags are present. See –u. These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the –K flag to compctl). the printed path will not contain symbolic links. If the –l flag is given. All are assigned to the first name. the directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed. If both flags are –e –E –A –c –l zsh 4. If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set. Read only one character from the terminal and set name to ‘y’ if this character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ otherwise. This flag is ignored when –q is present. –r –q Raw mode: a ‘\’ at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote the following character and are not removed.. The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list. 2001 9 . If the –e flag is used.. the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. with leftover fields assigned to the last name. read [ –rzpqAclneEt ] [ –k [ num ] ] [ –un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name . If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set. without word splitting. Text is pushed onto the stack with ‘print –z’ or with push–line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)). In the first form. starting with zero. This option may also be used within zle widgets. change the current directory to arg. If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays. exchange the top two entries). Note that this always reads from the terminal. even if used with the –p or –u or –z flags or with redirected input. no input is assigned to the parameters.. etc. except as noted below. Otherwise. ] Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators. or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack.4 Last change: October 26. If the –r or the –P flag is specified. or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the –L flag is not given. the second field to the second name. without word splitting. The first field is assigned to the first name. Input is read from the terminal unless one of –u or –p is present..

readonly Same as typeset –r. If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function. or declare and set an array. If no arguments are –un –p –t zsh 4. the remainder of this word is used as a prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive. rehash Same as hash –r. it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if –A is used). note that only availability of the first character is tested. its character index is the length of the line plus one. Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument. return [ n ] Causes a shell function or . with –q which clears the input queue before reading. see zshoptions(1). If n is omitted. and otherwise –z cancels both –p and –u. With –l. –l is used and –c is ignored. sched See the section ‘The zsh/sched Module’ in zshmodules(1). when called from within completion with –c or –l. Inc. –p. Otherwise the value is 0. or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to test for input. when reading from the terminal with –k this is automatically handled. With +s sort arguments in descending order. With zero status (or after an implicit return at the end of the trap). –q. return status 1 and do not set any variables. –n Together with