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BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

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ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message. Put a space between each host name. You can also specify the names or I.0. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading. by design. If the current directory is on the local host.P. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host. With no arguments. use either the ncpu or nover commands. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname .3. By default. the CSV file includes a header line.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2..160 solarishost SunOS 5. Put a space between each host name.P. hostname The names or I.4. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format.3. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6. List one host per line. nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6.3. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. Inc. addresses of the hosts for which you want information.160 NSH 1 . Do not output a header. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. You can turn off the header line with the -H option.0.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that. agentinfo displays a message to that effect.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.P. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6.. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH.0.

Inc.3. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5. version(1) NSH 2 . SEE ALSO ncpu (1).agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH.0.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus. nover (1).

-proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 . Apply the licenses with the putlic command. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information... Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing. do not use this option. -c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. and then download the generated license. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. License hosts that are currently un-licensed.. Login to the BladeLogic support website. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. Debug output. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. autolic processes all the hosts you specify.dat file. You can specify more than one option. License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. upload the license file created by the getlic command. If you do not include any of these four options. regardless of their license status. Inc. List one host per line.. host1 . In most cases.

autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic.mycompany. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example. you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy.com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent). putlic(NSH). the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. Inc. do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. NSH 2 .mycompany. Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. agentinfo(NSH). the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type.conf (from the NSH install directory). based on the your current customer/prospect status. ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH). For autolic to function properly. Instead. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required. by a firewall).

Normally. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens. A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. $2. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). the input line is split into one field per character.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . a missing pattern always matches. If FS is null. print >>). an open brace (‘()’).. not a filename. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. Inc. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’. a logical OR (‘||’). This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of .. any number of blanks separate fields. any number of -v options may be present. nawk .. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. The fields are denoted $1. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. a logical AND (‘&&’). Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. process creation (cmd | getline. or by the value of RS.’). -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. If RS is null. see the section on variables below). -safe Disable file output (print >. . use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’. while $0 refers to the entire line. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. Set debug level to n. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern.. DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile.. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. or ‘while’ statement. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement. print |. The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. or 1 if n is not specified. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. An action is a sequence of statements. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk .. Additionally. after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. expression. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . or by the regular expression FS. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit. ‘for’. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line.. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. This is convenient when working with multi-line records.

. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement . NSH 2 .. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate. Inc. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these).. and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). /re/ is a constant regular expression. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. newlines or right braces. Argument array. array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. expr. this allows for a form of associative memory.k] are permitted. and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match). the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second. assignable. open next.. Variables may be scalars. Variables are initialized to the null string. assignable. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). or a Boolean combination of these. non-null members are taken as filenames. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. Array subscripts may be any string. . An empty expression-list stands for $0. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. Multiple subscripts such as [i. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)). in this case. a relational expression. A conditional is an arithmetic expression. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present). not necessarily numeric. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern. The operators ! ++ -.) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line. the constituents are concatenated.. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)).+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [.. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic.. file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. separated by the current output field separator. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file.j. String constants are quoted "". Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). using the operators ˜ and !˜. and terminated by the output record separator.

FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. Return the square root of x.6g"). subscripts are names. srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. where x is in radians. Return the exponential of x. also settable by option -F fs. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. Regular expression used to separate fields. or 0 if it does not. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. string. String Functions gsub(r. FILENAME The name of the current input file. Return the sine of x. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. Ordinal number of the current record. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. where x is in radians. Output field separator (default blank). the time of day is used instead. FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. Output record separator (default newline).cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Return the natural logarithm of x. gsub() returns the number of replacements. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. Return x truncated to an integer value. Output format for numbers (default "%. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034). such that 0<=n<1. t. Inc. index(s. input/output and general. ENVIRON Array of environment variables. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. If expr is omitted. RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function.6g"). NSH 3 . Return a random number. n. Input record separator (default newline).

expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. and FNR. and -1 for an error.. m. split(s. cat(1) match(s. sub() returns the number of replacements. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. according to the printf(3) format fmt. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. the variables $0 and NF are set. 0 for end of file.. it is opened. a. sub(r. The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. . Otherwise var is set. Inc. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. sprintf(fmt. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. NSH 4 . If var is omitted. substr(s. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. a[2]. Otherwise var is set. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s. t. This form of getline sets the variables NF.. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. getline returns 1 for a successful input. 0 for end of file. or -1 if no match is found. If n is omitted. The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. or 0 if it does not. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR.) The string resulting from formatting expr. As long as the stream remains open. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. NR. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. the variables $0 and NF are set. If file is not open. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. If the stream is not open. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file.. If s is not given. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’).. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. If var is omitted. . it is opened. or of $0 if no argument is given.. . toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. As long as the stream remains open. a[n] and returns n. getline returns 1 for a successful input. expr. $0 is used. and -1 for an error.. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs.

. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. s.. print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is". Parameters are local to the function. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. " average is". Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition.. modify. V. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. The AWK Programming Language. Weinberger.[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. i++) printf "%s ". B. $1 } Same. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. 1988. Inc. and P. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. Addison-Wesley. the syntax is worse. all other variables are global. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. Aho. and by reference if array name. copy.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. printf(1). with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". $1 } Add up first column. return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. J. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. i < ARGC. printf(3) A. sed(1). Kernighan. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. b. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. lex(1). and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. functions may be called recursively. c) { . W.

cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. Inc. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. written prior permission. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. DATA OR PROFITS. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 .

Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. NSH 1 . where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. the user is prompted for a private key password. id. On UNIX.pem.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.Property of BladeLogic.509 certificate in a file named id.bladelogic. Once a certificate is created on a client. In Windows. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. Inc. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. Inc.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. such as /home/johnk. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic.

Inc. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. and role. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. After you provide this information. password. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. the system prompts for a user ID. When you run bl_srp_agent. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. If you do not use this option. NSH 1 . After entering your user information. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. Inc. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic.

and delete authentication profiles. And.e. Configuration Manager. a Kerberos TGT).xml NSH 1 . Using that session credential.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. If you are using SRP authentication.509 certificates. session credentials. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. Network Shell. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. The utility lets you show. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles. To use blcred on a client machine.. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. and trusted certificates. Using the information you provide. and trusted certificates. you must provide an authentication profile and other information.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. a BladeLogic client application (i. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. add. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. Inc. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X. session credentials. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified. To log into a BladeLogic system. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles. which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. or Network Shell Proxy Server. you must have Operations Manager installed. Provisioning Manager.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must also provide a user name and password. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. Application Server. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service.

and expiration time of session credentials. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name. the default credential cache file is used. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES.509 certificates. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. and service ticket. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. If an authentication profile name is not specified. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. Default credential caches are unique per user.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. Alternatively. When selecting an SRP profile. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache.pkcs12 for Windows. If the time option is present. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. If the username option is present. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. issuing service URL.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache.conf file. If a name is not specified. the user is prompted for a name. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore.bladelogic/client_keystore. destination service URLs. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. including the client IP address. Default trust keystores are unique per user. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/. NSH 2 .dat) using the -i parameter. the default keystore file is used. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. authentication type. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name. the user is prompted for a user name and password. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. To acquire a session credential. Inc. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining. which holds trusted X. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified.

509 certificates in the trusted certificate store.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. Additionally. BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). -host. Inc. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. Users are prompted for omitted information. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option. The profile name.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. and -type parameters. Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). such as -acquire -profile profile_name. AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. Named authentication profile did not exist. cache contained credential with desired properties. Authentication Service. cert –list Lists all X. The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. NSH 3 . The -all parameter deletes all certificates. In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). Cached credential did not match named authentication profile. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user.

. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr . If you do not specify any arguments.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. TAB. It prints the result to stdout. CR. Inc. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 . DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator.mm 0xABC a.P. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators.d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. You can use whitespaces (SPACE. It takes all of its arguments as input. An expression consists of operands and operators.. then creates and evaluates an expression.c. LF) as optional operand/operator separators. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn.b.

blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero). it returns 0 (false).5") * 2. If the argument is a string..) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. then divides by the number of arguments. blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary.. 7. then proceeds with the operation. min_val. 4)’ 2. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value. The supported functions are: average (arg1.14"). Inc. . then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. In the case of the three numeric types. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer. arg1. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point. . 3. blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. blexpr adds the arguments. 3. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value. 5.0. and floating point numbers.5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. decimal numbers. 2. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. 1. If it is. with the resulting value also being a floating point value.. 2. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x).) Return the average of all arguments given. 3. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types.. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world").14)’ 12 equals_any (val. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. arg2. max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1.

blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12. The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME".. 14.. 10. otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3"). The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970). address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional .%s %s --\n". true_val.40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n".P.20.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. args . The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I. The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP". Inc. $FIRSTNAME. If val is true.. NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val.m].9s".. args . 27)’ 14 printf (format.) Both these functions generate a formatted output.) sprintf (format. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -. it returns true_val. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string. Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val.30. Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format. "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME".

40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. val) strstr can be used in one of two ways.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP. and you define the value of the variable with expr. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". $IP. You define the name of the variable with string. $IP). format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". you should use the respective macros supported by the call. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world".20. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. The optional format arguments specifies output format. "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. strlen returns a length of 0. If you do not specify a format.30. If you supply a value that is not a string. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. Inc. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string. Once you have created a variable this way.

Inc. On UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. such as /home/johnk.pem. the user is prompted for a private key password.Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. NSH 1 . Once a certificate is created on a client.509 certificate in a file named id.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. Inc.bladelogic. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. id. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. In Windows. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. id.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.

the status displays as "Unknown. e. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent". [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].g. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile. or "Unknown.. COMMAND_OPTIONS.. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. Inc. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries.. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing.. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks. [TARGET]. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS... and TARGETS NSH 1 .Property of BladeLogic." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. "Inconsistent". and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed.. If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile..g... [TARGET]. as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host. e.

mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 .g.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. e. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data). Inc.Property of BladeLogic. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp".mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones. the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. As a result.log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. Exercising the p option. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp". The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.

Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. Inc. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 .log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke.

traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS.. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. COMMAND_OPTIONS.. DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks.. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman.. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands.. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file.... [TARGET]. Use only when copying a signature file. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 . but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing... logman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions.Property of BladeLogic. [TARGET]. Inc..

Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with.Property of BladeLogic.1. You can request the status of all the log files on a host. Inc. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file. This command is intended to be used for client side verification. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. you must have the corresponding signature file. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent". Note: All files needed for this command should be local." assuming "rscd. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host. certificate file. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. "Inconsistent". Use only when rotating a signature file. logfile Full path to local log file. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd.log. this option returns a status as "Unknown.log NSH 2 .log." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file. or "Unknown.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. To execute this command. and private key file on the local host. For example.log" to "rscd.1" does not already exist.

Property of BladeLogic.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd.log. Inc.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey. Inc.log.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.0 release. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles.log. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.3.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.pem All files need to be on the local host. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.

you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. and the subsequent escaping thereof. blquery will query the local server. Inc. otherwise it returns 0. To create comment lines. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). Do not include the hostname as part of the output. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. otherwise it returns 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file.. In addition to specifying host names on the command line. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers. Expression to run against the given hosts... hostN The hosts you want to query. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query.. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment.then blquery reads input from stdin. just omit any server names. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 . output only the resulting value.Property of BladeLogic. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. host1 . If file is a . If you do not specify a host name. To query the local host. If you specify server names. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. or against any number of remote servers. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. Instead. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file. A file containing the expression you want to run. otherwise it returns 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. NSH 1 .

Inc. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. patches. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. they mostly support the general concept of software installations. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. otherwise it returns 0. NSH 2 . If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. and bundles.

Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry.Property of BladeLogic. with the exception of Linux.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. Inc. The NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. so the values are not guaranteed to be set. patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. These functions take an expression as their argument. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). which does not support patches.

"%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr.Property of BladeLogic.blq cracklib-2. In this case. if (DATE <= 0. Inc. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n".7-8 .blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s . these functions return a zero length string. Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field).7-8 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines.A password-checking library. these functions may still have a universal appeal. NAME. you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions. Example: $ cat patch. To do this. show_date (DATE. By using these functions. $ blquery solaris8 -E patch. Not all software has a version number. patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". NAME)’).The standard CrackLib dictionaries. Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2. making it seem like two different patches are installed. "Unknown install date". Because these functions scan through all entries. patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number.blq NSH 4 . DESCRIPTION. include the printf call inside of the given expression. you can also use them for reporting.

the function returns the total number of records. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. The skip parameter is optional. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. $1 . the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record. NSH 5 . it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. The first record/field is 0. The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0. Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". For Windows systems.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. "/"). For UNIX and Linux systems. "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names.. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. expr.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files.. If you use it. As its second parameter. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. The expr argument is optional. skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. $0)"). This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. If you omit the expression. Inc. $N for each respective field in the current record. expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr.

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". config_record_number ($PASSWD. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. config_record_number ($INI. "$5 = $USRBIN"). 0. Inc. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". 0) = $CUSTDB)"). "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from. record. In many cases. "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. $RECORD. records occur in a config file in no particular order. 0)’ bin NSH 6 .Property of BladeLogic. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI".

config_record_number ($INI. Details are included below. HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. record.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). Although config files are generally treated as flat files. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. Inc. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". $RECORD. 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts.BNI". COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. On its own this function has limited value. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. then the record does not have a parent record. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. but ones that do include Windows . The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. If the function returns a negative number (-1). and returns the value of field field. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . The numeric UID of the user. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. Not all config files have a hierarchy. the following dynamic variable are supported. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument.Property of BladeLogic. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. FULLNAME The configured name of the user. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record.

\"Super User Account\". This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. On Windows systems. \"Normal Account\"). LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. expr. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account. If the date and time is not known this value is 0.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . If the date and time is not known this value is 0. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. Inc. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. NAME. UID)"). . EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. On Windows systems.Property of BladeLogic. On Windows systems. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type.

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. that field is returned. On Windows. If the user does not exist. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . the function refers to a start script.Property of BladeLogic. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. On Windows. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. Inc. that field is returned. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. the function returns an error message. If the user does not exist. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. When it is set. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. the function returns an error message. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in.

The default separator is a SPACE character. ". Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user.6. the function returns an error message. normal. administrator. otherwise it returns 0.")’ 1.2. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". use the show_date () function. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. There are three types of possible accounts: .0. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. For Windows systems.7. Otherwise it is a normal account.5. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. the function returns 0.3. To display the date of last login in human readable form. For UNIX systems.Property of BladeLogic.9. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. or 3. 2. Inc. The default separator is a SPACE character.4.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs.8. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. If the user does not exist. with respective return values of 1. For Windows. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs. and guest. these are inherent attributes of a user account. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0.

blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . If the local account does not exist it returns 0. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). printf ("-----------------\n"). The numeric GID of the user. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. Inc. Example: NSH 11 . Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. the following dynamic variables are supported. group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. $ cat showgroups. GID)’). The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. The default separator is a SPACE character. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. NAME. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account. . group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n".Property of BladeLogic. group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups.

20.40\"")’ 255.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. address in the standard 4 octet notation. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp". address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.20. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10.0 NSH 12 . and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr. This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query. ".Property of BladeLogic. All of these functions take an expression as an argument.")’ root. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10.P.30.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10.P. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.20. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters.255. you can use the following dynamic variables. The adapter’s I.30. Within these expressions. and returns the I.30.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.255. Inc.

"1Gb". NSH 13 .40\"")’ 10. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. The return value is a 64 bit integer. 4. The interface is running in full duplex mode. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. "Full Duplex".30. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. If you do not specify expr. Example: $ cat speed.Property of BladeLogic. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. The return value is a 64 bit integer. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.blq set_variable ("FLAGS". "10 Mb". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. if ($FLAGS & 64. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr. "Half Duplex".20. Inc. The interface is running in half duplex mode. the function matches all adapters. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0.20. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec).30.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. 2. "Auto"))). if ($FLAGS & 32. "NA"))). The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. 1. "100 Mb".

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters.255.8 linux: 7.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n"). Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2.0.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).1 255.0 hme0 10.Property of BladeLogic.0.11. On AIX. On Linux.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. the function returns the kernel release number. Inc.0 hpux11: B. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5. IP. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways.21. followed by the generic functions. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". the function returns the maintenance release. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host. the function returns the Service Pack.2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system. The wrapper functions are described first.0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 .4.1 win2k: 5. $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters.101 255. NAME. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information. Other platforms. On Windows.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127.0.20. SUBNET)’).255.

0800 win2k: 0.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value.0100 linux: 0.9100 win2k: 0.0100 linux: 0.5100 linux: 0. Not all systems return a value.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 . Inc.0300 win2k: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.

Check the individual ntop commands for more details. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. use the first word of the name to identify the column. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "OVER". or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. "/C". ntop_value (type. "/C".Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted).8000 win2k: 0. expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS".2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. "/C". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition. In this case. "DF". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "STATS".3800 linux: 0. Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command. "NET". column. the first line of output consists of the column names. Some columns have a two word name. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. NSH 16 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".

"DF" and "PS"). "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0.3800 ntop_sum (type. a value of -1 means the last record). "MEM".Property of BladeLogic. the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). "CAPACITY". the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". Inc. the function returns the field value of the first record. the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. If you do not specify an expression. it returns a value of -1.0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911. the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME".1480 linux2: 0. "FREE") / 1024.0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". If the expression is a numeric. the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access.0560 linux3: 0. expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. You may use column names to construct the expression. Example: # # For each server.1200 linux: 0. ntop_sum ("DF". If you specify an expression as a string.2 MB NSH 17 . column. Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as. The first record is 0.1f MB".0890 # # For each server. If the function does not find any matching records. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example. Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above). "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". $HOSTNAME.

Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example. for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE".8 MB 36208. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. otherwise it returns 0. column. you need to escape it. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 . then it return the total number of entries. $HOSTNAME. ntop_average ("DF". If expr is not given. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values.6% ntop_record_count (type.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7.1f%%". Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. Therefore. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr.Property of BladeLogic. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists. Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4.4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13. Inc. within an expression string. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE").0 MB ntop_average (type.

string. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. otherwise it returns 0. REG_SZ. REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. Inc. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. REG_BINARY.Property of BladeLogic. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. There are no NSH 19 .) depends on the registry value type. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples). If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. The supported types are: REG_DWORD. etc. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. REG_LINK. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. int.

Property of BladeLogic. Inc. "SYSTEM_START". Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. One of "RUNNING". Account name service is run as. service can be either a string or an integer. DESCRIPTION Description of service.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. "AUTO_START". the function returns 0. "MANUAL". or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0. "STOPPED". "*\\mysqld-nt. If you do not specify expr. If service is an integer. If the service does not exist. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. One of "BOOT_START". service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). the function returns the total number of configured services. "DISABLED") NSH 20 . if you specified an out of range record number. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. or "PENDING".exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. or "DISABLED". WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). In the case of a string. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). if it is not running. Display name of service (long name). See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service.

"*\\mysqld-nt. Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING". "STOPPED". Returns the account name service is run as.exe" is running or not. $ blquery win2k -E expr. Returns the display name of service (long name). to access particular service records. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt.Property of BladeLogic. "AUTO_START". field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. or "DISABLED".exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. you can use it in other services functions. The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records.blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. "SYSTEM_START". (" PENDING: %d\n". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. field should be one of the following string values.blq set_variable ("RUNNING". $PENDING). Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". $RUNNING). Inc. skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". "MANUAL". service_record_count ()). service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". NSH 21 . Once you get this record number. (" STOPPED: %d\n". or "PENDING". DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. (" RUNNING: %d\n". This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. $STOPPED).

"MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql". In the case of a string. Returns zero length string. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. The argument service can be either a string or an integer. "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. nstats (NSH).exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name).Property of BladeLogic.exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. ntop (NSH). nps (NSH). ndf (NSH). ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). nover (NSH). Inc. If service is an integer. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). nmem (NSH).

EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. When you run bl_srp_agent. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. password.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. the system prompts for a user ID. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. NSH 1 . After you provide this information. After entering your user information. and role. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. Inc. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. If you do not use this option. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment.

bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. After you provide this information. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. the system prompts for a user ID. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. NSH 1 . password. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. If you do not use this option. When you run bl_srp_agent. Inc. After entering your user information. and role. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell.

] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm. specify the −f flag.. Inc. permissions. bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files. but they are not identical. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. when possible. and Huffman coding. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags. bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. ownership as the corresponding original. In this case.. ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames ..bz.. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself..bz2 becomes filename filename.out appended. bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. with the name "original_name. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time.tar filename. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. If you want this to happen. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names. As with compression.tbz becomes filename. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. Each compressed file has the same modification date.bz2. . supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output. Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. and a warning issued.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. .tbz2 becomes filename. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored. . and uses the original name with . and. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename. permissions. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames .tbz2 or . v1. or have serious file name length restrictions. 1 .bz2". bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file.bz becomes filename filename. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout.tar anyothername becomes anyothername.tbz. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. If no file names are specified. such as MS-DOS. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors.

Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression.9. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. bzip2. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. Inc.0 or later. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. During compression. that the check occurs upon decompression.5 bytes per block byte. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. &c). I/O errors. bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. for compression.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). at the expense of your compression ratio. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. decompression and testing. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. 2 . −f --force Force overwrite of output files. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory. which limits memory use to around the same figure. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. albeit at about half the normal speed. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. −d --decompress Force decompression.05 bits per byte. Be aware. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. As a self-check for your protection. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. In short. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. Normally. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. use −s for everything. Compression is always performed. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. −s selects a block size of 200k. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations. so it can only tell you that something is wrong.5%. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. giving an expansion of around 0. −s --small Reduce memory usage. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg. but don’t decompress them. This flag overrides that mechanism. invalid flags. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. in that order. and forces bzip2 to decompress. regardless of the invokation name. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. though. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2.

−L --license -V --version Display the software version. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). even if they start with a dash. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it.show the compression ratio for each file processed. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file.−myfilename. At decompression time. Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. so you should use this option only where necessary. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k.9.000 bytes through 900. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. For files compressed with the default 900k block size.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns. compressing a file 20. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine. which was sometimes useful. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size. Compression and decompression requirements. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. The relevant flag is -s..that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. Inc. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks.9.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. for example: bzip2 −. 200 k . They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant. in bytes. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes.5 and above. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. In general. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved.000 bytes (the default) respectively. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. 0. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. Has no effect when decompressing. since that maximises the compression achieved. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size. Similarly. 3 . about 2300 kbytes. 900 k when compressing. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. Decompression speed is also halved. For example. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file. or 100k + ( 2. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. since the file is smaller than a block. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. license terms and conditions. −v --verbose Verbose mode -.

bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.9.622 bytes. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -. For previous versions.bz2 file.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect.for example. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large . You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files. This means that performance. and writes a number of files "rec0001file.bz2 file to become damaged.bz2 files. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones. etc. It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. Each block is handled independently. as these will contain many blocks. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size. "rec0002file.. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files. Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . and write each block out into its own . since a damaged block cannot be recovered. usually 900kbytes long. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. Inc.. like "aabaabaabaab . Because of this. "bzip2 -dc rec*file.bz2 > recovered_data" -. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty. small changes to the 4 .141. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. and decompress those which are undamaged. both for compressing and decompressing. containing the extracted blocks.bz2 files.lists the files in the correct order.bz2". The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. the name of the damaged file. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. Versions 0. Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. Because of this. if you want.bz2". bzip2recover takes a single argument. this figure was more like 100:1. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in.

0. versions 0. 0. and Alistair Moffat. 5 . David Wheeler (again. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms.com/bzip2 http://www.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. jseward@acm. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements. and many refinements). gave advice and were generally helpful. Inc.0 and 0.5. so as to speed up compression.demon.9.cygnus.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation). I am much indebted for their help. AUTHOR Julian Seward.0 of bzip2. Many people sent patches. but with the following exception: 0. Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance. http://sourceware. helped with portability problems. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation.9. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches. This could easily be fixed. support and advice.org.muraroa.co.9. for the Huffman coder). bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream. so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. This manual page pertains to version 1.1pl2.0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files.1pl2 cannot do this. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files. lent machines. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip).

the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. .2”) specification. since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. less(1). Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X. $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . BSD May 2. writing them to the standard output.file2 . Note that if the standard input referred to a file. The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. The tab character. EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. can be made visible via the −t option.g. 1995 1 .CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic. read and output contents of the standard input again. If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. truncating file3 if it already exists.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. causing the output to be single spaced. sh(1). STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003..2-1992 (“POSIX. Number the output lines. vis(1). The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. 1983.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). sh(1)) for more information on redirection. Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. $ cat file1 . The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). Inc. which are displayed normally. then finally output the contents of file3. See the manual page for your shell (e. more(1). control-I. with the exception of the tab and EOL characters. starting at 1. Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line. . The file operands are processed in command-line order. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. or cat -v Considered Harmful". "UNIX Style. pr(1). tail(1). The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. print the contents of file2. print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. cat reads from the standard input.

Inc. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2. 1995 2 . BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection.CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification.

. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly. the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set. The name of the hosts to be updated. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password. -r -q host . To determine which password to use. In addition. OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. In addition..chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS.. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content.. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. To this end. If a password was not specified with the -p option. With this option only error messages are output. If the registry location is not found/set.

’). This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. Inc. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. chgrp [-fhRv?] user. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. To turn it off. Instead. this option is turned on. DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown.. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. chgrp changes only the group ownership. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. By default. By default. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname.group file . $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. NSH 1 . and consequently a GID is not available for this group.. New group owner of the file (group name or GID).. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. New owner of the file (user name or UID). and consequently a UID is not available for this user. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. use the -l option. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. However. See the -r option..

chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. you may not achieve the ownership change you want. Inc. CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. Unable to get a license to use the software. Unknown option or missing file argument. ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). You specified an unknown GID or UID. chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). NSH 2 . If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change.

special files. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change.. regular files. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change. since directories usually have different permissions than files. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who . or a series of comma separated instructions. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. chmod silently skips it. Inc. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. chmod silently skips it. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories.. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list.e. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed.. . op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . The permissions changes you want to make. File whose mode you want to change. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. If chmod encounters a directory. See the DESCRIPTION section above. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it.. etc). mode can be an absolute octal value.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change.

and read. write. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. execute permissions for the owner of the file. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. execute for both the group and other users). write. Unable to get a license to use the software. chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions. Unknown option or missing file argument. NSH 2 . Inc.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. execute for user.

NSH 1 . Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. and consequently a GID is not available for this group.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system.’) and a group name to the user name. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. this option is turned on. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. New owner of the file (user name or UID).. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). and consequently a UID is not available for this user. By default. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. Instead. this command changes only the user ownership. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. Inc.. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files.. without changing any ownerships. By default.. However. You can turn it off with the -l option. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file . See the -r option.group file .

NSH 2 . Consequently. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Unknown option or missing file argument. ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. Unable to get a license to use the software. chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. SEE ALSO chgrp(1).

$ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. you must disconnect. NSH 1 . $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. when you have an existing connection. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. provided the active user is authorized for that role. the role selection is ignored. Inc. $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. and then reconnect. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. Your current role is role1. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. you must specify a new role preference. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code.

r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes. This is a 16-bit checksum. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility. Inc. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet. with a right rotation before each addition. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. the standard input is used and no file name is written. the total number of octets in the file and the file name.. NSH 1 . ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option.e. the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. See description below. If no file name is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums.. This is a 32-bit checksum.. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i. overflow is discarded. The cksum utility exits 0 on success. least significant octet first. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. Using this interface. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command. Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm. For historic reasons. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used. These n bits are the bits from the file. shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file .. and >0 if an error occurs. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum. Partial blocks are rounded up. the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. These fields are a checksum CRC..

EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. cksum(1). With the P_ATT variable set. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). algorithm 2 is used. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. algorithm 1 is used. SEE ALSO sum(1). NSH 2 . Berkeley and its contributors. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. Inc. A system error message follows the output of the error message. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected.

If file1 is ’-’. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code. The first file in the comparison. For each difference it finds. Instead.rhosts file on host oslo has changed.rhosts chown root. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. NSH 1 . By default. cp rhosts. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter. The second file in the comparison.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison.master //oslo/. checking to see if they are identical. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other. and the two different character values found in the files. cmp always considers the files not to be identical. then the offset is read instead of being seeked over.master //oslo/.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. When this happens. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’).rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. find all differences in the files. even with the -l option.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/.root //oslo/. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. If it has. Inc. then cmp uses the standard input. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files.

One of the files was not accessible.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software.

Berkeley and its contributors. A column is defined as a single character in a line. If only the start column is specified.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. columns numbered less than the start column will be written. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written. Input is read from the standard input. paste(1) SunOS 5. If both start and stop columns are specified. Inc. SEE ALSO column(1). cut(1). Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. Column numbering starts with one.8 Last change: NSH 1 . not zero. Output is written to the standard output.

and lines printed in column number three will have one. and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. uniq(1) SunOS 5. Suppress printing of column 2.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. For example. and lines in both files. >0 if an error occurred. Comm exits 0 on success. all characters participate in line comparisons. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. SEE ALSO cmp(1). sort(1). lines only in file2. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. Inc. which should be sorted lexically. if column number two is being suppressed. lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . Suppress printing of column 3. Berkeley and its contributors. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1.8 Last change: NSH 1 . ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2.

file flags. . the deflate mode of compression is chosen. These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. “_tgz”. described below. copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3. this information is not used. the files are not overwritten. “_Z”. but is relatively slow.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . No files are modified (force zcat mode). the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output.9 Use the deflate scheme.taz”. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file.. instead they are converted to “tar”. If either the input or output files are not regular files. When uncompressing. the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. “. Force compression of file. and the attributes of the input file are not retained. the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. Compression factor −1 is the fastest. see gzip(1) for more information. even if it is not actually reduced in size. 2008 1 . zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file . If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. in compress mode. . uncompress. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. Inc. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. “-tgz”. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. . renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). . By default. recognising the following extensions: “. −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. If compression would not reduce the size of a file. file mode. If invoked as compress −g.Z”.Property of BladeLogic. “. Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. “-Z”. This option implies −g. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal.tgz”.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. . when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g).] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). The default is −6. “-gz”. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). access time. .Z”. and “_taz”. Additionally. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. “. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. but provides a poorer level of compression. with compression factor of −1 to −9. The options are as follows: −1. If no files are specified. user ID. “-taz”. “_gz”.gz”. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. the input file is not removed. Instead. Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode).. As many of the modification time.

the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). compress periodically checks the compression ratio. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. Print a short help message. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. −N When uncompressing or listing. Size of the file when uncompressed. if any. However. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories.Property of BladeLogic. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. if the compression ratio decreases. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. 2008 2 . 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. After the bits limit is reached. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. When compressing. do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). BSD April 3. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. Print the license. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . Use compress mode (the default). This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. If it is increasing. When code 512 is reached. for the uncompressed version. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. If the −v option is specified. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. List information for the specified compressed files. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size.

and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. The compress. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]..Property of BladeLogic. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). the number of bits per code. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. and the distribution of common substrings. Inc. SEE ALSO Welch. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack). 2008 3 . uncompress. 17:6. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. 1 if an error occurred. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. Typically. BSD April 3. Terry A.3 BSD. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. 8−19. June. STANDARDS The compress. or 2 if a warning occurred. 1984.1. uncompress. IEEE Computer. and takes less time to compute. pp.

cp does not create or remove any files or directories. so that. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. This option turns off the -i option. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. In the first form. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. If a target file already exists. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. By default. If the destination directory does not exist. Don’t actually make any changes.. If the target directory does not already exist. permissions. If the destination directory does exist. and copies the content into it. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. if the target file already exists. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. use the -b command. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". and access and modification times as the source file. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). To turn on the file backup feature. and is consequently overwritten.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory.c becomes foo. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. cp creates it and copies the content into it. Synchronize file permissions. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files. With the -P option. if it exists. Synchronize file ownerships. By default. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. In the second form. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. By default. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. when cp creates a new file.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. then cp overwrites the file. By default. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. With this option. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. cp copies multiple files into a directory. If the target file already exists. When copying to a directory. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. then cp will create the directory as required. When the destination directory does exist. when cp copies a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . Preserve parent. cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. With his option. for example.. Inc. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. If the target directory does already exist. cp overwrites it. before copying over the new source file. This also applies to new directories being created. and inherits the ownership of the calling user.

Conditional copy. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. They are -T. If you use this option with the -p option. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. should it be a symbolic link. See the -u option. and execute. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. except that it applies only to the top level file. This option is the same as the -r option. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. This option implies the -S option. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. See the -u option. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. NSH 2 . When recursing through directories. write. Conditional copy. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. Conditional copy. then the backup will not be overwritten. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. especially on a large file. This option can be very resource intensive. Inc. With the -P option. follow symbolic links. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. If the file sizes are the same. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. Output a message for each file being copied. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). then the -R option is treated as a -r option. -S and -C. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. This is the no parent option. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues.

cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. NSH 3 . Inc. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. then this message appears. cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. ncp(1). With the P_ATT variable set. cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. the -f option will override the -i option. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. Unable to get a license to use the software. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. this message will appear. the -i option will override the -f option. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . Unknown option or missing file argument. cp was unable to copy all files requested. it will display this message. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. SEE ALSO dsync (1). uncp(1). indicating that cp cannot copy directories. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. cp will display this message. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. If cp is not able to create one of these directories.

This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. in the format of column-<record number>. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Inc. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document.’) character as the field separator. Do not output the XML header entry. OPTIONS -<number> By default.4. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . With this option. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter.21-4. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. Do not output the root node tag. It uses this header line to name the columns of input. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. csv2xml generates column names.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. and in turn XML tags. With this option.

Inc. nmem(1). csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. nover(1). Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. nstats(1). it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record. If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. csv2xml will not display these additional fields. nnet(1). ndf(1). NSH 2 . ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1). XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. ncpu(1).csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters.

Unless specified.. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). Berkeley and its contributors. 1 if an error occurred. -s The arguments following the options -c. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. overlapping. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields.. a dash (-). Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . -d. that character is used to separate output fields.. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character. Inc. Number ranges consist of a number. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. and in any order.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. Column numbering starts from 1. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges.. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash. inclusively. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 . Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second. delimited in the input by a single tab character. and writes them to the standard output.

On input which supports seeks. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point. The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. The number of truncated input records. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified.. are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. Copy n input files before terminating. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. a lseek(2) operation is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd . This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. If the seek operation is past the end of file. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. superseding the ibs and obs operands. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. Any trailing newline character is discarded. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. input data is read and discarded. For all other devices. If input reads are short. Read input from file instead of the standard input. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. if any.. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output. notrunc or sync are specified. a lseek(2) operation is used. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. Inc. space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. ascii.. NSH 1 . Otherwise.3BSD-reno systems.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . If the user does not have read permission for the tape. When finished. the correct number of bytes is read.. For pipes.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. value . If no conversion values other than noerror. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. Write output to file instead of the standard output. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls. Otherwise. On non-tape devices.

the input block is omitted from the output. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. 1024 (1K). The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. After the end of input is reached. ibm. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. Where sizes are specified. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. If dd receives a SIGINT signal. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. When an input error occurs. Otherwise. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. respectively. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. If the sync conversion is not specified. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. the number is multiplied by 512. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. otherwise NUL bytes are used. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. the rest of the block will be written. ‘‘k’’. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. oldebcdic. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. the last byte will be ignored during swapping. When finished. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. Do not stop processing on an input error. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. a decimal number of bytes is expected. Swap every pair of input bytes. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. If the sync conversion is also specified. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. Normally. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. Inc. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. NSH 2 . notrunc Do not truncate the output file. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. any remaining output is written as a block.3BSD-reno systems. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4.

Berkeley and its contributors. ibm. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. The files operand and the ascii. ebcdic. oldascii. NSH 3 . tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. SEE ALSO cp(1).dd(1) Property of BladeLogic.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard.

If you do not specify any targets. which may be a directory or host name. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host.. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host.. Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory.df(1) Property of BladeLogic. this header line will be included for each named target. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options.] DESCRIPTION For each named target. df again uses the current host. Inc. If one of the targets is a directory name only. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report.

−e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. Inc. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. . Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. However. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. BSD July 21. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. Just print a line when the files differ. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). ed(1). Does not output a list of changes. Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. . Produces a script similar to that of −e. which can then be used to convert file1 into file2.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . It cannot be digested by ed(1). Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. but in reverse order. No output is produced if the files are identical. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. while defining string will yield file2. 2003 1 . −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. unlike with −c.’. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. differ” if files contain binary characters.

g. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. Binary files which differ. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3). diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. “A” will compare equal to “a”. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. −p With unified and context diffs. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. For C source code following standard layout conventions. E. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. Inc. Multiple −X options may be specified. insertions. context or unified output formats. Will expand tabs in output lines. an underscore or a dollar sign. Causes diff to report files which are the same. If both arguments are directories. on text files which are different. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. which are otherwise not mentioned. producing a change list. If a file is found only in dir2. Multiple −x options may be specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. common subdirectories. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. −I pattern Ignores changes.. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. beginning with file name. 2003 2 . Long output format. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. E. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. and other strings of blanks to compare equal..g. this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. If a file is found in only one directory.

ZZ. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. YY. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered. SEE ALSO cmp(1). XX. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. XXaYY. Output Style The default (without −e. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory.QQ from file2. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). XX. those after pertain to file2. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input. ed(1). but append the range of lines. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. −w or −i options specified. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. At (the end of) line XX of file1. diff3(1). XXdYY At line XX delete the line. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. comm(1). XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. An error occurred.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the standard input is used in its place.ZZ Same as above. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. Inc. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. pr(1).YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. XX. FILES /tmp/diff. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003.1-2001 specification. Differences were found. DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found. 2003 3 . append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. a diagnostic message is printed. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21.YYcZZ. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. −c.YY from file1 with the range ZZ. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. Thus.QQ Replace the range XX. fnmatch(3). one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. As in ed(1). where XX.

DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 4 . Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. BSD July 21. Inc.

When you run cp as dsync. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. then cp overwrites the file. it leaves it alone. while preserving the file ownerships. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. turned on the following options: -r. permissions. by default. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. and -u. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. it leaves it alone. -b -i Backup the target file. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. before copying over the new source file. if it exists. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. (The -P option is not turned on by default. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. By default. -f. All options are described here. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. Also. -m NSH 1 . Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. By default. -p. it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. because the security models for file permissions may differ. then it will be created. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. -d Use this option with care. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. If a target file already exists. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. and access times. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. Inc. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. however when running dsync. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file.

except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. This also applies to new directories being created. See the -u option. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. follow symbolic links. This option turns off the -i option. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. This option implies the -S option. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. especially on a large file. This option is the same as the -r option. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. then cp will create the directory as required. If you use this option with the -p option. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. Conditional copy. With the -P option. if the target file already exists. With this option. and execute. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. If the target directory does already exist. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. See the -u option. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. and access and modification times as the source file. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. If the file sizes are the same. This option can be very resource intensive.c becomes foo. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. write. They are -T. -L -P When recursing through directories.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. Output a message for each file being copied. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. Inc. Conditional copy. Conditional copy. If the target directory does not already exist. permissions. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. Don’t actually make any changes. With this option. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. NSH 2 . This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. -S and -C. This is the no parent option.

dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. Unknown option or missing file argument. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. it outputs this message. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. indicating that it cannot copy directories. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. the -i option will override the -f option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). the -f option will override the -i option. it outputs this message. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. indicating that the copy may not be complete. With the P_ATT variable set. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. The second example does the same as the first. NSH 3 . dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). then dsync outputs this message. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. Inc. it will output this message. it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. dsync outputs this message. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. it will output this message. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1). NSH 4 .dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic.

du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only. du counts files with multiple links only once. findings are already reported in KB. With this option. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. Same as -d. output only a summary for all directories searched. If you do not specify any files or directories. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks.. Inc. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. When the P_BSD variable is set.) If. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. while traversing a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. Same as -d. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. (By default. du ignores all files with more than one link. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename . du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. Report the directories that du cannot search. NSH 1 .. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option. By default. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. du searches directories recursively. du counts linked files only once.

Inc. ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. With the P_ATT variable set. du assumes that a block is 1K large. NSH 2 . Furthermore. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_ATT variable set. du does not report errors.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. the universe flag determines the size of a block. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. unless you specify the -r option. du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. Unable to get a license to use the software. du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory.

HEX B). Unable to get a license to use the software. HEX C). Do not output a new-line at the end. DEC 9. HEX A). NSH 1 . HEX 5C).] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus. Form feed (OCT 014. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. Inc. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts.echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. vertical tab (OCT 013. If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. DEC 92. DEC 11. DEC 10. Argument to be echoed. DEC 8. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. DEC 12. HEX 9). DEC 13. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. You specified an unknown option.. HEX 8).old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character. Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. carriage return (OCT 015. new line (OCT 012.. HEX D). tab (OCT 011. backslash (OCT 0134. File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only.

tabn] file . ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California... NSH 1 . unexpand [-a] file .tab2. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns.. Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. looking at specific columns. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc.expand(1) Property of BladeLogic. etc. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1. then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8.. If a single tabstop argument is given. If the -a option is given.) that contain tabs. Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output....expand tabs to spaces. Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand. Berkeley and its contributors.. unexpand .

A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. such as 5. the entire data row is extracted. If this option is not provided. the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. If the field number is 0. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row. Inc. If you specify a negative field number. such as -2. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . If you specify a positive field number.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic.

NSH 2 .fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.

The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. whose format is defined in 〈a. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). For example. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. and which of several types thereof.out. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats.h〉. The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another). The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. or if it’s some sort of special file. Inc. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal).h〉 and possibly 〈exec. Don’t do as Berkeley did. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. so they are performed last.out file. performed in this order: filesystem tests. The program checks to see if the file is empty. write a magic. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. 2004 1 . BSD December 4. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets.h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. and language tests. This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. symbolic links. These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. . magic number tests. There are three sets of tests. The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”.h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. . the keyword . The language tests look for particular strings (cf names. file attempts to guess its language.out(5). preserve these keywords. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file . For each magic number file.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file.

keep going. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. Defaults to ‘:’. however. it will be used instead. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1).out(5). Inc. ls(1). −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. Cause symlinks to be followed. as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. to test the standard input. −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. 2004 2 . BSD December 4. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). which are block special files. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files. This prevents problems. This is only useful if checking a list of files. Print the version of the program and exit. magiclist. hexdump(1). Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. For example. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. file adds “. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. od(1). Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name. strings(1). so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. If a compiled magic file is found alongside. −m magiclist Specify an alternate list. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. This version knows more magic. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. Normally. of files containing magic numbers.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. separated by colon characters. a.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic. thank you. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. John Gilmore revised the code extensively. but with some extensions. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one.com〉.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1986-1999. used as. and are not covered by the above license. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth. 2000. Inc. it must be escaped. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically. July.uk〉. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic.com〉. based on the System V version. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. making it better than the first version. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code. in this version. 1989. Darwin. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. and contributed by various authors. Canada. 2004 3 .com〉. The files tar. You know who you are.h and is_tar. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright. If your old file command uses a magic file. This program. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. Depending on what system you are using. mainly USENET. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas. was written by Ian F. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present. Toronto. if a pattern string contains a backslash.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program.ac.orig). The order of entries in the magic file is significant. for example. BSD December 4. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. see the file LEGAL. 1973). My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways.NOTICE in the distribution. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries.

with the flexibility of the System V version. etc. better yet. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic.g. This manual page. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. ndbm(3) or. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e. and particularly this section. 2004 4 .FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. once we have fetched it.tar. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte.. but is entrenched. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support.g. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir.. first word. inefficient and requires recompilation to update.. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is.YY. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X. It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). What is it? Better yet. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup.astron. Regular expression support would make this easy. it should be possible to use the first guess. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp.gz. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines.g. Regular expression support would make this easy. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value. Still. BSD December 4. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN. Inc. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. We end up removing guesses (e. is too long. if the others don’t pan out. first long.

File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. not the link itself. is n 24-hour periods. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started.. Alternatively. tab. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. allowing all file names to be processed safely.. An alias for the −L option. and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. the file information and type will be for the link itself. not the link itself. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. -print is assumed. 1999 1 .FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.e. is n minutes. This option exists for backwards compatibility. space. and the file is skipped. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path . If the referenced file does not exist. −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. rounded up to the next full minute. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). is n minutes. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). rounded up to the next full minute. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. By default. In the absence of an expression. The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. If the referenced file does not exist. find visits directories in pre-order i. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. BSD December 4. before their contents. Inc. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs.e. [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. the file information and type will be for the link itself. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period.

the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. -execdir utility [argument .FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. then gname is treated as a group ID. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started.]. If the file is a symbolic link. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name. -inum n True if the file has inode number n. is n 24-hour periods. file permissions. -exec utility [argument . The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. . owner. BSD December 4. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. last modification time. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. is n minutes. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. If the file is a block or character special file. the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. . rounded up to the next full minute. Case insensitive. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”.]. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. group.’ ) . -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. size in 512-byte blocks. . Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. size in bytes. -follow Follow symbolic links. and pathname. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. . 1999 2 . Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. Inc. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. -links n True if the file has n links. These do not describe actual file system types. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. number of hard links.

These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group. ‘]’. If neither -exec. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. Note. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. It causes find to not descend into the current file. BSD December 4. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. rounded up. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. If the mode is not preceded by a dash. in 512-byte blocks is n. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. If the mode is octal. Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. ‘∗’.]. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. 1999 3 . -size n[c] True if the file’s size. If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . . the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. -ok utility [argument . followed by a null character. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. If the mode is symbolic. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. is n 24-hour periods. . Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. -print This primary always evaluates to true. If n is followed by a ‘c’. -ls. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. ‘∗’. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. ‘]’. -ok. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. nor -print0 is specified. this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. Note.

expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. 1999 4 . A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and neither means “exactly n”. Inc. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. then uname is treated as a user ID. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. It evaluates to true if the expression is false. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false.

strmode(3). xargs(1). -execdir. whereis(1). In particular. As −print always evaluates to true. getpwent(3). -iname. which(1). ‘)’. the characters ‘∗’. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. -empty. Historically. ‘\’. This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. ‘[’. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗. −H. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. -cmin. -fstype. ‘(’. -inum. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated.2 (“POSIX.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -links. ‘]’. Inc. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”.2”) standard. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. and ‘. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. ‘?’. and the operator -and was implemented as −a. The operator -or was implemented as −o.[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). and -xdev. -follow. locate(1). Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. -follow. stat(2). getgrent(3). ‘!’. This is not the case.’ may have to be escaped from the shell. These primaries always evaluated to true. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. BSD December 4.2”). As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. -ls. -mmin. but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. fts(3). -mindepth.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. the −d. and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. -maxdepth. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”. The options and primaries -amin.2 (“POSIX. chmod(1). 1999 5 .

or the standard input if no files are specified.. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold . OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present.fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file ..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SunOS 5.8 Last change: NSH 1 . breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding. ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. Berkeley and its contributors.

..com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts).. <nis> NSH 1 .. and NIS.domaincomponent1. Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database.domaincomponent2.conf like file on the operating system.conf like file. <dns> host2.conf like file. <dns> . No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. Inc. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> ...... -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. in that particular sequence. <local> <dns> . EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. in that particular sequence.conf like file. <local> . DNS.com <nis> . <nis> . <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.domaincomponent2.. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered.. <nis> . This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <dns> . OPTIONS -u Print usage.. If multiple hostnames are specified...Property of BladeLogic...conf like file. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host.domaincomponent1.. <local> ..

com loghost <dns> .com host4. NSH 2 . <local> . Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> .com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra..... <dns> .domaincomponent1. SEE ALSO hostname(1)..domaincomponent2.domaincomponent2...Property of BladeLogic. Inc. <local> .... <dns> .domaincomponent2.domaincomponent1.domaincomponent3... <local> host4 host4. <dns> host4.

The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin. . | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. for example.zip  [. i nf o. This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. zipcloak(1L). or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . . If there is an argument. . o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. funzip will reset the terminal properly. zipinfo(1L). BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. and command-line histories can be read. Decryption may not be supported at some sites.zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line. ps(1) under Unix). it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems.93) 1 . that is. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [.Misc. . DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive). and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting.g.z i p . See DESCRIPTION for more details. Given the limitation on single-member extraction. unzip(1L).]  funzip [–password]  [. The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release). or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.gz  [. the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode.] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. after prompting again for the password. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. funzip simply creates the directory and exits. . . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.] funzip [–password] input. funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state. zip(1L). .zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . To recover. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive. .. Inc. In the case where the first member is a directory. unzipsfx(1L).z i p.zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test.zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. zipnote(1L). This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. SEE ALSO gzip(1L). and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. i n f o .] funzip [–password] input.

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.Misc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.93) 2 .

and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry..dat. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 . You can specify multiple options... Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed. Displays the status of each host.. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. regardless of license status. a product code. host1 . If you do not specify any of these four options. Each entry consists of a hostname.dat to license the remote agents. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information. hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. Do not create a license. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data. See the -v option for more details.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. Inc. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. The license. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic. The putlic command uses license. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . Verbose output.raw. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license.dat file can contain multiple entries. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify.raw file. a license key. and writes this data to a file called license. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command. one entry per line. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license.

Force grep to behave as egrep. Ignore binary files. grep does not follow symbolic links. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line.file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. Display version information. When displaying a matching line.. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. and write the names of these files to standard output. If you specified -R. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. Treat all files as text. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. Write only a count of matching lines. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. it writes the pathname ‘-’. -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. egrep. Search binary files. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). in front of the matching line. If grep searched the standard input. Force grep to behave as grep. List the pathname for each file. but do not attempt to print them. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2.. You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. follow all symbolic links.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern. An empty expression matches every line. Force grep to behave as fgrep. Inc. fgrep . OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. If you specified the -R option. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Perform case insensitive matching. Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. By default. If you specified the -R option. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. NSH 1 . -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines.

To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . Add another pattern (see example below). EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘. An error occurred. or -q.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. If grep searched the standard input. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. No lines were selected. it writes the pathname ‘-’. Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected. Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. Silent mode. Always print filename headers with output lines. ‘$. List the pathname for each file. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. Align the match from the beginning of the line. Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’).Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. The first line of each file is 1. -l. grep uses the standard input. Suppress normal output. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets.’ which would otherwise match any character. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. and write the names of these files to standard output.

Inc.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. 20 or 25. NSH 3 . grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19.

if you are using the -c option) to be count. If you do not specify any file names.. Measure quantities in lines. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output.head(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. This is done for compatibility purposes. When you specify the -B option. display count number of characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output.c files. if you are using the -c option) to be n. This is the default. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. Inc. $ head -20 *. File whose first few lines you want to display. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. You specified an unknown option. Unable to get a license to use the software. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. Instead of displaying count number of lines. The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna.. head outputs the file "as is. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . If you do not specify any files.

xd . It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). zero-filled. -o Two-byte octal display. With a leading 0x or 0X. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. in hexadecimal. four column. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. bytes of input data. in octal. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. zero-filled. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. 1024. followed by eight space-separated. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. or 1048576. in a user specified format. offset is interpreted as an octal number. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. followed by eight space-separated. per line. followed by sixteen space-separated. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. two byte quantities of input data. Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. characters of input data per line. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. followed by eight. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . three column. otherwise. in the order that they were specified. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. One-byte character display. k. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. Two-byte hexadecimal display. Appending the character b. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. Inc. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. hexadecimal. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. or the standard input. decimal. zero-filled. in octal. space-filled. and a format. with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . per line. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. Each format is applied iteration count times. which defaults to one. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. separated by whitespace..hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. five column. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. Without the -v option. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. respectively. The byte count is an optional positive integer. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets).. two-byte units of input data. per line. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. any number of groups of output lines. if no files are specified. two-byte quantities of input data. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format.ascii. three column. per line. six column. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. space separated. in unsigned decimal. a byte count. with a leading 0. For each input file. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. By default. od. zero-filled.

%x %E. %_u. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. ‘‘n’’. names. %i. which is the iteration count times the byte count. lower-case. Characters greater than 0xff. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. hexadecimal. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. %c %d. _c Output characters in the default character set. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. two and four byte counts supported. when all of the input data has been processed. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. Four byte default. o. ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. Eight byte default. zero-padded octal. %g One byte counts only. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. %f. Inc. four byte counts supported.’’. of the next byte to be displayed. and x specify the display base as decimal. octal or hexadecimal respectively. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. Output US ASCII characters. %u. %G. cumulative across input files. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. which are displayed as two character strings. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. The appended characters d. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . ‘‘l’’. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. %X. Output characters in the default character set. %o. %_p. %e. one. with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following.

An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above.7_Ax\n" "%07. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). If.e.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 .7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed. and referencing a NULL string. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. an iteration count is greater than one. the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. Inc. ‘‘ ’’. If. If no format strings are specified. EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06. Berkeley and its contributors.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. input data only partially satisfies a format string.

highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. Inc. front-end for grep. but cute. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep .8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 . DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled. Quoting is not handled.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SunOS 5. It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for.

Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 1 . This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). OPTIONS hostname has no options.

If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. -e string Replace empty output fields with string. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. join on the field specified by field. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. join may not report all field matches. -j1 field In file 1. The join utility exits 0 on success. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. Many of the options use file and field numbers. For example. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). For example. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. The first field in each line is used by default. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. For example. The default output field separator is a single space character. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join . -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. -1 field -2 field In file 1. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. In file 2. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. join on the field specified by field.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. For example.using the -b option. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number.field’. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. on the fields on which they are to be joined. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output. and >0 if an error occurs. Otherwise. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join.’’) or whitespace separated. Inc. join uses the standard input. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. -j2 field In file 2. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. NSH 1 . meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. join on the field specified by field. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. Each output line consists of the join field. join on the field specified by field.

sort(1).2’’.. comm(1). SEE ALSO awk(1).join(1) Property of BladeLogic. join(1) -o list . Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California..field_number’’ as described for the current -o option. uniq(1) NSH 2 . do not use these options. In general. Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. paste(1). Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option. This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1. Inc. These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification. These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number. join on the field specified by field.

If min begins with a zero. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file .. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. SEE ALSO join(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active. –f min. zeros will be added to make up the field width. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. each option affects only the file after it. The options are described below.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.max. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. and if it begins with a ‘–’. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline.8 Last change: NSH 1 . This option may appear after the last file. The name ‘–’ means the standard input. SunOS 5. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). Normally.. pr(1).max Print line fragments according to the format string min. Berkeley and its contributors. –p min. and may be repeated. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized.max Like –f. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. Inc.

. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. Also. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. BSD January 17. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. it becomes the new window size. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. only the final screenful is displayed. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. The number is used by some commands. called N in the descriptions below. If you forget all the other commands.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". so it can run on a variety of terminals. . default one half of the screen size. If N is specified. ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process.. even if N is more than the screen size.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. h | H Help: display a summary of these commands. In this mode. 2003 1 . then "v".) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. If N is more than the screen size. default 1. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). Inc. but if N is specified. Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines. . but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). z Like SPACE. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file.] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . but scrolls a full screensful. remember this one. lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. ESC stands for the ESCAPE key. Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). as indicated. The entire N lines are displayed. (On a hardcopy terminal. COMMANDS In the following descriptions. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting.. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. ˆX means control-X. default one window (see option -z below).

ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. Inc. w Like ESC-v. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. 2003 2 . Like {.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If N is specified. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines. default half the screen width (see the -# option). If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. default 1 (beginning of file). Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. rather than a file. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. While the text is scrolled. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. If a number N is specified. default one window (see option -z below). default the end of the file. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. even if N is more than the screen size. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. default half the screen width (see the -# option). Like }. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. Scroll forward. but if N is specified. If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. N should be between 0 and 100. or if N is not specified and standard input. discarding any buffered input. is being read. Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. default one half of the screen size. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. If N is more than the screen size. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. The entire N lines are displayed. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. } ( ) BSD January 17. If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. only the final screenful is displayed. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. default 1. R F Repaint the screen. The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. it becomes the new window size. If a number N is specified. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters.

ˆXˆX Same as single quote. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. (Single quote. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match. The pattern is a regular expression. 2003 3 . returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. For example. That is. BSD January 17. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. that is. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. acts like }. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. do a simple textual comparison. respectively. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. marks the current position with that letter. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. Followed by a ˆ or $. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. acts like {. Followed by another single quote. That is. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters.) Followed by any lowercase letter. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. which change this). but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. Like }. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. Search multiple files. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. N defaults to 1. Search multiple files. as recognized by ed(1). respectively. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. Inc. Certain characters are special.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. For example. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position).

If a number N is specified. you may not be able to use ˆV. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. If the filename consists of several files. Repeat previous search. If the filename contains one or more spaces. Similarly. BSD January 17. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. Inc. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. As in forward searches. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. 2003 4 . the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). N ESC-n Repeat previous search. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. Examine the previous file in the command line list. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. If a number N is specified. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. However. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. ESC-N Repeat previous search. the search is done without using regular expressions. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. for N-th line containing the last pattern. If the previous search was modified by ˆE. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. ESC-u Undo search highlighting.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. turn highlighting back on. but in the reverse direction. the N-th previous file is examined. the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". On such systems. the N-th next file is examined. but crossing file boundaries. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". n Repeat previous search. If the previous search was modified by ˆN. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. As in forward searches. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. If the filename is missing. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line).

Remove the current file from the list of files. (Underscore. if defined. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. Like the −+ command. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. See the −t option for more details about tags. If no new value is entered. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. V Prints the version number of less being run. Go to the previous tag. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). as in the − command. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. BSD January 17. Inc. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. the N-th file in the list is examined. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. The setting of the option is not changed. (Double underscore. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. 2003 5 . this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. Like the − command. Examine the first file in the command line list. (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. For example. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. If a number N is specified. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. Followed by one of the command line option letters. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. Like the −! command. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. it also prints the length of the file. You must press RETURN after typing the option name.) Like the _ (underscore) command.) This does not work for string-valued options. If possible. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. depending on your particular installation. or a string value (such as -P or -t). The following four commands may or may not be valid. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. Go to the next tag.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. a new value may be entered after the option letter.

it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. but not --qui. For options like -P which take a following string. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. For example.. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. as distinct from --quit-at-eof. s filename Save the input to a file. or two dashes followed by a long option name.. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. see the -j option). Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. thus: "-\?". For example. "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. "!!" repeats the last shell command. For example. For example. via the "−" command." each time less is invoked. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. or newline. Most options may be changed while less is running. If an option appears in the LESS variable. 2003 6 . or defaults to "sh". --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. so command line options override the LESS environment variable.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. By default. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. see the -B option). thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. to avoid typing "less -options . you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". OPTIONS Command line options are described below. If <m> is . Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. Some long option names are in uppercase. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. This only works if the input is a pipe. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. The BSD January 17. the current screen is piped. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. not an ordinary file. Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). the remainder of the name may be in either case.

]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. the entire file is read into memory. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. −g | −-hilite-search Normally.]’’. the bell is rung). when data is read from a pipe. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. By default. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. buffer space is unlimited. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. buffers are allocated automatically as needed. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe. that is.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. By default. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward.) BSD January 17. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. This option is on by default when invoked as more. that is. By default. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. less will refuse to open non-regular files. -h0 is implied. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. any earlier data is lost.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. 2003 7 . Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. If n is -1. ’q’ to quit. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. lacks some important capability.

uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. jump to a file percentage. in other words. that is. it is also used as a lesskey file. The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. if "-j4" is used. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. and so on. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. with the percent into the file. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. BSD January 17. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. 2003 8 . then that search does not ignore case. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. less prompts with a colon. A target line is the object of a text search. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. By default. Multiple -k options may be specified. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). not to the file which is currently open. especially with a very large input file. the second to the bottom is -2. Inc. tag search. and so on. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. This applies only when the input file is a pipe. jump to a line number. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). If the file already exists. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. For example.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or jump to a marked position. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. If the -j option is used. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. This option can be set from within less. not an ordinary file. When invoked as more. the next is 2. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more).

−s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. display the remainder on the next line. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command). such as typing an invalid character. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. 2003 9 . -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. That is. Warning: when the -r option is used. they will simply report the name of the log file. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. that is. See the section on PROMPTS for more details. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. Inc. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded. −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown.. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". Without a file name. rather than being typed in with each less command. If the terminal has a "visual bell". the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. it is used instead. or be terminated by a dollar sign. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ . The bell will be rung on certain other errors.. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. BSD January 17. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. various display problems may result. The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. such as long lines being split in the wrong place.. but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. for example. This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. m where the ". The default is to fold long lines. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence." is zero or more characters other than "m".. Thus. that is.

Sets tab stops.. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. 25. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. they are handled as specified by the -r option. For this to work.. 33. etc. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command.gnu. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line. Other backspaces are deleted. tab stops are set at multiples of n.. 17. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters. The entire line is highlighted. in which case only the status column is highlighted. −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page.. −xn. and that command is executed to find the tag. that is. for example. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. If only one n is specified. it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD January 17. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags".. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters.html). −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. unless the -J option is in effect. tab stops are set at those positions. By default.17 will set tabs at positions 9. The default for n is 8. | −-tabs=n. like clearing the screen. Also. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. will edit the file containing that tag. followed immediately by a TAG. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. 2003 10 . along with the preceding character. Inc.org/software/global/global. tag information must be available. (See http://www. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. if neither -u nor -U is given. The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted. that is. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. -x9. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability.

Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. Followed by two characters. any forward movement causes scrolling. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. changes the open quote to the first character. +<number> acts like +<number>g. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. see the caveat under the "g" command above). a filename for the :e command. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. and the close quote to the second character. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. As a special case. The default is one screenful. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. this changes the quote character to that character. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. If the number specified is zero. LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. the screen is repainted instead. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right. Note that even after the quote characters are changed. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. If the number n is negative. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. either ˆV or ˆA. that is. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. By default. For example. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. Inc. If a command line option begins with +. it starts the display at the specified line number (however. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. not just the first one. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. or the pattern for a search command). For example. if the screen is 24 lines. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. If the option starts with ++. BSD January 17. Followed by a single character. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. 2003 11 .

the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. and to set environment variables. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. If it matches more than one filename.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). the first match is entered into the command line. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB.) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. less uses that as the name of the lesskey file. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. Otherwise. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. 2003 12 .) Delete the word under the cursor. If it matches more than one filename. that character is used instead of ˆU. If the completed filename is a directory. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. Inc. The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. a "/" is appended to the filename. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor.less". Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. BSD January 17. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD.) Move the cursor one word to the left. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.) Move the cursor one word to the right. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. Otherwise. Delete the entire command line. KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.

To set up an input postprocessor. Before less opens a file. called the replacement file. it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. and the name of the replacement file.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less. An input pipe.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. as entered by the user. these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. the original filename as entered by the user. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. it will call another program.$$ fi . make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. Inc.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. the original filename. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file.sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). esac lessclose. and so on. but still let less view them directly: lessopen. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. rather than putting the data into a replacement file. that is. as normal. which writes the contents of the file to a different file. However. called the input postprocessor. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". This program receives two command line arguments. To use an input pipe. then echo /tmp/less. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. For example. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. which was output by LESSOPEN. To set up an input preprocessor. less uses the original file.sh %s". as normal. When less closes a file opened in such a way. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. It should create the replacement file.$$ ]. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename.sh %s %s". set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. 2003 13 .. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output.

The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set. Selects a Russian character set. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. and "b" for binary. Inc. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET.sh %s". except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. 5.Z) uncompress -c $1 . (This is an example. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. and formfeed are control characters. TAB. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. In this case. 2 and 3 are control.) BSD January 17." is used for a normal character. This is the same as ASCII. Same as iso8859. Same as iso8859. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last. When an input pipe is used. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. Selects an EBCDIC character set. CR. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. In this case. A decimal number may be used for repetition. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen. "bccc4b. For example. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. "c" for control. Should not be displayed directly. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal. The character ". 4. 6 and 7 are binary. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. and binary. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. 2003 14 . and all others are binary. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-". Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. and 8 is normal. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used.. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. NL. control. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example." would mean character 0 is binary. 1.

bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set. an "m" means use the middle line. Replaced by the size of the current input file.b. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially.b. and a "j" means use the "target" line. For example. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. 8bcccbcc18b95.9b5. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]". "∗d" is bold. "∗u" is underlined. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used.6b10. a "b" means use the bottom line. or equivalently. 8bcccbcc18b95. as with the %b option. as specified by the -j option. The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string.8b8. "∗s" is standout. 2003 15 .). 5bc6bcc7bcc41b. If the character is a "t".7b 9. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility.b.3b9. Inc. 8bcccbcc18b95. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings.33b. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>".7b9. but your system supports the setlocale interface. o. and "∗n" is normal.17b3. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen. If that string is not found. less will use setlocale to determine the character set. the page number of the last line in the input file. ˆA for control-A).b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b 8bcccbcc18b95. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.b.10b6. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking.b128. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.b. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file. X.g. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables. normal attribute is assumed.b9. d. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191.8b8. Finally. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. the default character set is latin1.33b.bb125. if the setlocale interface is also not available. then the default character set is utf-8. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.8b6. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. The line to be used is determined by the X.9b7. Otherwise. etc.

Same as %B. based on byte offsets. as with the %b option. True if the line number of the specified line is known. BSD January 17. The line used is determined by the X. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). If the condition is true. a question mark is printed instead. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. True if the page number of the specified line is known. up to a period. Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. Inc. True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). based on byte offsets. based on line numbers. The line used is determined by the X. of the specified line is known. if input is not a pipe). the file size if input is a pipe). Replaced by the name of the current input file. such characters are not included. as with the %b option. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. The line to be used is determined by the X. If any item is unknown (for example. based on line numbers. as with the %b option. True if at end-of-file. See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. Replaced by the total number of input files. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. True if there is an input filename (that is. a condition is evaluated. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. True if the percent into the current input file. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. 2003 16 . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. True if there is more than one input file. True if the size of the current input file is known. True if the percent into the current input file. any characters following the question mark and condition character. but may appear anywhere. Usually used at the end of the string. of the specified line is known. If the condition is false. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. if and only if the IF condition is false. are included in the prompt.

This prompt prints the filename. ?f%f ..%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. colon. The filename is followed by the line number.. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked.Next\: %x.?m(file %i of %m) . and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash. This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command. For reference. If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax.?e(END) ?x. The pipe command. if we are at end-of-file. Finally. True if there is a next input file (that is. %f Note that this expands to the editor name. 2003 17 .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. if known. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B". otherwise the byte offset if known.. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt.Next\: %x. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1. followed by a + and the line number. Otherwise. The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm. followed by the file name.. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file..: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s. if known. percent. This is the default prompt. if the current input file is not the last one). : byte %bB?s/%s. BSD January 17. less runs in a "secure" mode.?e(END) ?x. any trailing spaces are truncated.%t ?f%f . byte %bB?s/%s.:?pB%pB\%. period. otherwise the string "Standard input".. otherwise the percent if known.. Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings. Inc. ?n?f%f .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or has other differences in invocation syntax.. Then..%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f .?e(END) ?x.?m(file %i of %m) . .?n?m(file %i of %m) . Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input.%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark. . the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. ?n?f%f . a dash is printed. if known.Next\: %x. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%. if there is one. This prompt would print the filename. Notice how each question mark has a matching period. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively).?m(file %i of %m) . Each is broken into two lines here for readability only..

See discussion under PROMPTS. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. ˆL). LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). If environment variables are defined in more than one place. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. Inc. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). global tags are not used. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. Use of lesskey files. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. Log files. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. Filename completion (TAB. non-control characters. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. The editing command. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD January 17. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). If not set. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set. Metacharacters in filenames. Language for determining the character set. such as "∗". 2003 18 . or in a lesskey(1) file. LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). Use of tags files.

LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals).com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. See discussion under SECURITY. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file.org〉. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. For more information.) BSD January 17. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell. If the :e command is used to name more than one file. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. On such terminals. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell. as well as to expand filenames. Inc.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 19 . Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell.com/less. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD.greenwoodsoftware. see the less homepage at http://www. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command). and one of the named files has been viewed previously. In certain cases. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. more text than the matching string may be highlighted. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.

searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence. BSD January 17.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). Inc.greenwoodsoftware. non-binary files. To workaround this problem.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. 2003 20 . Also. See http://www. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text. On some systems. This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary.

less is used. Otherwise. The input file consists of one or more sections.lesskey . If the output file already exists. Otherwise. by default $HOME/. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. If no output file is specified. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. #env Defines environment variables. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. standard input is read. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. The string may be a single command key. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . or a sequence of up to 15 keys. If the input file is ‘-’. other options and arguments are ignored. The action is the name of the less action. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . from the list below. lesskey will overwrite it. If −V or −−version is present.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). except for the special section header lines. If no input file is specified. this line may be omitted. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). The characters in the string may appear literally. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. by default $HOME/. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file.

and then the extra string is parsed. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . An action may be followed by an "extra" string. For example. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. the action is performed. just as if it were typed in to less. tab and the backslash itself. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. When such a command is entered while running less. space. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". In addition. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. but not for a "noaction" command. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". Alternatively. one per line as in the example below. For example. Since all default commands are disabled. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous.

NSH 5 . /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. FILES $HOME/. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less.lesskey Default lesskey input file. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. in a keyboard-independent manner. such as uparrow. Each line consists of an environment variable name.less Default lesskey file. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. $HOME/. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file.

Links to directories. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. Inc. only the super user can use the link command. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. Unable to get a license to use the software. links to files on different partitions. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. This is not the default for link.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. you should use the ln command instead. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. If you want this behavior. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. Newly created link file. link always exits with an exit code of 0. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. and links across hosts will not work. Normally. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. NSH 1 . since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. OPTIONS link has only one option. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. Existing file to be linked. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. do not use it except in exceptional cases.

and you can make symbolic links to directories. In the output of the ls command. With this option. Furthermore. if the target file already exists. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file. If you use the -f option with the -i option.. ln does not ask for this confirmation. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. if the target file already exists. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column). ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. Existing file to be linked. consist of a special file. Symbolic links however. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . With this option.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. if the target file of a link already exists. ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file. then the target file must be a directory. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. OPTIONS -f By default. Newly created link file. In the second case. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. and it does not have appropriate write permissions.] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. NSH 1 . The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. Inc.

then the target file must be a directory. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking.4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. One of the files to be removed was not removable. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. and the target file already exists. it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. You should normally use the ln command. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created. This is not possible to do. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. SEE ALSO link(1). This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. An unknown option was given. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command. avoid using it except in exceptional cases.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. NSH 2 . The target file is not a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software.

Inc. This often includes the directories ". l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. If you do not specify any file arguments. This option is similar to the -a option. If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. lc. depending on the universe setting.] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. -o. it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 . then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. ls is the standard program. then ls uses the current directory (. and -1 options). however it does not include the directories ". and -g options). Each derivative has a specific option turned on.) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). Consequently. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. With the P_ATT variable set. then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification. With this option. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. ls does not display files beginning with a period (. When using a multi-column output. If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory. For each file argument.. With the P_BSD variable set.). ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column. then the default format depends on two things. If you do not specify an output format. This may be the default. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable." (current directory) and ". The remaining programs are derivatives of ls. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. it uses the default value of 80. or if it has a value less than 20." (parent directory). The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen.. if it is being redirected or piped). ls displays the contents of the directory. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). By default. If the COLUMNS variable is not set. l. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. lf. If the output is going to a terminal. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). -x. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. (This is the default behavior." and ". With this option. Before ls displays a listing. or a stream listing (see the -m option). ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information.). lr. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. a multi-column listing (see the -C. By default.. ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option). then the default universe behavior determines the output format.".. if a file contains special characters in the name. Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls.

Consequently. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). This option is like the -F option. This option is similar to the -l option. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. A long listing consists of a single line for each file.. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/). This option tells ls to output a long listing. When used with the -t option. The default time stamp is date of last modification. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. By default. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. etc. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. putting a comma and a space between file names. For each file found. does a reverse sort by user name. If ls comes across a directory. -s. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. With this option. -t. With the P_BSD variable set. Inc. When used with the -u option. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. when an argument is a symbolic link. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. .. With this option.) When outputting a long listing. does a reverse sort by time stamp. If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. ls does not display the owner name/ID field. This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. With the P_ATT variable set. Directories are marked with a ’/’. ls sorts the listing by file size. the options -l. By default. while the -a option is turned on. See the options -c and -u for more information. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. ls sorts the listing by file name. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. With this option. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. Each line contains detailed information about the file. With this option turned on. if a file contains special characters in the name. and -r are turned off. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . This option tells ls to output a long listing. This makes it easy to identify directories. block/character special. ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. By default. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). ls sorts the listing by file name. For each file found. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). ls treats each file argument as a directory. By default.

EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. or -x options). With the P_ATT variable set. There are 25 options for this command. then with the P_BSD variable set. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. With the P_BSD variable set. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. there are several option conflicts. ls ignores column settings less than 20. a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. If a long listing is being output. If a long listing is not being produced. ls uses the default screen width of 80. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. With the P_ATT variable set. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. Inc. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. With the P_ATT variable set. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. the group name field is also included in long listings. With the P_BSD variable set. -C. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. Instead. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. the default behavior is to output the group name field.

Unable to get a license to use the software. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. man was unable to determine where to look for the man page.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. Normally. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host. This version of man does not. man displays the output of the remote man command. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. If you do not specify this option. NSH 1 . The available options for the man command differ from system to system. Because of this. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). using the -h host option. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. Inc. No data was returned from the remote host. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host.

the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. Do not output warning messages. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. Light mode. so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value.. AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . If you specify a file on a remote host. If you do not specify any files. If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file.. This is the default behavior.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode).] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . md5sum takes its input from stdin. Inc. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value.

mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777. Inc. mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. With this option. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . Unable to get a license to use the software. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. Otherwise a warning message appears. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. Second. By default. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories.. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. (This may be altered by the value of current umask. mkdir creates the missing directory. If the mode contains non octal digits. then this error message will appear. Otherwise a warning message appears. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. Set the initial user ownership to user. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. An unknown option was given. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). dirname The name of the directory you want to create. mkdir will create parent directories as required. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7)..mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. If either directory does not exist. NSH 1 . EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. where mode is an octal value.

Inc.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 .

Inc. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. mkfifo was unable to create the special file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name .mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1). EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory.. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments.. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists.

NSH 1 . mknod was unable to create the special file. As the second argument. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. a character special file (c). EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. tells mknod to create a block special file. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. The second argument specifies the type of special file. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. Unable to get a license to use the software. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. The major number of the character/block special file. tells mknod to create a character special file. As the second argument. Inc. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. The minor number of the character/block special file. The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. If you create a character or block special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message.mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. or a block special file (b). As the second argument. The first argument is the name of the special file. the name of the special file you want to create.

See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. mv does not display this prompt. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target).c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src.. An error occurred while trying to move a file. Source file. you can use it to rename files. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*. Unable to get a license to use the software.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo.bar to foobar. then the target file must be a directory. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file.. mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found. OPTIONS -i With this option. NSH 1 . Inc. $ mv foo.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. The second examples moves all . An unknown option was given. then the target file must be a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . By default. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another. mv checks to see if the target file already exists. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. Destination file or directory. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. then mv overwrites the file. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. With the -f option. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. The target file is not a directory. then the target must be a directory. if a target file already exists. First. It simply overwrites the file. Second. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible.

After having copied the source file to the target file. the files are actually copied. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. the -f option will override the -i option. the files are actually copied. Inc. the source must be deleted. There was an error removing the source file. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). See cp for more details on copying directories. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. The target file could not be created. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. With the P_ATT variable set. the files are actually copied. the source file is removed. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the files are actually copied. NSH 2 . mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. There was an error deleting the source file. The target file could not be created. mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the -i option will override the -f option. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).

sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts.P. unless you are using the -d option. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. then the <sources> must be absolute path names. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp.. The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync. destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts .. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. see their respective documentation.. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands.. If you use this option. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations.. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>. Otherwise. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. These commands provide an alternate interface. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file. OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . Inc. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files.. These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. Copy in parallel. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s)..ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic.

.. SEE ALSO dsync(1). ncp. Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts . Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts . Inc.. ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. dsync.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus.. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts . cp(1). uncp(1). EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation.. NSH 2 ..

OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. In addition. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.3. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. this data may not be available for all servers. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. Replace the # character with 1.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.P. This option overrides the -t option. Therefore...] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies. ncpu displays the value as a number. addresses. Refresh screen. Inc.or 5. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Do not show a header on output. Show only entries that match the given expression. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.2. See the -f option below. addresses.P. Sort on the specified column. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.4. Reverse sort order. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. Quit application.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Quit application. See the -s option below. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. -t NSH 1 . Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. some systems (for example. This data is not available on all systems. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically..

including NOT. nstats(1) NSH 2 . host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. Switch to network info view.8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2.Property of BladeLogic. Switch to memory info view. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Inc. and OR. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to process summary view.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Switch to disk info view. When an expression is used to match a string. nnet(1). nps(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). AND. Switch to process info view. ndf(1). see the man page for blexpr. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. wildcards are supported. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. For full details on expressions. nmem(1). Switch to statistics view. but does not mimic it exactly. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to system info view.

Only show entries which match the given expression. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. See the -f option below. Comparisons are made case neutral.P.. See the -s option below. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option.P. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Inc. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. addresses. Do not show a header on output. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Inc. addresses. This option overrides the -t option. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Property of BladeLogic. Behave top like.

Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1.5.2.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument (i.. Switch to disk info view. Switch to process summary view. Switch to statistics view. nps(1). Switch to system info view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nmem(1). Switch to memory info view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. enclose the expression in single quotes). ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Inc.e. nover(1).3. and OR.7.6. see the man page for blexpr. Inc. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to process info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 .8. or 0 (10). nnet(1). Switch to network info view. AND.4. wildcards are supported. you can define an expression used to filter the output data.9. When an expression is used to match a string. For full details on expressions. including NOT. Property of BladeLogic.

and -p options. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. In its base use. The file exists but has different access permissions. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. -o. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. When you specify the -p option. then depending on which options you specified. Also compare file sizes. The file exists but has different file ownerships. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. Also compare file ownerships. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories... each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. By default. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. file ownerships. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. When you specify the -o option. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. -t. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. Inc. Traverse directories recursively. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. Also compare file permissions. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. When you specify the -s option. If the file exists. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. the following codes may also appear. and date of latest modification. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. Do not output files if they are equal. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. the width is set to 80 characters. file permissions. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . You can change the output device width by using the -w option.

Inc. The default assumption is 80 characters. assume the output device width to be width characters. NSH 2 . -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output.. When you specify the -t option. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. where N is the number of directories being checked. dsync(1). it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. By default. SEE ALSO cp(1). ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification.. When calculating the optimal output. These options (-1. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. -2 . ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses.

For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh. which some interactive programs need (e. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. Without this option. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. ksh. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. It sets the HOME. bash. If the program is called explicitly.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions. Once the remote program has been started. an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>. Finally. For more information. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. as determined by the current working directory. -l Simulates a login session. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. LOGNAME. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. On UNIX agents. In addition. the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr.. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 .nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh). If you specify this option. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands.g.g. etc. . SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session.. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit).profile) should be run. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2.

As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. As such. Imagine for example. a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. by default. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command. meaning no auto transcoding.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. Inc. By default. As such the output will be not very useful.3 or later. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences.0. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment. that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). before it is passed to the application. Do not transcode input/output. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . It must be a batch (output only) command. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. Release 7. See examples below. To deal with this nexec will now. In the same way. Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. automatically transcode data. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. This option is available on agents running 7. is converted to the local code page.

The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution. nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . host% cat hosts NSH 3 . see the nsh man page. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command.. First. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. For more information. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated. Inc. In the first instance. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. take the following steps.

com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon.bletch.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.bletch. SEE ALSO rsh(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs.com Hostname for rome is: rome. Similarly. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands.bletch. An option may not be universal to all platforms.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. NSH 4 . Inc. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems.com In the following example. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems.bletch. not all commands are available on all hosts. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected. The best example of this is the ps command.

It performs a remote login to host. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. telnet(1). Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility.nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. The name of the remote host you want to log into. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. and/or ssh. rlogin. nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence. The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name. OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. SEE ALSO nexec(1). The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. NSH 1 .

See the -f option below. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB. Property of BladeLogic. This option overrides the -t option. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 .nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic.. addresses. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Comparisons are made case neutral. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available. Inc. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. Behave top like.P.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem.. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. addresses. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Only show entries which match the given expression. Do not show a header on output. See the -s option below. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values.

2. Switch to process info view. Switch to statistics view..7. wildcards are supported. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). For full details on expressions. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.8. enclose the expression in single quotes). and OR. Switch to memory info view. including NOT. Switch to disk info view. nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. or 0 (10). nnet(1). nps(1). nover(1). EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option.9. Inc. Switch to system info view. Switch to network info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 .5. you can define an expression used to filter output data. AND. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. ndf(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. When an expression is used to match a string. see the man page for blexpr.e. Inc.3.6. The expression should be a single argument (i. Property of BladeLogic. Switch to process summary view.4.

NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. See the -s option below. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. addresses. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. With this option. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. MAC Adapter MAC address. Quit application. If there is no MAC address. I. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. NAME Adapter name. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. Quit application.P. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. addresses. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display.. By default. or if you do not have the required permissions. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. Inc. Refresh screen.P.. the MAC address appears as all zeros. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Subnet mask for the adapter. This option overrides the -t option. NSH 1 . address of the adapter. In addition.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. Show only entries that match the given expression.2 and beyond. Not all adapters have a MAC address. See the -f option below. nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Do not show a header on output. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Reverse sort order. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values.P.

nnet(1) Sort on the specified column. ndf(1) NSH 2 . For full details on expressions.6. ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nover(1). see the man page for blexpr. nmem(1). Replace the # character with 1. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.2. nps(1). or 7.5. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. but does not mimic it exactly. Inc.4. nstats(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.3.

it is directed to the same place as the standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg . BSD June 6. the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. If standard error is a terminal. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file. . 1993 1 . ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored.2 (“POSIX. Otherwise. Inc.2”) compatible.NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.out cannot be created in the current directory. If the standard output is a terminal. . The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked.out in the current directory. SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. the standard output is appended to the file nohup.

See the -f option below. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Property of BladeLogic. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. ARCH The system hardware architecture. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. and as not set for Solaris. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.. Do not show a header on output. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Behave top like. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. addresses. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . Inc. This option overrides the -t option.g. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Only show entries which match the given expression. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.P. addresses. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information.. See the -s option below. Comparisons are made case neutral. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.P. Windows systems. Inc. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover. the kernel release for Linux. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. the release level for AIX. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.

21-4. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.. wildcards are supported.4. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2. Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems). Switch to statistics view. When an expression is used to match a string.e.8.5. or 0 (10). Switch to disk info view. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. and OR.9.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. nps(1). you can define an expression used to filter output data. Switch to process info view. The expression should be a single argument (i. including NOT. enclose the expression in single quotes). nnet(1). For full details on expressions. ndf(1).2.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. Inc.6. Switch to network info view. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nstats(1) NSH 2 . ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). see the man page for blexpr. Switch to system info view. AND.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to memory info view.7.4. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. nmem(1).3.

The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Inc. See the -s option below.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. See the -f option below. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display.. addresses. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether. This option overrides the -t option.. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. addresses. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Quit application. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether. Refresh screen. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. Do not show a header on output. Reverse sort order. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. -t NSH 1 . Quit application. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Show only entries that match the given expression. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes.Property of BladeLogic.P. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values.

Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.3. Sort on the specified column. nover(1). For full details on expressions. wildcards are supported.6. see the man page for blexpr. but does not mimic it exactly. AND.Property of BladeLogic. nps(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. and OR. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. including NOT. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.4. Switch to statistics view. nmem(1). When an expression is used to match a string.5. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Switch to system info view. Switch to network info view. Inc. nnet(1). Replace the # character with 1. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to disk info view. Define an expression to filter the output data. Switch to process info view. Switch to process summary view. 7 or 8.2. Switch to memory info view.

The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values. This option overrides the -t option. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. The process’ priority. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. Do not show a header on output.) The process ID. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. (This column only appears in the -c output.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. -t NSH 1 . Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. The parent process ID.. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Refresh screen. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. Show only entries that match the given expression. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. See the -s option below.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data. With this option. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. Inc. START The start time of the process. The total amount of real memory that the process is using.

nmem(1). 0 indicates column 10. but does not mimic it exactly. When an expression is used to match a string. Inc. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. Switch to network info view. or 0. Replace the # character with 1. you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. ndf(1). Switch to system info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. nnet(1). wildcards are supported. Switch to statistics view. nover(1). Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. Switch to memory info view.8. Define an expression to filter the output data. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes.6. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. Switch to process summary view. Switch to process info view. For example. sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. AND. Inc.7. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. Switch to disk info view. see the man page for blexpr.2. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. SEE ALSO blexpr(1). ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic. Property of BladeLogic.5. For full details on expressions.4. nstats(1) NSH 2 . including NOT. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Reverse sort order. and OR.9. Inc.3.

You can never access the root of a drive. NSH 1 . you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. nor can you access any other drives. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive.0. the \h sequence takes on a new value. If you do not. To access other drives on the computer. If you have set a root directory. you should also specify a directory. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name. When you cd to a new host.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. such as C:. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. Inc. as the following example illustrates. SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -.assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree.EXE In Network Shell.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host.Property of BladeLogic.

execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. For example.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. Inc. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities./.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 .. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. the command returns the hostid of host2. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. to execute the native command. In the following example. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. Native commands. When executing a command. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent.. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. Network Shell equivalents of native commands./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. enter the command with a fully qualified path. the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state.

This can be unset. the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. To continue with the above example. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. capturing both its standard output and standard error. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. For example: command_name . you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. you must perform two steps. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. they can be set to use default values. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. There are a few limitations when using redirection. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. In addition to regular DOS commands. It should be a non-interactive program. If this field is not set. First. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). By entering a value of -. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. but. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. If.Property of BladeLogic.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. Inc. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. for example. These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 . the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). and reboot. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. First. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted. create a soft link to the program nexec. the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. halt. as described earlier. To add a supported remote command using this method. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands.

Other values may produce unexpected results. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. then a new dynamic network connection is created. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts..] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead. If no arguments are given. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. the shell closes all connections.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts. $ZDOTDIR/. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above). STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files.Property of BladeLogic. is treated the same as the < redirection type. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection..nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command. Inc.nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. When accessing relatively few remote hosts. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh. THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. the redirection type <>. For example. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. calling the disconnect command is not required. Next. For efficiency reasons. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required.

Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 . Inc.

0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname. 0777)."). NSH::chmod (char *path. then the file on the current host is used.. NSH::rmdir ("bar").. processes. and commands. int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. The following examples will help clarify their use.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files.. Network Shell Perl Module 1 . NSH::. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . $fd = NSH::open ("bar". If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). If no hostname is included in the argument. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::unlink("file"). Inc. 0. $count = NSH::read ($fd. $buf. If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). 100). NSH::close($fd). NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". NSH::chdir (". DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. NSH::close($fd). The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. $buf. NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. 0. int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission. 0777). $count = NSH::read ($fd. use NSH. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. 100). SYNOPSIS use NSH. 0777). (W_OK) Test for write permission. The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API. $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". NSH::chmod ("bar". NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). (R_OK) Test for read permission.

int size. Network Shell Perl Module 2 . Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n".") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::creat (char *filename. 100. NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". NSH::write ($fd. 12). $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". int uid. NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. while (($filename. NSH::fchown ($fd. and group gid. "Hello world\n". int uid. 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". and group gid. } NSH::closedir ($fd). 100. NSH::fgets (char *buffer. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. 200). $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. NSH::close ($fd). int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::chown ("foo". int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. Inc. pwd = NSH::getcwd (). int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). 200). print "PWD = $pwd". NSH::fchdir($fd).

NSH::kill (int pid. NSH::getpriority (int which. The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. } NSH::close ($fd). NSH::kill (100. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). If sig is ommitted. The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. Remove lock. Network Shell Perl Module 3 . then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. then a SIGTERM is sent. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". 100). long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. know what you are doing with the call. int sig) Send a signal to a process. 512. NSH::ftruncate (int fd. 9). The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. and can have any of the following values ORed together. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. NSH::flock (int fd. process group or user. In other words. int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH).

Inc. int flags = O_RDONLY. Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. As previously mentioned. If mode is ommitted. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. 0777). When creating a file. NSH::mkdir ("foo. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. NSH::lseek ($fd. NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET). int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. int maj. then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. the pointer is set to offset bytes. you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. long offset. 0777). mode is assumed to be 0755. If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). The second argument controls how the file is opened. If none is given. If mode is ommitted. file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. int mode. The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. NSH::lseek (int fd. NSH::mknod (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). If only a single argument is given. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. then the file is opened for reading. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. if the second (and third) argument are not given. Network Shell Perl Module 4 . NSH::mkdir ("foo. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). 0). mode is assumed to be 0755. 2. NSH::link ("file1". the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all).

Network Shell Perl Module 5 . If mode is ommited. int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. it is assumed to be ’r’. Inc. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $buf. NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::popen (char *cmd. $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. } NSH::read (int fd. char *buffer. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". 100)) { print $buf. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option. subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory.

NSH::seekdir ($fd. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::setpriority (int which. prio is the new priority to be set. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". process group or user. NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. $pos). Network Shell Perl Module 6 . then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. int who. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). } NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::rewinddir ($fd). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. Inc. NSH::rename ("foo". Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. NSH::rename (char *oldname. $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n".

[3]). char *buffer. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). NSH::write (int fd. NSH::truncate (char *filename. NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. Inc. $version. [2]). "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). long mtime. the following command is generated and executed. long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename. char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. then the current date of the local host is used. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). All three (lstat. 200). In the Network Shell environment. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). %d\n". %d\n". int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. $release. STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. "//host2". [1]). exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. $nodename. will not work outside the Network Shell environment. [4]). These types of symbolic links however. foreach $host ("//host1". ($sysname. The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. In essence. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". If either mtime or atime are not given. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . NSH::utime (char *filename. %d\n". %d\n". stat.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. NSH::truncate ("foobar".

%d\n". %d\n". %d\n". [8]). %d\n". [7]). NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . [11]). %d\n". [12]). [6]). %d\n". [10]). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). Inc. [9]).NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic.

145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. .173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. but sometimes this value may not be optimal..020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB). done.. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer. NSH 1 . Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample.. done..147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host. From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux.012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes. The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes). then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly).. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes.) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size. Inc. -b When writing data to the remote host. done. . # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes . DESCRIPTION Depending on the network. done. . To determine the optimal write buffer size. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. (52.. # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . .. . . This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host.. It does not test how fast it can receive data. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data.. use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size.nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times.... OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes. each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. perform a bulk write rather than a regular write. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus.. done.. (See EXAMPLE. use a file size KB large. If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data.

secure(1). cp(1). Inc.nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1).

a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine. Inc. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’. ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. NSH 1 .] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine.. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname . Inc..nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic.

By default.3.. or 7. Do not show a header on output. -t NSH 1 . Show only entries that match the given expression. With this option. Quit application. Sort on the specified column. See the -s option below. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. Replace the # character with 1. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics. Quit application.4. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.P. addresses. This option overrides the -t option. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.6. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average.P. addresses. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used.2. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values. LOAD The system’s current load average.. The current time on the system. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .5. it shows a CPU usage percentage. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Refresh screen. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. see uptime (1). nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. For Windows. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. Inc. See the -f option below. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Reverse sort order. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. For UNIX. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.

Switch to process info view. nps(1).nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Inc. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. see the man page for blexpr.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. Switch to disk info view. wildcards are supported. Switch to memory info view. and OR. ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). Switch to statistics view. For full details on expressions. blexpr(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to network info view. Switch to system info view. ndf(1).00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. nmem(1).00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0. including NOT. Switch to process summary view. nover(1) NSH 2 . Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. but does not mimic it exactly. nnet(1). AND. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.

ndf(1) NSH 1 .. nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . For more information.....] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Inc. nmem(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers..ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic. nover.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf. nmem. nps.. SEE ALSO blexpr(1).. blquery(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. nps(1). please read the individual man page for each command.. nover(1). nstats(1).

EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed. Inc.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 .

or . when config.gz nunzip --verbose foo. gzcat. Instead. . OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout. gzip -c file1 > foo.gz nunzip foo.tar. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension.gz is uncompressed. provided that the file has the correct header. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip.GZ. --quiet --verbose Same as -v.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic. This option is the default when decompressing. copy the time stamp from the compressed file.gz. Inc. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.TGZ. 1 .gz Suppress all warnings. gunzip. File or files to be compressed or decompressed. the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config. gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with . --no-name When decompressing.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo. For example.tar. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present.tgz. Verbose output. . --help file Display a help screen and quit.

only the -s option is considered. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order. If tag fields are provided in the input list. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. The resulting list contains only unique entries. Sorting is alphabetical. Within each tag group. Inc. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. If you provide a tag field. In the syntax shown above. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. Sort the list in descending order. the tag field is optional.txt. The strings are only grouped by tag.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . $cat list. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. input lines are contained in a file called list. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. If you do not provide a sorting option. Remove duplicate entries. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. the string order is not changed.

Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list. Inc.txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.txt europe order(1) NSH 2 .

order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Inc. NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic.

and writes the resulting lines to standard output. The characters in list are used circularly. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . circularly.. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. Berkeley and its contributors. the standard input is used. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. for each instance of ‘-’. The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5. and >0 if an error occurs.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character. i. unless otherwise specified by the -d option.. The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed.e.. Inc. standard input is read one line at a time. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. The paste utility exits 0 on success.8 Last change: NSH 1 . when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused.

[-U user] . and list the members of an archive file. [pattern .. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax.... see the section below. If you do not specify any file operands.. [-o options] . pax copies the file operands to the destination directory... The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable. pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar.. All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy. write. and will copy directory hierarchies. [-T [from_date] [.] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] . The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering... [-E limit] [-U user] ...... [-G group] . [file .. Inc. [pattern . access and modification times.. For a description of tar options. The setting of ownership. pax will read an archive file from standard input.. [-T [from_date] [. Write. The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns.. For a list of supported archive formats.tar ... When a file operand is also a directory. [-G group] . and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. [-s replstr] . the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included..to_date]] . [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [.. pax will read an archive file from standard input. The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list.read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files . write..... except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below). [-p string] . pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input. and copy.. pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format..] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] . pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling). see the -x option. When an extracted file is a directory.. Copy.. and supports a wide variety of different archive formats.to_date] [/[c][m]]] .. [-G group] . <none> List... [-T [from_date] [..] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] . When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. [-s replstr] .. [-U user] ..] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] .. The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted. [-G group] .to_date] [/[c][m]]] . The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input.. If you do not specify any file operands........ Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands. [-U user] .to_date]] . and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns.. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation.. [file .. -w -r -w NSH 1 . pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory.] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read. pax operation is independent of the specific archive format. read. and write a table of contents to standard output. -r Read..

or if it is not writable by the user. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. Inc. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. pattern operands. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. and file operands. If you do not specify a block size. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. If the directory operand does not exist. When required. pax selects all members of the archive. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. or archive members of type directory being extracted. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). If you do not supply a pattern operand. When a pattern matches a directory. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. S_IRWXG. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. If you try to append to an archive. If you do not specify any file operands. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. or if it is not of type directory. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. pax uses the archive’s existing format. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. respectively.

The file times are preserved by default. and p (described below). e. file access time. (This option is the letter ell). -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. When pax matches members of type directory. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. Preserve everything -. If this line consists of a single period. In general. m. NSH 3 . pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. Inc. Otherwise.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. and file modification time. By default. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. and you can specify multiple -p options.the user ID. file modification times are still preserved. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. Preserve the file mode bits. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. Link files. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. By default. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. Do not overwrite existing files. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). pax preserves file access times whenever possible. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. Do not preserve file modification times. The string consists of the specification characters a. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. its file mode and. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. For example. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. file mode bits. Preserve the user ID and group ID. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. its modification time. o. the one(s) given last will take precedence. m o p In the preceding list. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. group ID. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. This is intended to be used by root. pax skips the file or archive member. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. someone with all the appropriate privileges. In the copy mode ( -r -w). The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. if -p eme is specified. If this line is blank. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted.

The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option. the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). terminating with the first successful substitution. During write. Inc. -x format Specify the output archive format. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. for all the other operational modes ( read. Therefore. is not buffered. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. write. Otherwise. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. During copy. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. read or accessed them. The old binary cpio format. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. and is written only after the file has been read or written. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line. and copy). During a list operation.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. or subexpression matching. pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. with the default format being ustar. During read. This format is not very portable. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). The old string may also contain <newline> characters. You can specify multiple -s expressions. do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 .pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). The trailing <newline>. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name.

The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. perform a physical file system traversal. -D This option is the same as the -u option.3. pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. etc. This is the default mode. -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. uid. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). respectively. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. hard links. Do not follow symbolic links. With a positive limit. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. gid. k. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. Checking stops with the first match. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. file size. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. NSH 5 . Instead. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). a numeric gid. link pathname length and the type of the file. Inc. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. Only regular files. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. soft links. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. or when starting with a #. The bytes limit can end with m. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. -G group Select a file based on its group name. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). You can use a ’´ to escape the #.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. 1024 (1K) or 512.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. You can supply multiple -G options. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). The default limit is a small positive number of retries. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive.

-i. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation).ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. You can supply multiple -U options. -D. group. -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. -u. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). You can supply multiple -T time ranges. The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). This option is the same as the -u option. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. -G. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). A time range is made up of six different fields. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. for example. This option is the same as the -D option. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. Time ranges are relative to the current time. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. -u. the names of these selected files. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). the names of these selected files. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). -Y. -v. mm. except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -U. -u. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. mode. Inc. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. dd. Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. or when starting with a #. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 . yy. and -Z) interact as follows. When archiving files during a write operation. Checking stops with the first match. Each field must contain two digits. When pax is in the write or copy mode. -D. the last time there was a change of owner. file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. Checking stops with the first match. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. -U options. -T. -T. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). -D. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. The minute field mm is required. If you supply only a from_date. etc). When extracting files during a read operation. If you specify neither. -G. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). -G. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. -s. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. or copying files during a copy operation. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. If you specify both c and m. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). a numeric uid. -n. -T. -n.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c. If you supply only a to_date.

group ID. Preserve user ID. Inc. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. Stop after first error. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 .pax reads the archive a. Append to the archive. Interactive file rename. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use. along with the -n option. with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory. Do not follow symlinks.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic..pax. Extract data from archive. The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename. The command: pax -r -s ’. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update. Verbose operation mode.ˆ//*usr//*. Follow command line symlinks only. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. access/modification times. Follow symlinks. NSH 7 . Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. In this case the following options are supported. Do not pass over mount points in the file system.’ -f a. Create an archive. Do not preserve modification time. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . List contents of the tape. file mode. Append to the archive.

group ID. but continues processing. Berkeley and its contributors. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. 1 An error occurred. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. the archive formats bcpio. -T. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. pax will not create a second copy of the file. The options -B. or file mode when the -p option is specified. -U. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status.pax will extract all files from the archive a. sv4cpio. -Y. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. If. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. or cannot preserve the user ID. -P. sv4crc. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. -L.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. Additionally. Inc. tar. -E.pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . -G. and the modification and access times may be wrong. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. NSH 8 . while doing a copy.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. -H. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. -D. -Z. pax does not copy the file. it exits with a non-zero exit status. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive.

When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). The packages you install. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. address arguments. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. Inc. address of the host on which you want to install the package. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). You can specify multiple hostname/I. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell.P. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. It will first determine which packages you want to install. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system.P. can reside on any server. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. If you do not use this option. including remote servers. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . etc.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. as well as any optional response or admin files. such as /bin/sh. For example. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. admin. /bin/ksh. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

Inc. ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). the -i option will override the -f option. NSH 2 .rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. the -f option will override the -i option. With the P_ATT variable set.

With this mechanism. among other things. 3 . It goes through the following steps: 1 .rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection. NSH 1 . See the -i option for the RSCD agent below.Based on the client host. STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism.If it does not find an entry there. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). The agent will use this information in further security related checks. the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. Inc. 3 .Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. But first. it uses the configured port number. determine how the communication between the two should occur. If the handshake is valid.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. then verifies that it is a valid handshake.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. If necessary. 2 . When it hears a connection. it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. Before the client exits. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. either from a command line or from a script. Next. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred. If not. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates. If it finds an entry in the database. the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). the encryption type and encryption key or keys. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). so that it can run in background mode. 2 . the agent closes the connection. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. In this case. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur. This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. 1 .Before going any further. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. If it finds an entry. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. it uses the configured port number. 4 . RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. the agent defaults to port 4750. it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. the agent closes the connection.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). This information is found in the secure file and includes.

Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user.Once it has the initial handshake data. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. If there should be overrides. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. then the daemon sets the final permissions. the daemon sets them. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). 6 . ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1). These are also known as the user overrides. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. users (1). Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. it decides whether or not the client should have access. If the client is not allowed to have access. Output brief usage description. Do not fork. and what permissions the client should have. Inc. If the client is allowed to have access. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode.Once the daemon has all the relevant information. NSH 2 . -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. secure (1). Output some debug messages. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer.

Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. In other words. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. To do this. Password for root@host3: . When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server. With the rsu command.. Those permissions govern your access to that host.] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine. the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. host1 $ NSH 1 . If the remote user is not set up this way.. you will not gain access to the remote server. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . If you are accessing multiple hosts. You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host. For this option to work. Inc. Except when you are using the -p option (see below).. you will not get access to the host. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host.. use the -p option. just as if you had entered an incorrect password. the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password.. Normally.. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions.

Appropriate entries (rsu=. and/or exports file must exist. Inc.) in the users. users. ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).. exports (1).rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic.local. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details.. EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password. rscd(1) NSH 2 .

hostn] [-e command1 . runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. -e cmd .. This option specifies the command to execute.. To this end. The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. This option must be the last option. -H header By default. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . which consists of a hostname and directory. All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. -h host .. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names. Inc. The format of this file is one entry per line. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host.. For example.. where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name. -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. hostn] [-e command1 . your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name.. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. you may want to know which host you are dealing with.. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command.. After encountering the -h option... if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path.. NSH 1 . Depending on what action you are currently performing.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic.. which consists of a hostname and directory. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname.

the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. Execute a Network Shell script on each host.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). This can significantly speed things up. Output a brief explanation of the available options. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel. host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. Output the effective command executed for each host. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. This is implicit if the program name is runscript. In other words. you may not want to do things in parallel. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 .

. As such. With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. no OS name extension).[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group . -o file By default. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported.[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 .AIX . . then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied.. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers.. Inc.] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on. See also -h -h host [host . If it does not refer to an existing file. file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l . when looking to run a script. Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. With this option one can override the staging directory.scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers. then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name. If a name is given. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec).e.. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp.[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 .

HP-UX . Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp. nexec (NSH). scriptutil(1) . NSH 2 .[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). Inc. .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic.

Start editing file with both sets of diffs. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. BSD March 28. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. for details of which editor. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. Start editing an empty file. In this mode. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. is invoked. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. Start editing file with right set of diffs. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. See the −o option for an explanation. Ignore trailing blank spaces. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. Skip identical lines. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. below. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. Minimize diff size. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. if any. prompting at each set of differences. See EDITOR and VISUAL. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. Quit sdiff. Start editing file with left set of diffs. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. 2008 1 . The default is 130 characters. the user is prompted for each set of differences.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side.

net〉. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data. 2008 2 . though some require GNU diff. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. The default is /tmp. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). the default is vi(1). Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. diff3(1). CAVEATS Although undocumented. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. vi(1). BSD March 28.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. VISUAL takes precedence. SEE ALSO cmp(1). ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. depending on the current column. TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. diff(1).

or hostname. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 . the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection. If the client does not find a match. through an indirect deployment).509 certificates. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents.. SSL). Thus. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> . When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients. When entering a value for hostname. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. it uses the default entry. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. By storing passwords in the securecert file. including encryption and authentication parameters. The order of entries in the secure file matters. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. On the agent side. default. it uses the rscd entry.. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. Inc. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below). a resolvable host name. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server.k. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. use the special hostname rscd.a. then the software looks for a default entry. For an Application Server. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. use the special hostname default. If the agent does not find a match. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a. By default. create a hostname entry in the secure file. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. you can provide a host’s IP address. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host.

you are prompted to enter the hostname. On UNIX-style systems. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. To accomplish this. that user is typically root. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. you are prompted to enter the hostname. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. On Windows. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. -down hostname Move the entry down one. To accomplish this. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. On Windows. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. that user is bladmin. If no value is entered for file. the passwords are not revealed.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. While this is an important security measure. See below for details. If hostname is not provided. you are prompted to enter the hostname. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. On UNIX-style systems. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. Inc. then the file secure. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. As mentioned above. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table.cfg is used. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. that user is SYSTEM. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. If hostname is not provided. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. When issuing a secadmin command. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. NSH 2 . in a regular secure file. If hostname is not provided.

To compress data. The default value for -u is 1 minute. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. This option must be used with the -c option. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. -w size -z value Set compression level. set value to a number between 1 and 9. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. If -u is a negative number.pem. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. No authorizations or certificates are required. This option requires a certificate. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. With the -u option. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. NSH 3 . -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. If you are adding or modifying an entry. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below). the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. with a higher number indicating better compression. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. By default data is not compressed. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. Inc.2. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. supported since release 5. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. The default protocol is protocol 5.

SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. A subnet with a subnet mask of 255.255. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option. Setting hostname to .0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 .10. Inc.is the same as giving no redirection host.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon). Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters. The password to the private key for a user’s X. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server.255. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host.509 certificate.168. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. Consequently.0 might look something like: @192. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. The secadmin utility also provides the following options.509 certificate. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. If no hostname is given. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask.

0/24 @192.100. enter the following command.168. Inc.255.225/27 @192.255.193/26 @192. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).192 255.100.255.255.168. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192. NSH 5 .255.255.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.241/28 @192.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file.100.240 255. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).255.100.255.129/25 @192.255.255.255. To delete the entry for host foo.168.168. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host.168.224 255.000 255.168.128 255.secadmin(1) 255. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.100.100.

address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. Normally. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address. . appending a newline. The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. 1993 1 . −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. and deletes the pattern space. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. [address[.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . −n By default. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. by default. not including its terminating newline character. sed starts looking again for the first address.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. . or the standard input if no files are specified. sed cyclically copies a line of input.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. copies the pattern space to the standard output. Inc. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). into a pattern space. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin.] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. . The −n option suppresses this behavior. only that line is selected. Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. The input is then written to the standard output. . The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30.

Two of the functions take a function-list. In a context address.. BSD December 30. precede it with a backslash. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. branch to the end of the script. i. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. 2. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. To embed a newline in the text. or two addresses. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. The argument text consists of one or more lines. however. Also. For example. ‘s’. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”. just the delimiter characters are specified. If a regular expression is empty. or [2addr]. not compile-time. representing zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function.e. and at run-time. ‘r’. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. 1993 2 . You can’t. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. ‘y’. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. ‘w’. If the label is not specified. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. For example.. In addition. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace.. [1addr]. Inc. ‘!’. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. as follows: { function function . The ‘b’.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. one. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. ‘t’.

[2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. up to the first newline character to the standard output. with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. text is written to the standard output. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents. Long lines are folded. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. If file cannot be read for any reason.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. Write the pattern space. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. Note that the current line number changes. Write the pattern space to standard output. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. Inc. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. [2addr]l (The letter ell. 1993 3 .

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). Inc. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). CAVEATS Parentheses. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. With the P_ATT variable set. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand.test(1) Property of BladeLogic. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. Consequently you must escape or quote them. test is an executable program. An operand of a primitive was missing. Value of the expression is FALSE. EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. and the directory /etc/security exists. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. which can be used for grouping primitives. Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. also have special meaning to the sh(1).

it is created with default permissions. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. If the file doesn’t exist. the values default to the current year. Change the modification time of the file. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. from 1 to 31. there are at least two arguments. but “CC” is not. where a time format is specified as the first argument. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. Inc. The second of the minute. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. from 0 to 59. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. . The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. from 1 to 12. is supported. BSD April 28. When no −r or −t option is specified. . The month of the year. If “YY” is specified. The hour of the day. 1995 1 . Change the access and modification times to the specified time. Attempt to force the update. even if the file permissions do not currently permit it.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Do not create the file if it does not exist. a “CC” value of 20 is used. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. from 0 to 61.SS]] file [ . The second two digits of the year. “DD”. otherwise. The “MM”. Otherwise. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. from 0 to 23. The day of the month. the value defaults to 0. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. The minute of the hour. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. the year is set in the 21st century. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”.

2”) specification. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX. Inc. 1995 2 .TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. BSD April 28.

left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. 1991 1 . \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. Inc. In the second synopsis form.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. A backslash followed by 1. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. In the third synopsis form. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. Shpink October 27. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. In the fourth synopsis form. If string1 is longer than string2. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. In the first synopsis form. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character.

and >0 if an error occurs. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. Otherwise. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. i. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. otherwise. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. If n has a leading zero. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. Inc. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. inclusively. English has no equivalence classes. it is interpreted as an octal value. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. 1991 2 . EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. If n is omitted or is zero.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. one per line. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints.e. characters are entered in ascending order. they are ordered after their encoded values. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. see ctype(3) and related manual pages.

The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’. 1991 3 .TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. However. for example. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. Inc. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. Additionally. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. additionally. Shpink October 27.

uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4. If no options are specified.2”). machine(1). Print the operating system name. Print the operating system release. BSD January 26. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. SEE ALSO hostname(1). Inc. Print the machine hardware name.2-1992 (“POSIX. 1994 1 . Print the operating system version. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output.UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). Print the patch level. The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified. Print the processor type in more detail.4 BSD.

Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . dsync(1). it renames them (removes the suffix). just delete the files. uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). Inc. uncp looks for the suffix ˜. Do not actually make any changes. Output a message for each file being renamed. SEE ALSO cp(1). DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place.. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. It does not rename any files. When uncp finds files with the specified suffix. This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. Set the suffix to suf. NSH 1 . OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names. The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo).. This option tells it to look for a different suffix. By default. This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option.

2002 1 .. so it may be necessary to sort the files first.2”) compatible. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. the second is used as the name of an output file. the first field is field one. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. the first character is character one.2 (“POSIX. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. If additional arguments are specified on the command line. Character numbers are one based. Field numbers are one based.UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) .e. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written.. BSD December 8.e. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. i. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons. Inc. i. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. Only output lines which have duplicates. −u Only output lines which are unique. If specified in conjunction with the −f option. followed by a single space.

it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. you should use it only in exceptional cases. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). Unable to get a license to use the software. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. Normally. NOTES By default. without doing any type of error checking. unlink always exits with 0.bar The second example removes all .. any user can run the unlink command.. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command. To restrict its use to the super user. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files.old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking. Inc. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. except that it does exactly what it is told to do. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file .bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*. you should use the rm command. In other words. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. $ unlink foo. NSH 1 . EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems.

the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. a hyphen. the suffix . test. A companion program. separated by spaces. the path itself cannot. both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. .] [–x xfile(s) . but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). By default. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. and if that also fails. zip(1L). immediately after the zipfile specification. creates ZIP archives. . z i p is appended. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. as with any other ZIP archive. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. Again. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. or between the file(s) and the –x option.) If no matches are found. ranges are specified by a beginning character. Without the –x option. If the file specification is a wildcard. or extract files from a ZIP archive. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. [ c h ] . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Only the filename can be a wildcard. commonly found on MS-DOS systems. In particular. ARGUMENTS file[.42) 1 . [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. and an ending character.Misc. . [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). See –v in OPTIONS below. but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. . anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match).) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. . Inc. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system).] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. . all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. just specify the . but none in any subdirectories. This option need not appear at the end of the command line.zip] [file(s) . the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). For example. particularly under Unix and VMS. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. see above.

the target operating system for which it was compiled. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. extract files to pipe (stdout). the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. Inc. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’).e. the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). freshen existing files. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. a diagnostic screen is printed. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). update existing files and create new ones if needed.42) 2 . and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. By default unzip queries before overwriting. the –a option is allowed. and the compilation date.Misc.g. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. just as they are stored (no conversions). Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. Note that under many operating systems. In addition to the normal header with release date and version. This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). be verbose or print diagnostic version info. uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. i. If the first option on the command line is –Z. When no zipfile is specified (that is. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). [OS/2. In addition. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites.. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. The names. ‘‘unzip –T \∗. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. –v lists archive files verbosely. along with totals for all files specified. The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. in order to support obsolescent hardware. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that. and the files are always extracted in binary format. the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. compressed size.. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. list archive files (short format). See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. test archive files.zip’’) and is much faster. This option performs the same function as the –f option. The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. the compiler and version used.

see above). and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. junk paths. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). Instead. the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". [Unix only. (On Tandem. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. the current one). Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. [Unix only. This is a shortcut for – – –a. converting line endings. –a is enabled by default. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. OS/2 HPFS. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. match filenames case-insensitively. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). convert text files. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.Misc. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’).g. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. (For example.. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. In addition. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. That is.g. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text.. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’. unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.42) 3 . The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms. it is replaced by the info from the extra field. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings.) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. just the file’s data. see the relevant options below). Inc. [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. 512-byte record format. [BeOS only] junk file attributes. In the example above. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). regardless of the supposed file type. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. or similar). –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. and NT supports Unicode.) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.

Misc. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. use the non-echoing. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages. (And where security is truly important. By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. (obsolete.##’’ version numbers are stripped. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines. interactive prompt to enter passwords. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. old MS-DOS FAT. skip extraction of all existing files. Inc. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5.##. conversion of unsupported characters. Also. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. in the format file. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. [OS/2. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. If a file already exists. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. ‘‘EA DATA. the extraction methods. VMS. overwrite existing files without prompting. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. however. overwrite all files. This is a dangerous option.). See –L above. By default the ‘‘.11. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. so use it with care. which stores filenotes as comments. Whenever possible. (It is often used with –f.. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. but this option allows them to be retained. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. VMS files can be stored with a version number. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. retain (VMS) file version numbers. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). etc. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. NT. or rename the current file. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. Unlike Unix more(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system.) may be stored as all-uppercase names.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter). the Enter/Return key. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation.) Depending on the archiver. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. on some systems. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. SF’’). Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. skip extraction of the current file. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. This can be awkward. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase.g. never overwrite existing files.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.42) 4 . and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. regardless of the originating file system. At the end of a screenful of output. unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). etc.ext. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. etc. this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. however.

as long as the user IDs match his or her own. To cancel both quiet flags. Inc. As suggested by the examples above. This can be done with any option. in effect.. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default. or security ACLs under Windows NT. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. make it match names case-insensitively. It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). however. NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. By default. UNZIP takes precedence. only reporting errors. During extraction. OS/2. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. –q.0). so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. but it is probably most useful with the –a. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.0. In most cases this will require special system privileges.Misc.] [MS-DOS. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. for example. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. but under Unix. a diskette). This may seem awkward or confusing.g. to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. considered to be just like any other command-line options. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. OS/2. –o. acting on the q option. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. –L. UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). –C. or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix.0 to 5. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. Unix. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent). Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness. To override an environment option. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. volume labels are ignored. For compatibility with zip(1L). For instance. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. make it quieter. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. and the second is a minus sign. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. For example. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character.42) 5 .

The correct password will always check out against the header. if a zipfile member is encrypted. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. As noted above. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters.. DOS PKZIP 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. since spring 2000. To check a version for crypt support. However. OS/2 and Win3. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted. but due to United States export restrictions. followed by the alternate one (e. If a password is not known.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. On EBCDIC systems. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. UnZip 5. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.42) 6 . This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. OEM code page) to test passwords. Windows PKZIP 2. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. Latin-1).04g uses the OEM code page. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US. See the description of –f above for details. and our source archives do now include full crypt code. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors.. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.zip. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters. US export restrictions have been liberated.g. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. If the first password fails the header check on some file. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. Inc. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. but at a cost in security. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. as noted above.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters. that’s not quite true. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). unzip will prompt for another password. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. (In fact.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel. entering a null password (that is. if both of these fail.Misc.g. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. and so on until all files are extracted. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly.

zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2. as in Unix. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗.zip "∗.: unzip –v In the last five examples. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source.zip or unzip –l––q file.zip (Note that the ‘‘.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1.zip or unzip –l–q file. Makefile.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file.zip’’ is generally not necessary. etc.) To extract to standard output all members of letters.h. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory.zip "∗.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source.f..zip whose names end in .Misc. whether decryption support was compiled in. ∗. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables.c. in fact. as in the source examples below.g. both ∗. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.42) 7 .1 or later contain no timezone information.C.c and ∗.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. ∗. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. Inc. regardless of case (e. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory.tex. something that is worth making a habit of doing.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file. being a lazy sort. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files. the compiler with which unzip was compiled.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on). double quotes could have been used instead.zip "∗. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’). and any makefile.

Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. except in conjunction with zip.) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted). there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. 51). where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. 50. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. Inc. no matching files were found. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. Processing probably failed immediately. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well.’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression.zip.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. one or more warning errors were encountered. scarier-looking things. (If even one file is successfully processed. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported. In addition. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. the disk is (or was) full during extraction. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. 9-11 and 80-82. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. but processing completed successfully anyway. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk. no errors or warnings detected.42) 8 . however. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). except under VMS: 0 1 normal. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. invalid options were specified on the command line. the exit status is 1. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.Misc.

NT). and David P. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. because directories only have a creation time associated with them. times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. zipinfo(1L). not always reproducible). In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). This is a limitation of the operating system. unzip’s query only allows skipping. See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes).. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.Misc.g. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. John Bush (Solaris. Windows 95. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). Harald Denker (Atari. requiring a reboot. Johnny Lee (MS-DOS.g. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given.42) 9 . MS-DOS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile. AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). Amiga). Mike White (Windows GUI. shared code. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. In addition. NT. zipnote(1L). Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. Fail?’’ message. This problem appears to be fixed. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. QNX. directories and symbolic (soft) links. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. zipcloak(1L). In fact. [VMS] When extracting to another directory.info-zip. The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). Under DEC Ultrix. This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). Retry. Mark Adler (decompression. VMS. Paul Kienitz (Amiga. unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. the old version is not overwritten or deleted. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. then overwrite just the directory entries (e. Smith. NT). Atari). older versions of unzip may hang the system. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. SEE ALSO funzip(1L). Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS).foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. Windows DLLs). Onno van der Linden (Zip). Windows 95). Hunter Goatley (VMS). fUnZip). Jean-loup Gailly (compression). it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. zip(1L).org/pub/infozip/ . [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version. Windows 95.dir syntax).. Dates. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version. as noted above. overwriting or renaming. zipgrep(1L). Chris Herborth (BeOS. The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. only the [. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). MVS). Inc. unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. nor are hard-linked files relinked. this may not be an issue anymore. Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS).

0 v5.41 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.0 v2. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR.11 v5.4 v5. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v3.Misc.42) 10 .1 v4.2 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v4. Smith Samuel H.3 v5. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.01 v5. Inc.31 v5.12 v5.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5.2 v2. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.1 v4. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.x v3.32 v5.1 v5.

ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed.Misc. Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. Despite this.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. . and an ending character. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). [ c h ] . but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v). For example. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. but none in any subdirectories. [–x xfile(s) . anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. Without the –x option. a hyphen. In particular. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. Among these are the usage (or help) screen. for example. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. . all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.42) 1 . . all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. however. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. By default. particularly under Unix and VMS. . Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. . the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. .) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. ranges are specified by a beginning character. Inc. ‘‘f o o s f x ∗.

) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). –n (never overwrite). See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options. –v and –Z) have been removed. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment.exe zip -A letters. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. Once again. –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction). OS/2.exe" zip -A letters.zip letters. EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. that is. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen). DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. –q (operate quietly). –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS.zip letters.zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters.exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters. See unzip(1L) for details.exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters. All normal listing options (–l.letters. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files). –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase). See unzip(1L) for details. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment). EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support.) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info). Amiga]).42) 2 . The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.Misc. NT. OS/2. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions.exe+letters. but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. that only adds to the size of the archive.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS. Alternatively.exe (The VMS append command may also be used. since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives.zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. –o (overwrite without prompting). –C (match names case-insenstively).exe.

unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. (For technically oriented users. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.42) 3 . As noted above. but other compilers may not). For some architectures there is limited portability. etc. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above). unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect.txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems.g. Atari TOS. e. Inc. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗. are also known to prepend junk. This is not necessary for simple extraction. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. MakeSFX. MacOS. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name.’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS. however (e. see the corresponding man page.txt To extract everything except the ∗. unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols.g. Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path. notably MacBinary. but the command to do so then becomes.txt files: letters -x ∗. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). however. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one.Misc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.. ‘‘can’t find myself. and therefore neither are the resulting archives. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. simple concatenation does not work. listing functions and extraction to other directories. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗.. as noted above). the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk. in order to create working selfextracting archives. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. or else a full or relative path must be given. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. Also. only stored and deflated files are supported.

zipgrep(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L). AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX.org/pub/infozip/ . zipinfo(1L). zipcloak(1L). Inc. zip(1L).info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. unzip(1L). zipnote(1L). or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors.42) 4 .info-zip. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.Misc. See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.

The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). The body consists of a number of lines. uudecode . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.tar. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. Inc. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. followed by encoded characters.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file . ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. 6 bits per character. followed by a number of body lines. the standard input) into the original form. uuencodes it and mails it to a user. Berkeley and its contributors. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. The character count is a single printing character. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. This line consists of one ASCII space. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. and a trailer line. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. and a string which names the remote file. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines. These consist of a character count. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. look like a header. of course. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer.. and represents an integer. When uudecode is run on the target system. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space).] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. the file ‘‘src_tree. Lines preceding a header must not. A space separates the three items in the header line. compresses it. tar cf . If the size is not a multiple of 3. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing..tar.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. NSH 1 . The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. followed by a newline. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes.

compress(1) NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1). Inc. uudecode (1).uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic.

Inc.version(1) Property of BladeLogic.0.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.0. SEE ALSO agentinfo(1).494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus.5. BladeLogic Network Shell 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server.5.2002 BladeLogic Inc. NSH 1 .

See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program. and no startup files or environment variables are read. it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. as if the command name was view. For the rest of this manual page. exactly as if the −s option had been specified. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. 1996 1 . the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. list the files that could be recovered. read the section after the options description. Run with the secure edit option set.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . if standard input is not a terminal. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. In the vi interface. however. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. Recover the specified files. . ex will read commands from it regardless. . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. or the readonly option was set. disallowing all access to external programs. Enter batch mode. This is the POSIX 1003. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . . nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs.2 interface for the historic “-” argument. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. .) Start editing in read-only mode. Start editing in ex mode. if no files are specified. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. Prompts. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. as if the command name were ex. It’s probably enough to get you going.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. entitled FAST STARTUP.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. Start editing in vi mode. or. . If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off. This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. BSD October 10. applicable only to ex edit sessions. This is the POSIX 1003. as if the command name was vi. . view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . Inc. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. vi. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file. Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page. In the ex interface. the session will be a batch mode session.

The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. i. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. i. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. Insert new text. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. There are commands that switch you into input mode. Append new text. e. and start entering text. Inc. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode.g. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.e. and move the cursor to its first character. To start editing a file. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. Move the cursor right one character. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. before the cursor. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. Generally. and start entering text. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. after the cursor. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed. too. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. 1996 2 . keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. Move the cursor up one line. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. It will also display error messages. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. vi is a screen editor. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. Move the cursor down one line. except for the last line of the screen. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. and for vi to give information to you. displaying part of the file on each screen line. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. O or o commands.

discarding any modifications that you may have made. Quit.e. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. In each entry below. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. vi will refuse to quit). Delete the character the cursor is on. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. Inc. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. 1996 3 . scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. but not saved your changes. Copy the line the cursor is on. leaving the current line and column as is.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. If count is not given. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. i. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. if possible. Delete the line the cursor is on. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word.

If the trailing character is a ‘-’. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. 1996 4 . 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. % Move to the matching character. if possible. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. leaving the current line and column as is. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen. Inc. the number is incremented. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. BSD October 10. without changing the current column. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. If count is not given. the number is decremented. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.

The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. [count] . Reverse find character count times. /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. [count] . “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Repeat the last character find count times.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. BSD October 10. Execute an ex command. 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. [count] . [count] A Enter input mode. If buffer is specified. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. Inc. If a count argument is given. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. If offset is specified. 1996 5 . respectively. count times. [count] ( Back up count sentences. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. appending the text after the end of the line. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. [count] J Join lines. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. If a count argument is given. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. [count] I Enter input mode. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. Inc. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. 1996 6 . the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. count times. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. [count] O Enter input mode. If a count argument is given. If a count argument is given. If buffer is specified. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. If buffer is specified. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If buffer is specified. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] R Enter input mode. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. through the current line for the character after the specified character. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. appending text in a new line above the current line. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. [count] G Move to line count. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. replacing the characters in the current line. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. or the default buffer if none is specified.

through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. count times. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. [count] a Enter input mode. If a count argument is given. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. [count] b Move backwards count words. appending the text after the cursor. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] o Enter input mode. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. If a count argument is given. count times. inserting the text before the cursor. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. BSD October 10. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. Inc. appending text in a new line under the current line. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] i Enter input mode. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If a count argument is given. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. [count] w Move forward count words. 1996 7 . [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. to the first non-blank character. u Undo the last change made to the file.

e. place the line count1 at the top of the screen. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. If count1 is given. . [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). display the screen before the current screen. 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. Otherwise. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. move to the start of the current line. 2 screens before ) . [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. If column is omitted. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. display the screen after the current screen. 1996 8 . VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. Otherwise. limit the screen size to count2 lines. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. BSD October 10.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If count2 is specified. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. Inc. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. and reset the autoindent level.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [range] >[> .] [count] [flags] Shift lines right. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. . Inc. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file. " A comment. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. display the line number of the last line in the file. 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. In each entry below. @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer. . 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode. BSD October 10. and return to command mode. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. If line is not specified. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. 1996 9 . the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. returning to command mode. 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. each preceded with its line number. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. or filter lines through a shell command. [range] <[< . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. . .

[range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. Foreground the specified screen. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. 1996 10 . screens or tags. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. vi only. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. Inc. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line. chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. Background the current screen. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. Cscope connections. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. he[lp] Display a help message. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. BSD October 10.

] [nooption . [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file.] Edit the next file from the argument list. rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. [Nn][ext][!] [file . res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. editor options and maps to the specified file. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions.. Inc. . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. 1996 11 . . [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list. . .] [option? . mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. sh[ell] Run a shell program. .. su[spend][!] BSD October 10. Grow or shrink the current screen. .] [all] Display or set editor options. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. se[t] [option[=[value]] . q[uit][!] End the editing session.

Inc. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. BSD October 10. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. Enter vi. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. writing the file if it has been modified. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. Delete an abbreviation. clearing the stack. their abbreviations and their default values. This section describes the options. 1996 12 . [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. Edit a new file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only.

the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. autoindent. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. Skip leading comments in shell. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. and do not have an associated value. Display the current line automatically. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. errorbells. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. Announce error messages with a bell. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.e. altwerase [off ] vi only. autowrite. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. directory. columns. 1996 13 .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. C and C++ language files. autoprint. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. Most of the options are boolean. they are either on or off. ap [on] ex only. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. bf [off ] Discard control characters. unless otherwise specified. edcompatible. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. eb [off ] ex only. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . beautify. Inc. comment [off ] vi only. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. exrc. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. BSD October 10. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. i. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. dir [environment variable TMPDIR.

matchtime [7] vi only. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. Set the number of lines in the screen. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. This option is not yet implemented. read or written. ignorecase. li [24] vi only. This option will never be implemented. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. Do left-right scrolling. lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. hardtabs. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. BSD October 10. number.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. modelines. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. Inc. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. This option currently has no effect. leftright [off ] vi only. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. instead of the default hexadecimal. 1996 14 . lisp [off ] vi only.

ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. readonly. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. shiftwidth. sm [off ] vi only. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. BSD October 10. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. the open and visual commands are disallowed. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. re [off ] vi only. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. sections. 1996 15 . shell. Display a command prompt. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. If this option is not set. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. scroll. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. optimize. opt [on] vi only. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. ruler [off ] vi only. prompt [on] ex only. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. redraw. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. This option is not yet implemented. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. showmatch. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. sh [environment variable SHELL. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. Inc. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved.

ttywerase [off ] vi only. taglength. term. w9600 [no default ] vi only. slowopen. Select an alternate erase algorithm. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. sidescroll [16] vi only. Display an error message for every error. w. ttytype. verbose [off ] vi only. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. window. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. tabstop. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. smd [off ] vi only. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. warn [on] ex only. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. timeout. wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. w1200 [no default ] vi only.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. tags. Inc. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. 1996 16 . This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. This option is not yet implemented. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. This option will never be implemented. before a ! command. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. w300 [no default ] vi only. It has no effect in this implementation.

The default is the type “unknown”. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. writeany. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands. the wrapmargin value is used. wrapmargin. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. 1996 17 . The user’s terminal type. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user.nexrc and $HOME/. FILES BSD October 10. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. The number of rows on the screen. wrapscan. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. wl [0] vi only. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. Break lines automatically. ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. The user’s home directory. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. Break lines automatically. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. wm [0] vi only. SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety.exrc files. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. If interrupted during text input. When an interrupt occurs. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. the wrapmargin value is used. Inc. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin.

vi/. First choice for user’s home directory startup file. The files autowrite.ex/. Temporary file directory. The default recovery file directory.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file.exrc . /usr/share/doc/usd/11. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. input.edit/.vi/vi. Second choice for local directory startup file. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003. quoting. Inc.exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. BSD October 10. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual". System-wide vi startup file.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code. HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.nexrc $HOME/.recover $HOME/. First choice for local directory startup file.nexrc . "Ex: A Tutorial". "Ex Reference Manual".viref/. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places.4 BSD.2”).summary. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. there are changes to be made on both sides. This document is the final reference for the ex editor. 1996 18 .exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1).2 (“POSIX. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". /usr/share/doc/usd/12. re_format(7) The default user shell. The "Vi Quick Reference" card.

If you do not specify a shell.. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. You can use NSH format to name the log files. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it. the vsh log file viewer.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. an autologout of NSH 1 . then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout).conf file to specify which shell vsh should start.conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry.conf file. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output.conf VSH. Inc. which is a shell of /bin/sh. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes. All of the above. Instead. may not properly understand the result. You can specify multiple log files. Log all terminal output. This file is located in share/vsh.]>[.<field=val[:val]>. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values.CONF The vsh.conf in the NSH installation directory. vsh will automatically terminate the session.. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file. You should create one log file per session. If you specify <nsh>.. vsh itself does not take any arguments. The vsh.. vshview.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool. You can configure the vsh. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes.conf file controls the behavior of vsh. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed.

%Y The year as a decimal number including the century.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. %b The abbreviated month name. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). %h Current host name. Inc. you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. which are expanded at run time. To do this. %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). %B The full month name. The following macros are supported. %u Current user name. %w The day of the week as a decimal. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23).vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99). %% A literal ‘%’ character. %A The full weekday name. and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). NSH 2 . Sunday being 0. ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1). %a The abbreviated weekday name. range 0 to 6. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). log file names should be unique for each vsh session.

Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 . Inc. Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. If a given file is a directory. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. login. logouttime. or pid. host. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached. Show terminal (stdout) output. Do not show any blank lines.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. Can be used with -0 and -2. logout. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . Output only those entries that happened before this date. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). only one minute granularity is available. Can be used with -1 and -2. Define a search expression (see below). Instead. shell. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. logintime. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. (Note that when using this option. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. In either case. There are two basic modes to vshview. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional.) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. (Note that when using this option. just output a summary of vsh sessions. Output only those entries that relate to user. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to.. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. you need to use the vshview utility. Output only those entries that happened on host. Therefore. shows a summary of login and logout activity.. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). To view the these log files. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.

NSH 2 .vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic. The second type are 8 bit characters. These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1). These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . Inc.| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + . The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31). Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence.} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters.

Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory. Provide a quick display with no counts. EXAMPLE In this example. Inc. Count nodes. vtree recursively descends into it. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory.0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . Place totals at the end. Provide a visual display. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. Show the current version. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case). /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> . Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Height of tree to examine.svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes.

Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef. NSH 2 . Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon." written by David S.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. You specified an unknown option. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Inc. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. wc will also output a total for all files. and characters.c 339 917 6051 file3. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . words. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings. Count the number of lines in the file.. Count the number of words in the file. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. wc uses the standard input. If you do not want counts for all of these things. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). The second example counts lines. the number of characters.. wc counts lines.c 449 1334 8491 file2. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon.c 347 945 6227 file1. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. If you do not specify any files.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. and characters of several source files. the number of words. words. words. Unable to get a license to use the software. With the P_ATT variable set. If you specify more than one file. OPTIONS By default.

zip.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. in which case it will write the zip file to standard output. For example. MSDOS. if foo. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 .04 or zip 2. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed.  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. OS/2. If the file list is specified as –@. Under UNIX. allowing zip to take input from another program. date. foo/file2.zip contains foo/file1. for archiving files. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line. with foo/file2 unchanged from before. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. unpacks zip archives.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . time of last modification. VMS. Atari and Macintosh. Note that PKUNZIP 1. along with information about the files (name. allowing the output to be piped to another program. . protection. then: z i p . Inc. Amiga and Acorn RISC OS. path. When given the name of an existing zip archive..Misc. in which case it will read the file from standard input. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.. For example: z i p . this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.r .]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. A companion program (unzip(1L)). For example: t a r c f . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zip version 2.04. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name.3) 1 . and check information to verify file integrity). The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP. After this. For a brief help on zip and unzip. You must use PKUNZIP 2. foo.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory. . and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive.3. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. and foo/file3. For example. zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it). and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3. Minix.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them. zipnote. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04g or unzip 5. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2. [ c h ] " . . to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d .zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. Windows NT. It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems). The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution.n a me " ∗. zipcloak.

Misc. Enter the comment followed by return. | zip . If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option.. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive. Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. updating) are done first. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. –c Add one-line comments for each file. and all of the files that end with . compressing standard input to standard output. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data. For example. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the extension . so that zip can see the asterisks. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp. or just return for no comment. File operations (adding. Inc. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk.zip is added. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. If the name already contains an extension other than . Adjust self-extracting executable archive. copying over stuff.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made. zip acts as a filter.o (in any path). zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format..zip to the current directory when done. tar cf .. This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. At present. For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.3) 2 . only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them.

Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.Misc. If the restoration fails. for example if it has only been truncated. [OS/2] Use the . Such files cannot be recovered. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". -i \∗. instead of creating a new one. The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. If this operation fails.3) 3 . A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. After the repair. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged. It is not guaranteed to work. Inc.c which will include only the files that end in . –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. so try this option first. as in: zip -r foo . When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. Resource-forks will be ignored at all. Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. –F Fix the zip archive. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. the archive might become corrupted. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. Under MSDOS. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. if standard error is not a tty.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. zip will exit with an error). Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. -u and -o options to work correctly. Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary.

By default the relative path will be stored. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not).gif:. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. .g. -i@include. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. By default. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS. the directory is also removed. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes. Strip any prepended data (e. This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error. actually. Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. and do not store directory names. zip will store the full path (relative to the current path).c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. this option adds an extra CR.Z:. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files.3) 4 . This is useful for conserving disk space.tiff.zip. For example.Z. to undo the effect of zip -l. Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. .lst. if you have SparkFS loaded.snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods). By default. For example: zip -rn . This option should not be used on binary files.Misc. but will store any files that end in . so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path). or . store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX). Inc.lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo. This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. Move the specified files into the zip archive. This option should not be used on binary files. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.tiff:. a SFX stub) from the archive.zip. zip will not consider Image files (eg. . but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. When used. Also possible: zip -r foo . If the input files already contain CR LF. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix. [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname).zip:.gif. The complete path including volume will be stored. Display the zip license.

By default.zip. Archives. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. and yyyy is the year. which are ignored otherwise." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended).3) 5 .Z:.zip:. CFS files and PackDir files).∗". OS/2. since that matches ". zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. where mm is the month (0-12). since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism. –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date.zip. Inc.arj. If -c is used also. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. all the files matching ∗.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) . all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n . use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.zip. including files with names starting with ". This can be used without any other operations. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. and yyyy is the year. In this case. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. if desired. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date. where mm is the month (0-12).zip.c’ In this case. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory. for example: zip -R foo ’∗. WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.arc:. dd is the day of the month (1-31).zip to the latest time of the entries in foo. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive.". you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.Misc.c –S [MSDOS.zoo:.zip" To attempt compression on all files.lzh:. to the zip archive infamy.gif:. dd is the day of the month (1-31). Such files are stored directly in the output archive.e. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). You should not use –r with the name ". [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. –N [Amiga. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991.

3) 6 . version. Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.zip into itself when you do this). The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution.zip. uid/gid and file times on Unix). to the zip archive infamy. Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. OS/2. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. and release date.lst which will include the contents of foo in foo. and D Z VAX/VMS). –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. When –v is the only command line argument. or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period. Inc.lst. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option.o which will include the contents of foo in foo. The default compression level is –6. OS version. –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. In addition to the help screen header with program name. If the check fails. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). ∧ on MSDOS. a diagnostic screen is printed. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. and stdout is not redirected to a file. Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive.Misc. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. Normally.o. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory. when applied to real operations. including multiple versions of files. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems. ignores the suffix list). (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file).zip while excluding all the files that end in . –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files). –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. Then. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2.

foo. To zip up an entire directory.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory. and harry. use the drive name as first file name.zip. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. without recording the directory name. If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space. to include these as well: zip stuff . as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff.zip. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. Inc. Only one filename per line. and the next two add to it. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. If foo contains the subdirectories tom. dick. containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory. in compressed form (the . OS/2. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option." are not included. and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). the last created archive is deleted. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. At the completion of each zip command. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). files starting with ". the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. [0–9]). unless that archive name given contains a dot already. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo.Misc. In this case. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. Take the list of input files from standard input.zip suffix is added automatically.3) 7 . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. making room for the next zip command to function. [MSDOS.

unzip(1L). some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. if present. gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. In general. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). no errors or warnings detected. The pattern matching includes the path. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. ?∗[]). unless this name matches one given with the –x option. it first looks for the name in the file system. on the list of files to be operated on. using the pattern matching characters described above.o".3) 8 . or does not match any name given with the –i option.e. and so patterns like \∗. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). it then adds it to the list of files to do. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do.Misc. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. Inc. For each match. or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes (""). or –d). In general. –f. If it finds it.o match names that end in ". no matter what the path prefix is. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. tar(1). unexpected end of zip file. by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. If it does not find it. Processing probably failed immediately. –u. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. shar(1L).

IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. the machine and operating system in use. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. copy. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign. and for accepting minor changes to the file format.3. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm).0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.10. Under VMS. which inspired this project. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. 2 (error) for the zip values 3. Byrne for his Shrink. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. and . zip cannot match some names. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo().ZIP filename extension.1 or PKZIP 1. and that this copyright notice is retained. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names. Under VMS. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ). The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. 9. BUGS zip 2.Pas program. and as much additional information as possible. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. 7. zip files produced by zip 2. Jean-loup Gailly. Onno van der Linden. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1. LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE.∗. Richard B. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. scarier-looking things. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. compression format.3) 9 . and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen.edu. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. Otherwise OS/2 1. Igor Mandrichenko. type "set file type block" on the Vax. John Bush and Paul Kienitz.3 must not be updated by zip 1. 6. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR.wku. 13. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally. you do not have to care about this problem. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS.3 and 2. On OS/2. However.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. that it is not sold for profit. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. Under OS/2. For bug reports. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. Inc.10. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. P. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format.Misc. 16. Kai Uwe Rommel. In both cases. 18. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ). and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. Wales.10. Use zip 1.

Inc.Misc. P. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm. Rodgers. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. to Keith Petersen. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. David Kirschbaum. C. Rich Wales. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. for getting us into this mess in the first place.3) 10 . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and most importantly.

unzip(1L).zip] [file(s) . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[. . zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function. SEE ALSO egrep(1). i n f o . AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly.] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. i nf o. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. . zip(1L).] [–x xfile(s) . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 .z i p . zipinfo(1L).z i p. Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). . funzip(1L). ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. zipnote(1L). or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ .Misc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. . zipcloak(1L). Inc.

version and operating system or file system of compressing program. . Only the filename can be a wildcard.zip] [file(s) . Again.zip] [file(s) . but allow headers (–h). list header line. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). just specify the . each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). . Identical to the –s output.32) 1 . This option excludes all others. a link to it). The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output. on some systems.] [–x xfile(s) . however. . As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio. and an ending character. encryption status. list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. one per line. It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. Such information includes file access permissions.] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. expressed as a percentage. This is the default behavior. see above. The archive name. see below. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. is also listed. and if that also fails. a hyphen. particularly under Unix and VMS. See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. ARGUMENTS file[. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. headers. the path itself cannot. If the file specification is a wildcard. actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. the suffix . ranges are specified by a beginning character. . list zipfile information in verbose. as well.Misc. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. . Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. . and the like. . trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. except that the compression factor. list filenames only. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. . If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. . type of compression.) If no matches are found. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. Inc. one per line.] [–x xfile(s) . [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. . multi-page format. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. z i p is appended. list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format.

e. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes. These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. At the end of a screenful of output. ‘l’. . ‘x’. and its name.1 fat 1. (2) is readable (always true).9 unx 2802 t. MS-DOS. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. The second character may also take on four values. (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. ‘X’. Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field. the values for the entire archive are given. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size. on some systems. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. but if the file is encrypted. list totals for files listed or for all files. . thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. and their overall compression factor is printed. Inc. their uncompressed and compressed total sizes. if the reverse. on the other hand. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. or. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1.0 hpf 1. The number of files listed. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. if there is an extended local header but no extra field. The example below.Misc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Also.com. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is).9 of zip. is not encrypted.. If neither exists. SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip.cmd and . and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. either of which may take on several values. Unlike Unix more(1).0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. and if both exist. . the Enter/Return key. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). Since it comes from Unix. which is presumably the case here.bat. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS).hpfs 4096 b. The fifth field consists of two characters.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms.R.btm files are assumed to be so). The case of the filename is respected.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file.32) 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. The default date format is a more standard. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. and Macintosh. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary.TXT. they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). respectively. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’.R 0. (3) is writable. that is also displayed as part of the filename.exe.hhmmss).macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). if only the totals line is being printed.

stor 21-Aug-91 5 files.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain.rw. which can override or add to either of the above. and defX. defN.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format. shrinking. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five.def compressed: 63.. the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used. defF. environment options. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive. and (7) is a system file. imploding.rw. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees).2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1. both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. re:1. one or more file(s) are provided. Inc. 1.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . Macintosh resource forks. yet Unix-like.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811....0 hpf 3710 b. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly. re:2. The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression.rw. 1.0 hpf 95 b. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.2660 In this example.0 hpf 8753 b.) Nevertheless. (6) is hidden. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly. maximum compression). (Try not to laugh.0% The header line gives the name of the archive. In addition. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes. fast. and defS. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage. 1. 13386 bytes uncompressed. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. If.stor 21-Aug-91 . There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression). manner. instead: -rw-rws--1. etc. tokenizing (never publicly released).rw. if any. 1. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields.0 hpf 98 b. etc. Finally. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size. 1. i8:3.os2 15:29 os2unzip.0 hpf 730 b. OS/2 extended attributes.. and deflating. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1. its total size. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor.def 17:51 zipinfo. and four levels of deflating (superfast. i4:2. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile... the header and trailer lines are not listed. The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory. In addition to individual file information.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. normal. which can override or add to the defaults.134804 perms.i8:3 26-Jun-92 .Misc. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. In brief.c 15:34 unzip. however. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info. the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second. and explicit options given by the user. their total uncompressed size. and so on.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . shrk.32) 3 .2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times.rw. reducing. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. there is some underlying logic.5 unx 2802 t. and the total number of files. the trailer gives the number of files listed.zip 5453 bytes 5 files . tokn. VMS filesystem info.

For compatibility with zip(1L). unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. includes headers and footers by default. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. so the –s option was sufficient. override any default listing of member files. as noted above. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). The first hyphen is the regular switch character. but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign.zip. To turn off the totals line by default. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. like –m and –l. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. EXAMPLES To get a basic. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. unless otherwise specified. Nothing was indicated about the header. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. when used by themselves or with each other. however. as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. in addition. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1). This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e.g. use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full.Misc. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing.32) 4 . however. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l. Inc. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined. use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. in this example. long-format listing (not verbose). since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). ZIPINFO takes precedence. only the header and/or footer are printed. including header and totals lines. As suggested above. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). the user dislikes the trailer line. short-format listing of the first example again. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Note that both the –h and –t options. with both header and totals lines.

This assumes the default short-listing format.c The specification of any member file. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. if –m or –l is used. BUGS As with unzip. will override the default header and totals lines. in medium format. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. unzipsfx(1L). For multiple files. the proper sort(1) option would be +7. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. (This is not to say that it will be. as noted above. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order. use the verbose option. zipnote(1L). Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. copy/rename the executable. on other systems. and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i. funzip(1L). It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Inc. In addition. zip(1L). This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. the seventh field). as in this example. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp.org/pub/infozip/ . create a link or create a command file with the name ii).e. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed.32) 5 .[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive.info-zip. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix.info-zip.Misc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive. AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. unzip(1L). zipcloak(1L). to see the most recently modified files in the archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink.. use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well.) SEE ALSO ls(1). it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size.

These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date.org>.zsh. Inc. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.dk>. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.uni–trier.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4. Of the standard shells.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp.cenatls. shell functions (with autoloading). This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.zsh.0. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.zsh.zsh.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp. Zsh has command line editing. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.org>. builtin spelling correction. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.cs. and a host of other features.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp.cena. 2001 1 .cs.hu instead of the primary site.org>.dgac.ips.fu–berlin. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections.gov. programmable command completion.gmd.elte.elte.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh.funet.4 Last change: October 26.elte.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite.cs. a history mechanism.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp.

<zsh–workers@sunsite.nisiq.roedu.unina.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.ne.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.net/pub/mirrors/ftp. zsh 4.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.org.liu. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.0. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp.il/pub/zsh/ http://www.net.technion.dk> Announcements about releases.lut. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers. development.rge.ac. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.edu.ac.lysator.uiuc.math.ac.dk> User discussions.zsh.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.uit.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.4 Last change: October 26. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.technion.siol.dk> Hacking. bug reports and patches.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.win.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite.math.zsh.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.kappa.icm. 2001 2 .com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad. To subscribe or unsubscribe.kfki.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite. Inc.

rather than being used as a positional parameter. but takes a following string as the option name.auc. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list.sunsite.org>. Inc. the first one is assigned to $0.zsh.org/FAQ/. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. zsh 4. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp.dk>.org>. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. So. Options may be specified by name using the –o option. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. for example. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. There is also a hypertext archive. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. ‘– –option–name’. or at http://www. If any further arguments are given. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. Unlike other option syntaxes. and thus ignored. It is intended to complement the manual.unix. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given.org>. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above. Like other option syntaxes. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input. see zshoptions(1).org/mla/. hierographic. send mail to <listmaster@zsh.0.zsh. When this is done.dk/Guide/. of SunSITE Denmark.zsh. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o.org>. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh. For example.4 Last change: October 26.org>. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’.org>. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. –o acts like a single–letter option. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. Force shell to be interactive. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). At the time of writing. The mailing lists are archived. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. For further options. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. Force shell to read commands from the standard input. available at http://www. 2001 3 . zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists.org/. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. or downright mystifying (for example. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on.

which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). NO_BG_NICE. path. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell. manpath. POSIX_BUILTINS. PROMPT2. prompt. mailpath. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively.4 Last change: October 26. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. NO_NOTIFY. PROMPT. the shell becomes restricted. fpath. cdpath. RM_STAR_SILENT. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. EGID. NO_HUP. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. module_path. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. SHELL. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. Firstly. argv. PROMPT3. more precisely. KSH_ARRAYS. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. psvar. status. fignore. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. GLOB_SUBST. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. command substitution. NO_EQUALS. Secondly. watch. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). NO_MULTIOS. SH_WORD_SPLIT. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). GID. 2001 4 . HISTCHARS. USERNAME. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. EUID. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. UID. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. SH_GLOB. NO_NOMATCH. MANPATH. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. Option processing may be finished. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. PROMPT_BANG. then exits successfully. NO_BANG_HIST. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. HISTSIZE.profile. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. Furthermore. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. then exits successfully. MODULE_PATH. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. path. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. ‘– –help’ is also handled. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts.0. Also. PROMPT4. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. LOCAL_OPTIONS. HISTFILE. Inc. in two ways.

However. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh. In particular. HOME is used instead.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file. while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. the logout files are not read. If ZDOTDIR is unset. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS.4 Last change: October 26. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). this cannot be overridden. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands. 2001 5 . it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]].zprofile. Inc.. If the shell is a login shell.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. If one of the options is unset at any point. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. i.zshenv. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv. if the shell is interactive. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory.zshrc. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. then .0. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the .’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. Finally. When a login shell exits.zlogin are read. any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. the former affects all startup files. no history file will be saved. zsh 4.e. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. depending on the installation. Then. the compiled file will be used instead. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. it is important that it be kept as small as possible.. if the shell is a login shell. the files $ZDOTDIR/.

or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. For example. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’.0. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. A pipeline is either a simple command. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell. are arguments to the command. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. zsh 4. More generally. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word. with optional redirections interspersed. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. Inc. A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero. or ‘&!’. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. For example. The first word is the command to be executed. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. ‘&’. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(.)’ or ‘{. which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next. the value of the sublist is that return value. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. For example.’ or newline. echo foo is a simple command with arguments. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines. A sublist is either a single pipeline. If job control is active.. which will alter how the command is interpreted. it is executed as a coprocess. The value of a simple command is its exit status. For example. ‘&’.4 Last change: October 26.}’. If it does not.’. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. 2001 1 . the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. including the complex commands below. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever. Where commands are separated by ‘’. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value).User Commands Property of BladeLogic... where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero). ‘&!’. if any. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal.. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. ‘&’. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. or a newline. If a command name is given. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background). the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist. and the remaining words.

2001 2 . for name [ in word .. for (( [expr1] .. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. or else standard input. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command. the else list is executed. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). select name [ in word . to terminate the words. the following list is also executed. Expand the list of words. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. executing list each time. zsh 4. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. Print the set of words.. It has no effect in non–interactive shells.0. if any. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation.4 Last change: October 26..& rather than . Inc. If the in word is omitted.. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words... rather than a shell function or external command.. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. which must evaluate to a number n. as it is interpreted immediately. Otherwise. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string... the value of the parameter name is set to null.. the selection list is printed again. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] . If the in word is omitted. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status. the then list is executed. or the esac is reached. the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. use the positional parameters. If this line is empty. The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. the then list is executed. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or . ) list (. and if it returns a zero exit status. and set the parameter name to each of them in turn. [expr2] . rather than a shell function or builtin. each preceded by a number. before any parsing is done.. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. use the positional parameters instead of the words. This continues until either a list is terminated with . then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command.&) ] . exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking. If each elif list returns nonzero. The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero... list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. If the list that is executed is terminated with . list is then executed n times.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. If any expression is omitted. nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words. [ else list ] fi The if list is executed.. Otherwise.

. if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word... () [ term ] { list } word . function word . Execute list.4 Last change: October 26. ]]’ or ‘(( . for name [ in word . the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case.. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works.. for (( [expr1] . These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. If pipeline is omitted. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. otherwise. () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or . 2001 3 . and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter.. For the for.. but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. zsh 4. The body of the function is the list between the { and }. See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. repeat. while and until commands. ) sublist A short form of for.. ))’. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary. See the section ‘Functions’. print statistics about the shell process and its children. only one word is provided.0.. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word . [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited... Normally. The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set. time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed... such as by ‘[[ . Another short form of for. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’.. else the end of the test will not be recognized. For the if.. [expr2] . ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms. since the test is not suitably delimited. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells. Inc.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell. for name ( word ... [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . \foo. A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command). All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. Inc. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. parameter and command substitution occur. ‘" ’. If so. if an alias is defined for the word foo. ) list end Another form of for. but one single quote if it is set. or if the alias is global. QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. until list { list } An alternative form of until. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it.. But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. Therefore.. e. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. A short form of select. ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. For example. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin.4 Last change: October 26. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above.. } An alternative form of case. a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . If the text ends with a space. zsh 4. while list { list } An alternative form of while. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word.&) ] . ) list (. repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat. Inside double quotes (" " ).. 2001 4 . Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or ... or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set. A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. ‘‘’. and ‘$’.g.. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored..0. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’..

Otherwise.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it is truncated to zero length. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. This is known as a here–string. and the CLOBBER option is unset. this causes an error.0. or to an end–of–file. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. called a here–document. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. even if CLOBBER is unset.4 Last change: October 26. >> word >>! word Same as >>. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. even if CLOBBER is unset. and the CLOBBER option is unset. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. otherwise. parameter and command substitution occurs. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. 2001 5 . ‘$’. If the file exists. except that the file is created if it does not exist. If <<– is used. otherwise. Inc. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. > word >! word Same as >. If the file does not exist then it is created. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. zsh 4. this causes an error. ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. If the file does not exist.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. No parameter expansion. becomes the standard input. Otherwise. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). If the file does not exist then it is created. The resulting document. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. the file is created.

you can do ∗’. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. provided the MULTIOS option is set. provided the MULTIOS option is set. If one of the above is preceded by a digit. assuming there’s at least one. fname). >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. (Without the MULTIOS option. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files.4 Last change: October 26. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. Inc. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor. similar to tee.. similar to cat. If the order of redirections were reversed. If the MULTIOS option is set. 2001 6 ..ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). and also pipes it to cat. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. For example: . named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’. file) association at the time of evaluation.0. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. thus zsh 4. as it is by default. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1.

the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. an error is caused. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. Thus to define functions for autoloading. Otherwise. the builtin is invoked. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments. and write ‘foo’ into baz.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. If the MULTIOS option is unset. If the search is unsuccessful. but no command name. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. 2001 7 . then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. Such a function has no body. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. When the function is first executed. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. with paging if that is a terminal. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). Shell functions are read in and stored internally.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. all files redirected to are actually opened. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program.0. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. zsh can behave in several ways. Inc. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh.4 Last change: October 26. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. If there exists a shell function by that name. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. Otherwise. and the file is not a directory. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. However. it is assumed to be a shell script. the shell attempts to locate it. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel.

there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. which is executed in the context of the function execution. but may also perform initialization. In summary. and a call to the shell function. Inc. second. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used.zwc extension (i. as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter.. taken to be the definition for function. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. the function itself is not re–executed. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. which is expected to contain the definition for function. the extension was explicitly given by the user).}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. Otherwise. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined.e. the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). zsh 4. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. within a directory. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set.zwc A file created with zcompile. the shell looks for three possible files. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file. } print func is initialized then ‘func. and third. element/function. including any arguments. the file’s contents will be executed. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen. the order of searching is.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command. the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element. If the definition is not found.. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 . but those are neither loaded nor executed.. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. first. a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function.zwc file is created. in fact. and may therefore define local parameters.0. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call.4 Last change: October 26. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. For example. If element already includes a . and the other message on the second and subsequent calls.. 2001 8 . This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. at the end. It may include other function definitions as well. element/function A file of zsh command text. This will normally define the function in question. For each element in fpath. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined.

and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. zsh 4. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result. However. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. precmd Executed before each prompt.. otherwise it is an empty string. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. For example. Inc. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath. if defined. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. just before a prompt. because all comments are discarded from defined functions. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. In fact.. 2001 9 . periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set.4 Last change: October 26. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided).0. preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed.. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’. TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command. If a function of this form is defined and null. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions.. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function.

putting it in the background with the bg command. If you set this tty option. zsh 4. %– Previous job. and print another prompt. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. You can then manipulate the state of this job. %string Any job whose command line begins with string.4 Last change: October 26. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. rather than in their own function environment. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. whose process ID was 1234. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. If the NOTIFY option is not set. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. then that job is immediately disowned.0. printed by the jobs command. %% Current job. 2001 10 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’. The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. and is not subject to the job control features described here. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. nor when it is continued with bg. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. and assigns them small integer numbers. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. it does not have a place in the job table. After startup. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. It keeps a table of current jobs.

where it acquires the output base 8. Otherwise. the precision is at least 8 bytes. either using the builtin let. For integers. and then ‘8#40 16#20’.. If you do this or immediately try to exit again. require quoting. for example. the last encountered is used. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended." ’. as well as spaces. If the # is doubled.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let.4 Last change: October 26. then no base prefix is output. the rightmost value in the given output base. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used.0. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. the suspended jobs will be terminated. if the HUP option is set. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. For example.))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. Inc. the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. Integers can be in bases other than 10.)). To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. for example ‘[#16]’. 2001 11 . each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’.. Since many of the arithmetic operators.. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active.. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on. or via a substitution of the form $((. More precisely. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments.. each is evaluated separately. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. ‘((. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted.. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. The base# may also be omitted. in which case base 10 is used. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available. for example ‘[##16]’. the shell will not warn you a second time. zsh 4. This can be tested. if the number appears unchanged.

where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions. ‘’. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. ‘∧ ‘%’. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. Likewise. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. but its use is deprecated. differing only in their output format. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. there are two types. {pre. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’. zsh 4. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. For example. modulus (remainder) +– addition. precedence. In addition. 2001 12 .0. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. ‘&’. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. OR. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. i.e. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. ‘&&=’. ‘<<’. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format. ‘’. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. and associativity of expressions in C. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. floating point argument. complement. and XOR operators. logical NOT.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin.post}{in.4 Last change: October 26. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. as it will be taken for a parameter name. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. but the exponent character e or E may not. as described for the typeset builtin. division.

in the loop for (( f = 0. then the current process has permission to search in the directory. –o option true if option named option is on. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process.1 )).4 Last change: October 26. true if file exists and is a character special file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. true if file exists and is a block special file. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. Inc. true if file exists and is a regular file. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. true if file exists and is readable by current process. true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. f < 1. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process. so that the loop will fail. 2001 13 . For example. true if file exists and is executable by current process. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. option may be a single character. This can have unforeseen consequences. true if file exists and is a directory. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. true if file exists.0’. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case. true if file exists and is a symbolic link. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. in which case it is a single letter option name. true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. zsh 4.0. If file exists and is a directory. f += 0. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero.

but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word.0. see zshexpn(1). exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. string and pattern arguments. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. similar to the effect of double quotes. exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. where n is an integer. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. 2001 14 . zsh 4. However. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory. In each of the above expressions. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. true if exp is false. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n.

command substitution and arithmetic expansion. Present working directory ($PWD). If it starts with $HOME. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. 2001 15 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. Current time of day. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. $USERNAME. As %d and %/. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists.4 Last change: October 26. the message ‘File exists. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number.0. A negative integer specifies leading components. zsh 4. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. %–1d specifies the first component. The hostname up to the first ‘. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show. With a negative integer.. %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. with seconds. The full machine hostname. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’. The current value of $SHLVL. For example.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. zero means the whole path. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. Inc. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion.e. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. if the complete condition is true. i. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin. Current history event number. Current time of day in 24–hour format. and if so. in 12–hour. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded. If an integer follows the ‘%’.. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. trailing components of the hostname are shown. in 24–hour format. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. See zshexpn(1).’ is printed. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set.’. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. am/pm format.)). but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. A ‘)’.

which defaults to zero. ˜ / C t True if the current path. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. with prefix replacement. The line number currently being executed in the script. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt. whichever was started most recently.1e capabilities are supported.. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter.#. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The test character x may be any of the following: c . An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. See strftime(3) for more details. The status of the parser. %E %# %v %{. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. 2001 16 .%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. %(x. or shell function given by %N. a ‘%’ if not. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. is that either the effective user ID is zero. The definition of ‘privileged’.0. This separator may not appear in the true–text. Negative integers count from the end of the array. has at least n elements. including further ternary expressions. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’. The character following the x is arbitrary. If there is none.true–text. Clears to end of line. Equivalent to ‘%(!. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. zero means the full path. sourced file. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences.e. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. Inc. zsh 4. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors. i. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. The date in mm/dd/yy format. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. sourced file. except as part of a %–escape sequence. The date in day–dd format. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. Brace pairs can nest.%%)’. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function. A negative integer specifies leading components. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. or.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. The date in yy–mm–dd format. for these purposes. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. or shell function that zsh is currently executing.4 Last change: October 26.. if POSIX.

In particular. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). a truncation with argument zero (e. which ever comes first.g. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’. ‘>’ or ‘]’). x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated.. 2001 17 . True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). respectively.. For example. or in fact any character. True if the exit status of the last command was n. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. note this does not undergo prompt expansion.4 Last change: October 26.<%/’ will expand to ‘. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. however. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. deprecated. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i. the prompt ’%10<. True if the array psvar has at least n elements.. tilde contraction is performed first.. For example. followed by a space. zsh 4.0. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory.e/pike’. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’." ’. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. %c %. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct... True if at least n shell constructs were started. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. i. note when using print –P. True if the shell is running with privileges. In this string. Unless ‘%C’ is used. Without the ‘%<<’. True if the effective gid of the current process is n. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’. True if the day of the month is equal to n. the terminating character (‘<’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n.e. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. the prompt ‘%8<. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/.e. The third. completely replacing the truncated string. it will appear in full. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. The numeric argument. %C Trailing component of $PWD.

However. 2001 1 . HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. Inc. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter. Double quotes will not work for this. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). no history expansion occurs. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. After these expansions. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. is always done last. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. respectively. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells.4 Last change: October 26. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. if neither of these designators is present. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1). Immediately before execution. Filename Generation This expansion. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. which is ‘!’ by default. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. The one most recent command is always retained in any case.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. commonly referred to as globbing. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. Conversely. and may occur anywhere on the command line. each command is saved in the history list. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. For example. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. it refers to the previous command. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. history expansions do not nest. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. if it is the only history reference in a command. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. By default. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number.

. replacing the string foo with bar. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. The nth argument. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words. except where noted. ! Start a history expansion. 1. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). The first argument. Anything else results in an error. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. More precisely. Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. x defaults to 0.. By itself. Inc. That is. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). zsh 4. newline. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. respectively. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. each preceded by a ‘:’. except when followed by a blank. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. Refer to the previous command. ‘=’ or ‘(’. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. Word designators include: ’. All the arguments. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. although the error may not be the most obvious one. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. A range of words. In the list below. this expansion repeats the previous command. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. ‘∧ ’. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. The last argument. you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. Refer to the current command–line minus n. Refer to command–line n. ∗’. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search.0. Refer to the most recent command starting with str. !# !{.4 Last change: October 26.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. Modifiers After the optional word designator. 2001 2 . or a null value if there are none.

the closing delimiter should be ’)’. The character ‘&’. Like q. see above. leaving the tail. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. with no colon between. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. otherwise. leaving the head. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Convert the words to all lowercase. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. The following f. if ‘(’.0. Convert the words to all uppercase. or ‘}’. ‘[’. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). respectively. but character strings. Print the new command but do not execute it. Quote the substituted words. Substitute r for l as described below.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. In the case of the < or > forms. Unless preceded immediately by a g. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. Does not work with parameter expansion. For example. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. the command argument will be a named pipe. ‘]’. Remove all leading pathname components. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. If < is used. 2001 3 . Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. this applies to each word of the expanded text. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. This works like ‘basename’. Inc. For arrays and for filename generation. Repeat the previous s substitution. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. escaping further substitutions. Remove all but the extension. opening parentheses are handled specially. in the right–hand–side r. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion.xxx’. may be preceded immediately by a g. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. leaving the root name. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. This works like ‘dirname’. Like s. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. but break into words at whitespace. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. F. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. F:expr: Like f.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. Only works with history expansion. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. the shell runs process list asynchronously. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’.

the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. associative arrays. pastes the results together. including arrays. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. If name is an array parameter. and arithmetic expansion. unconditionally set name to word. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. Note that these patterns. In addition to the following operations. In the second case. Inc. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. Otherwise. otherwise substitute word. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. If name is missing. then the value of each element of name is substituted. if any. In both cases. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. ${name:?word} zsh 4. all of which work with or without braces. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. 2001 4 . so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. the expansion results in one word only. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. in the second form. of the parameter name is substituted.0. the value of the parameter is then substituted. one element per word. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. exceptions. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. ${name} The value. In the former case. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. ‘˜’. with KSH_ARRAYS. In addition. In both forms. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. substitute word. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. this is the first element of an array. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. If = is used. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. digit. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set.4 Last change: October 26. command substitution. the name. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. if the programme does not actually open the file. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name.

foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. the largest matching pattern is preferred. a quoted backslash). print word and exit from the shell. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. E and N are not useful. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. however. just substitute the value of name. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. In the first form. In the first form. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. in the second form. B. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. The repl may be an empty string. in the second form.0. just substitute the value of name. Inc. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. 2001 5 . If word is omitted. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. In the first case. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). otherwise. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. even at the start. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. otherwise. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. the flags M. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. the second form all occurrences. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. otherwise. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon.. In the following expressions. while in the second ∗e case. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. the largest matching pattern is preferred.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in which case it must match at the end of the string. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. For example.4 Last change: October 26. R. ${#spec} zsh 4. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. then substitute the empty string. otherwise substitute nothing. just substitute the value of name. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. or ‘%’. otherwise. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name.e. then a standard message is printed. then the shell only checks whether name is set. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. not whether its value is null.

each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion.. When this option is set... In double quotes. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes. turn it off. 2001 6 . Internally. if the ‘∧ is doubled. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo).$var[2]. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1].. When this option is set. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar.} type parameter expression or a $(... below.}’ or ‘${. for example. E. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’). ‘${. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted.. This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag.}’. Create an array parameter with ‘${. the repetitions need not be consecutive..:=. and ‘˜’. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4.g. Inc. one surrounding the whole expression. using IFS as a delimiter. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name... In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. The form with $(.... but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec. ’.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’..} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1)..) is often useful in combination with the flags described next. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. If a ${... E. create an associative array parameter. if the ‘˜’ is doubled.. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted.g. s or z flags.. Assignment is made before sorting or padding. for example. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below.=. array elements are put into separate words. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’).. for example.}’.0... turn it ’ off.. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’. This is done by default in most other shells.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.}. there are two sets of quotes. turn it off. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags. see the examples below.::=. if the ‘=’ is doubled.. Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT. If this flag is given twice. which still applies within each array element. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" .. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined.4 Last change: October 26. Each name or nested ${. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec. substitute the number of elements of the result. If spec is an array expression. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options.

the words are quoted in double quotes. If it is given four times. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. For example. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). Sort the resulting words in descending order. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words. not to words that result from field splitting. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. Inc.. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. With o or O. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. count the total number of characters in an array. ‘array’. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. If name refers to an associative array. the strings ${(P)foo}. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. whose value will be used where appropriate. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. when creating an associative array. Split the result of the expansion to lines. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. Capitalize the resulting words. ${(P)${foo}}. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. If this flag is given twice. ‘float’ or ‘association’. Quote the resulting words with backslashes.0.}’ to activate field splitting. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). Perform parameter expansion. 2001 7 . Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. it can be one of ‘scalar’. sort case–independently. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. However. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. ‘integer’. Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements.4 Last change: October 26. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4.

Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide.. either with the S flag...User Commands Property of BladeLogic..... Any character.. i.//.. With ${#name}.... the starting position for the match moves zsh 4. specifies non–greedy matching.4 Last change: October 26. ‘{. Note that this is done very late.%%. or with ${. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.>’.. With substitution via ${. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number). ‘[..e..}’. The default is to take the first match. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible.. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter.. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word.%.. Without the flag they are silently ignored....} and ${.)’. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument. or ‘<.. or the matching pairs ‘(. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’./.... S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends..... The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string.. With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported. as for the ‘(s)’ flag.. This only applies when searching for substrings.. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left./. So to access single words in the result..%. Used with subscripts. count words in arrays or strings..} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted).} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${. Likewise. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced. i. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters.} or ${.... The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given. force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys. If both string1 and string2 are given. With the ${..} forms.. s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string.//. to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’./. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element..}. Used with k..} forms.e.} or ${.#. before padding. 2001 8 . with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words. taking into account any quoting in the value. r:expr::string1::string2: As l...]’. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.0. The following flags are meaningful with the ${.} forms. Inc.. Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below.

Include the length of the match in the result. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution. 3. Some particular examples are given below. that is used for joining instead of $IFS.e. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript..} forms are present. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. but ${var[2. 2.e.. but in reverse order. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. Include the matched portion in the result. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’. zsh 4.}. ${. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array.. but not to " ${${foo[2.. As with 2. Note that.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. Subscripts are evaluated left to right. 5. Note that ${foo[2. i.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value. the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. 4. If the (j) flag is present. 2001 9 . while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. ‘witch’. Inc. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’. multiple subscripts can appear. and the substitution appears in double quotes. for example.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. is applied. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions. such as ${var[3]}. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes. 1. Any number of subscripts may appear. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. by default a space.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’.0. Thus if var is an array.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. possibly adjusted for quoting. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. At each level. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}. ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word.

. ‘1’..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’.fill. or the same inside double quotes.. If a single word is not required. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. which divides the file up by words. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’. ‘b’ and ‘1’.fill. or 9. ${=var}). This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" ... Modifiers Any modifiers. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none.4 Last change: October 26. The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. ‘%’. Note this step. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. which makes the entire content of the file a single string. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines. and joining did not take place at step 4. 10. 2001 10 . or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string. 11. For example. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present. The outer substitution " ${. this rule is skipped. 7. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner.0.[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. which has no array (@) flag. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b. Inc. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining.)’ flags is applied. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6.)’ or ‘(r. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. In this case. too. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. 12.[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. zsh 4. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). First. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value. are applied to the words of the value at this level. 8. produces a single word result " bar baz" . or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8.. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :.. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’.g. 9. as specified by a trailing ‘#’. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. The outer substitution " ${(@).

unless the BRACE_CCL option is set. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign.)’. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. then the word up to a ‘/’. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’.. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. In particular. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space). in the manner of a search set. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally.zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. like ‘$(. Left–to–right order is preserved. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width. In that case. ‘ b’ and ‘’. If so. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. the output is eligible for filename generation. respectively. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms.. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. is replaced with its standard output. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. 2001 11 . is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order. with any trailing newlines deleted. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. The final empty string will then be elided. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word. or quoted with grave accents.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory.. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. which is joined to give " ax bx" . BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. Inc. In either case. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack.‘’. A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match.. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes.4 Last change: October 26. where n1 and n2 are integers.0. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. If either number begins with a zero. The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. If it does. like ‘‘.yy. An expression of the form ‘{n1. zsh 4. it is left unchanged.n2}’. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. and then split to give ‘a’. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack.. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated. This construct may be nested. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. as it is not in double quotes.

‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace.’ are not treated specially.]. except when the directory is / itself. it is regarded as ∗’. inclusive. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command.. also. the word is replaced with the text of the alias. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. in which case the word is left unchanged. ‘’. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. in which case the word is deleted. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. If so. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. [. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set. the shell gives an error message. 2001 12 . the [. or unless the NOMATCH option is unset.’.g. ‘<’. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. In filename generation. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’.0. the EQUALS option is also respected. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment.. ‘[’. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. or ‘?’. Matches any character.’ or ‘.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.] form is more efficient. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character. the ‘=’. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion. for instance). ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. Inc. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set.] [!. including the null string. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. Matches any of the enclosed characters.. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. unless the GLOB option is unset.. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix. In other instances of pattern matching. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. If no matching pattern is found. Like [.. If an alias exists by that name. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter. zsh 4..] [∧ . then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory.. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set. In this case.. To match individual digits. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’.. the ‘/’ and ‘. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon). any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. a pattern for filename generation. a ‘. when the shell prints a path. These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. There are also several named classes of characters. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number.4 Last change: October 26. e.. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3). Named character sets can be used alongside other types. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set.. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. If a command exists by that name.

x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set. 2001 13 . ‘[. a ‘/’ is not special.e. but the ‘(’ must be. or a parenthesised expression). (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘.. a character....) Match any number of occurrences. (Like ‘(. In the exclusion pattern (y). (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.) Matches anything except the pattern x. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.. rather than ‘(12)##’. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’. with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i. simply treated from left to right as part of a string. ‘˜’. @(.. foo/any/anyother/bar.... while a ‘’ must do so.. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. (Like ‘(.))’. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’... so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’..)’.’ except ‘. The ∗’. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. If the KSH_GLOB option is set. As mentioned above. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses. ‘/’ and ‘. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. foo/any/bar.0. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially.)’.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x. or ‘!’. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. ‘<...]’.. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string.]]’). for example. a pattern already followed by ‘##’. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’).’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match.. ∗’ (.’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.>’. zsh 4.. This operator has lower precedence than any other...) !(. ‘?’. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example. rather than ‘(12)#’. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way. then a ‘@’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form.) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y.) Match at least one occurrence./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead.. this includes an empty string.) Matches the enclosed pattern.. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects.) +(. This is a trap for the unwary. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit.. in case statements and tests within ‘[[. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern.. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation)..) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x. ‘?’ ∗’. Inc.)#’. ‘∗ ‘+’. ‘∗ ‘+’. ‘’ (lowest).) Match zero or one occurrence. as detailed below.) ∗ ∗(.) Match the pattern in the parentheses. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y. This operator has high precedence. For example. (Like ‘(.. (Like ‘(∧ (. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.. and the ‘∗ will match any others. and so on. the remaining operators are ’.) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. This operator has high precedence.4 Last change: October 26. This is used for grouping.)##’.) ?(. (Like ‘(. to avoid interpretation as a pipeline.

Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups.e. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. this does not work in filename generation.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. as otherwise the string matched is obvious. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. zsh 4. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1].4 Last change: October 26. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation. The parameters $MATCH. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. not local to a group. and so on. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. For example. such as ${param//pat/repl}. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. i. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. and the indices of the end in the array $mend. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. and the start and end indices are set to –1. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern. respectively. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. although sets of parentheses may be nested. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. only the data for the last match remains available. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option.0. Inc. See the example for the m flag below. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. or a global substitution. 2001 14 . B m Deactivate backreferences.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. such as ${array#pattern}. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern.

When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. since all the ? must match. as in banana and abnana. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). at/end/test. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. but not strings of length two. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. For example. all vowels) into uppercase. as with the pattern road and target string rod. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. as with stove and strove. zsh 4. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. Unlike the other flags.. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately). which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. 3. M anum s. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. these have only a local effect. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. Similarly. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. hence no references to match data will be created. ∗’ test/at/start. Four types of error are recognised: 1.0. but not by (#l)FOOXX. there is no speed penalty for using match references. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. is potentially slow. Transposition of characters. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. match anywhere except at the start of the string. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. Finally. For example. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. e Deactivate the m flag.e. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. as in fooxbar and fooybar. An extra character appearing in the target string. Different characters. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters.e. i. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. Unlike backreferences.. Approximate Matching When matching approximately. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. Another use is in parameter substitution. in/test/middle. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. 4. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. 2001 15 ..4 Last change: October 26. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. 2. and all slashes in filenames.] groups. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). Inc. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba.. A character missing in the target string. Thus. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once.

however.4 Last change: October 26. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. For example. where approximation is turned off. which may not occur in the dog section. This form does not follow symbolic links. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. for example. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. Inc. and this can be delimited by grouping. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. However. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. bling the parentheses. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. Apart from exclusions. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. 2001 16 . As a shorthand. so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. Thus. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers.0. however. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1).ME but not READ_ME. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. there is only one overall error count. in that case. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded.

‘s’. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. zsh 4. or a octal digit. which overrides the value of REPLY.4 Last change: October 26. those of the group are checked. Inc. the bits in the number must not be set. If set to an array. respectively. In addition. ‘{’. ‘g’. and ‘>’ respectively. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. those for the owner of the file are used.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘}’. and ‘>’. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). or a ‘–’. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. and execute permission. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. or a ‘–’. write. estring The string will be executed as shell code. if combined with a ‘=’. with a ‘+’. while any other character matches itself. ‘[’. if a ‘g’ is given. and ‘t’. ‘w’ for write access. ‘o’. and for which other group members have no rights. a ‘+’. ‘+’. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. ‘{’. If a ‘u’ is given. and ‘a’. 2001 17 . ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. ‘x’. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’.0. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. The ‘=’. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. independent of the permissions for other users. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. and with a ‘–’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. ‘}’. Thus. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. If none of these characters is given. followed by a ‘=’. ‘w’. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. a ‘+’.

or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago. weeks.g. Inc. if l they are sorted by the number of links. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames. 2001 18 . ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. i. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. ‘}’. respectively. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. if a. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. if not. and ‘>’ respectively. or exactly n bytes in length. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. Note that a.g. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). ‘m’ (‘M’). ‘{’. more than n bytes (+). ‘w’. megabytes. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. hence the first name in the list is the youngest file. hours. if d. modification. like ‘o’. ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. For instance. m. or inode change respectively.e.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line.4 Last change: October 26. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. Note the quotation marks. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e.0. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files. except that it uses the file inode change time. greater than ct (+). ‘h’. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. minutes or seconds instead of days. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. and c compare the age against the current time. m. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. Oc zsh 4. but sorts in descending order. except that it uses the file modification time. ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’.g. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). and the user ID of this user will be taken (e.

h.3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files.h. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). affect all matches generated.c and parse. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. ‘o’.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot. ‘N’. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed. Inc. Some qualifiers. ‘T’. ‘n’.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. zsh 4. independent of the sublist in which they are given.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. These are the qualifiers ‘M’.4 Last change: October 26. parse. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex.g. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file.. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse). 2001 19 . Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’.]’). More than one of these lists can be combined. separated by commas.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list. and ls ∗ ∗(W.[ch](∧ l1) ∗.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1.c. ‘D’. lex. E. ignoring symlinks. however..)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp.0. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory.

‘?’. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute. it is replaced by a new array. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply.. The ∗’. However. In the parameter lists that follow. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’.. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. value may be a scalar (a string). See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name.0. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. and they stay special even if unset.) If no parameter name exists. an array (indexed numerically). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. The elements are numbered beginning with 1. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value . 2001 1 .) Every key must have a value in this case. an ordinary array parameter is created.. Note that this assigns to the entire array. Special parameters cannot have their type changed. and a number of attributes.. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. or ‘!’. ‘$’. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.. ‘–’. name=(value . The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays.. To refer to the value of a parameter.. the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. the braced form is the only one that works. an integer. is set for name. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero.. name=(key value . To declare the type of a parameter. A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. use the typeset builtin. –i. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. To create an empty array (including associative arrays).. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set.))’.. a value. ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. write one of: set –A name value .4 Last change: October 26. ‘#’. indexed by name). Inc. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details.

in no particular order. as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. and ‘$foo[1. Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators. zsh 4. If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array. inclusive.. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys. there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. Arrays do not nest. 2001 2 . (Associative arrays are unordered. For example.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??. i. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters. For associative arrays.. (This is not supported for associative arrays.. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). with elements separated by newlines. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array. then ‘echo $FOO[2. assign ‘()’ to that element. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] .5]’ prints ‘ooba’. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given." ’. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis.(r)f∗ are possible. but see Subscript Flags below). if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. To delete an element of an associative array. To delete an element of an ordinary array. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. respectively). The default word separator is whitespace. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys).4 Last change: October 26. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. and so do not support ranges. if it is a scalar.e. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag. Inc. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number. this means the value of the key ‘0’. See Subscript Parsing below for details. The subscript used is the number of the matching element.0. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. say –n. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. or the comma in a range.. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead.’. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given.

and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. ‘R’. R i Like ‘r’. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. this behaves like ‘r’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). This flag is ignored when the array is associative.4 Last change: October 26. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. Therefore. gives all possible matches. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. etc. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. but gives the last match. For associative arrays. word. because of the standard shell quoting rules. ‘R’. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values.0. and the first matching key found is the result. Like ‘i’. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. For associative arrays. ‘i’. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. behaves like ‘r’. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. If used on another type of parameter. zsh 4. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). However. ‘R’. or character (if expr evaluates to n). However. makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. but gives the index of the last match. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. For associative arrays. 2001 3 . this may not be combined with a second argument. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. If used in a subscript on an associative array. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’). However. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. for example. ‘i’ or ‘I’. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. but not for assigning to associative arrays. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. but gives the index of the match instead. Inc. so the rules have two important differences. flags). ‘i’ or ‘I’. Like ‘r’. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. On the left side of an assignment.

it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript.) The typeset builtin.5]’. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. shell script. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off).. or the shell itself. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. For complex patterns. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. The parameter n. etc. they are removed only once. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment. but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. by assigning to the argv array. rather than as a pattern. Note that. see the section ‘Invocation’. parentheses. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. a subscript expression. That is. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. zsh 4. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes.4 Last change: October 26. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. etc. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value .)’ is allowed. and its alternative forms declare. thus ‘$argv[n]’. and also the section ‘Functions’. local and readonly (but not export). (Parameters are dynamically scoped. As in true double–quoting. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. is the nth positional parameter. brackets. the subscript is a plain string in that case. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. Inc. because the positional parameters form an array.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. positional parameters. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed.. to refer to the value of that key. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’.. because then the backslashes. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. In a reverse subscript. Therefore. second. integer. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. from the innermost subscript outwards. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. for example. 2001 4 . are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed..) One final note. This has two effects: first. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. ‘${2[3. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. where n is a number. but ‘$2[3. backslashes are interpreted twice. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern.0.

If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters.) However. the sequence ‘$#–. even when argv is not set.v. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. q. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden. status <S> <Z> Same as ?. CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. In particular. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function. you may change the zsh 4. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. The name used to invoke the current shell. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities. Inc. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. (That is. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). If you have sufficient privileges.. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. assigning to a non–existent parameter. An array containing the positional parameters. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute. as determined at run time. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). but argv is not itself a local ∗. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands.0. The number of positional parameters in decimal. parameter. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Also. 2001 5 .. Special parameters may also be made local. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. or declaring a new parameter with export. the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process.4 Last change: October 26. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends.

GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). Inc. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). whichever was started most recently. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. If you have sufficient privileges. zsh 4. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. command)’ HOST The current hostname. 2001 6 . If this parameter is assigned a value. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. OSTYPE The operating system.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. or shell function being executed. OLDPWD The previous working directory. PWD The present working directory.4 Last change: October 26. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. as determined at compile time. If you have sufficient privileges. LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment. as determined at compile time. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. sourced file. Also (assuming sufficient privileges).

for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. as determined at compile time. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started.0. it will be truncated zsh 4. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. If you have sufficient privileges. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. ARGV0 If exported. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. If the stack gets larger than this. they retain their special properties when recreated. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. such as path and PATH. If you have sufficient privileges.g. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. in this case. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. 2001 7 . Inc. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session.4 Last change: October 26. These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. and not the modem. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. if any. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. signals An array containing the names of the signals. e.

LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting.0. However. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). than these files are completed anyway. that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. in hundredths of seconds. This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option. (Deprecated. HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. ’). The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). the history is not saved. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. If unset. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. Any characters from the set space. then it is read and executed in the current environment. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. newline and NUL). tab. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. 2001 8 . setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. Inc. If an executable file is found. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism.

usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. The default message is ‘You have new mail’.4 Last change: October 26. Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. change this to :. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session.) For security reasons. unset this parameter. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. For csh–like behavior. Inc. and vice versa. since setting it also sets MANPATH. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. however. Defaults to cat. If the value is negative.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. When this parameter is set. The manpath array can be useful. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. For sh/ksh behavior. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. LISTMAX In the line editor. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command. the number of matches to list without asking first. If set to zero. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. The message will undergo parameter expansion. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element.0. This is initialized to a standard pathname. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. 2001 9 . It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal.

It is expanded in the same way as PS1. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. 2001 10 . the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. Defaults to more. The default is ‘?# ’.0. Inc. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. and vice versa. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. PS2. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. the default is ‘%m%# ’. PS3 and PS4. In sh or ksh emulation. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. printed before a command is read. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. All other prompt escapes are also allowed. respectively. The default is ‘%_> ’. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. but for array values rather than strings. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable.4 Last change: October 26. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. reply As REPLY. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. the default is ‘+ ’.

Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. these will not be local to the command. ‘TERM=$TERM’). Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’.e. The line (tty) the user is logged in on. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’. An entry in this list may consist of a username. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it. The name of this job. zsh 4. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. if a login/logout event matches all of them. If there is a trap on SIGALRM.g. the whole name is printed. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. then all login/logout events are reported. 2001 11 . Elapsed time in seconds. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. it is reported.0. This is used when looking up termcap sequences. even if the value does not change (e. This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. as if it were not suspended. The hostname up to the first ‘. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. CPU seconds spent in user mode. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. The observed action. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. The full hostname of the remote host. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry. "logged on" or "logged off". TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. If it contains the single word ‘all’. computed as (%U+%S)/%E. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname. i.’. If no trap is set. zsh terminates.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). The CPU percentage.

if not $HOME. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. for example. in 12–hour.4 Last change: October 26. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. The character following the x is arbitrary. the entire expression is omitted in this case. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. in 24–hour format. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. am/pm format. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. or it may be ‘a’. If the result is ‘true’. If ‘false’. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). but both separators must be present in any case. ZBEEP If set. Either or both of the branches may be empty. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. this gives a string of characters. ‘n’. Ternary expressions may be nested. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. 2001 12 . and the false–text is skipped. Inc. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option. which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead).0. zsh 4.zshrc. The time. ‘m’ or ‘M’. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed. etc).

the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. 2001 1 . ‘unsetopt’. Inc. <K>. Similarly. setopt and unsetopt builtins. <S>. Some options also have one or more single letter names. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. For example. ‘noexec’. sh. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). When listing options (by ‘setopt’. ALL_EXPORT (–a. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’.0. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. Thus. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. and the command is the name of a directory. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’.4 Last change: October 26. rather than overwrite it. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. zsh 4. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. perform the cd command to that directory. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. <Z> as appropriate. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. those set by default only in csh. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. trailing whitespace will be ignored. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. For example. and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). ksh. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. This inversion can only be done once. in the order they are killed. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. and a full completion is inserted. That is. or with the set. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases.

the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. If AUTO_MENU is set.’. 2001 2 . if it contains no ‘’. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. This option is set by default. csh–style. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. (If this option is unset. the pattern will be left unchanged. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. print an error message. (Otherwise.). BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. C_BASES zsh 4. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. remove the slash. Inc. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. the automatically added character is deleted. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. treating the character ‘!’ specially. etc. ‘:’.4 Last change: October 26. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. a slash. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand).0. automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession.

with it set. else such jobs will be killed automatically. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. and does not begin with a slash. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. it changes to /alt.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. Inc... ‘foo/. Without this option. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed.’ is the first part of the path. defaulting to the previous command. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. i.’ is used. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Without this option set. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . and ‘>>’ to create files. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory.. try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’). nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal. a ‘. CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line..0. COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted.’ would be removed from the path. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default).’ changes to /foo. done’. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. For example. end’ instead of ‘do list. instead resolve the path to the physical directory. ‘cd /foo/bar/.. or if ‘.e. CLOBBER (+C. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. 2001 3 .. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS.4 Last change: October 26. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory.

delete the pattern from the argument list. float. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. EXEC (+n. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. if set. If the option is unset. 2001 4 . zsh 4. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. GLOB (+F. In double–quoted strings. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion. but not executed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. execute the ZERR trap. etc. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. integer. unescaped newlines will cause an error message.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the