BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6.160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. the CSV file includes a header line. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts.3. You can turn off the header line with the -H option.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format.. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. Put a space between each host name.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host. Do not output a header.0.P. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading. With no arguments. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message. If the current directory is on the local host.0.. agentinfo displays a message to that effect. hostname The names or I. by design. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading. By default. List one host per line.3.P. nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6.P.160 NSH 1 .4.160 solarishost SunOS 5.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. Inc. use either the ncpu or nover commands. SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname .8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that. Put a space between each host name. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. You can also specify the names or I.0.3.

Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5. version(1) NSH 2 .3.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6.0. nover (1). SEE ALSO ncpu (1).160 windowshost WindowsNT 5.

Inc. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 .autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic.dat file.. Debug output. If you do not include any of these four options. -c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information.. regardless of their license status. do not use this option.. License hosts that are currently un-licensed. and then download the generated license. List one host per line. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. Apply the licenses with the putlic command. Login to the BladeLogic support website. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing. host1 . License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. In most cases. autolic processes all the hosts you specify. upload the license file created by the getlic command.. You can specify more than one option. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license.

If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic.com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy. by a firewall). ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH).mycompany.mycompany. putlic(NSH). Inc. do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. NSH 2 . then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. based on the your current customer/prospect status.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy. the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type. If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example. the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy. Instead.conf (from the NSH install directory). Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic. For autolic to function properly. you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent). agentinfo(NSH).

. DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . see the section on variables below). nawk . The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. print |. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. while $0 refers to the entire line. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit. after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords. or by the value of RS. a logical AND (‘&&’). awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. or ‘while’ statement. Inc. process creation (cmd | getline. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . -safe Disable file output (print >. The fields are denoted $1. ‘for’. a missing pattern always matches. An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. If FS is null. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. a logical OR (‘||’). The file name ‘-’ means the standard input.. This is convenient when working with multi-line records. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. Normally. the input line is split into one field per character.. not a filename. Additionally. Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘.’). An action is a sequence of statements. any number of blanks separate fields. -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. $2.. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line.. expression. Set debug level to n. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator. If RS is null. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement. an open brace (‘()’). Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line.. print >>). any number of -v options may be present. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS).. The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename. or by the regular expression FS. or 1 if n is not specified. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern.. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’.

any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr. in this case. and terminated by the output record separator. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file. Multiple subscripts such as [i. An empty expression-list stands for $0... Inc. and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match). assignable.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [. . using the operators ˜ and !˜. not necessarily numeric. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace). assignable. a relational expression.. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement . The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present). this allows for a form of associative memory. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma. or a Boolean combination of these. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern.) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C.. Argument array. non-null members are taken as filenames.k] are permitted. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. the constituents are concatenated.+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. Array subscripts may be any string. array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line.j.. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)). and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). open next. expr. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. String constants are quoted "". Variables are initialized to the null string. /re/ is a constant regular expression.. Variables may be scalars. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. A conditional is an arithmetic expression. The operators ! ++ -. separated by the current output field separator. newlines or right braces. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these).. Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second.

Return x truncated to an integer value. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. the time of day is used instead. Output record separator (default newline). where x is in radians. If expr is omitted. Inc. such that 0<=n<1. Regular expression used to separate fields.6g"). FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. subscripts are names. Ordinal number of the current record. FILENAME The name of the current input file. String Functions gsub(r. also settable by option -F fs. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function. index(s. FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. Return the exponential of x. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. or 0 if it does not. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034). Input record separator (default newline). t. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. Return the sine of x. NSH 3 . srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. Return a random number. Return the natural logarithm of x. Output format for numbers (default "%. Return the square root of x. n. input/output and general. where x is in radians. Output field separator (default blank). Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%.6g"). string. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. gsub() returns the number of replacements. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. ENVIRON Array of environment variables.

according to the printf(3) format fmt. If n is omitted. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. or 0 if it does not. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’). a. the variables $0 and NF are set. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. m. 0 for end of file. This form of getline sets the variables NF. t... The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found.. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. 0 for end of file. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. getline returns 1 for a successful input. and -1 for an error. and FNR. it is opened. . . As long as the stream remains open. a[n] and returns n. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. and -1 for an error. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. sub(r. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. sub() returns the number of replacements. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. If file is not open. fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. Otherwise var is set. or of $0 if no argument is given. As long as the stream remains open. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. If s is not given. If var is omitted. sprintf(fmt.. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s. An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character.. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file. If the stream is not open. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. the variables $0 and NF are set. NR. Inc. . expr.. substr(s. toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents.) The string resulting from formatting expr. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic.. it is opened. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. Otherwise var is set. a[2]. NSH 4 . or -1 if no match is found. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). $0 is used. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. If var is omitted. getline returns 1 for a successful input. split(s. cat(1) match(s. The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close().

Aho. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is". W. 1988. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar. B. b.. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. Parameters are local to the function. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1..[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. V. sed(1). s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. i < ARGC. Inc. copy. lex(1). with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ". functions may be called recursively. Weinberger. " average is". J. printf(1). s. Kernighan. and by reference if array name. $1 } Same. i++) printf "%s ". $1 } Add up first column. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. ISBN 0-201-07981-X.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. modify. HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. printf(3) A. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. c) { . the syntax is worse. Addison-Wesley. and P. all other variables are global. The AWK Programming Language..

INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. DATA OR PROFITS. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. written prior permission. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 . ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific.

Once a certificate is created on a client. Inc. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. On UNIX. id. id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X.509 certificate in a file named id. such as /home/johnk.pem. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key.bladelogic.Property of BladeLogic.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. NSH 1 . In Windows. the user is prompted for a private key password. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.

bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. the system prompts for a user ID. If you do not use this option. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. After you provide this information. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. After entering your user information. Inc. Inc. NSH 1 . Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. and role. When you run bl_srp_agent.

Using the information you provide. Using that session credential. a Kerberos TGT). and trusted certificates. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable. which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. To use blcred on a client machine.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles. To log into a BladeLogic system. session credentials. Configuration Manager.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you are using SRP authentication. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles. you must also provide a user name and password. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. you must provide an authentication profile and other information. add. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. or Network Shell Proxy Server. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. and trusted certificates. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified. Application Server. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles.xml NSH 1 . a BladeLogic client application (i. session credentials. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. The utility lets you show. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service. Network Shell. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. Inc.e. Provisioning Manager.. And.509 certificates. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. and delete authentication profiles. you must have Operations Manager installed.

conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. If the username option is present. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile. the user is prompted for a user name and password.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore.pkcs12 for Windows. To acquire a session credential. If a name is not specified. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. Default trust keystores are unique per user.509 certificates. Inc.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. destination service URLs.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. Default credential caches are unique per user. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified.conf file. and service ticket. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. authentication type. NSH 2 . including the client IP address. When selecting an SRP profile. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. If an authentication profile name is not specified. issuing service URL. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. which holds trusted X.dat) using the -i parameter. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. the user is prompted for a name. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters.bladelogic/client_keystore. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. and expiration time of session credentials. If the time option is present. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES. the default keystore file is used. Alternatively.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings\<Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user. the default credential cache file is used.

In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. Named authentication profile did not exist. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter. Users are prompted for omitted information. The -all parameter deletes all certificates. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. NSH 3 . The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. and -type parameters. such as -acquire -profile profile_name. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. cache contained credential with desired properties. Inc. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. cert –list Lists all X. The profile name. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p).509 certificates in the trusted certificate store.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. -host. Cached credential did not match named authentication profile. Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. Additionally. Authentication Service. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option. cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c).

blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. CR. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr . An expression consists of operands and operators.. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 .d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I. It takes all of its arguments as input. If you do not specify any arguments.. OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators.mm 0xABC a. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. then creates and evaluates an expression. TAB. Inc. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function.b. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn. You can use whitespaces (SPACE.c. It prints the result to stdout. DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator.P. LF) as optional operand/operator separators.

1. 5. it returns 0 (false). then blexpr returns an appropriate error value. then proceeds with the operation. . 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . arg2. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types.14").blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail. 4)’ 2. The supported functions are: average (arg1. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. min_val. and floating point numbers. 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. 3. Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world"). then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. arg1. with the resulting value also being a floating point value. If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point.. Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3.. 2. with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. Inc. 3.5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. blexpr adds the arguments. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1. 7. If it is. 2. .. decimal numbers. If the argument is a string. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer. then divides by the number of arguments.. In the case of the three numeric types.14)’ 12 equals_any (val.) Return the average of all arguments given. 3. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. If the string is not a recognizable numeric value.5") * 2. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero). blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value.

The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote. NSH 3 .P. 14. 10.20. false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val.9s". Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format. Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val. true_val. The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles. $FIRSTNAME.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[. Inc.30. 27)’ 14 printf (format. If val is true. otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3"). Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12. $LASTNAME)’ Name = -. The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970). The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I. it returns true_val.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP". address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional ... "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME".40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n".%s %s --\n". args .m].) sprintf (format. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. args .) Both these functions generate a formatted output.. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME".. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -.

If you supply a value that is not a string. You define the name of the variable with string. "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". The optional format arguments specifies output format. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). val) strstr can be used in one of two ways. you should use the respective macros supported by the call.30.’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable.20. If you do not specify a format. strlen returns a length of 0. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. Inc. 6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. Once you have created a variable this way. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date. Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . $IP).blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. and you define the value of the variable with expr. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. $IP. Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP.40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string.

id. Inc. Inc. such as /home/johnk. id. the user is prompted for a private key password. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X.pem. On UNIX. In Windows. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. Once a certificate is created on a client.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. NSH 1 .509 certificate in a file named id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked.bladelogic.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic.

e. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed. COMMAND_OPTIONS." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. [TARGET]. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing.Property of BladeLogic.. as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host.g... If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status.. the status displays as "Unknown. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host.g... This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent". [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile... e. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman. Inc. and TARGETS NSH 1 .. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries. [TARGET]. or "Unknown. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS. "Inconsistent".. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks.

The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. e. the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp".mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp".log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. Inc.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke.Property of BladeLogic. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 . The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.g.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list. Exercising the p option. As a result. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data).

log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. Inc. Inc.Property of BladeLogic.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 .

There are six primary functions provided by bllogman.. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS... traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.... logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 .Property of BladeLogic. Use only when copying a signature file. DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].. and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. COMMAND_OPTIONS. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. Inc. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. logman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file. [TARGET].. [TARGET]... bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution..

logfile Full path to local log file. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host. You can request the status of all the log files on a host." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with.log. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file.1." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. you must have the corresponding signature file. Note: All files needed for this command should be local. this option returns a status as "Unknown. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd.1" does not already exist. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log NSH 2 ." assuming "rscd. and private key file on the local host. "Inconsistent". This command is intended to be used for client side verification. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed. Inc. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. To execute this command.Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. certificate file.log" to "rscd. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found. or "Unknown.log. For example. Use only when rotating a signature file. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent". If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host. or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status.

sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd.log. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 . Inc.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd.0 release. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.pem All files need to be on the local host. Inc.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.log. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.log.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd.3.log.

Inc. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. NSH 1 .Property of BladeLogic. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. In addition to specifying host names on the command line. otherwise it returns 0. If file is a .. To create comment lines.then blquery reads input from stdin. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. output only the resulting value. Expression to run against the given hosts. and the subsequent escaping thereof. If you do not specify a host name. To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file. Instead. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link.. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. otherwise it returns 0.. You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). or against any number of remote servers. just omit any server names. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. A file containing the expression you want to run. blquery will query the local server. hostN The hosts you want to query. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout. Do not include the hostname as part of the output. otherwise it returns 0. To query the local host. If you specify server names. blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 .. host1 . See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers.

If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. and bundles. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1.Property of BladeLogic. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. otherwise it returns 0. patches. they mostly support the general concept of software installations. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. Inc. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. NSH 2 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path.

Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. which does not support patches. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. The NSH 3 . These functions take an expression as their argument. Bundles exist only on HPUX machines.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. with the exception of Linux. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with. patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server. Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. so the values are not guaranteed to be set.Property of BladeLogic. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2.

Property of BladeLogic. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field). patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. show_date (DATE. if (DATE <= 0. Not all software has a version number.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n". Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2.blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s . you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions. Example: $ cat patch. Because these functions scan through all entries. $ blquery solaris8 -E patch.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". To do this. you can also use them for reporting.7-8 .The standard CrackLib dictionaries.blq NSH 4 .7-8 . Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software. NAME)’). In this case. By using these functions. "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr. these functions return a zero length string. these functions may still have a universal appeal. Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. DESCRIPTION.blq cracklib-2. include the printf call inside of the given expression. making it seem like two different patches are installed. "Unknown install date". patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number. NAME.A password-checking library.

NSH 5 . The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile. This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. As its second parameter.. The skip parameter is optional. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. "$5 = $HOME && printf (\"%s\n\". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files. $N for each respective field in the current record. For Windows systems. The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile. If you omit the expression. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". Inc. The expr argument is optional. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. $0)"). skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. The first record/field is 0. The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. $1 .Property of BladeLogic. it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". For UNIX and Linux systems. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. the function returns the total number of records.. expr. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record. expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. "/"). If you use it.

0) = $CUSTDB)"). then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. config_record_number ($INI. record. Inc. "$5 = \"/usr/bin\"")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". records occur in a config file in no particular order. $RECORD. "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd". In many cases. field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from. "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. config_record_number ($PASSWD. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. 0. 0)’ bin NSH 6 . 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". "$5 = $USRBIN").Property of BladeLogic. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI.

Property of BladeLogic. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. the following dynamic variable are supported. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. Inc. then the record does not have a parent record. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument. $RECORD. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. but ones that do include Windows . HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. On its own this function has limited value. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. record.BNI". Details are included below. If the function returns a negative number (-1). and returns the value of field field. 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts. FULLNAME The configured name of the user. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. config_record_number ($INI. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. Although config files are generally treated as flat files. The numeric UID of the user. Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 . record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. Not all config files have a hierarchy. COMMENT The comment associated with the user account.

\"Normal Account\"). On Windows systems. If the local account does not exist it returns 0. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. Inc. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. expr. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. \"Super User Account\". This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (\"%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n\". If the date and time is not known this value is 0. accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. On Windows systems. . On Windows systems. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. NAME. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type. LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. UID)").Property of BladeLogic. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . If the date and time is not known this value is 0.

On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. On Windows. that field is returned. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. If the user does not exist. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. If the user does not exist. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. Inc. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. the function returns an error message.Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. When it is set. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. On Windows. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. that field is returned. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. the function returns an error message. the function refers to a start script. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message.

".5.8.7. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. administrator.6.3. For Windows.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs. Inc. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. The default separator is a SPACE character. the function returns an error message. For Windows systems. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs.9. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0. The default separator is a SPACE character. and guest. normal. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user.")’ 1. There are three types of possible accounts: . To display the date of last login in human readable form. the function returns 0. If the user does not exist.Property of BladeLogic. or 3. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. with respective return values of 1. use the show_date () function.2.0. For UNIX systems. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". 2. these are inherent attributes of a user account. If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. otherwise it returns 0.4. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. Otherwise it is a normal account.

GID)’). Inc. If the local account does not exist it returns 0.blq printf ("Group GID\n"). sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. printf ("-----------------\n"). $ cat showgroups. The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group. Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values. group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n". The numeric GID of the user. The default separator is a SPACE character. .blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. NAME. group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user. Example: NSH 11 . the following dynamic variables are supported.Property of BladeLogic. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account.

uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group. and returns the I. address in the standard 4 octet notation. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.")’ root.P.30. you can use the following dynamic variables.30.255. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.40\"")’ 255.P. All of these functions take an expression as an argument. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = \"10. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.255. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp". Within these expressions. The adapter’s I. IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 10. Inc. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr.20.20.*\"")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.20.0 NSH 12 .30. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr.Property of BladeLogic. ". This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = \"10. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation.

net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0. "100 Mb".30. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. "10 Mb". 1. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr. Example: $ cat speed. The return value is a 64 bit integer. If you do not specify expr. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. NSH 13 .30. 2. the function matches all adapters. if ($FLAGS & 64.40\"")’ 10. if ($FLAGS & 32. "Half Duplex". This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. The return value is a 64 bit integer. "Auto"))). Inc. 4.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = \"hme0\"")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.20. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. The interface is running in full duplex mode.20. "Full Duplex". and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr. "NA"))). Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = \"10. "1Gb".blq set_variable ("FLAGS". The interface is running in half duplex mode.Property of BladeLogic.255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec).

Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n").11.4. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host.0. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways. The wrapper functions are described first. On Windows. On Linux.8 linux: 7. Inc.0 hme0 10.0 hpux11: B.0. On AIX.2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. the function returns the kernel release number. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).0. Other platforms.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host. SUBNET)’).1 win2k: 5. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information.20. the function returns the maintenance release.Property of BladeLogic.255. NAME. $ blquery solaris8 -E adapters.0.255.21. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". the function returns the Service Pack. IP.101 255. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 .blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127. followed by the generic functions.1 255.

Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 .4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS. Inc.0800 win2k: 0.9100 win2k: 0.Property of BladeLogic.5100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.0300 win2k: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS. Not all systems return a value.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system.

"/C". "NET". Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command. ntop_value (type. "DF". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Some columns have a two word name. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. the first line of output consists of the column names.Property of BladeLogic. expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". NSH 16 . "/C". "/C". "STATS". "OVER". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". Check the individual ntop commands for more details. column. "/C". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). use the first word of the name to identify the column. In this case.3800 linux: 0.8000 win2k: 0. Inc. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition.2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data.

0890 # # For each server. the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. If the expression is a numeric. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as. the function returns the field value of the first record. expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr. $HOSTNAME. the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER".1480 linux2: 0. "DF" and "PS"). "MOUNTED = \"/usr\"")’ linux: 0. the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). If the function does not find any matching records.3800 ntop_sum (type.0560 linux3: 0.Property of BladeLogic. "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0. If you specify an expression as a string. Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above). the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access. "MEM". "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. column. "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. You may use column names to construct the expression. a value of -1 means the last record). Inc.0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example. ntop_sum ("DF".1f MB". "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME". the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. it returns a value of -1. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). Example: # # For each server. If you do not specify an expression.1200 linux: 0.2 MB NSH 17 . The first record is 0.0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911. "CAPACITY". "FREE") / 1024.

All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated.6% ntop_record_count (type.0 MB ntop_average (type.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7. If expr is not given. $HOSTNAME. Inc. otherwise it returns 0. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. within an expression string. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE"). for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE". Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. you need to escape it. column. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101.Property of BladeLogic.8 MB 36208. ntop_average ("DF". Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4. "COMMAND = \"*java*\"")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example. Therefore. expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values.1f%%".4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 . then it return the total number of entries.

REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. There are no NSH 19 . REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. int. string. REG_BINARY. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. Inc. REG_LINK. REG_SZ. etc. otherwise it returns 0. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Lsa\\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples).Property of BladeLogic. The supported types are: REG_DWORD. and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value.) depends on the registry value type. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\\\SOFTWARE\\\\INTEL\\\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example.

or "DISABLED". it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values.exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0. DESCRIPTION Description of service.Property of BladeLogic. "MANUAL". WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. "*\\mysqld-nt. Account name service is run as. One of "BOOT_START". service can be either a string or an integer. In the case of a string. "DISABLED") NSH 20 .exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. "SYSTEM_START". Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". Inc. If you do not specify expr. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service. If the service does not exist. These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). or "PENDING". if you specified an out of range record number. the function returns the total number of configured services. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. If service is an integer. One of "RUNNING". if it is not running. Display name of service (long name). "STOPPED". service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). the function returns 0. service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. "AUTO_START". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service.

Returns the account name service is run as. "AUTO_START".exe" is running or not. DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. $PENDING).exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. field should be one of the following string values. The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records. skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. $STOPPED). service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". NSH 21 . or "DISABLED". Inc. (" STOPPED: %d\n". Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING". service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". "STOPPED".blq set_variable ("RUNNING". (" RUNNING: %d\n". to access particular service records. Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. you can use it in other services functions.blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. $ blquery win2k -E expr. $RUNNING). (" PENDING: %d\n". Returns the display name of service (long name). "*\\mysqld-nt. field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. "MANUAL". Once you get this record number. service_record_count ()). service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". or "PENDING". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name).Property of BladeLogic. "SYSTEM_START".

Inc. If service is an integer. ndf (NSH). nover (NSH). ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). nps (NSH). nmem (NSH).Property of BladeLogic. In the case of a string. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number ().exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. "MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL").exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql". ntop (NSH). nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . nstats (NSH). service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). The argument service can be either a string or an integer. "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. Returns zero length string.

Inc. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. Inc. and role. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. After you provide this information. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. the system prompts for a user ID. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. When you run bl_srp_agent. After entering your user information. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. If you do not use this option. NSH 1 . the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. password. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic.

NSH 1 . and role. When you run bl_srp_agent. After entering your user information. After you provide this information. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. password. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. Inc. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. the system prompts for a user ID. If you do not use this option. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent.

bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. but they are not identical. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time. and a warning issued.bz2 becomes filename filename. as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. .bz2". Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. ownership as the corresponding original. ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names. If you want this to happen. or have serious file name length restrictions.. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames . The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout. Inc. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags. ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames .out appended. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files.bz. permissions. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. and.tbz. . In this case. .tar anyothername becomes anyothername.bz2.. such as MS-DOS..0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames . and Huffman coding. Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file. and uses the original name with . As with compression.. v1. Each compressed file has the same modification date. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. when possible.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files.tbz2 becomes filename. If no file names are specified.tar filename. permissions.tbz becomes filename. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip.bz becomes filename filename.. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output.. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored. with the name "original_name. 1 .tbz2 or . bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself. specify the −f flag.

if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). in that order. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file. In short. albeit at about half the normal speed. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line. Inc. −s selects a block size of 200k.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. regardless of the invokation name. which limits memory use to around the same figure.5 bytes per block byte. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. and forces bzip2 to decompress. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. giving an expansion of around 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations. This flag overrides that mechanism. Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. During compression. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). though. decompression and testing. 2 . bzip2. at the expense of your compression ratio. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. &c). bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output.05 bits per byte. invalid flags. use −s for everything. −s --small Reduce memory usage. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. −f --force Force overwrite of output files. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. Normally. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. −d --decompress Force decompression. Compression is always performed. It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. that the check occurs upon decompression. As a self-check for your protection. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. This guards against corruption of the compressed data.0 or later.5%. Be aware. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. but don’t decompress them. for compression. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg.9. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. I/O errors. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory.

bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. The relevant flag is -s. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved. Has no effect when decompressing. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. Decompression speed is also halved. −v --verbose Verbose mode -. try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. which was sometimes useful. In general. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size.. since that maximises the compression achieved. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. 900 k when compressing. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file. Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. 200 k . or 100k + ( 2. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -.−myfilename.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine. so you should use this option only where necessary. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). 0. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. license terms and conditions. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. Compression and decompression requirements. since the file is smaller than a block. At decompression time. about 2300 kbytes. Inc. for example: bzip2 −. −L --license -V --version Display the software version. For files compressed with the default 900k block size. in bytes. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed. even if they start with a dash. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions. compressing a file 20. It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size.show the compression ratio for each file processed. Similarly.5 and above. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory. 3 . Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. For example.000 bytes through 900.9. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages.000 bytes (the default) respectively. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k.9.

it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. and writes a number of files "rec0001file.bz2 file to become damaged. both for compressing and decompressing. like "aabaabaabaab .bz2 file. This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size. Versions 0. small changes to the 4 . Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks.bz2 files. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. this figure was more like 100:1. etc.141. Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes. Because of this. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . Inc. and decompress those which are undamaged. "rec0002file. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file.bz2 > recovered_data" -. bzip2recover takes a single argument. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large . files containing very long runs of repeated symbols. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses.bz2".lists the files in the correct order.. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. usually 900kbytes long. Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3.for example. The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1. and write each block out into its own .622 bytes. since a damaged block cannot be recovered. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty.bz2". For previous versions. containing the extracted blocks.bz2 files.. Because of this. "bzip2 -dc rec*file.9. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files. Each block is handled independently. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. the name of the damaged file. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size. This means that performance." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal. if you want. as these will contain many blocks.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -.

Inc. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases. but with the following exception: 0.cygnus.0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. AUTHOR Julian Seward.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation). gave advice and were generally helpful. 0. lent machines. http://sourceware.1pl2 cannot do this. 0. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms.9. 5 . helped with portability problems. Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip). David Wheeler (again. jseward@acm. so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. I am much indebted for their help. so as to speed up compression. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements. Many people sent patches. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation. for the Huffman coder). Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip. bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files.9. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream.1pl2. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance. This manual page pertains to version 1.0 and 0.com/bzip2 http://www. support and advice.muraroa. This could easily be fixed. versions 0.demon.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.org.5. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be.co.0 of bzip2. and Alistair Moffat. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. and many refinements).9. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches.

cat reads from the standard input. since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. can be made visible via the −t option. the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. . Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. pr(1). .CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic.file2 . read and output contents of the standard input again. The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . vis(1). print the contents of file2. writing them to the standard output. The file operands are processed in command-line order. BSD May 2.2”) specification. starting at 1. Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line.2-1992 (“POSIX. Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’. sh(1)) for more information on redirection. $ cat file1 . The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. less(1).g. "UNIX Style. Inc. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). tail(1). If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. Number the output lines. See the manual page for your shell (e. STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003. control-I. truncating file3 if it already exists.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. or cat -v Considered Harmful". EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3. sh(1). with the exception of the tab and EOL characters. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. 1983. Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings.. Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. more(1). which are displayed normally. The tab character. causing the output to be single spaced. then finally output the contents of file3. 1995 1 .

Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification. BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2. 1995 2 .

To this end... With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. Inc. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS. one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. The name of the hosts to be updated. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password. When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server.. If a password was not specified with the -p option.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. In addition. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running. If the registry location is not found/set. OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . -r -q host . With this option only error messages are output. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. In addition. To determine which password to use.

Inc. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. To turn it off. NSH 1 . Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships. By default. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. chgrp [-fhRv?] user. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename.. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. By default.group file . When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. New owner of the file (user name or UID). Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric. and consequently a UID is not available for this user.. use the -l option. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system.’).. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place.. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. See the -r option. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files. this option is turned on. Instead. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. chgrp changes only the group ownership. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. However. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively.

chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change. ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). Unknown option or missing file argument. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). you may not achieve the ownership change you want.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). Unable to get a license to use the software. You specified an unknown GID or UID. Inc. NSH 2 . chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership.

If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory.. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories.. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. etc). See the DESCRIPTION section above. chmod silently skips it. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. since directories usually have different permissions than files. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. or a series of comma separated instructions. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. chmod silently skips it. regular files. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. The permissions changes you want to make. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. Inc. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. special files. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who .e. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list.. mode can be an absolute octal value. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file . File whose mode you want to change. If chmod encounters a directory. . Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change.

execute permissions for the owner of the file. execute for user.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected. write. Unable to get a license to use the software. and read. chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read. NSH 2 . Unknown option or missing file argument. Inc. write. execute for both the group and other users). chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions.

. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. New owner of the file (user name or UID). without changing any ownerships. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file .. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. this option is turned on. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively.’) and a group name to the user name. By default. However. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur.group file . Inc. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. this command changes only the user ownership. chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. You can turn it off with the -l option. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. See the -r option. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. By default. Instead. and consequently a GID is not available for this group.. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). NSH 1 . chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename.. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname.

Inc. chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. NSH 2 .chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. Consequently. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). Unknown option or missing file argument. the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus. Unable to get a license to use the software. chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made.

Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. and then reconnect. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. when you have an existing connection. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. you must disconnect. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. Inc. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. the role selection is ignored. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. NSH 1 . Your current role is role1. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. you must specify a new role preference. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. provided the active user is authorized for that role.

The cksum utility exits 0 on success.. overflow is discarded. Partial blocks are rounded up. shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division. Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. For historic reasons. the standard input is used and no file name is written.e. See description below. These n bits are the bits from the file. The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically. Inc. with a right rotation before each addition. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility. and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). least significant octet first. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum.. Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. If no file name is specified. NSH 1 . and >0 if an error occurs. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC.. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1... These fields are a checksum CRC. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16. This is a 32-bit checksum. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16. Using this interface. This is a 16-bit checksum. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option. the total number of octets in the file and the file name. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used.

algorithm 2 is used.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. With the P_ATT variable set. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected. Berkeley and its contributors. $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. A system error message follows the output of the error message. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. algorithm 1 is used. Inc. SEE ALSO sum(1). cksum(1). ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California.

Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. If file1 is ’-’. and the two different character values found in the files.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. When this happens. If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’). -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . then cmp uses the standard input. The first file in the comparison. cp rhosts. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code. find all differences in the files. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference.root //oslo/. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option. The second file in the comparison. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic.master //oslo/.rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . NSH 1 . Instead. checking to see if they are identical. then the offset is read instead of being seeked over. If it has.rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/. even with the -l option. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships.rhosts chown root. cmp always considers the files not to be identical. Inc. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file.master //oslo/. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference.rhosts file on host oslo has changed. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference. For each difference it finds. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. By default.

cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. One of the files was not accessible. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. Inc. NSH 2 . cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus.

If both start and stop columns are specified. Column numbering starts with one. columns numbered less than the start column will be written. Inc. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . A column is defined as a single character in a line. cut(1). Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. SEE ALSO column(1).8 Last change: NSH 1 .remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file. Output is written to the standard output. Berkeley and its contributors. If only the start column is specified.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. not zero. Input is read from the standard input. paste(1) SunOS 5. Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight.

Suppress printing of column 2. For example. Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. and lines in both files. if column number two is being suppressed. Comm exits 0 on success. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. and lines printed in column number three will have one. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2. lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. lines only in file2. Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. Inc. Suppress printing of column 3. >0 if an error occurred. and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. all characters participate in line comparisons. sort(1). ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. SEE ALSO cmp(1).8 Last change: NSH 1 . uniq(1) SunOS 5. which should be sorted lexically. Berkeley and its contributors.

Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. “_gz”.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding. . The default is −6. but is relatively slow.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . even if it is not actually reduced in size. If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received. “. 2008 1 . in compress mode. the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. “-tgz”. described below. the input file is not removed.Property of BladeLogic. “_Z”.tgz”. If no files are specified. with compression factor of −1 to −9. If invoked as compress −g. Compression factor −1 is the fastest. This option implies −g. The options are as follows: −1. Force compression of file. the files are not overwritten. renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). By default. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed.. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. . The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c. These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. see gzip(1) for more information. but provides a poorer level of compression. and the attributes of the input file are not retained.9 Use the deflate scheme. the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). instead they are converted to “tar”. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g). the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode).taz”. As many of the modification time. If either the input or output files are not regular files. zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file . −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file. user ID.Z”. “-gz”.. “_tgz”. Additionally. file mode. When uncompressing. If compression would not reduce the size of a file. “. uncompress. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. the file is ignored (unless −f is used). Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. “. . access time. the deflate mode of compression is chosen. and “_taz”. Inc. recognising the following extensions: “. Instead. No files are modified (force zcat mode). .] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation. this information is not used.Z”. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. . . “-Z”. “-taz”. copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3.gz”. file flags.

do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. Use compress mode (the default). compress periodically checks the compression ratio. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. Print the license. After the bits limit is reached. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. If the −v option is specified. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). −N When uncompressing or listing. If it is increasing. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. Print a short help message. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. However. When compressing. When code 512 is reached. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). Size of the file when uncompressed. the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. BSD April 3. −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. if any. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit.Property of BladeLogic. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. for the uncompressed version. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size. List information for the specified compressed files. Inc. 2008 2 . the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. if the compression ratio decreases. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories.

3 BSD. The compress. 8−19.. and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success. 1 if an error occurred. or 2 if a warning occurred. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. STANDARDS The compress. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". Inc. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack). or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). June. and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. and the distribution of common substrings. and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. Typically. IEEE Computer. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV]. uncompress. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2. pp. BSD April 3. Terry A. SEE ALSO Welch. the number of bits per code. 2008 3 . uncompress. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output.1. 1984. 17:6.Property of BladeLogic. and takes less time to compute.

it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. When the destination directory does exist. and access and modification times as the source file. By default. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. Don’t actually make any changes. This also applies to new directories being created. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). if the target file already exists.. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. Preserve parent. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. If the target directory does already exist. With the -P option. cp overwrites it. and is consequently overwritten. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. when cp copies a directory. Synchronize file permissions. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. When copying to a directory. for example. If the target directory does not already exist. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. With his option. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files..cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. If the destination directory does not exist. cp copies multiple files into a directory. In the second form. This option turns off the -i option. In the first form. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. so that. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. then cp overwrites the file. With this option. if it exists. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . before copying over the new source file. By default.c becomes foo. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. To turn on the file backup feature. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. cp creates it and copies the content into it. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". when cp creates a new file. then cp will create the directory as required. Synchronize file ownerships. If the target file already exists. permissions. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. If the destination directory does exist.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . By default. and copies the content into it. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. If a target file already exists. use the -b command. By default. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option.

except that it applies only to the top level file. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. follow symbolic links. If the file sizes are the same. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. NSH 2 . Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. Output a message for each file being copied. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. This option implies the -S option. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. -S and -C. With the -P option. Conditional copy. When recursing through directories. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. If you use this option with the -p option. See the -u option. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. then the backup will not be overwritten. They are -T. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. especially on a large file. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. should it be a symbolic link. This is the no parent option. See the -u option. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. Inc.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Conditional copy. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. and execute. Conditional copy. This option can be very resource intensive. This option is the same as the -r option. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. write.

Inc. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. SEE ALSO dsync (1). EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. then this message appears. cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. it will display this message. With the P_ATT variable set. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename. Unknown option or missing file argument. cp will display this message. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. uncp(1). If cp is not able to create one of these directories. the -f option will override the -i option. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. the -i option will override the -f option. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . cp was unable to copy all files requested. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. indicating that cp cannot copy directories. ncp(1). this message will appear. this message will appear. cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete.

0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option. With this option. This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. Inc. record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code.4. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line. Do not output the root node tag. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Do not output the XML header entry. OPTIONS -<number> By default. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. csv2xml generates column names. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. With this option. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name.21-4. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. and in turn XML tags.’) character as the field separator. It uses this header line to name the columns of input. in the format of column-<record number>. hostname) that can be used as an identifier.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5.

Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. NSH 2 . Inc. If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters. csv2xml will not display these additional fields. ndf(1). ncpu(1). nover(1). nnet(1). nstats(1). Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. nmem(1). it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1).

Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. Number ranges consist of a number. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 .. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions. Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields. and writes them to the standard output. Unless specified.. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). -s The arguments following the options -c. Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . Berkeley and its contributors. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character. and in any order. delimited in the input by a single tab character. a dash (-). lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. inclusively. Column numbering starts from 1.. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line.. that character is used to separate output fields. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. -d. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second. Inc. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. 1 if an error occurred. overlapping. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. If you do. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic.

For pipes. If no conversion values other than noerror. Copy n input files before terminating. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls.. If the user does not have read permission for the tape. For all other devices. Otherwise. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. The number of truncated input records. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. notrunc or sync are specified. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4. the correct number of bytes is read. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. input data is read and discarded.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. if any. On input which supports seeks. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block.. ascii. On non-tape devices. If the seek operation is past the end of file. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read. Inc. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified. a lseek(2) operation is used. a lseek(2) operation is used. are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. When finished. value .. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. Any trailing newline character is discarded. Read input from file instead of the standard input. If input reads are short. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. Otherwise. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd . superseding the ibs and obs operands. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks.3BSD-reno systems. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. Write output to file instead of the standard output.. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated. NSH 1 .

lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. If the sync conversion is also specified. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. Swap every pair of input bytes. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. Inc. When finished. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. otherwise NUL bytes are used. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2). If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. 1024 (1K). If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. any remaining output is written as a block. Where sizes are specified. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. a decimal number of bytes is expected. Otherwise. NSH 2 . ibm. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes. the rest of the block will be written. After the end of input is reached. If the sync conversion is not specified. Do not stop processing on an input error. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. the number is multiplied by 512. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. oldebcdic. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. When an input error occurs. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. Normally. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4. ‘‘k’’. swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. the input block is omitted from the output. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. respectively. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. the last byte will be ignored during swapping. If dd receives a SIGINT signal.3BSD-reno systems.

tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. ebcdic. The files operand and the ascii.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. Berkeley and its contributors. ibm. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. oldascii. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California. SEE ALSO cp(1). oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. Inc. NSH 3 .

this header line will be included for each named target. df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. If you do not specify any targets. Since a remote df command is executed for each named target.. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target .. The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory. which may be a directory or host name.df(1) Property of BladeLogic. df again uses the current host. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report. Inc. paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command. If one of the targets is a directory name only.] DESCRIPTION For each named target.

−e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . 2003 1 . Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. BSD July 21. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’.’. ed(1). Inc. . Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. Produces a script similar to that of −e.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. Does not output a list of changes. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. differ” if files contain binary characters. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. unlike with −c. No output is produced if the files are identical. −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘. with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. It cannot be digested by ed(1). However. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. but in reverse order. Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. Just print a line when the files differ. while defining string will yield file2. . but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command.

Will expand tabs in output lines. If a file is found only in dir2. −I pattern Ignores changes. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. “A” will compare equal to “a”. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. which are otherwise not mentioned. If a file is found in only one directory. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. For C source code following standard layout conventions. context or unified output formats. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. producing a change list. common subdirectories. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second.g. E. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. Long output format. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”.. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns. an underscore or a dollar sign. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. Multiple −x options may be specified. If both arguments are directories. Multiple −X options may be specified. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. −p With unified and context diffs. Inc. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. beginning with file name. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3).. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. Causes diff to report files which are the same. E. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. Binary files which differ. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. 2003 2 . −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. on text files which are different. insertions.g.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret.

Inc.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. those after pertain to file2. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. SEE ALSO cmp(1). If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’.YY from file1 with the range ZZ. An error occurred. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. but append the range of lines. diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. diff first compares the files ala cmp(1).YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. −w or −i options specified. XXaYY. the standard input is used in its place. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1. ed(1). Output Style The default (without −e. XXdYY At line XX delete the line. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.ZZ Same as above. comm(1). BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. XX. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. diff3(1).DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 3 . −c.XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input. a diagnostic message is printed.YYcZZ.QQ from file2. XX. append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. FILES /tmp/diff. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing. Thus. DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found. YY. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered. Differences were found. pr(1).QQ Replace the range XX. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21. At (the end of) line XX of file1. ZZ. XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. fnmatch(3). identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. As in ed(1). XX. If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003. where XX. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. QQ are line numbers respective of file order.1-2001 specification.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. BSD July 21.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 4 .

however when running dsync. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. because the security models for file permissions may differ. By default. -b -i Backup the target file. -p.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. (The -P option is not turned on by default. then cp overwrites the file. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. By default. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". By default. The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. When you run cp as dsync. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. by default. it leaves it alone. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. All options are described here. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. Inc. and access times. and -u. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. -d Use this option with care. -f. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. it leaves it alone. -m NSH 1 . while preserving the file ownerships. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. if it exists. then it will be created. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. before copying over the new source file. turned on the following options: -r. Also. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. If a target file already exists. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. permissions.

This also applies to new directories being created. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. See the -u option. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. If the file sizes are the same. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. This option can be very resource intensive. If you use this option with the -p option. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. If the target directory does already exist. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. This option implies the -S option. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. -L -P When recursing through directories. -S and -C. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. and access and modification times as the source file.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the target directory does not already exist. With this option. if the target file already exists. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. Output a message for each file being copied. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. then the -R option is treated as a -r option.c becomes foo. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory. permissions. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. especially on a large file. then cp will create the directory as required. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. This option is the same as the -r option. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo.c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. This is the no parent option. NSH 2 . cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. With the -P option. See the -u option. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. Inc. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. Conditional copy. Don’t actually make any changes. and execute. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. With this option. Conditional copy. They are -T. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. write. follow symbolic links. Conditional copy. This option turns off the -i option.

it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. The second example does the same as the first. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. then dsync outputs this message. the -f option will override the -i option. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. indicating that the copy may not be complete. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. dsync outputs this message. NSH 3 . it outputs this message. With the P_ATT variable set. it will output this message. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. Unknown option or missing file argument. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. Inc. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. it outputs this message. the -i option will override the -f option. along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. indicating that it cannot copy directories. If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). Unable to get a license to use the software. it will output this message.

Inc. NSH 4 .dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1).

and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories. du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. With this option. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered. Same as -d. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename . The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size.) If. Same as -d. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. If you do not specify any files or directories. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option. du counts linked files only once. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. Inc. while traversing a directory. du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. du counts files with multiple links only once. When the P_BSD variable is set..] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. NSH 1 . du searches directories recursively. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. By default. output only a summary for all directories searched. findings are already reported in KB. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. Report the directories that du cannot search. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. (By default. du ignores all files with more than one link. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy..

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. the universe flag determines the size of a block. du assumes that a block is 1K large. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). Unable to get a license to use the software. ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. unless you specify the -r option. NSH 2 . With the P_ATT variable set. du does not report errors. du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. Furthermore. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_ATT variable set.

old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character. ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus. backslash (OCT 0134. then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. Form feed (OCT 014. NSH 1 . carriage return (OCT 015. DEC 13. HEX A). DEC 11. You specified an unknown option. DEC 12.. Argument to be echoed. HEX 8). DEC 10. HEX C). DEC 9. Inc. tab (OCT 011.. DEC 92. HEX D).echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. Do not output a new-line at the end.] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. HEX 9). new line (OCT 012. Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . Unable to get a license to use the software. $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. HEX B). HEX 5C). If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. DEC 8. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. vertical tab (OCT 013. File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only.

Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. Berkeley and its contributors.) that contain tabs.. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. If the -a option is given. DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks. If a single tabstop argument is given. Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default. Inc. unexpand ..tabn] file . NSH 1 ..expand tabs to spaces. ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California..expand(1) Property of BladeLogic. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters.. unexpand [-a] file .. then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8. looking at specific columns. etc.tab2. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1.. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns.

the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. such as -2. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. Inc. If you specify a positive field number. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character. If you specify a negative field number. such as 5. the entire data row is extracted.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. If this option is not provided. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. If the field number is 0. Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row.

NSH 2 . Inc. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic.

file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call. The program checks to see if the file is empty. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. .out. For each magic number file. The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. and language tests. Don’t do as Berkeley did. The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). so they are performed last. 2004 1 . or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). magic number tests. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names.h〉. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself.h〉 and possibly 〈exec. just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another).h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file . preserve these keywords.br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file.out(5). For example. and which of several types thereof. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats. or if it’s some sort of special file.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. write a magic. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets. BSD December 4.out file.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. performed in this order: filesystem tests. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. whose format is defined in 〈a. file attempts to guess its language. . This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it.h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. symbolic links. change “shell commands text” to “shell script”. The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”. the keyword . There are three sets of tests. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable.

because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. This version knows more magic. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. to test the standard input. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. This is only useful if checking a list of files. If a compiled magic file is found alongside. This prevents problems. as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. however. −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present. Defaults to ‘:’. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). Inc. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. magiclist. Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. −m magiclist Specify an alternate list.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1). it will be used instead. od(1). strings(1). Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). a. keep going. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. hexdump(1). BSD December 4. For example. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files.out(5). Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). of files containing magic numbers. Cause symlinks to be followed. Print the version of the program and exit. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned. 2004 2 . file adds “. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. which are block special files. Normally. ls(1). separated by colon characters.

Inc.com〉.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. 1986-1999. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. Toronto. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth. making it better than the first version. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic. If your old file command uses a magic file. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically.ac. thank you.h and is_tar. it must be escaped. The files tar. July. for example. Darwin.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. in this version. This program. Canada.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.com〉. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. You know who you are.com〉. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \\begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright. 1973). used as. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic. 1989. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. if a pattern string contains a backslash. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files. see the file LEGAL. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries. 2000. Depending on what system you are using. 2004 3 . mainly USENET. and contributed by various authors.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program.uk〉. and are not covered by the above license. based on the System V version.orig). but with some extensions. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources.NOTICE in the distribution. The order of entries in the magic file is significant. John Gilmore revised the code extensively. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. was written by Ian F. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas. BSD December 4.

BSD December 4.g. Still. We end up removing guesses (e.. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support..FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X.astron.g. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy.tar. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup. Regular expression support would make this easy. ndbm(3) or. first word. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. and particularly this section. is too long. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). if the others don’t pan out. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files. first long. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines. once we have fetched it. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value.. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files. This manual page. Inc. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. it should be possible to use the first guess. Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line.g. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp. troff(1) commands vs man page macros. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir.YY. What is it? Better yet. 2004 4 . better yet. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e. but is entrenched. Regular expression support would make this easy. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic.gz. with the flexibility of the System V version. inefficient and requires recompilation to update. etc.

BSD December 4. the file information and type will be for the link itself. tab. not the link itself. not the link itself. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. This option exists for backwards compatibility. is n 24-hour periods. find visits directories in pre-order i. −h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options.. space. allowing all file names to be processed safely. Alternatively.e.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. rounded up to the next full minute. Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters. before their contents. An alias for the −L option. The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. the file information and type will be for the link itself. -print is assumed.. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . If the referenced file does not exist. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. By default. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. is n minutes. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). is n minutes. [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. If the referenced file does not exist. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. Inc. rounded up to the next full minute. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path .e. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. In the absence of an expression. and the file is skipped. the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). 1999 1 .

number of hard links. If the file is a symbolic link. 1999 2 . group. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file. size in 512-byte blocks. Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”. -follow Follow symbolic links. rounded up to the next full minute. Case insensitive. -empty True if the current file or directory is empty.]. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. If the file is a block or character special file. BSD December 4.]. and pathname. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. . then gname is treated as a group ID. The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. . True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. . -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified. -exec utility [argument . . The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. file permissions. size in bytes. -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. owner. These do not describe actual file system types. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -links n True if the file has n links. -ls This primary always evaluates to true. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”. the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. -execdir utility [argument . -inum n True if the file has inode number n.’ ) . is n minutes. is n 24-hour periods. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. last modification time. Inc.

If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If neither -exec. If the mode is not preceded by a dash. ‘∗’. -ok. It causes find to not descend into the current file. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. ‘]’. . Inc. BSD December 4. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. If the mode is symbolic. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. -ok utility [argument . -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. ‘∗’. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. 1999 3 . the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. Note. Note. rounded up. a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . . Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly. -ls. If n is followed by a ‘c’. followed by a null character. is n 24-hour periods. -print This primary always evaluates to true.]. If the mode is octal. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. nor -print0 is specified. ‘]’. -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. in 512-byte blocks is n. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. It evaluates to true if the expression is false. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. then uname is treated as a user ID. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true. Inc. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. and neither means “exactly n”. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. 1999 4 . a preceding minus sign means “less than n”.

’ may have to be escaped from the shell. ‘?’. ‘]’. -mindepth. In particular. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. -fstype. ‘(’. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth. ‘[’. BSD December 4. Historically. the characters ‘∗’. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. xargs(1).[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. and -xdev. -links. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated. -follow. locate(1).2”). -follow. chmod(1). which(1). getpwent(3). BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. -iname. This is not the case. -maxdepth. the −d. symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. 1999 5 . The options and primaries -amin. -cmin. whereis(1). ‘\’. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. -empty. Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. -execdir. -ls. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗. stat(2). -inum. and ‘. strmode(3).2”) standard. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began. −H. These primaries always evaluated to true.2 (“POSIX. fts(3). it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”. Inc.2 (“POSIX. ‘!’. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. -mmin. As −print always evaluates to true.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. getgrent(3). ‘)’. and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. and the operator -and was implemented as −a. The operator -or was implemented as −o. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the standard input if no files are specified... ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Berkeley and its contributors. Inc. SunOS 5. DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold . Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present. expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding.fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters.8 Last change: NSH 1 .

<dns> .. <dns> . <local> <dns> . in that particular sequence. <nis> NSH 1 ... <nis> .conf like file.domaincomponent1. <local> ... This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.....domaincomponent1. <dns> host2.conf like file..Property of BladeLogic.. <local> . OPTIONS -u Print usage. DNS. EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1.com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts).. Inc. <nis> . and NIS. -a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.domaincomponent2. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. in that particular sequence. If multiple hostnames are specified.. No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.. <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.conf like file. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host.com <nis> ... Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> . only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered.. Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database..domaincomponent2.conf like file.conf like file on the operating system.

. Inc.. <local> host4 host4... <local> .domaincomponent1...com loghost <dns> .. <local> . SEE ALSO hostname(1).com host4.domaincomponent2.com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra.. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> ...Property of BladeLogic.domaincomponent3.. <dns> host4.domaincomponent1. <dns> ..domaincomponent2.domaincomponent2. <dns> . NSH 2 .

or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. Decryption may not be supported at some sites.gz  [. after prompting again for the password. funzip will reset the terminal properly. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip  [.zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . funzip simply creates the directory and exits. See DESCRIPTION for more details. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p.zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. . . DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems. it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line. EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console.g. . zipcloak(1L). . then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin.] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout.z i p. i n f o . nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive). SEE ALSO gzip(1L). . run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more.zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. unzipsfx(1L).93) 1 . .z i p . and command-line histories can be read.] funzip [–password] input. This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. Inc..zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. If there is an argument. the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. In the case where the first member is a directory. that is. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . . funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state. for example. . and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [.]  funzip [–password]  [. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash. To recover. A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name.] funzip [–password] input. zip(1L). BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. i nf o. The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release). ps(1) under Unix).Misc. zipinfo(1L). unzip(1L). zipnote(1L). Given the limitation on single-member extraction. | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where.

Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.93) 2 . Inc.Misc.

putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license. Displays the status of each host. regardless of license status. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license.dat file can contain multiple entries.. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 .dat. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic.. Inc. The putlic command uses license.dat to license the remote agents. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host. a license key. The license. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 . See the -v option for more details.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license.. one entry per line. OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. Each entry consists of a hostname. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. Verbose output. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed. and writes this data to a file called license..raw file. Do not create a license. You can specify multiple options. If you do not specify any of these four options.raw. and an optional expiration key. a product code. host1 . getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data.

OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. and write the names of these files to standard output. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. Display version information. Write only a count of matching lines. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. When displaying a matching line. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. but do not attempt to print them. Ignore binary files. egrep. -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. Force grep to behave as grep. An empty expression matches every line. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns. If you specified -R. Treat all files as text. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern. By default.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. Force grep to behave as fgrep. NSH 1 ..grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specified the -R option. fgrep . -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. grep does not follow symbolic links. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. Inc. in front of the matching line. Force grep to behave as egrep. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s).file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . If grep searched the standard input. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns. Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. If you specified the -R option. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. Perform case insensitive matching. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. Search binary files.. follow all symbolic links. it writes the pathname ‘-’. List the pathname for each file.

RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. An error occurred.’ which would otherwise match any character. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. List the pathname for each file. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’). and write the names of these files to standard output. grep uses the standard input. Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. ‘$. Suppress normal output. -l. Silent mode. it writes the pathname ‘-’. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. No lines were selected. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. Add another pattern (see example below). Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern. Inc. Align the match from the beginning of the line. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. Always print filename headers with output lines. or -q. If grep searched the standard input. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. The first line of each file is 1.

NSH 3 .grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. 20 or 25. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19.

Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. $ head -20 *. Inc. 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems. Unable to get a license to use the software. -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. If you do not specify any files." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>. This is done for compatibility purposes. the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. display count number of characters. Measure quantities in lines. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . if you are using the -c option) to be n. head displays the first few lines from the standard input.c files. One of the files you want to view was not accessible. When you specify the -B option.. If you do not specify any file names. head outputs the file "as is. You specified an unknown option. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 .head(1) Property of BladeLogic.. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>. if you are using the -c option) to be count. Instead of displaying count number of lines. head displays the first few lines from the standard input.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna. This is the default. File whose first few lines you want to display.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default. CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output.

-s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. two byte quantities of input data. four column. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. or the standard input.ascii. with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . Two-byte hexadecimal display. Without the -v option. if no files are specified. in the order that they were specified. followed by eight space-separated. which defaults to one. The byte count is an optional positive integer. six column. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. two-byte units of input data. od. two-byte quantities of input data. -o Two-byte octal display. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. in a user specified format. offset is interpreted as an octal number. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options.. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. One-byte character display.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. decimal. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. five column. a byte count. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. bytes of input data. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. Display the input offset in hexadecimal.. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . By default. With a leading 0x or 0X. space-filled. xd . in octal. followed by sixteen space-separated. For each input file. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. zero-filled. Each format is applied iteration count times. characters of input data per line. and a format. or 1048576. hexadecimal. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. in hexadecimal. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). zero-filled. Appending the character b. followed by eight space-separated. respectively. three column. k. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). per line. zero-filled. any number of groups of output lines. in unsigned decimal. per line. 1024. per line. separated by whitespace. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Two-byte decimal display. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. per line. followed by eight. Inc. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. in octal. otherwise. space separated. zero-filled. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. with a leading 0. three column.

‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. Characters greater than 0xff. with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. names. %G. cumulative across input files. octal or hexadecimal respectively. Four byte default. Eight byte default. %f. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. %e. Output US ASCII characters. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. of the next byte to be displayed. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. hexadecimal. which is the iteration count times the byte count. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL \0 <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . o. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). The appended characters d. and x specify the display base as decimal. four byte counts supported. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’. Output characters in the default character set. %_u. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. one. two and four byte counts supported. ‘‘n’’. _c Output characters in the default character set. %g One byte counts only. zero-padded octal. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. when all of the input data has been processed. lower-case. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified).’’. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. which are displayed as two character strings. Inc. %X. %_p.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. %o. %i. %x %E. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. ‘‘l’’. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. %c %d. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. %u.

EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Inc. If no format strings are specified. Berkeley and its contributors. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. If.7_Ax\n" "%07.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07. input data only partially satisfies a format string. If. as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’.e. the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option.7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. ‘‘ ’’. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. and referencing a NULL string. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. an iteration count is greater than one.

DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled.8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 . front-end for grep. It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. SunOS 5. Inc.highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. Quoting is not handled. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep . but cute.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). Inc.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. OPTIONS hostname has no options. NSH 1 .

Each output line consists of the join field. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. -j1 field In file 1.’’) or whitespace separated. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. For example. The join utility exits 0 on success. join on the field specified by field. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. join on the field specified by field. For example. Inc. The default output field separator is a single space character.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. and >0 if an error occurs. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. For example. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. join may not report all field matches. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based. Otherwise. For example. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. The first field in each line is used by default. join uses the standard input. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. on the fields on which they are to be joined. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. join on the field specified by field. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. NSH 1 . The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields.using the -b option. -1 field -2 field In file 1. In file 2. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. -e string Replace empty output fields with string. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1.field’. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output. -j2 field In file 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join . Many of the options use file and field numbers. join on the field specified by field.

2’’.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. Berkeley and its contributors. Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option. comm(1). These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification.field_number’’ as described for the current -o option.. Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. uniq(1) NSH 2 . do not use these options. join on the field specified by field. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California. Inc. join(1) -o list . SEE ALSO awk(1). In general. sort(1).. This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1. paste(1). These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number.

–p min. SunOS 5. and if it begins with a ‘–’. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active.max. Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min. Normally. This option may appear after the last file. Inc. Berkeley and its contributors. –f min.. pr(1).8 Last change: NSH 1 . where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width. each option affects only the file after it. If min begins with a zero. and may be repeated.max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. The options are described below. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. The name ‘–’ means the standard input. zeros will be added to make up the field width.max Like –f. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. SEE ALSO join(1).max Print line fragments according to the format string min. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file..User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems). Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. default one half of the screen size. but scrolls a full screensful. Also. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. z Like SPACE.. The number is used by some commands. In this mode. ESC stands for the ESCAPE key. . but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). Inc. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting. Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). even if N is more than the screen size. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. remember this one. (On a hardcopy terminal. called N in the descriptions below. ˆX means control-X. only the final screenful is displayed. BSD January 17. . The entire N lines are displayed. it becomes the new window size. default 1. Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals.) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more.] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines.. If N is more than the screen size. as indicated. h | H Help: display a summary of these commands. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. If you forget all the other commands. If N is specified.. but if N is specified. default one window (see option -z below). lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. 2003 1 . so it can run on a variety of terminals.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). then "v". COMMANDS In the following descriptions.

If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. The entire N lines are displayed. N should be between 0 and 100.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. only the final screenful is displayed. Inc. If N is more than the screen size. If a number N is specified. 2003 2 .) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. is being read. Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. but if N is specified. default 1. it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines. Scroll forward. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. If a number N is specified. If N is specified. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command. While the text is scrolled. } ( ) BSD January 17. rather than a file. Like }. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen. it becomes the new window size. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. default 1 (beginning of file). The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. default half the screen width (see the -# option). but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. w Like ESC-v. R F Repaint the screen. default half the screen width (see the -# option). (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. default one window (see option -z below). r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen. even if N is more than the screen size. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. discarding any buffered input. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. or if N is not specified and standard input. default the end of the file. Like {. Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. default one half of the screen size. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

That is. as recognized by ed(1). Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. The pattern is a regular expression. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. marks the current position with that letter. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. BSD January 17. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed.) Followed by any lowercase letter. acts like {. returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. Certain characters are special. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. Followed by another single quote. respectively. Like }. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. acts like }. For example. that is. Search multiple files. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. do a simple textual comparison. (Single quote. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. N defaults to 1. "ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. respectively. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. Search multiple files. Followed by a ˆ or $. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match. For example. which change this). ˆXˆX Same as single quote. Inc. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. 2003 3 .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. That is. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters.

(Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. Inc. If the filename contains one or more spaces. for N-th line containing the last pattern. As in forward searches. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line). regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. Similarly. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. If a number N is specified. Examine the previous file in the command line list. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. On such systems. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character. two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. the search is done without using regular expressions. ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. If the previous search was modified by ˆR. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. N ESC-n Repeat previous search. turn highlighting back on. but in the reverse direction. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. you may not be able to use ˆV. the N-th previous file is examined. ESC-N Repeat previous search. As in forward searches. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. the N-th next file is examined. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. If the filename consists of several files. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. 2003 4 . However. If a number N is specified. ESC-u Undo search highlighting.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. n Repeat previous search. Repeat previous search. If the filename is missing. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on. BSD January 17. but crossing file boundaries. If the previous search was modified by ˆN. If the previous search was modified by ˆE. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option).

For example. depending on your particular installation. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. or a string value (such as -P or -t). Remove the current file from the list of files. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. (Double underscore. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. The setting of the option is not changed. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. Like the − command. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. 2003 5 . (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line. Like the −! command. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. as in the − command. Inc. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). Go to the next tag. See the −t option for more details about tags. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. V Prints the version number of less being run. Go to the previous tag. including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. The following four commands may or may not be valid. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). (Underscore. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. If a number N is specified. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. the N-th file in the list is examined. Examine the first file in the command line list. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. If no new value is entered. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed. if defined.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting.) Like the _ (underscore) command. Like the −+ command. If possible. Followed by one of the command line option letters. a new value may be entered after the option letter.) This does not work for string-valued options. BSD January 17. it also prints the length of the file.

or newline. --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. OPTIONS Command line options are described below. Inc.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. For example. For options like -P which take a following string. For example. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. see the -j option). A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. but not --qui. as distinct from --quit-at-eof. via the "−" command. see the -B option). Most options may be changed while less is running. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter. By default. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. to avoid typing "less -options . A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. the remainder of the name may be in either case.) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. "!!" repeats the last shell command. not an ordinary file. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). If <m> is . so command line options override the LESS environment variable. For example. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. Some long option names are in uppercase. This only works if the input is a pipe. s filename Save the input to a file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. For example.. thus: "-\?". 2003 6 . or defaults to "sh". Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark." each time less is invoked. the current screen is piped. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. If an option appears in the LESS variable. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. or two dashes followed by a long option name. you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". The BSD January 17.. in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes).

If a large amount of data is read from the pipe. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. any earlier data is lost.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. −g | −-hilite-search Normally. the entire file is read into memory. buffers are allocated automatically as needed. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. lacks some important capability. If n is -1. By default. Inc. 2003 7 . −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. -h0 is implied. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers. the bell is rung).]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. ’q’ to quit. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. By default. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. less will refuse to open non-regular files. By default. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.]’’. that is.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. buffer space is unlimited. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. when data is read from a pipe.) BSD January 17. This option is on by default when invoked as more. since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. that is. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display.

especially with a very large input file. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. When invoked as more. tag search. By default. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. if "-j4" is used. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. jump to a file percentage. not an ordinary file. uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. not to the file which is currently open. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. or jump to a marked position. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). A target line is the object of a text search. that is. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. Multiple -k options may be specified. 2003 8 . The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. jump to a line number.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. with the percent into the file. Inc. This option can be set from within less. the second to the bottom is -2. This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. For example. less prompts with a colon. If the -j option is used. the target line is the fourth line on the screen. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. then that search does not ignore case. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases. BSD January 17. −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. it is also used as a lesskey file. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. the next is 2. and so on. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). and so on. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. in other words. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). If the file already exists. This applies only when the input file is a pipe.

−ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern. -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. it is used instead. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command).. -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded." is zero or more characters other than "m". but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. The bell will be rung on certain other errors. Warning: when the -r option is used. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. Without a file name. display the remainder on the next line. such as typing an invalid character. BSD January 17. the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. If the terminal has a "visual bell". all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. That is. that is. 2003 9 .. The default is to fold long lines. that is. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt.. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. or be terminated by a dollar sign. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ . See the section on PROMPTS for more details. rather than being typed in with each less command. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA". Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. Inc. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. Thus. for example. they will simply report the name of the log file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance.. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. various display problems may result. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. m where the ".

if neither -u nor -U is given. -x9.17 will set tabs at positions 9. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. etc. The default for n is 8. For this to work. The entire line is highlighted. for example. and that command is executed to find the tag. Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command. | −-tabs=n. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file. 2003 10 . The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line.. tab stops are set at those positions. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters.. Also. Sets tab stops. Inc. BSD January 17.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. that is. (See http://www. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. in which case only the status column is highlighted. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. that is. unless the -J option is in effect. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags"... If only one n is specified. along with the preceding character. it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global. −X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. followed immediately by a TAG.gnu.. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. 33. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags".org/software/global/global. Other backspaces are deleted. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less. will edit the file containing that tag. 25. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. By default.html). −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page. For example. tab stops are set at multiples of n. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability. tag information must be available. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. 17. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. they are handled as specified by the -r option. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal.. like clearing the screen. −xn. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability.

+ LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. this changes the quote character to that character. and the close quote to the second character. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. not just the first one. If the number specified is zero. The default is one screenful. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. If the option starts with ++. Followed by a single character. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. the screen is repainted instead. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). if the screen is 24 lines. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. Followed by two characters. any forward movement causes scrolling. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. or the pattern for a search command). either ˆV or ˆA. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. Inc. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. As a special case. see the caveat under the "g" command above). it starts the display at the specified line number (however. For example. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. For example. LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. changes the open quote to the first character. that is. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. a filename for the :e command. Note that even after the quote characters are changed. This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. If a command line option begins with +. −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. 2003 11 . The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. BSD January 17. If the number n is negative. +<number> acts like +<number>g. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. By default. Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes.

or cancel the command if the command line is empty.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. Otherwise. The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). BSD January 17. If it matches more than one filename. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB. Otherwise. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames. that character is used instead of ˆU. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is.) Move the cursor one word to the left. If it matches more than one filename.) Move the cursor one word to the right. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. Delete the entire command line. Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. 2003 12 .) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. and to set environment variables. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. Inc. a "/" is appended to the filename. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. the first match is entered into the command line. If the completed filename is a directory. or cancel the command if the command line is empty.less". less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.) Delete the word under the cursor. less uses that as the name of the lesskey file.

Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. less uses the original file. Before less opens a file. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. as normal.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. For example. and the name of the replacement file. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. called the input postprocessor. An input pipe. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s". these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. It should create the replacement file. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen. and so on. that is. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script). the original filename. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). then echo /tmp/less. However. To set up an input preprocessor.sh %s %s". which writes the contents of the file to a different file. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file. called the replacement file. Inc. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. as entered by the user. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. When less closes a file opened in such a way. This program receives two command line arguments. 2003 13 . as normal. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less.sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less. It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument.sh %s".LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file. it will call another program. rather than putting the data into a replacement file. the original filename as entered by the user. To set up an input postprocessor. esac lessclose. and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output.$$ fi . it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. but still let less view them directly: lessopen. which was output by LESSOPEN..$$ ]. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files. To use an input pipe.

Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. Same as iso8859. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal. and 8 is normal. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".Z) uncompress -c $1 ." would mean character 0 is binary. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Selects an EBCDIC character set. In this case. You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. In this case. The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. For example. This is the same as ASCII. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. and binary. 5. A decimal number may be used for repetition. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set." is used for a normal character. "c" for control. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. 1. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set.. "bccc4b. Should not be displayed directly. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. 2 and 3 are control. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. Inc. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal. Same as iso8859. 4. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. TAB. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). control. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. 6 and 7 are binary. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example. it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. CR. and all others are binary. and "b" for binary. and formfeed are control characters. The character ". When an input pipe is used. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used. (This is an example.sh %s". NL. Selects a Russian character set.) BSD January 17. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen. 2003 14 .

The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file.b 8bcccbcc18b95. the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. but your system supports the setlocale interface. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables. if the setlocale interface is also not available. "∗d" is bold. d.8b8.8b8. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x.b. but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video).bb125.6b10. less will use setlocale to determine the character set. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.b9. etc. and a "j" means use the "target" line. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility.33b. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially. Replaced by the size of the current input file. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191. the default character set is latin1. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen.33b. 8bcccbcc18b95. The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". the byte offset of the top line in the display is used. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character. 8bcccbcc18b95.b. "∗s" is standout. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file.. "∗u" is underlined.b128. X.10b6.9b7. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables. the page number of the last line in the input file.3b9. then the default character set is utf-8. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]".g. 8bcccbcc18b95. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking.7b 9.). The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used. an "m" means use the middle line. as with the %b option.7b9. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17. ˆA for control-A). as specified by the -j option. o. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e.b. Finally.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95. If that string is not found. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗". If the character is a "t".b.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. a "b" means use the bottom line.17b3. Inc. Otherwise. For example. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.8b6. or equivalently. 2003 15 . The line to be used is determined by the X. normal attribute is assumed. and "∗n" is normal. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b.b. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference.9b5.

The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. as with the %b option. are included in the prompt. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. Replaced by the total number of input files. If the condition is true. as with the %b option. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. The line to be used is determined by the X.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. a question mark is printed instead. a condition is evaluated. if and only if the IF condition is false. True if at end-of-file. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). Usually used at the end of the string. True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. True if the percent into the current input file. Inc. True if the line number of the specified line is known. based on line numbers. but may appear anywhere. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. of the specified line is known. of the specified line is known. any characters following the question mark and condition character. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. based on line numbers. True if there is more than one input file. the file size if input is a pipe). Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. The line used is determined by the X. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below. If the condition is false. Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. as with the %b option. Replaced by the name of the current input file. True if the size of the current input file is known. The line used is determined by the X. True if there is an input filename (that is. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. Same as %B. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. True if the page number of the specified line is known. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. If any item is unknown (for example. based on byte offsets. up to a period. BSD January 17. if input is not a pipe). True if the percent into the current input file. based on byte offsets. such characters are not included. 2003 16 .

If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. period. : byte %bB?s/%s. any trailing spaces are truncated. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively). otherwise the percent if known. followed by the file name. if there is one.. This is the default prompt. Otherwise. Then. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash.. otherwise the byte offset if known. ?n?f%f . otherwise the string "Standard input".Next\: %x. 2003 17 . ?f%f .: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s. ?n?f%f .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.?e(END) ?x.%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined. This prompt prints the filename. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt. or has other differences in invocation syntax..?e(END) ?x. followed by a + and the line number. Finally. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1.. percent. %f Note that this expands to the editor name.... True if there is a next input file (that is. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B".?e(END) ?x. Any characters other than the special ones (question mark.?m(file %i of %m) . The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm. if we are at end-of-file.?m(file %i of %m) . Notice how each question mark has a matching period.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. if known.%t ?f%f . a dash is printed. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default. if known. BSD January 17. .%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. The pipe command.?n?m(file %i of %m) . less runs in a "secure" mode. This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command.%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) . if known.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. byte %bB?s/%s. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only. colon.. Inc. . This prompt would print the filename..Next\: %x. the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file.:?pB%pB\%. Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input. The filename is followed by the line number.Next\: %x. For reference. if the current input file is not the last one).

such as "∗". ˆL). the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). Metacharacters in filenames. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. Log files. global tags are not used. Language for determining the character set. If not set. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. Filename completion (TAB. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. Use of tags files. LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set.) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). The editing command. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. BSD January 17.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. Use of lesskey files. ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. See discussion under PROMPTS. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. or in a lesskey(1) file. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. Inc. non-control characters. 2003 18 .

In certain cases. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. See discussion under SECURITY.) BSD January 17. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. Inc. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. 2003 19 . On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. see the less homepage at http://www. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell.com/less. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. If the :e command is used to name more than one file. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file. Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. On such terminals. TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. more text than the matching string may be highlighted. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. For more information.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command.greenwoodsoftware. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display.org〉. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command). as well as to expand filenames.

Inc. setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. To workaround this problem.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. non-binary files. 2003 20 . This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary. searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option. BSD January 17. See http://www. search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). Also.greenwoodsoftware. On some systems.

If the output file already exists. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. Otherwise. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys. and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. If −V or −−version is present. The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. this line may be omitted. #env Defines environment variables. The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. by default $HOME/. If the input file is ‘-’. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. Otherwise. The action is the name of the less action. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. by default $HOME/. except for the special section header lines. standard input is read. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. If no input file is specified. other options and arguments are ignored.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1).lesskey . a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. The input file consists of one or more sections. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. The string may be a single command key. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. If no output file is specified. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. from the list below. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file.less is used. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file. lesskey will overwrite it. The characters in the string may appear literally. or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key.

The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. just as if it were typed in to less. An action may be followed by an "extra" string.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. When such a command is entered while running less. the action is performed. tab and the backslash itself. space. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll \40 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e\40 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . and then the extra string is parsed. see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below. For example.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

In addition. "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. For example. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. one per line as in the example below. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. Since all default commands are disabled. Alternatively. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete \17 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. but not for a "noaction" command. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction". The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file.LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands.

NSH 5 . Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. FILES $HOME/. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. If environment variables are defined in more than one place.lesskey Default lesskey input file.less Default lesskey file. such as uparrow. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. Each line consists of an environment variable name.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. $HOME/. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less. in a keyboard-independent manner. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys.

This is not the default for link. OPTIONS link has only one option. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. Newly created link file. Unable to get a license to use the software. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. Normally. If you want this behavior. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. Links to directories. and links across hosts will not work. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. only the super user can use the link command. Existing file to be linked. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. NSH 1 . link always exits with an exit code of 0. since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. you should use the ln command instead. do not use it except in exceptional cases. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. Inc. links to files on different partitions. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files.

consist of a special file. In the second case. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file. and you can make symbolic links to directories. if the target file already exists. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. containing the name of the file to which it is linked. NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files.. Existing file to be linked. and it does not have appropriate write permissions. ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. With this option. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. With this option. Inc. OPTIONS -f By default. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. if the target file of a link already exists. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column). ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. ln does not ask for this confirmation. if the target file already exists. If you use the -f option with the -i option.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. Furthermore. With this option.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. Symbolic links however. then the target file must be a directory. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. In the output of the ls command. Newly created link file. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory.] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist..

it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. One of the files to be removed was not removable. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. You should normally use the ln command. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. and the target file already exists. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option. This is not possible to do.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software. avoid using it except in exceptional cases. Inc. NSH 2 .4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands. then the target file must be a directory. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. SEE ALSO link(1). ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command. The target file is not a directory. An unknown option was given.

or a stream listing (see the -m option). By default. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l.) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option is similar to the -a option.). lf. With the P_BSD variable set. then ls uses the current directory (. If the output is going to a terminal. This may be the default. ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option). By default. or if it has a value less than 20. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 .." and ". (This is the default behavior. l. OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output. ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information. With the P_ATT variable set. Each derivative has a specific option turned on. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). if it is being redirected or piped). if a file contains special characters in the name. then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification. Consequently. ls does not display files beginning with a period (. it uses the default value of 80. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory." (parent directory). depending on the universe setting. ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. If you do not specify an output format.). ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option).] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable.. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. lc. however it does not include the directories ". then the default format depends on two things. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen. If the COLUMNS variable is not set. For each file argument. -o. then the default universe behavior determines the output format. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. ls is the standard program. Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls." (current directory) and ". With this option. This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. -x. If you do not specify any file arguments. When using a multi-column output. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. Inc. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. This often includes the directories ". The remaining programs are derivatives of ls. ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable. and -1 options). Before ls displays a listing. lr.. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. With this option. ls displays the contents of the directory. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column. then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing.. and -g options).". a multi-column listing (see the -C.

the options -l. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. By default. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. For each file found. Each line contains detailed information about the file. With the P_ATT variable set. putting a comma and a space between file names. With this option. Consequently. ls sorts the listing by file size. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). does a reverse sort by time stamp. With this option. For each file found. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. when an argument is a symbolic link. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory.. This option is similar to the -l option. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. and -r are turned off. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. ls sorts the listing by file name. Directories are marked with a ’/’. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. This option tells ls to output a long listing. With the P_BSD variable set. See the options -c and -u for more information. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories.) When outputting a long listing. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. The default time stamp is date of last modification. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. . ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). -s. etc. This option tells ls to output a long listing. This makes it easy to identify directories. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. if a file contains special characters in the name. If ls comes across a directory. while the -a option is turned on. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . Inc. With this option turned on. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. By default. When used with the -t option. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). block/character special. If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. does a reverse sort by user name. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. With this option. By default. By default. When used with the -u option. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). ls does not display the owner name/ID field.. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/). This option is like the -F option. -t. ls treats each file argument as a directory. ls sorts the listing by file name. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format.

ls uses the default screen width of 80. ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown. With the P_ATT variable set. or -x options). With the P_BSD variable set. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option. the default behavior is to output the group name field. ls ignores column settings less than 20. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. there are several option conflicts. With the P_BSD variable set. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. If a long listing is being output. With the P_ATT variable set. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. There are 25 options for this command. then with the P_BSD variable set. the group name field is also included in long listings. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. If a long listing is not being produced. Instead. -C. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. Inc. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field.

If you do not specify this option. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. This version of man does not. Because of this. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. Inc. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. No data was returned from the remote host. The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. Normally. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. using the -h host option. OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. man displays the output of the remote man command. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable).

Inc. This is the default behavior. If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file . You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. Do not output warning messages. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation. If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value.. Light mode.md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specify a file on a remote host. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from. md5sum takes its input from stdin. This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode). AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). If you do not specify any files.] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument..

On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. Set the initial user ownership to user. then this error message will appear. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode. Otherwise a warning message appears. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. (This may be altered by the value of current umask. Inc. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Otherwise a warning message appears. where mode is an octal value. mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. mkdir will create parent directories as required. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. If the mode contains non octal digits. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. With this option. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname. Unable to get a license to use the software. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. mkdir creates the missing directory. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.. mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist. An unknown option was given. Second. The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. NSH 1 .. By default. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. If either directory does not exist.

mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 .

Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. NSH 1 .. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing..mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic. mkfifo was unable to create the special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1). CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name .

mknod was unable to create the special file. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. a character special file (c). The first argument is the name of the special file. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. Inc. NSH 1 . EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). Unable to get a license to use the software. As the second argument. The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). The minor number of the character/block special file. As the second argument. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. tells mknod to create a character special file. the name of the special file you want to create. If you create a character or block special file. or a block special file (b). As the second argument. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. The major number of the character/block special file. The second argument specifies the type of special file. tells mknod to create a block special file. you must also specify the major and minor number of the device.mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists.

Destination file or directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible. Inc. Second.bar to foobar. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target). then the target file must be a directory. With the -f option. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. mv checks to see if the target file already exists.c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. An error occurred while trying to move a file. First.. if a target file already exists.c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. NSH 1 . The second examples moves all . If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*. $ mv foo. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . you can use it to rename files. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. then mv overwrites the file. It simply overwrites the file. The target file is not a directory.. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo. Source file. An unknown option was given. mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. then the target file must be a directory. then the target must be a directory. mv does not display this prompt. OPTIONS -i With this option.

the source must be deleted. mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. See cp for more details on copying directories. There was an error copying the source file to the target file.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. The target file could not be created. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. the files are actually copied. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options. the files are actually copied. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the -i option will override the -f option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). There was an error deleting the source file. the source file is removed. NSH 2 . the files are actually copied. the files are actually copied. the -f option will override the -i option. There was an error removing the source file. Inc. After having copied the source file to the target file. The target file could not be created.

addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts. Copy in parallel. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s). This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file.. unless you are using the -d option. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections.. <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts. These commands provide an alternate interface. The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp.. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. If you use this option.. Inc. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time... these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. Otherwise. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files. The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync. see their respective documentation. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .P.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair.. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts . then the <sources> must be absolute path names. These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 .. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 . For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>. a separate process should be created to perform the copy. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations.//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 .

Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts . Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. NSH 2 .. dsync... Inc. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts .. cp(1).. SEE ALSO dsync(1). EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic.. ncp. uncp(1). ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus. ORIGIN The cp command family (cp. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts .

By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. ncpu displays the value as a number. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values.4.Property of BladeLogic. Quit application. Therefore.or 5. addresses. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.3. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data.. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. some systems (for example. Replace the # character with 1.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. See the -f option below. Inc. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Do not show a header on output. this data may not be available for all servers. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. This option overrides the -t option. Show only entries that match the given expression.P. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. Quit application. In addition. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string.2.. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Reverse sort order.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. See the -s option below. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. addresses. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. Refresh screen. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. -t NSH 1 . Sort on the specified column. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed.P. This data is not available on all systems. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second.

nmem(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. see the man page for blexpr. Inc. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to memory info view. Switch to disk info view. nnet(1). AND. nps(1). Switch to statistics view. Switch to network info view. When an expression is used to match a string. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. ndf(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. wildcards are supported. but does not mimic it exactly. For full details on expressions. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. and OR. host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. including NOT. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to process summary view.Property of BladeLogic. Switch to system info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Switch to process info view.8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2.

Do not show a header on output. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. Inc. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available. See the -s option below. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. Behave top like. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. See the -f option below. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. Only show entries which match the given expression. Comparisons are made case neutral. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. addresses. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. addresses. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Property of BladeLogic. Inc. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.. This option overrides the -t option. MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf.. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.P. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic.

4. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. and OR. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nnet(1). CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. nover(1). ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). or 0 (10). When an expression is used to match a string. including NOT. Inc. Switch to memory info view. Switch to disk info view. enclose the expression in single quotes).6. nmem(1). nps(1). Switch to process info view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. see the man page for blexpr. For full details on expressions..e. Switch to statistics view. AND. Inc.9.7. The expression should be a single argument (i. Property of BladeLogic. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Switch to system info view.2.8.3.5. Switch to process summary view. ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. you can define an expression used to filter the output data. Switch to network info view. wildcards are supported.

Also compare file permissions. In its base use. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory.. If the file exists. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. Also compare file ownerships. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. -o. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. Do not output files if they are equal. and date of latest modification.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . By default. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. When you specify the -p option. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . When you specify the -s option. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. the following codes may also appear.. file ownerships. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. The file exists but has different file ownerships. the width is set to 80 characters. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. Traverse directories recursively. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. then depending on which options you specified. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. -t. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. and -p options. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. The file exists but has different access permissions. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. file permissions. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. Also compare file sizes. Inc. When you specify the -o option. If ndircmp detects different file sizes.

ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO cp(1). By default. assume the output device width to be width characters. NSH 2 . it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. When you specify the -t option. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns.. ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus. These options (-1. each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. The default assumption is 80 characters. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output.. When calculating the optimal output. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. -2 . where N is the number of directories being checked. dsync(1). ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification.

If the program is called explicitly. If you specify this option. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions.. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. . Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option). Inc. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>.g. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh). Finally. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host.g. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e. etc. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands. In addition. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 .profile) should be run. Without this option. For more information. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. LOGNAME. ksh.. It sets the HOME. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. Once the remote program has been started. any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. bash. On UNIX agents. which some interactive programs need (e. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways. -l Simulates a login session. as determined by the current working directory.

By default. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call. Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. As such. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment. With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. is converted to the local code page.3 or later. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. In the same way. a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. before it is passed to the application. Imagine for example. automatically transcode data. Do not transcode input/output. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. Release 7. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. To deal with this nexec will now. See examples below. It must be a batch (output only) command. input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where.0. Inc. This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done. by default.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). meaning no auto transcoding. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. This option is available on agents running 7. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. As such the output will be not very useful. the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command.

the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command. First./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. For more information.. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs. see the nsh man page. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution. In the first instance.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started. host% cat hosts NSH 3 . take the following steps. Inc.

Similarly. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems.bletch.bletch.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 4 . ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus. The best example of this is the ps command. Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. SEE ALSO rsh(1). this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs. While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands. An option may not be universal to all platforms.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid.bletch.bletch. not all commands are available on all hosts. Inc.com Hostname for rome is: rome.com In the following example. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon.

The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. rlogin. The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. and/or ssh. If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. Inc. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. NSH 1 . This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name.nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. It performs a remote login to host. OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. SEE ALSO nexec(1). nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password. The name of the remote host you want to log into. telnet(1). nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence.

OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Inc. Do not show a header on output.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic.P. See the -f option below. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. Behave top like. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB.. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available.. Property of BladeLogic. Only show entries which match the given expression. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. See the -s option below. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. addresses.P. This option overrides the -t option. Comparisons are made case neutral. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Inc. addresses.

Inc. ndf(1). For full details on expressions. Switch to disk info view. or 0 (10). Inc. AND.2. Switch to statistics view. nnet(1).7.8. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command.e.9.5.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. and OR. nps(1). enclose the expression in single quotes). When an expression is used to match a string. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to process summary view. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Switch to network info view.6. including NOT. The expression should be a single argument (i. nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. you can define an expression used to filter output data. Switch to process info view.3. -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Property of BladeLogic.4. Switch to memory info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. nstats(1) NSH 2 . Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to system info view. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nover(1). wildcards are supported. see the man page for blexpr..

If there is no MAC address. Show only entries that match the given expression. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. Subnet mask for the adapter. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. address of the adapter. By default. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. Refresh screen. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. or if you do not have the required permissions. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. I. Do not show a header on output. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The field must be one of the column headers listed above.P. Not all adapters have a MAC address. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. With this option. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. NSH 1 . nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. addresses. Quit application. NAME Adapter name. Reverse sort order. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. Quit application.P. In addition. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.P. addresses.2 and beyond.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system... See the -s option below. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. the MAC address appears as all zeros. Inc. MAC Adapter MAC address. See the -f option below. This option overrides the -t option. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.

5. nover(1). nnet(1) Sort on the specified column. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nps(1).nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. ndf(1) NSH 2 . ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nstats(1). nmem(1).4. For full details on expressions. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. see the man page for blexpr. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior.3. but does not mimic it exactly. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. or 7. Inc.2. Replace the # character with 1.6.

it is directed to the same place as the standard output. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. Inc.2 (“POSIX. . If standard error is a terminal. .NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the standard output is appended to the file nohup. Otherwise. If the standard output is a terminal. Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg .2”) compatible. 1993 1 .out in the current directory. SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup. BSD June 6. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked.out cannot be created in the current directory.] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored.

AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. Do not show a header on output.. Only show entries which match the given expression. addresses. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. and as not set for Solaris. This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.g.P.P. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. addresses. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information. Comparisons are made case neutral. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. Inc. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Property of BladeLogic. ARCH The system hardware architecture. See the -f option below. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.. Behave top like. Inc. the kernel release for Linux. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. This option overrides the -t option. Windows systems. CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). See the -s option below. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. the release level for AIX. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic.

EL solaris8 SunOS 5. Switch to memory info view. Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. see the man page for blexpr. nps(1).5.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to statistics view. Switch to disk info view. Switch to system info view. For full details on expressions.4. nnet(1).8. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to network info view.21-4. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. or 0 (10). Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Inc. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). wildcards are supported.e.. and OR.9. Inc. enclose the expression in single quotes). EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems). including NOT.4. nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.7.3. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nstats(1) NSH 2 .6. you can define an expression used to filter output data. Switch to process info view.2. nmem(1). ndf(1). The expression should be a single argument (i. AND. When an expression is used to match a string.

The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Inc. addresses.Property of BladeLogic. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. This option overrides the -t option. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. addresses.P. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I..] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. Refresh screen. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Show only entries that match the given expression. Quit application. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display.. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .P. Do not show a header on output. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether. See the -f option below. -t NSH 1 . With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. See the -s option below. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether. Reverse sort order. Quit application. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. The field must be one of the column headers listed above.

AND. see the man page for blexpr. Inc. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nmem(1).3. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Switch to memory info view. When an expression is used to match a string. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Switch to process summary view. Switch to process info view. but does not mimic it exactly.2. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to disk info view. including NOT. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to network info view.Property of BladeLogic. 7 or 8.5. nstats(1) NSH 2 . nps(1).4. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. nover(1). For full details on expressions. Define an expression to filter the output data. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. and OR.6. Replace the # character with 1. Sort on the specified column. nnet(1). Switch to statistics view. Switch to system info view. wildcards are supported.

The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using. With this option.. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. Do not show a header on output. -t NSH 1 . the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Show only entries that match the given expression. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. The parent process ID. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. (This column only appears in the -c output. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. START The start time of the process. Inc.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the -s option below. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. The process’ priority. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process.) The process ID. Refresh screen. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. The total amount of real memory that the process is using. USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . This option overrides the -t option. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.

but does not mimic it exactly. and OR.9. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Replace the # character with 1. nnet(1).4.5. Define an expression to filter the output data. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. 0 indicates column 10. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Inc. Switch to system info view. Reverse sort order.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. wildcards are supported. Switch to network info view.7. ndf(1). Property of BladeLogic. see the man page for blexpr. you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. For example. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to process info view.6. nstats(1) NSH 2 . ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes.2. including NOT. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. nmem(1). AND. Switch to disk info view.3. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. Inc. Switch to process summary view. Switch to statistics view. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.8. Inc. or 0. For full details on expressions. nover(1). Switch to memory info view.

assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. as the following example illustrates. If you have set a root directory. such as C:. the \h sequence takes on a new value. you should also specify a directory. When you cd to a new host. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name.EXE In Network Shell. nor can you access any other drives. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works.34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host.0. NSH 1 . If you do not. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. You can never access the root of a drive. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. To access other drives on the computer. Inc. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -.Property of BladeLogic. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree.

Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command.Property of BladeLogic. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. In the following example. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 . the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. enter the command with a fully qualified path. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities. For example. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory.. to execute the native command. When executing a command. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. Inc./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges.tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host. the command returns the hostid of host2. Native commands. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd .. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method./.

The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. for example. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE. It should be a non-interactive program. Inc. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). you must perform two steps. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. but. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. they can be set to use default values. the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. For example: command_name . PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. If. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. By entering a value of -. If this field is not set. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. To add a supported remote command using this method. First. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. create a soft link to the program nexec.Property of BladeLogic. and reboot. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. In addition to regular DOS commands. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. First. capturing both its standard output and standard error. There are a few limitations when using redirection. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 . The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. This can be unset. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. as described earlier. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. halt. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. To continue with the above example. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program.

nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option. Next. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. the redirection type <>. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead..nshrc $ZDOTDIR/.. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. is treated the same as the < redirection type. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command. THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses. If no arguments are given. $ZDOTDIR/. For example. The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . the shell closes all connections. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . Inc. then a new dynamic network connection is created. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. When accessing relatively few remote hosts. Other values may produce unexpected results.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above). The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. For efficiency reasons.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/.Property of BladeLogic. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process. calling the disconnect command is not required.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts.nshenv $ZDOTDIR/. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments.

Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 .Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

NSH::rmdir ("bar"). $fd = NSH::open ("bar". Network Shell Perl Module 1 . Inc. use NSH. NSH::close($fd). 0777). $count = NSH::read ($fd. NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". (W_OK) Test for write permission. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path. 0777). NSH::chmod ("bar". $buf. NSH::close($fd). NSH::. The following examples will help clarify their use. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". $count = NSH::read ($fd. The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API. then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname).. 0. $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar". If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). 100). 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". and commands."). 0777). 100). then the file on the current host is used. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). (R_OK) Test for read permission.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic.. int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. SYNOPSIS use NSH. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::chdir (". DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. NSH::chmod (char *path. $buf. int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files. If no hostname is included in the argument. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. 0. NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname.. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. processes. NSH::unlink("file").

Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. 100. 12). NSH::fchown ($fd. NSH::close ($fd). and group gid. NSH::close ($fd). while (($filename. NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd. NSH::write ($fd. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). NSH::creat (char *filename. int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. pwd = NSH::getcwd (). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. } NSH::closedir ($fd). "Hello world\n". $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". int uid. NSH::close ($fd). NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. Network Shell Perl Module 2 .NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. 200). $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n".") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n". Inc. int uid. NSH::chown ("foo". $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". NSH::fgets (char *buffer. NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". print "PWD = $pwd". and group gid. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. NSH::fchdir($fd). int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. 200). int size. 100.

9). while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. } NSH::close ($fd). The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". In other words. NSH::kill (100. int sig) Send a signal to a process. know what you are doing with the call. $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100. $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). Network Shell Perl Module 3 . process group or user. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH). If sig is ommitted. then a SIGTERM is sent. 512.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. NSH::kill (int pid. and can have any of the following values ORed together. Inc. NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. NSH::ftruncate (int fd. 100). NSH::flock (int fd. Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). $prio = NSH::getpriority (0. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". NSH::getpriority (int which. Remove lock. The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired.

0777). If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. NSH::lseek ($fd. If mode is ommitted. then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. mode is assumed to be 0755. the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). int mode. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. if the second (and third) argument are not given. you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. int flags = O_RDONLY. NSH::mkdir ("foo. Inc. If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). mode is assumed to be 0755. NSH::mkdir ("foo. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). If only a single argument is given. NSH::link ("file1". 0777). If none is given. int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET). NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). then the file is opened for reading. Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. int maj. int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. Network Shell Perl Module 4 . long offset. The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. If mode is ommitted. NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. When creating a file. $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). the pointer is set to offset bytes. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. 0). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. NSH::mknod (char *filename. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. As previously mentioned. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. 2. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. NSH::lseek (int fd. The second argument controls how the file is opened.

Inc. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). If mode is ommited. char *buffer. 100)) { print $buf. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack. $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). NSH::closedir($fd). Network Shell Perl Module 5 . it is assumed to be ’r’. Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. NSH::popen (char *cmd. $buf. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. ls") while (NSH::read ($fd.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. } NSH::read (int fd. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option.

($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link. NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $pos). int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). } NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. NSH::setpriority (int which. process group or user. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". NSH::rename ("foo". Network Shell Perl Module 6 . Inc. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). prio is the new priority to be set. NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. NSH::rewinddir ($fd). $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". NSH::rename (char *oldname. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. int who. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. NSH::seekdir ($fd.

STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. $release. [2]). int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. $version. $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename. ($sysname. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. [1]). 200). "//host2". [4]). The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. %d\n". NSH::write (int fd. long mtime.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $nodename. In the Network Shell environment. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . All three (lstat. long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. In essence. If either mtime or atime are not given. "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. the following command is generated and executed. %d\n". will not work outside the Network Shell environment. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). NSH::truncate ("foobar". NSH::truncate (char *filename. The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). NSH::utime (char *filename. [3]). printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". then the current date of the local host is used. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. foreach $host ("//host1". Inc. NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). char *buffer. %d\n". %d\n". NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. These types of symbolic links however. fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. stat.

NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . %d\n". %d\n". [10]). %d\n". [11]). [9]). %d\n". @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). [8]). [7]). Inc. %d\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". %d\n". [6]). [12]). %d\n".

. done. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. done. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file... From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux. -b When writing data to the remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample.. then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly). . .012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3. . This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host. (52.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes). DESCRIPTION Depending on the network.. nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times. This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. (See EXAMPLE. It does not test how fast it can receive data. The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data. done. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB). use a file size KB large. .. use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size.. -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes.. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus. If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data.) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size.145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51.147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host... .. Inc. To determine the optimal write buffer size. # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux . done. OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes. but sometimes this value may not be optimal..173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. . perform a bulk write rather than a regular write. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. done..nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes .. NSH 1 . nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review.

nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. cp(1). secure(1). Inc. NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1).

Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname .] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine. a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine. Inc.. Inc.nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic.. NSH 1 . ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’.

Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.6. Sort on the specified column. This option overrides the -t option. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics.. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Quit application. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values.. Inc. Show only entries that match the given expression. LOAD The system’s current load average. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used. The percentage of total swap space currently being used. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. For Windows. For UNIX. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . See the -f option below. By default.2. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. or 7. Quit application. it shows a CPU usage percentage.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. The current time on the system. Do not show a header on output. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.5. Reverse sort order. see uptime (1).4. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.P. With this option. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Replace the # character with 1. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. addresses.P. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. addresses. -t NSH 1 . See the -s option below. Refresh screen. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. PROCS The total number of processes currently running.3.

including NOT. Switch to disk info view. Switch to system info view. Switch to memory info view. Switch to network info view. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. nmem(1). nover(1) NSH 2 . ndf(1).00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0. ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). blexpr(1).03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. For full details on expressions. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. Switch to process info view. Inc. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. nps(1).00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to statistics view. AND. see the man page for blexpr. Switch to process summary view. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. wildcards are supported. and OR. nnet(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. but does not mimic it exactly.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.

please read the individual man page for each command. blquery(1)...ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . SEE ALSO blexpr(1)...] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nover(1). nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nps(1). nmem.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers... nmem(1). nstats(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . nover. Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Inc.... For more information. ndf(1) NSH 1 .. nps.

Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify. OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed. Inc.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 . server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic. Inc.

provided that the file has the correct header. This option is the default when decompressing. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip. --quiet --verbose Same as -v. or . Inc. gunzip. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed. Verbose output. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with . gzcat.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo. copy the time stamp from the compressed file. Inc. For example. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic. gzip -c file1 > foo. when config. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic. File or files to be compressed or decompressed.gz nunzip foo. the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config.tgz. Instead. 1 . .tar. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present.gz.GZ. --help file Display a help screen and quit. --no-name When decompressing.gz is uncompressed.gz nunzip --verbose foo.tar.TGZ. .gz Suppress all warnings.

Inc. the string order is not changed. If tag fields are provided in the input list. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. Remove duplicate entries. only the -s option is considered. The resulting list contains only unique entries. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’.txt. Sorting is alphabetical. Within each tag group. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. The strings are only grouped by tag. $cat list. If you do not provide a sorting option. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. the tag field is optional. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. In the syntax shown above. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. input lines are contained in a file called list. If you provide a tag field.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. Sort the list in descending order. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified.

txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.txt europe order(1) NSH 2 . Inc.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list.

order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. Inc. NSH 3 .

the standard input is used. Berkeley and its contributors. Inc.merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character. \n \t \ \0 -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order.8 Last change: NSH 1 . ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. and writes the resulting lines to standard output..e. SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5. If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character. DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files.. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. i.. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. unless otherwise specified by the -d option. The characters in list are used circularly. standard input is read one line at a time. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. The paste utility exits 0 on success. and >0 if an error occurs. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. for each instance of ‘-’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. circularly.

and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns.. [file . write. The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input.to_date]] .. [-G group] .. The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable. pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling). pax will read an archive file from standard input. [pattern . [pattern . see the section below. and copy. For a description of tar options.. pax will read an archive file from standard input....to_date]] . All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy.. [file . <none> List.. [-E limit] [-U user] . If you do not specify any file operands.. Write. If you do not specify any file operands. The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic.to_date] [/[c][m]]] . [-T [from_date] [.] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] . -w -r -w NSH 1 .. [-U user] . [-s replstr] . pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. [-T [from_date] [. The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering. The setting of ownership.. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [. except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below). write... and write a table of contents to standard output.. When an extracted file is a directory..... the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included.. [-G group] . Copy. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input. access and modification times. pax operation is independent of the specific archive format.tar ...... [-s replstr] ... [-G group] .read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files . pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory.] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read. The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list. and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option. read.. The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted... [-o options] .. For a list of supported archive formats. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation.. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax. When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included.] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] . pax copies the file operands to the destination directory.. [-U user] .. and list the members of an archive file. and supports a wide variety of different archive formats.... [-p string] . and will copy directory hierarchies. see the -x option.. Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands. -r Read. [-U user] .to_date] [/[c][m]]] ..] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] . pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format..... [-G group] .. [-T [from_date] [.. When a file operand is also a directory..] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] ... Inc...

Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. When a pattern matches a directory. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. pax selects all members of the archive. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. S_IRWXG. If you do not specify a block size. pax uses the archive’s existing format. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). or archive members of type directory being extracted. If you do not supply a pattern operand. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. or if it is not of type directory. If you try to append to an archive.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. respectively. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. If you do not specify any file operands. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. If the directory operand does not exist. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. When required. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. pattern operands. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. Inc. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. or if it is not writable by the user. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. and file operands.

pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. m. and you can specify multiple -p options. file mode bits. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. In general. For example. its file mode and. The string consists of the specification characters a. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. Preserve the user ID and group ID. pax skips the file or archive member. (This option is the letter ell). its modification time. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. Inc. If this line is blank. Preserve the file mode bits. the one(s) given last will take precedence. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. o. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. and p (described below).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. By default. and file modification time. NSH 3 . pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. When pax matches members of type directory. if -p eme is specified.the user ID. Preserve everything -. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. The file times are preserved by default. m o p In the preceding list. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. Do not preserve file modification times. group ID. Otherwise. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). subject to the permissions of the invoking process. file modification times are still preserved. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. file access time. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. If this line consists of a single period. By default. Do not overwrite existing files. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. In the copy mode ( -r -w). The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. Link files. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. e. This is intended to be used by root. someone with all the appropriate privileges.

pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. for all the other operational modes ( read. During a list operation. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. The trailing <newline>. is not buffered. do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 .2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. or subexpression matching. During write. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). -x format Specify the output archive format. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. write. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here).pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. You can specify multiple -s expressions. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. Otherwise. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. The old binary cpio format. old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). The old string may also contain <newline> characters. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. read or accessed them. During read. This format is not very portable. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. During copy. Therefore. pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. and is written only after the file has been read or written. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option. and copy). Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. Inc. terminating with the first successful substitution. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line. with the default format being ustar.

2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. 1024 (1K) or 512. hard links. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. k. -D This option is the same as the -u option. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive). If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). pax detects the truncation and repairs it.) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. gid. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. Only regular files. The default limit is a small positive number of retries. The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example. or when starting with a #. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). Instead. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). You can use a ’´ to escape the #. etc. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. soft links. link pathname length and the type of the file. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. With a positive limit. a numeric gid. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. NSH 5 . uid. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. You can supply multiple -G options. Do not follow symbolic links. This is the default mode. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. Checking stops with the first match. Inc. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. -G group Select a file based on its group name. The bytes limit can end with m. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk.3. perform a physical file system traversal. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. file size. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. respectively.

the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). This option is the same as the -D option. etc). -U. -Y. the names of these selected files. If you supply only a to_date. A time range is made up of six different fields. Time ranges are relative to the current time. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. dd. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). When archiving files during a write operation. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. a numeric uid. When pax is in the write or copy mode. -G. Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 . -n. -u. -G. When extracting files during a read operation. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. Checking stops with the first match. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. -T. the names of these selected files. If you specify neither. The minute field mm is required. -u. and -Z) interact as follows. -T. You can supply multiple -U options. -v. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). or when starting with a #. yy. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. Checking stops with the first match. or copying files during a copy operation. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. -D. -U options. -u. -D. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. mm. mode. -T. for example. The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time.ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). If you supply only a from_date. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. -n. the last time there was a change of owner. -D. -i. This option is the same as the -u option. -s. If you specify both c and m. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed. Inc. file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. You can supply multiple -T time ranges. -G. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. Each field must contain two digits. group. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change.

pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. Follow command line symlinks only.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use.. group ID. access/modification times. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update.pax reads the archive a. The command: pax -r -s ’. Follow symlinks. Interactive file rename.’ -f a. Inc. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options. Verbose operation mode. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . Preserve user ID. Extract data from archive. In this case the following options are supported.pax. along with the -n option. Append to the archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 . with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory. NSH 7 . Create an archive.ˆ//*usr//*. file mode. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. Do not follow symlinks. Stop after first error. Append to the archive. Do not preserve modification time. List contents of the tape. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename. Do not pass over mount points in the file system.

group ID. -T. NSH 8 .pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . -P. Inc. or cannot preserve the user ID. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. 1 An error occurred. -Y. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. -L. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. but continues processing. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. The options -B. the archive formats bcpio. it exits with a non-zero exit status. -E.pax will extract all files from the archive a. while doing a copy. -G. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. sv4crc. Additionally. -Z. -U. sv4cpio. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. -D.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. If. pax will not create a second copy of the file. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. pax does not copy the file. or file mode when the -p option is specified. Berkeley and its contributors. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status. ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. and the modification and access times may be wrong. -H. tar. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully.

You can specify multiple hostname/I. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic.P. such as /bin/sh. It will first determine which packages you want to install. For example. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . -h host The resolvable hostname or I.P. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. etc. as well as any optional response or admin files. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility. address of the host on which you want to install the package. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. /bin/ksh. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). If you do not use this option. can reside on any server.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. including remote servers. it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp. address arguments. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. admin. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell. Inc. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). The packages you install. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

With the P_ATT variable set. Inc. the -f option will override the -i option.rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). NSH 2 . the -i option will override the -f option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).

Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. In this case. This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated. Before the client exits. 1 . it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections. With this mechanism. It goes through the following steps: 1 . the agent closes the connection. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. If it finds an entry in the database. When it hears a connection. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). If necessary. If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. 2 . The agent will use this information in further security related checks. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake.Based on the client host. the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates. the encryption type and encryption key or keys. NSH 1 . the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. then verifies that it is a valid handshake. 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . so that it can run in background mode. Next. STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. either from a command line or from a script.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. 2 . If the handshake is valid. If not.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. But first. the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. among other things. the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. the agent defaults to port 4750. Inc. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. This information is found in the secure file and includes. it uses the configured port number. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. determine how the communication between the two should occur. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred. If it finds an entry. the agent closes the connection.If it does not find an entry there. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). 4 .The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server).If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port. 3 .Before going any further. it uses the configured port number. it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur.

If the client is allowed to have access. Output some debug messages. Do not fork. and what permissions the client should have. Inc. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file.Once it has the initial handshake data. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on).Once the daemon has all the relevant information. If the client is not allowed to have access. and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user. the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. These are also known as the user overrides.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. users (1).rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. 6 . then the daemon sets the final permissions. the daemon sets them. If there should be overrides. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file. -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on. Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1). secure (1). OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). Output brief usage description. it decides whether or not the client should have access.

Those permissions govern your access to that host.. To do this. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell. If you are accessing multiple hosts.. you will not get access to the host. Inc. If the remote user is not set up this way.. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. just as if you had entered an incorrect password. Password for root@host3: . the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions... You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with. For this option to work. you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. Normally. $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host. With the rsu command.] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine. you will not gain access to the remote server. If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password. Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server. use the -p option. In other words.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). host1 $ NSH 1 . The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions.. the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. Except when you are using the -p option (see below).

Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password...local. Inc. rscd(1) NSH 2 .) in the users. exports (1). Appropriate entries (rsu=. EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command. ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1). and/or exports file must exist. users.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details.

. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host.. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed. For example. This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. The format of this file is one entry per line. If you do not specify a start directory with the host. Depending on what action you are currently performing.. The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname.. which consists of a hostname and directory. which consists of a hostname and directory. -n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. hostn] [-e command1 ... runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering.. -e cmd . This option must be the last option. -h host . To this end. This option specifies the command to execute.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed... hostn] [-e command1 .. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. -H header By default.. Inc. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name.. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name. you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names. NSH 1 . After encountering the -h option. Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path.

Inc. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. you may not want to do things in parallel. host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. In other words. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. Output a brief explanation of the available options. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). Output the effective command executed for each host. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. This is implicit if the program name is runscript.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option. This can significantly speed things up. Execute a Network Shell script on each host. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel.

AIX . Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option. no OS name extension).. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l . See also -h -h host [host .[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 .. With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. With this option one can override the staging directory. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers. when looking to run a script.. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported. If a name is given. the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine.scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic.e. then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied.[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group . As such. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. -o file By default.] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on.. then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name. If it does not refer to an existing file. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task. grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec). Inc. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit.[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. . Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 .

Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp.[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). nexec (NSH). .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. scriptutil(1) . Inc.HP-UX . NSH 2 .

−w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. 2008 1 . BSD March 28. Start editing an empty file. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. Ignore trailing blank spaces. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. prompting at each set of differences. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. Start editing file with left set of diffs. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. the user is prompted for each set of differences. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. Start editing file with right set of diffs. Start editing file with both sets of diffs. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. for details of which editor. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. See the −o option for an explanation. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. Quit sdiff. if any. The default is 130 characters. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. is invoked. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. below. Minimize diff size.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. See EDITOR and VISUAL. In this mode. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. Skip identical lines. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile.

vi(1).net〉. Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. though some require GNU diff. Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. CAVEATS Although undocumented. If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. the default is vi(1). diff3(1). 2008 2 . ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. The default is /tmp. depending on the current column.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data. BSD March 28. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option. VISUAL takes precedence. diff(1). SEE ALSO cmp(1).

a. By storing passwords in the securecert file. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents. you can provide a host’s IP address. then the software looks for a default entry. By default. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below).. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. or hostname. including encryption and authentication parameters.509 certificates. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. When entering a value for hostname. which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. use the special hostname default. For an Application Server. a resolvable host name. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> . default. create a hostname entry in the secure file. Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. The order of entries in the secure file matters. Thus. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection. Inc. use the special hostname rscd. Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. through an indirect deployment).. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 . SSL). for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. If the agent does not find a match. it uses the rscd entry. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. If the client does not find a match. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. it uses the default entry. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. On the agent side.k. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE.

that user is SYSTEM. While this is an important security measure. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). If hostname is not provided. If hostname is not provided. the passwords are not revealed. If no value is entered for file. On UNIX-style systems. If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. Inc. On UNIX-style systems. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. -down hostname Move the entry down one. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. that user is typically root. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. that user is bladmin. NSH 2 . To accomplish this. See below for details. As mentioned above. you are prompted to enter the hostname. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. you are prompted to enter the hostname. in a regular secure file. On Windows. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. When issuing a secadmin command. If hostname is not provided. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. you are prompted to enter the hostname. To accomplish this. then the file secure.cfg is used. With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. On Windows.

The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below). -w size -z value Set compression level. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. If you are adding or modifying an entry. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. If -u is a negative number. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. NSH 3 . The default protocol is protocol 5. To compress data. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. The default value for -u is 1 minute. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id.2. set value to a number between 1 and 9.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes. This option must be used with the -c option. with a higher number indicating better compression. supported since release 5. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. By default data is not compressed. This option requires a certificate. the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. Inc. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. No authorizations or certificates are required.pem. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. With the -u option. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization.

then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 .168. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host. A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting.255. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option. Setting hostname to . Consequently.is the same as giving no redirection host.0 might look something like: @192. you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections. Inc.255. The secadmin utility also provides the following options. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon). If no hostname is given.509 certificate. The password to the private key for a user’s X. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server.10. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters.509 certificate. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server. Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server.

100.240 255.168. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host.168.secadmin(1) 255.224 255.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.168.100.255.129/25 @192.255.255.168. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.255.168. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192.255.225/27 @192. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).255.100.255.255.000 255.100. NSH 5 .100.128 255. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).100.168.192 255.255.193/26 @192.255. To delete the entry for host foo.255.0/24 @192.241/28 @192. Inc.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file. enter the following command.

. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands.] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). 1993 1 . Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. and deletes the pattern space.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Normally. into a pattern space. . or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). The input is then written to the standard output. The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second. each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. not including its terminating newline character.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30. All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. −n By default. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address. but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). Inc. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. appending a newline. [address[. only that line is selected. . sed cyclically copies a line of input. . The −n option suppresses this behavior.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. or the standard input if no files are specified.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . copies the pattern space to the standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . sed starts looking again for the first address. by default.

e. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. or two addresses. ‘y’. ‘r’. use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. not compile-time. representing zero. For example. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . just the delimiter characters are specified. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”. The argument text consists of one or more lines. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. In a context address. or [2addr]. If a regular expression is empty. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. however. 1993 2 . Two of the functions take a function-list. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. BSD December 30. as follows: { function function . ‘!’. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. You can’t. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. 2. To embed a newline in the text. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. ‘t’. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. and at run-time. The ‘b’. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins. Also. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. For example. i.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. If the label is not specified.. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. In addition. precede it with a backslash.. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. Inc. one. ‘s’. branch to the end of the script.. sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. ‘w’. [1addr].

up to the first newline character to the standard output. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. Long lines are folded. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Write the pattern space to standard output. [2addr]l (The letter ell. text is written to the standard output. with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. Append the next line of input to the pattern space. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \\ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. If file cannot be read for any reason. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. Note that the current line number changes. Write the pattern space. Inc. 1993 3 . [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space.

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). Consequently you must escape or quote them. which can be used for grouping primitives. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. CAVEATS Parentheses. Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). and the directory /etc/security exists. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory. With the P_ATT variable set.test(1) Property of BladeLogic. the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. test is an executable program. Unable to get a license to use the software. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. Value of the expression is FALSE. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. Inc. also have special meaning to the sh(1). The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. An operand of a primitive was missing. which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator.

If “YY” is specified. the year is set in the 21st century. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. where a time format is specified as the first argument. it is created with default permissions. The month of the year. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. The second two digits of the year. BSD April 28. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. When no −r or −t option is specified. If the file doesn’t exist.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. is supported. “DD”. Inc. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day.SS]] file [ . Do not create the file if it does not exist. Attempt to force the update. Change the access and modification times to the specified time. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. The “MM”. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. a “CC” value of 20 is used. The minute of the hour. from 1 to 12. otherwise. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. . even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. there are at least two arguments. Otherwise.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. the values default to the current year. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. the value defaults to 0. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. from 1 to 31. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. from 0 to 23. 1995 1 . but “CC” is not. The hour of the day. from 0 to 61. The day of the month. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. . The second of the minute. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. from 0 to 59. Change the modification time of the file.

BSD April 28. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003. 1995 2 .2 (“POSIX. Inc. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.2”) specification.

In the third synopsis form. Shpink October 27. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. In the second synopsis form. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. In the fourth synopsis form. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values. A backslash followed by 1. The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. In the first synopsis form. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. If string1 is longer than string2. Inc. 1991 1 .

i. it is interpreted as an octal value. inclusively. and >0 if an error occurs. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. Inc. If n has a leading zero. 1991 2 . System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. it’s interpreted as a decimal value.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. they are ordered after their encoded values. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. otherwise. If n is omitted or is zero. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. English has no equivalence classes. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. Otherwise. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. see ctype(3) and related manual pages. one per line. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes.e. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. characters are entered in ascending order.

the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. ‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior. Additionally. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2. Inc. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. Shpink October 27. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. 1991 3 . any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’. additionally. for example. This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. However.

If no options are specified. Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network).2”). Print the operating system version. machine(1). Print the operating system name. SEE ALSO hostname(1).2-1992 (“POSIX.4 BSD. Print the machine hardware name. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4. Print the processor type in more detail. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. BSD January 26. Print the patch level. 1994 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output. Inc.UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Print the operating system release. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified.

This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option. By default.. dsync(1).. DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place. Inc. Set the suffix to suf. just delete the files.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. It does not rename any files. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. uncp looks for the suffix ˜. it renames them (removes the suffix). The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . Output a message for each file being renamed. This option tells it to look for a different suffix. Do not actually make any changes. When uncp finds files with the specified suffix. SEE ALSO cp(1). The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). NSH 1 . This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up. OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names.

e. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent.. Field numbers are one based. followed by a single space. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. BSD December 8. −u Only output lines which are unique. Character numbers are one based. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. the first field is field one.UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. 2002 1 . i. the first character is character one. If specified in conjunction with the −f option.. If additional arguments are specified on the command line. i. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. the second is used as the name of an output file. Only output lines which have duplicates. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. so it may be necessary to sort the files first. Inc.2 (“POSIX. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks.e. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation.2”) compatible.

DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. you should use the rm command. any user can run the unlink command. Unable to get a license to use the software. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files. To restrict its use to the super user. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files. Normally. $ unlink foo. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. without doing any type of error checking. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. NSH 1 .. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file . NOTES By default.old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam.bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*.bar The second example removes all . except that it does exactly what it is told to do.. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems. you should use it only in exceptional cases. In other words. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. unlink always exits with 0. ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1). Inc.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored.

it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. . this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. the path itself cannot. Inc. or between the file(s) and the –x option. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. just specify the . ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive. z i p is appended. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). zip(1L). commonly found on MS-DOS systems. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list.Misc. separated by spaces. . be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. the suffix . all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. immediately after the zipfile specification. .x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. . creates ZIP archives. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS. A companion program. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. ARGUMENTS file[. . See –v in OPTIONS below. Without the –x option. ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. and an ending character. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match).] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). particularly under Unix and VMS. Again. test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. [ c h ] . By default. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. . ranges are specified by a beginning character. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system).) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and if that also fails. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system.42) 1 .) If no matches are found. For example. Only the filename can be a wildcard. test. (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead.] [–x xfile(s) . as with any other ZIP archive. If the file specification is a wildcard. or extract files from a ZIP archive.zip] [file(s) . then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. a hyphen. In particular. but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. This option need not appear at the end of the command line. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. but none in any subdirectories. see above.

‘‘unzip –T \∗. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.zip’’) and is much faster. The names. a diagnostic screen is printed. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. freshen existing files. The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. If the first option on the command line is –Z. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. in order to support obsolescent hardware. extract files to pipe (stdout). If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that. –v lists archive files verbosely. This option performs the same function as the –f option. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. When no zipfile is specified (that is. an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value.42) 2 .Misc. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites.g. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. [OS/2. Inc. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’).. along with totals for all files specified. the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. list archive files (short format). i. the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. the target operating system for which it was compiled. the compiler and version used. By default unzip queries before overwriting. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. just as they are stored (no conversions). and the files are always extracted in binary format. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. test archive files. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below). In addition to the normal header with release date and version. and the compilation date. Note that under many operating systems.. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ). compressed size. the –a option is allowed. update existing files and create new ones if needed. In addition.e. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check. and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’).

The archive’s directory structure is not recreated. and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. convert text files. regardless of the supposed file type. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. the current one). which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. [Unix only. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. converting line endings. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text.. In the example above. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option. That is. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". This is a shortcut for – – –a. all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. match filenames case-insensitively. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. 512-byte record format.42) 3 . Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format.) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications). the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. see above). All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Instead. or similar). specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. and NT supports Unicode.Misc. Inc. (On Tandem. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. [Unix only. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’. just the file’s data.. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. see the relevant options below). [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. it is replaced by the info from the extra field. Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example.g. junk paths. unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms.g. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files).) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. OS/2 HPFS. In addition. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. (For example. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). –a is enabled by default. [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. [BeOS only] junk file attributes. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files.

old MS-DOS FAT. ‘‘EA DATA.) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. etc. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. never overwrite existing files.42) 4 . unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. the Enter/Return key. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). SF’’). (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. in the format file. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS. or rename the current file.##. regardless of the originating file system. At the end of a screenful of output. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages. the extraction methods.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter). unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. so use it with care. Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation. This can be awkward. Inc. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines.) Depending on the archiver.. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive. If a file already exists. overwrite existing files without prompting. [OS/2.) may be stored as all-uppercase names.Misc. skip extraction of all existing files. on some systems. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing.##’’ version numbers are stripped. this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. (obsolete. See –L above. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. but this option allows them to be retained. etc. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5. skip extraction of the current file. (It is often used with –f. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. VMS. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. VMS files can be stored with a version number. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. Whenever possible.g. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Unlike Unix more(1). The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. Also. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. however. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). By default the ‘‘. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. which stores filenotes as comments. conversion of unsupported characters. Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. NT. (And where security is truly important. retain (VMS) file version numbers. interactive prompt to enter passwords. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. however. use the non-echoing. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release.ext. etc.11. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.). By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. This is a dangerous option. overwrite all files.

It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).g. As suggested by the examples above. Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness.0. UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups. During extraction. –q. –o. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. To override an environment option.0 to 5. volume labels are ignored. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. Inc. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq.] [MS-DOS. For example. only reporting errors. This may seem awkward or confusing. a diskette). to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. This can be done with any option. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default.. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. In most cases this will require special system privileges. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. To cancel both quiet flags. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. –C. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. but it is probably most useful with the –a. in effect. for example. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent). or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix.Misc. acting on the q option. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. make it quieter. –L. considered to be just like any other command-line options. extra ownership info available on some operating systems.42) 5 . Unix. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS. For instance. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.0). UNZIP takes precedence. and the second is a minus sign. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. OS/2. or security ACLs under Windows NT. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. however. For compatibility with zip(1L). make it match names case-insensitively. but under Unix. OS/2.

zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850. if both of these fail. DOS PKZIP 2. EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems. The correct password will always check out against the header. UnZip 5. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. unzip will prompt for another password.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else.. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. (In fact.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. If the first password fails the header check on some file. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.42) 6 . However..g. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. and so on until all files are extracted. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. that’s not quite true. Latin-1). and our source archives do now include full crypt code.g. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. To check a version for crypt support. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. if a zipfile member is encrypted. US export restrictions have been liberated. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. but at a cost in security.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters.zip. as noted above. OS/2 and Win3. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled. If a password is not known. it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. since spring 2000. but due to United States export restrictions.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. Inc. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e.04g uses the OEM code page. followed by the alternate one (e. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). Windows PKZIP 2. See the description of –f above for details. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well. As noted above. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. On EBCDIC systems.Misc.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. entering a null password (that is. OEM code page) to test passwords.

something that is worth making a habit of doing. ∗.42) 7 . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory. double quotes could have been used instead. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip or unzip –l––q file.zip’’ is generally not necessary.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗. whether decryption support was compiled in. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’).zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards.g. being a lazy sort.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on).: unzip –v In the last five examples. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1.f. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may. the compiler with which unzip was compiled.tex.zip "∗. Makefile.zip "∗.1 or later contain no timezone information.c.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source.) To extract to standard output all members of letters. ∗.C. and any makefile.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files. auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. regardless of case (e. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory.c and ∗.h.zip whose names end in . Inc.Misc.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2.zip (Note that the ‘‘. as in the source examples below.. as in Unix. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.zip or unzip –l–q file.zip "∗. in fact. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗. both ∗. etc.

Misc. In addition.) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. but processing completed successfully anyway. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. the disk is (or was) full during extraction. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. 9-11 and 80-82. invalid options were specified on the command line. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. 51). and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. no errors or warnings detected. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s).’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. Processing probably failed immediately. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported. (If even one file is successfully processed. the exit status is 1. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization.zip. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well.42) 8 . one or more warning errors were encountered. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. no matching files were found. except under VMS: 0 1 normal. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted). scarier-looking things. 50. DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. except in conjunction with zip. unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. however. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).

[Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes). The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H. AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). VMS. Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. In addition. block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. This is a limitation of the operating system. NT). Carl Mascott did the first Unix port.g.foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. Atari). passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. zipnote(1L). This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). unzip’s query only allows skipping. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. Harald Denker (Atari. MVS). Smith. SEE ALSO funzip(1L). Chris Herborth (BeOS. In fact. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS).info-zip. unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version. Inc.g. only the [. the old version is not overwritten or deleted. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. not always reproducible). The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large.org/pub/infozip/ . NT. Mark Adler (decompression.Misc.. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). Windows 95. This problem appears to be fixed. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization). unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Jean-loup Gailly (compression). [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. Dates. MS-DOS. Hunter Goatley (VMS). Under DEC Ultrix. times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. Onno van der Linden (Zip). In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). because directories only have a creation time associated with them. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. Amiga). NT). this may not be an issue anymore. zipinfo(1L). overwriting or renaming. Windows DLLs). Windows 95). Johnny Lee (MS-DOS. nor are hard-linked files relinked. shared code. [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette. Mike White (Windows GUI. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. zipcloak(1L). Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). Paul Kienitz (Amiga. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version.dir syntax). as noted above. QNX. zipgrep(1L). then overwrite just the directory entries (e.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp.42) 9 . Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. requiring a reboot. fUnZip).info-zip. older versions of unzip may hang the system. Windows 95. Fail?’’ message. directories and symbolic (soft) links. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output.. Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). John Bush (Solaris. and David P. Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). zip(1L). Retry.

GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v3.1 v5.11 v5.Misc.1 v4. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v4. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5.41 v5.01 v5.x v3. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.31 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.4 v5.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK.1 v4. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42) 10 . GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Smith Samuel H. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v2.12 v5. Inc.32 v5. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.3 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v5.2 v5.

the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. Inc. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. but none in any subdirectories. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. for example. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. particularly under Unix and VMS. By default. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed.Misc. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. . anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). [ c h ] . In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. ‘‘f o o s f x ∗. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) . These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. . the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v). [–x xfile(s) .42) 1 . . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. .x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. In particular. ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. a hyphen. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). . The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. however. and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one. and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. For example. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. Without the –x option. ranges are specified by a beginning character. Among these are the usage (or help) screen.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets.) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. . but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. and an ending character. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce. Despite this. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods).]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

–n (never overwrite).exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx.exe+letters. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives.zip letters. but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing. –o (overwrite without prompting).) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters.42) 2 . Once again. OS/2. –C (match names case-insenstively).) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info).letters.exe" zip -A letters.zip letters. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen). All normal listing options (–l.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS.zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters. See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files).exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters. –q (operate quietly). note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support.exe (The VMS append command may also be used. that is. See unzip(1L) for details. that only adds to the size of the archive. EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L).zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers). since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS. Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.Misc.exe. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). Alternatively. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions. NT. –L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase). EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. OS/2. NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. See unzip(1L) for details. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. Amiga]). those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment. –v and –Z) have been removed. –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction). The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments.exe zip -A letters. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).

Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options.’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS. Also. listing functions and extraction to other directories. in order to create working selfextracting archives. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗. but other compilers may not). the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. notably MacBinary. so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked. unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. or else a full or relative path must be given. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly.g. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS. only stored and deflated files are supported.42) 3 .’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. Atari TOS. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one. MacOS. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. however (e.txt files: letters -x ∗. As noted above. This is not necessary for simple extraction.txt To extract everything except the ∗.. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. etc. see the corresponding man page. DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name. however. ‘‘can’t find myself.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗.g. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above). Inc.txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). as noted above). and therefore neither are the resulting archives. e.Misc.. (For technically oriented users. For some architectures there is limited portability. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. MakeSFX. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. but the command to do so then becomes. simple concatenation does not work. are also known to prepend junk. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info.

org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp.info-zip.info-zip. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L). zipcloak(1L). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Inc. zipinfo(1L). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. unzip(1L). AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX. See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. zipnote(1L). zip(1L). zipgrep(1L).42) 4 .Misc. or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.org/pub/infozip/ .

This line consists of one ASCII space. followed by a number of body lines. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. Inc. Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines. and a trailer line. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. tar cf . uudecode . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. The body consists of a number of lines. These consist of a character count.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space).. the standard input) into the original form. NSH 1 . Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default. When uudecode is run on the target system. The character count is a single printing character. look like a header.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. followed by a newline. uuencodes it and mails it to a user. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal). this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. the file ‘‘src_tree. The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself.tar. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree. and represents an integer. If the size is not a multiple of 3. Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output. Lines preceding a header must not. Berkeley and its contributors. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes. followed by encoded characters. A space separates the three items in the header line. EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree. of course. compresses it.. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. 6 bits per character. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). and a string which names the remote file.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file .tar. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information).

uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. uudecode (1). compress(1) NSH 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1). Inc.

0.2002 BladeLogic Inc.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .0.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 .2002 BladeLogic Inc. BladeLogic Network Shell 4. Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4. ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus.5. SEE ALSO agentinfo(1).5. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server. NSH 1 .version(1) Property of BladeLogic.

. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. or the readonly option was set. Recover the specified files. Inc. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. Start editing in vi mode.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors.) Start editing in read-only mode. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)). Prompts. exactly as if the −s option had been specified. See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. . read the section after the options description. entitled FAST STARTUP. . For the rest of this manual page. vi. it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off. however. . Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. In the vi interface. and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. ex will read commands from it regardless. disallowing all access to external programs. . applicable only to ex edit sessions. Start editing in ex mode. or. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file. 1996 1 .2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. It’s probably enough to get you going. nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. This is the POSIX 1003. (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. if standard input is not a terminal. as if the command name was vi. as if the command name was view. as if the command name were ex. . The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file .2 interface for the historic “-” argument. if no files are specified. BSD October 10.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit. Enter batch mode. list the files that could be recovered. the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified. In the ex interface. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. and no startup files or environment variables are read. the session will be a batch mode session. This is the POSIX 1003. view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. Run with the secure edit option set. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page.

FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. It will also display error messages. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. and start entering text. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. too. e. Move the cursor up one line. and start entering text. except for the last line of the screen. Move the cursor down one line. O or o commands. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. before the cursor. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. If you’ve never used any screen editor before. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work.e. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section.g. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on. and move the cursor to its first character. and for vi to give information to you. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. Move the cursor right one character. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. Generally. 1996 2 . The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. displaying part of the file on each screen line. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed. Append new text. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. i. you are either entering text or you are executing commands.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. Insert new text. vi is a screen editor. There are commands that switch you into input mode. Inc. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. i. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. after the cursor. To start editing a file.

[count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. but not saved your changes. The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. discarding any modifications that you may have made. i. In each entry below. 1996 3 . Quit. Delete the line the cursor is on. if possible. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. leaving the current line and column as is. vi will refuse to quit). Copy the line the cursor is on. If count is not given. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. Inc. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines.e. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. Delete the character the cursor is on. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line.

[count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. % Move to the matching character. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. If count is not given. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. the number is decremented. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. leaving the current line and column as is. [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. 1996 4 . 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. Inc. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. if possible. without changing the current column. the number is incremented. BSD October 10. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’.

[buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. Inc. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. appending the text after the end of the line. [count] ( Back up count sentences. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. [count] . 1996 5 . @ buffer Execute a named buffer. respectively. BSD October 10. count times. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. [count] . [count] A Enter input mode. Execute an ex command. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. If offset is specified. If a count argument is given. Reverse find character count times. [count] . If buffer is specified. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Repeat the last character find count times.

U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. Inc. [count] R Enter input mode. [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. appending text in a new line above the current line. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. [count] J Join lines. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. If a count argument is given. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. If buffer is specified. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. [count] G Move to line count. [count] O Enter input mode. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. If buffer is specified. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. count times. through the current line for the character after the specified character. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. replacing the characters in the current line. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. If buffer is specified. [count] I Enter input mode.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If a count argument is given. or the last line of the file if count is not specified. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. If a count argument is given. 1996 6 . or the default buffer if none is specified.

[count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. [count] a Enter input mode. If a count argument is given. BSD October 10. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. count times. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. appending the text after the cursor. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. If a count argument is given. [count] w Move forward count words. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. Inc. through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. count times. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. appending text in a new line under the current line. If a count argument is given. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. u Undo the last change made to the file. inserting the text before the cursor. [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. 1996 7 . to the first non-blank character. [count] b Move backwards count words. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] i Enter input mode. [count] o Enter input mode. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times.

and reset the autoindent level. display the screen before the current screen. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. 2 screens before ) . [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. Otherwise. If count2 is specified. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. BSD October 10. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. limit the screen size to count2 lines. move to the start of the current line. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. If count1 is given. 1996 8 . 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. Inc. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. If column is omitted. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. place the line count1 at the top of the screen.e. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. Otherwise. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i. 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. display the screen after the current screen.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [range] <[< . In each entry below. each preceded with its line number. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. 1996 9 . 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. . The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. " A comment. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. . [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. . BSD October 10.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode.] [count] [flags] Shift lines right. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file. or filter lines through a shell command. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer. and return to command mode. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. display the line number of the last line in the file. 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. [range] >[> . The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. returning to command mode. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. Inc. . If line is not specified.

BSD October 10. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. Cscope connections. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. 1996 10 . chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. Inc. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. screens or tags. Foreground the specified screen. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. he[lp] Display a help message. vi only. Background the current screen. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line.

q[uit][!] End the editing session.] [nooption . mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. Inc.. 1996 11 . se[t] [option[=[value]] . sh[ell] Run a shell program.. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list. . . rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. [Nn][ext][!] [file .] Edit the next file from the argument list. [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. . Grow or shrink the current screen. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. . . [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉.] [option? . pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option.] [all] Display or set editor options. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). su[spend][!] BSD October 10. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. . editor options and maps to the specified file. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines.

tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. Inc. BSD October 10. writing the file if it has been modified. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 1996 12 . [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. Delete an abbreviation. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. Enter vi. their abbreviations and their default values. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. Edit a new file. clearing the stack. This section describes the options.

cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. exrc. beautify. errorbells. Display the current line automatically. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. altwerase [off ] vi only. BSD October 10. i. Most of the options are boolean. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. autoindent.e. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. eb [off ] ex only. directory. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and do not have an associated value. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. Announce error messages with a bell. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten. comment [off ] vi only. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. 1996 13 . instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. edcompatible. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. autowrite. Skip leading comments in shell. Inc. unless otherwise specified. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . cdpath [environment variable CDPATH. C and C++ language files. autoprint. escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. they are either on or off. bf [off ] Discard control characters. ap [on] ex only. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. columns. the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option.

Inc. lines. hardtabs. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. leftright [off ] vi only. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. This option currently has no effect. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. lisp [off ] vi only. Set the number of lines in the screen. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. This option will never be implemented. This option is not yet implemented. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. li [24] vi only. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. ignorecase. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. 1996 14 . BSD October 10. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. number.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. modelines. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. Do left-right scrolling. read or written. instead of the default hexadecimal. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. matchtime [7] vi only.

prompt [on] ex only. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. shell. 1996 15 . Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. opt [on] vi only. ruler [off ] vi only. re [off ] vi only. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. If this option is not set. shiftwidth. the open and visual commands are disallowed. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. optimize.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. This option is not yet implemented. sh [environment variable SHELL. sections. BSD October 10. redraw. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. scroll. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. Inc. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. showmatch. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. Display a command prompt. sm [off ] vi only. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. readonly.

tags. term. w9600 [no default ] vi only. Inc. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. This option is not yet implemented. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. 1996 16 . This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. This option will never be implemented. ttytype. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. smd [off ] vi only. Select an alternate erase algorithm. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. BSD October 10. wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. w1200 [no default ] vi only. ttywerase [off ] vi only. sidescroll [16] vi only. It has no effect in this implementation. taglength. warn [on] ex only. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. tabstop.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. w. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. verbose [off ] vi only. slowopen. Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. w300 [no default ] vi only. Display an error message for every error. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. timeout. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. before a ! command. tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. window. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud.

SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands.nexrc and $HOME/. If interrupted during text input. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. The number of rows on the screen. the wrapmargin value is used. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. The user’s terminal type. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs.exrc files. writeany. SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. wrapscan. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. Break lines automatically. The default is the type “unknown”. wrapmargin. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. 1996 17 . ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. When an interrupt occurs. Break lines automatically. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. wl [0] vi only. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user. the wrapmargin value is used. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. wm [0] vi only. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). FILES BSD October 10. The user’s home directory. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. Inc.

recover $HOME/.2”). This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors. This document is the final reference for the ex editor. Temporary file directory. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. /usr/share/doc/usd/11. First choice for user’s home directory startup file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. System-wide vi startup file. The default recovery file directory. 1996 18 . This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. /usr/share/doc/usd/12.exrc . re_format(7) The default user shell. /usr/share/doc/usd/12. The files autowrite. Second choice for local directory startup file.4 BSD. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual".summary.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.2 (“POSIX. HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. there are changes to be made on both sides. STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi".vi/vi. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places. The "Vi Quick Reference" card. input. Inc.exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1).nexrc $HOME/. First choice for local directory startup file. quoting.nexrc . This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi. "Ex: A Tutorial".exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi.vi/.edit/. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file.viref/.ex/. BSD October 10. /usr/share/doc/usd/13. "Ex Reference Manual".

conf VSH. The vsh. which is a shell of /bin/sh. If you do not specify a shell. You can use NSH format to name the log files. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. vsh itself does not take any arguments. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file.. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead..<field=val[:val]>.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout).]>[. vsh will automatically terminate the session. Log all terminal output. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val.CONF The vsh. You should create one log file per session. an autologout of NSH 1 . it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output.conf file. Inc. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. You can configure the vsh. Instead. You can specify multiple log files. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed. the vsh log file viewer. All of the above. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool. This file is located in share/vsh. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format.. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it. may not properly understand the result. If you specify <nsh>. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default.conf in the NSH installation directory.conf file controls the behavior of vsh. vshview.vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes.vsh log level This defines what you want to log.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh..conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry.

%w The day of the week as a decimal. %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61). ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1).vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23). %% A literal ‘%’ character. %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. which are expanded at run time. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. range 0 to 6. %Y The year as a decimal number including the century. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). Inc. %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). %a The abbreviated weekday name. %b The abbreviated month name. %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99). NSH 2 .vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. Sunday being 0. The following macros are supported. %h Current host name. %A The full weekday name. To do this. %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). %B The full month name. %u Current user name. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. log file names should be unique for each vsh session.

logout. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). There are two basic modes to vshview. or pid. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1).. Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 . Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. In either case. Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input. Can be used with -0 and -2. Therefore. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. (Note that when using this option. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. If a given file is a directory. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. Can be used with -1 and -2. To view the these log files. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. Instead. only one minute granularity is available. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. Output only those entries that happened before this date. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached.. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . This is the default output if you do not select any other output type. host.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data.) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. you need to use the vshview utility. shows a summary of login and logout activity. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). logouttime. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. Define a search expression (see below). Output only those entries that relate to user. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. Inc. Output only those entries that happened on host. logintime. Do not show any blank lines. login. Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. (Note that when using this option. Show terminal (stdout) output. shell. just output a summary of vsh sessions.

These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . NSH 2 . These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’. Inc.} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31). Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence. ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1). The second type are 8 bit characters.| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + .vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic.

svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> . vtree recursively descends into it. Inc. Provide a visual display. and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory. Place totals at the end. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory. Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> . Provide a quick display with no counts. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. Count nodes.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> .svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . Show the current version. OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes.0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory. EXAMPLE In this example. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case).vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system. Height of tree to examine.

Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon." written by David S. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef. Inc. NSH 2 .vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic.

OPTIONS By default. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. If you do not want counts for all of these things. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*.c 347 945 6227 file1. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. Inc. wc counts lines. the number of words. wc uses the standard input. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers. words. words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . and characters in a file and then outputs its findings.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior).] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. words.. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. You specified an unknown option. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. the number of characters. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files.c 339 917 6051 file3. If you do not specify any files. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. With the P_ATT variable set. wc will also output a total for all files. Count the number of lines in the file. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. words.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . Unable to get a license to use the software..c 449 1334 8491 file2. The second example counts lines. Count the number of words in the file. and characters. and characters of several source files. If you specify more than one file.

The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution. .r . and check information to verify file integrity).0p1 (or later versions) to extract them. for archiving files.r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. if foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. For a brief help on zip and unzip. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command.Misc.n a me " ∗. After this. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names. Atari and Macintosh. . path. with foo/file2 unchanged from before. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. Under UNIX. zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed.. this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command. For example: t a r c f . unpacks zip archives. Inc. allowing the output to be piped to another program. A companion program (unzip(1L)). in which case it will write the zip file to standard output. zipcloak. If the file list is specified as –@.04 or zip 2. Minix. in which case it will read the file from standard input. and foo/file3.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . Windows NT. [ c h ] " . OS/2. foo/file2. to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d .zip contains foo/file1. and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3. protection. along with information about the files (name.3) 1 . date. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. foo. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input. You must use PKUNZIP 2.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory. VMS. .  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.zip and add foo/file3 to foo. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2.. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files.3. time of last modification. Amiga and Acorn RISC OS. It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems).zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. zipnote. The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive. For example: z i p . When given the name of an existing zip archive. allowing zip to take input from another program. zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed. Note that PKUNZIP 1. MSDOS.04. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name.04g or unzip 5. zip version 2. For example.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. For example.zip. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 .@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it). then: z i p .

and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time. so that zip can see the asterisks. At present. and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. For example. –c Add one-line comments for each file. Adjust self-extracting executable archive.| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. copying over stuff. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text). Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory. compressing standard input to standard output. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive.. This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. File operations (adding. OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.zip to the current directory when done. If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. or just return for no comment. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. and all of the files that end with . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic...zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.Misc. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. the extension . | zip . If the name already contains an extension other than . Inc.3) 2 .zip is added. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. tar cf . Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.o (in any path). [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp. updating) are done first. zip acts as a filter. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option. Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes. Enter the comment followed by return.

After the repair. [OS/2] Use the . Inc. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. zip will exit with an error). Resource-forks will be ignored at all. Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. so try this option first. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. -u and -o options to work correctly. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. as in: zip -r foo .3) 3 . The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. If this operation fails. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time). if standard error is not a tty. Under MSDOS. instead of creating a new one. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged. For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.Misc. for example if it has only been truncated. –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. Such files cannot be recovered. –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. –F Fix the zip archive. It is not guaranteed to work. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. If the restoration fails.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. -i \∗.c which will include only the files that end in . The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip.

[MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). .gif:. Also possible: zip -r foo . a SFX stub) from the archive.3) 4 . . Display the zip license.g. zip will store the full path (relative to the current path). This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. This is useful for conserving disk space.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file. For example: zip -rn . store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX). zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive. –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path).snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods). but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.Misc. For example. If the input files already contain CR LF. to undo the effect of zip -l.zip. and do not store directory names.tiff. When used. By default the relative path will be stored. -i@include. Strip any prepended data (e.Z.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo. but will store any files that end in . No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.zip. This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. By default.gif. Move the specified files into the zip archive.lst.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots. or . This option should not be used on binary files. actually. the directory is also removed. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS.lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.tiff:. By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. Inc. zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. The complete path including volume will be stored. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not). This option should not be used on binary files. so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them.zip:. zip will not consider Image files (eg. this option adds an extra CR. . if you have SparkFS loaded. Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files.Z:.

all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo.zip. Archives. In this case. CFS files and PackDir files).c’ In this case.gif:. all the files matching ∗. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) .zip. and yyyy is the year. where mm is the month (0-12). since that matches ". where mm is the month (0-12). zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i. If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. Inc.". This can be used without any other operations. dd is the day of the month (1-31). since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism. to the zip archive infamy. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. if desired.zip.e. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.Misc.c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo. OS/2. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.∗". –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory.arj. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo. By default.zip. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options.lzh:. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.c –S [MSDOS. For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n .3) 5 .zip" To attempt compression on all files. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. You should not use –r with the name ". Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive.arc:. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo.. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991. including files with names starting with ".zoo:. –N [Amiga. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format).Z:. for example: zip -R foo ’∗. use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension. If -c is used also. Such files are stored directly in the output archive." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended). dd is the day of the month (1-31). WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date. and yyyy is the year. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. which are ignored otherwise.zip:.

Then. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. OS/2.zip. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory. –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files. Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. when applied to real operations. this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities.zip while excluding all the files that end in . ∧ on MSDOS.Misc. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems.zip into itself when you do this). –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. In addition to the help screen header with program name. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. If the check fails. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. and release date.3) 6 . When –v is the only command line argument. version. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option.o which will include the contents of foo in foo. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. The default compression level is –6. Normally. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files). compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. and stdout is not redirected to a file. to the zip archive infamy. including multiple versions of files. ignores the suffix list). it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). OS version. uid/gid and file times on Unix). Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.lst.o. Inc. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period. a diagnostic screen is printed. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. and D Z VAX/VMS).lst which will include the contents of foo in foo.

you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. use the drive name as first file name. To zip up an entire directory. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. OS/2." are not included. [0–9]). and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.3) 7 . If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. Inc. to include these as well: zip stuff . If foo contains the subdirectories tom. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. and the next two add to it. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern. the last created archive is deleted. [MSDOS. without recording the directory name. you can create the archive in steps using the –m option. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.zip. you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.zip. making room for the next zip command to function. foo. and harry. dick. The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. unless that archive name given contains a dot already. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes).zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it.Misc. in compressed form (the . At the completion of each zip command. In this case. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). Take the list of input files from standard input. as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory. Only one filename per line. files starting with ".zip suffix is added automatically.

entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. if present. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. For each match. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do. In general. no errors or warnings detected. unzip(1L). Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists).o". using the pattern matching characters described above. If it finds it. and so patterns like \∗.Misc. unless this name matches one given with the –x option. it first looks for the name in the file system. –u. If it does not find it. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. shar(1L). zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). unexpected end of zip file. –f. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal. no matter what the path prefix is. or does not match any name given with the –i option. Processing probably failed immediately. and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. it then adds it to the list of files to do. ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. In general. on the list of files to be operated on. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.3) 8 . zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. ?∗[]). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. tar(1). or –d). gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. The pattern matching includes the path. some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. Inc.o match names that end in ". or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo().3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1. compression format.wku.Misc. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. Under VMS. For bug reports. Wales. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format.edu.3 must not be updated by zip 1. Byrne for his Shrink. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ). Inc. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. scarier-looking things. the machine and operating system in use. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ). where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. type "set file type block" on the Vax. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. In both cases. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format.Pas program. Jean-loup Gailly. which inspired this project. copy.3) 9 . However.10.10. you do not have to care about this problem. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. zip files produced by zip 2. Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program. 2 (error) for the zip values 3.10. Otherwise OS/2 1. 18.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR.ZIP filename extension.1 or PKZIP 1. Kai Uwe Rommel. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. Use zip 1. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally. P. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. and . 6. On OS/2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. Under OS/2. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. Onno van der Linden. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. Igor Mandrichenko. 16. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different. and as much additional information as possible. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen.3. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). and for accepting minor changes to the file format. 7. zip cannot match some names. that it is not sold for profit. 13. such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign. 9. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND.∗. Under VMS. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. and that this copyright notice is retained. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.3 and 2. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names. BUGS zip 2. Richard B. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.

Inc.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. David Kirschbaum. Rich Wales. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator. C. Rodgers. P. to Keith Petersen. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm.Misc. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and most importantly. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use.3) 10 . for getting us into this mess in the first place.

Inc. . SEE ALSO egrep(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. . Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). zipcloak(1L).] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.zip] [file(s) . o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function. zipinfo(1L).] [–x xfile(s) . zipnote(1L). funzip(1L). or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 .Misc. i n f o . unzip(1L). .z i p . zip(1L).z i p. . ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. i nf o.

the path itself cannot. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing.] [–x xfile(s) .] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. Only the filename can be a wildcard.zip] [file(s) . . zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. ARGUMENTS file[. version and operating system or file system of compressing program. list filenames only.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). and the like. most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. on some systems. The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. If the file specification is a wildcard. z i p is appended. See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below. Identical to the –s output. a link to it). This is the default behavior.] [–x xfile(s) . . It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. . list header line. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format.32) 1 . . except that the compression factor. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. expressed as a percentage. list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. and an ending character. . type of compression. . then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. list zipfile information in verbose.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets.] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. Inc.) If no matches are found. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. see above. The archive name. a hyphen. . however. . is also listed. Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. trailers and zipfile comments are never printed. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). This option excludes all others. one per line. see below. list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. encryption status. and if that also fails. . Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio.Misc. as well. headers. one per line. the suffix . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. particularly under Unix and VMS. ranges are specified by a beginning character. OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. Again. . Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. just specify the . the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. Such information includes file access permissions. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long.zip] [file(s) . each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. but allow headers (–h). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. multi-page format.

Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. The second character may also take on four values. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected.1 fat 1. Also.. is not encrypted. the Enter/Return key. ‘x’. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file.Misc. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size.0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format.32) 2 . zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. The number of files listed.hhmmss). list totals for files listed or for all files. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data. and their overall compression factor is printed. The fifth field consists of two characters. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. if there is an extended local header but no extra field. their uncompressed and compressed total sizes. ‘X’. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing. ‘l’. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. that is also displayed as part of the filename.9 unx 2802 t. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). if the reverse. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. Since it comes from Unix. The example below.R. Inc.cmd and . and Macintosh. If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. Unlike Unix more(1).macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format. either of which may take on several values. (2) is readable (always true). or. The case of the filename is respected. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). the values for the entire archive are given. The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). . At the end of a screenful of output.com.btm files are assumed to be so). OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system.hpfs 4096 b.TXT.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’. on the other hand. These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. The default date format is a more standard. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes.9 of zip. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is).0 hpf 1. on some systems.bat. . there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. respectively. and its name. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’).e. if only the totals line is being printed. and if both exist. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS). depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. . thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. (3) is writable.R 0. which is presumably the case here. If neither exists.exe. MS-DOS. Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file. but if the file is encrypted.

The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1. re:2. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2.Misc. tokn. 1.. Macintosh resource forks. its total size. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression). since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed.0 hpf 8753 b. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info.rw..0 hpf 98 b.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory. 13386 bytes uncompressed. shrinking. the trailer gives the number of files listed. which can override or add to the defaults.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. etc.2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1. however.i4:3 26-Jun-92 . the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used.0 hpf 730 b. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. normal. and defS. If.0 hpf 95 b.os2 15:29 os2unzip. 1. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. 1. Inc.i8:3 26-Jun-92 . imploding. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. 1..zip 5453 bytes 5 files .0% The header line gives the name of the archive.134804 perms. both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions.2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. etc. and defX. yet Unix-like.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. manner. and deflating. there is some underlying logic. their total uncompressed size.rw. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly.def 17:51 zipinfo. one or more file(s) are provided.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms.2660 In this example. environment options. reducing.. instead: -rw-rws--1. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees).c 15:34 unzip. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set. and explicit options given by the user. which can override or add to either of the above. VMS filesystem info. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. maximum compression).def compressed: 63. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip. shrk. In addition to individual file information. In brief. 1. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second.) Nevertheless. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage. i4:2.rw. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive. and four levels of deflating (superfast. re:1.stor 21-Aug-91 . four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment.0 hpf 3710 b. fast. Finally. defF.. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly. the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five. (6) is hidden.. and (7) is a system file.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. i8:3.. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size.rw. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes. OS/2 extended attributes.rw. defN.5 unx 2802 t. and the total number of files. the header and trailer lines are not listed.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files. if any. The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2. tokenizing (never publicly released). (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format. In addition. 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile. (Try not to laugh. and so on. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead).32) 3 .

in addition. like –m and –l. ZIPINFO takes precedence. Note that both the –h and –t options. in this example.. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. however. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. with both header and totals lines. long-format listing (not verbose). since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. Nothing was indicated about the header. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. override any default listing of member files. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1). ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’.32) 4 . when used by themselves or with each other. This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. For compatibility with zip(1L). EXAMPLES To get a basic.Misc. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. however. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l. given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. The first hyphen is the regular switch character. Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). To turn off the totals line by default. the user dislikes the trailer line. including header and totals lines. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). Inc. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. unless otherwise specified. as noted above. includes headers and footers by default. short-format listing of the first example again. so the –s option was sufficient. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined.g. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. only the header and/or footer are printed. As suggested above. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification.zip. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines.

This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. copy/rename the executable. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. zipnote(1L). BUGS As with unzip. Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. use the verbose option. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. zipcloak(1L). in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. will override the default header and totals lines. in medium format. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others.Misc.) SEE ALSO ls(1).info-zip.32) 5 . TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or.info-zip. as noted above. use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well.. AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs. In addition. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix. unzip(1L). and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order. unzipsfx(1L). zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size. create a link or create a command file with the name ii). to see the most recently modified files in the archive. if –m or –l is used. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. the proper sort(1) option would be +7. funzip(1L).e. zip(1L). For multiple files.org/pub/infozip/ . (This is not to say that it will be. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. This assumes the default short-listing format.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. on other systems. as in this example. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. the seventh field).c The specification of any member file. Inc. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive.

shell functions (with autoloading).elte. and a host of other features. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date.org>.zsh. builtin spelling correction.cs.zsh. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features. Inc. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.cs.gmd.cena.org>.0. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list.uni–trier.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.org>. a history mechanism. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.funet.gov. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh.ips. This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor.elte. 2001 1 . programmable command completion.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp. The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.fu–berlin.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.elte.zsh.4 Last change: October 26.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.dgac.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.cs.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite.cenatls. Of the standard shells.hu instead of the primary site. Zsh has command line editing.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.zsh.dk>.

org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.zsh.siol.technion.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED.roedu.dk> User discussions.net.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite.technion. <zsh–workers@sunsite.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.kfki. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite. development.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.lysator.unina.0.math.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.4 Last change: October 26.ne.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.dk> Announcements about releases.edu.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.rge.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite.uit. To subscribe or unsubscribe. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users.dk> Hacking.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite.lut.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.ac.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.ac.icm. zsh 4.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.il/pub/zsh/ http://www.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive. Inc.org.liu.zsh.ac.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.math.kappa. 2001 2 . send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp. bug reports and patches.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite.win.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.uiuc.nisiq.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.

the first one is assigned to $0. –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. hierographic. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on. rather than being used as a positional parameter. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. Force shell to read commands from the standard input.dk/Guide/. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. but takes a following string as the option name. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above.org>. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error.zsh. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom. which are common to invocation and the set builtin.org/mla/. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given. Like other option syntaxes.unix. of SunSITE Denmark.zsh.org>. options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. The mailing lists are archived. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. available at http://www. or at http://www.0. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name.org>.org>. see zshoptions(1).org>.shell and the zsh–announce mailing list. Unlike other option syntaxes. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o. send mail to <listmaster@zsh. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute. or downright mystifying (for example. zsh 4. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’.org/FAQ/. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options. For example. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.zsh. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh. For further options. Options may be specified by name using the –o option. ‘– –option–name’. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).auc.dk>. for example.org/. At the time of writing. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists. There is also a hypertext archive. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input.sunsite. When this is done. –o acts like a single–letter option. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. 2001 3 . chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. and thus ignored. It is intended to complement the manual. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. So.org>. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). Force shell to be interactive. If any further arguments are given.

path. ‘– –help’ is also handled. path. command substitution. argv. EUID. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively. PROMPT4. the shell becomes restricted. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. PROMPT3. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. Secondly. POSIX_BUILTINS. HISTFILE. NO_MULTIOS. manpath. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. watch. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked.profile. PROMPT_BANG. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. in two ways. Option processing may be finished. NO_EQUALS. Also. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. SH_OPTION_LETTERS. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). Firstly. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. fpath. HISTCHARS. NO_NOTIFY. SH_GLOB. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. status. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. GLOB_SUBST. mailpath. USERNAME. KSH_ARRAYS. cdpath. LOCAL_OPTIONS. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. Inc. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. module_path. UID. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. Furthermore. MODULE_PATH. RM_STAR_SILENT. Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. fignore. psvar. SHELL. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. then exits successfully. HISTSIZE. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). PROMPT2. more precisely. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. prompt.4 Last change: October 26. NO_NOMATCH. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. GID. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’). If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. MANPATH. 2001 4 . EGID. then exits successfully. NO_HUP. SH_WORD_SPLIT. NO_BANG_HIST. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal.0. PROMPT. NO_BG_NICE. allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments.

They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins. 2001 5 . Inc. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)).zlogin are read. Then.0. this cannot be overridden. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands. any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the .zshenv. If one of the options is unset at any point. the files $ZDOTDIR/. no history file will be saved.4 Last change: October 26. if the shell is interactive. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option.. If ZDOTDIR is unset. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. depending on the installation. However. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. HOME is used instead. i. When a login shell exits. commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/..zprofile.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file. Finally. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. zsh 4. then . or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv.e.zshrc. If the shell is a login shell. Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. it is important that it be kept as small as possible.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. if the shell is a login shell. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default. the compiled file will be used instead.’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. In particular. the logout files are not read. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. the former affects all startup files.

‘&’. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative.. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. Where commands are separated by ‘’. with optional redirections interspersed.. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. For example. The first word is the command to be executed. or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. it is executed as a coprocess. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next. zsh 4. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist. are arguments to the command.. which will alter how the command is interpreted. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. echo foo is a simple command with arguments. If a command name is given. or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word.4 Last change: October 26. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero). the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next.’ or newline. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. ‘&’.’. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’. A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed. ‘&’. If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. 2001 1 . the value of the sublist is that return value. For example. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever. unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. For example. For example. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background).User Commands Property of BladeLogic.)’ or ‘{. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines. and the remaining words. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. A sublist is either a single pipeline. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. More generally. ‘&!’. A pipeline is either a simple command.}’. If job control is active. The value of a simple command is its exit status. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. Inc. including the complex commands below. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell.0. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. If it does not. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. or a newline.. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. or ‘&!’. if any.

The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero.. the following list is also executed. It has no effect in non–interactive shells. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] . [ else list ] fi The if list is executed. as it is interpreted immediately. The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. This continues until either a list is terminated with . The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation. or the esac is reached. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. the selection list is printed again. If the list that is executed is terminated with . if any. zsh 4. If the in word is omitted.. the value of the parameter name is set to null.4 Last change: October 26.. [expr2] . Otherwise. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status. Print the set of words. use the positional parameters. for name [ in word . select name [ in word .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Expand the list of words... the else list is executed.. use the positional parameters instead of the words. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. If each elif list returns nonzero. This must appear before any other precommand modifier. noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command.. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or . rather than a shell function or builtin. If this line is empty. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word... to terminate the words. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . each preceded by a number.. Otherwise.. If the in word is omitted. the then list is executed.. ) list (. [expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). and set the parameter name to each of them in turn. exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking. Inc. 2001 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string. nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered.& rather than . then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. executing list each time. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated.&) ] . which must evaluate to a number n. rather than a shell function or external command. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. the then list is executed.. list is then executed n times.. and if it returns a zero exit status. If any expression is omitted. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . or else standard input.. for (( [expr1] . then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. before any parsing is done.0..

Normally. repeat. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell.. See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp... then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word. See the section ‘Functions’.. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works.. If pipeline is omitted. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps. for (( [expr1] . else the end of the test will not be recognized.. Execute list. only one word is provided. For the for. for name [ in word .. [expr2] . zsh 4. () [ term ] { list } word . print statistics about the shell process and its children... time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or .4 Last change: October 26.0. such as by ‘[[ . function word . the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word. ]]’ or ‘(( . while and until commands. ))’. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’. If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. for name ( word . These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word . ) sublist A short form of for... For the if. ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms. but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . Another short form of for. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary.. Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list.. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited. otherwise. and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter. () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or .. The body of the function is the list between the { and }.. The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set.. 2001 3 . Inc. since the test is not suitably delimited..

until list { list } An alternative form of until. Therefore. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. but one single quote if it is set. zsh 4. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored..0. } An alternative form of case. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. A short form of select. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells. ‘‘’.. parameter and command substitution occur..g. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . \foo.. If the text ends with a space. But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. e. and ‘$’. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. ) list end Another form of for. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. ‘" ’. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted. Inside double quotes (" " ). A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. or if the alias is global.&) ] . 2001 4 . A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape.. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. if an alias is defined for the word foo. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. ) list (.. ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it. For example. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin.. Inc.. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. while list { list } An alternative form of while. QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored..4 Last change: October 26. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. If so. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command). repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

The resulting document. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. If the file does not exist. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. this causes an error. 2001 5 . ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. If the file does not exist then it is created. >> word >>! word Same as >>. If the file exists. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. and the CLOBBER option is unset. it is truncated to zero length. No parameter expansion. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. Otherwise. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. even if CLOBBER is unset. the file is created. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’. zsh 4.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. parameter and command substitution occurs. otherwise. > word >! word Same as >. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc.4 Last change: October 26. this causes an error. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. except that the file is created if it does not exist. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. If the file does not exist then it is created. Otherwise. even if CLOBBER is unset. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. becomes the standard input. If <<– is used. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. ‘$’. or to an end–of–file. This is known as a here–string. Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename. called a here–document. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. otherwise. then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. and the CLOBBER option is unset.0. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input.

The order in which redirections are specified is significant. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). and also pipes it to cat. similar to tee.ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’.0. If one of the above is preceded by a digit. assuming there’s at least one. you can do ∗’. 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. If the MULTIOS option is set. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. Inc.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. (Without the MULTIOS option. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor. similar to cat. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. thus zsh 4. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection.4 Last change: October 26.. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. provided the MULTIOS option is set. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. file) association at the time of evaluation. For example: . It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’. MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly. If the order of redirections were reversed. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1. provided the MULTIOS option is set. Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files.) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗.. 2001 6 . the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. fname). file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. as it is by default.

the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. the builtin is invoked. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. Such a function has no body. If the MULTIOS option is unset. Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. and the file is not a directory. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. zsh can behave in several ways. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. If there exists a shell builtin by that name. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. but no command name. Otherwise.4 Last change: October 26. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. 2001 7 . Inc. it is assumed to be a shell script. When the function is first executed. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments.0. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel. However. If the search is unsuccessful. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. all files redirected to are actually opened. an error is caused. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections. Thus to define functions for autoloading. the shell attempts to locate it. then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. Otherwise.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. with paging if that is a terminal. Shell functions are read in and stored internally. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. If there exists a shell function by that name. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). and write ‘foo’ into baz. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters.

The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. and may therefore define local parameters. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used.. taken to be the definition for function. within a directory. zsh 4. Otherwise. the file’s contents will be executed.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set.zwc extension (i.4 Last change: October 26.zwc A file created with zcompile. the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command.zwc file is created. first. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. at the end. the function itself is not re–executed. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element.}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set. but those are neither loaded nor executed. as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. second. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 . This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution.e. the order of searching is. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . element/function A file of zsh command text. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined. and a call to the shell function. This will normally define the function in question. the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files. a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. the shell looks for three possible files. element/function. For example.0. which is executed in the context of the function execution. and the other message on the second and subsequent calls. 2001 8 . It may include other function definitions as well. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file. but may also perform initialization.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions. For each element in fpath.. the extension was explicitly given by the user). in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. which is expected to contain the definition for function. If the definition is not found. If element already includes a . it will produce the initialization message on the first call. and third. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U. } print func is initialized then ‘func. In summary. in fact. including any arguments.. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function..

this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. In fact. For example. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function.. size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided). TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer). A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath. if defined. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed.4 Last change: October 26.. otherwise it is an empty string. precmd Executed before each prompt. just before a prompt. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status.0. because all comments are discarded from defined functions. preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed. However.. If a function of this form is defined and null. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result.. zsh 4. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’. 2001 9 . and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. Inc. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc.

rather than in their own function environment. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. it does not have a place in the job table. whose process ID was 1234. 2001 10 . If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. nor when it is continued with bg. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’. and is not subject to the job control features described here. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. putting it in the background with the bg command. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. After startup. printed by the jobs command. and assigns them small integer numbers. You can then manipulate the state of this job. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. zsh 4. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. %string Any job whose command line begins with string.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. %– Previous job. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set.4 Last change: October 26.0. If you set this tty option. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. It keeps a table of current jobs. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. then that job is immediately disowned. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. If the NOTIFY option is not set. %% Current job. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. and print another prompt. Inc. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline.

signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD.)). SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active. as well as spaces. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. For integers.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available. 2001 11 . each is evaluated separately. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used. Integers can be in bases other than 10. The base# may also be omitted. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation.. Inc. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’.0. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. so that the value output is valid syntax for input.. If the # is doubled. For example. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted. zsh 4.. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision.. and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. Otherwise. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. the shell will not warn you a second time. This can be tested. require quoting. the suspended jobs will be terminated. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal)..))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’. The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. ‘((. To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. if the number appears unchanged.4 Last change: October 26. the precision is at least 8 bytes. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin. More precisely. either using the builtin let. Since many of the arithmetic operators. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. the last encountered is used. for example. for example ‘[#16]’. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. in which case base 10 is used. the rightmost value in the given output base. where it acquires the output base 8. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. then no base prefix is output. for example ‘[##16]’. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. If you do this or immediately try to exit again. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. if the HUP option is set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression." ’.. or via a substitution of the form $((.

‘∧ ‘%’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. i. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. ‘’. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’. there are two types. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. In addition. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. ‘’. complement. division. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. and XOR operators. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format. ‘&’. as described for the typeset builtin. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. Likewise. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. precedence. OR. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. and associativity of expressions in C. but the exponent character e or E may not. differing only in their output format. ‘&&=’. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. logical NOT. but its use is deprecated.4 Last change: October 26. For example. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions.0. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. modulus (remainder) +– addition. The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2.post}{in. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. {pre. 2001 12 . Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. floating point argument. as it will be taken for a parameter name. zsh 4.e. Inc. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. ‘<<’. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND.

true if file exists and has its setgid bit set. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. If file exists and is a directory.0. true if file exists and is a block special file. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. then the current process has permission to search in the directory.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. For example. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. option may be a single character. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope.0’. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. f += 0. true if file exists. true if file exists and is readable by current process. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. –o option true if option named option is on. true if file exists and is a symbolic link.1 )). 2001 13 . true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. Inc. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. zsh 4. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). true if file exists and is a directory. This can have unforeseen consequences. f < 1.4 Last change: October 26.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero. true if file exists and is executable by current process. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared. true if file exists and is a regular file. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. so that the loop will fail. true if file exists and is a character special file. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. in which case it is a single letter option name. in the loop for (( f = 0.

However. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots.0. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. ( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. where n is an integer. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. zsh 4. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. 2001 14 . exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. similar to the effect of double quotes. string and pattern arguments. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket. see zshexpn(1). exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. true if exp is false.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. In each of the above expressions.

If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. zero means the whole path. if the complete condition is true. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. With a negative integer.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. i. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion.4 Last change: October 26.0. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. zsh 4. See zshexpn(1). %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode.’ is printed. %–1d specifies the first component. $USERNAME. 2001 15 . and if so. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. the message ‘File exists. If an integer follows the ‘%’.)). Current time of day. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode.. If it starts with $HOME. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show. in 12–hour. As %d and %/. with seconds. but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. Inc. Current time of day in 24–hour format. Present working directory ($PWD). Current history event number. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number. The hostname up to the first ‘. %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded. The current value of $SHLVL. command substitution and arithmetic expansion.’. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string.. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. For example.e. am/pm format. trailing components of the hostname are shown. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’. The full machine hostname. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin. A ‘)’. A negative integer specifies leading components. in 24–hour format. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set.

See strftime(3) for more details. The status of the parser. sourced file. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt. The test character x may be any of the following: c . A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. The character following the x is arbitrary. ˜ / C t True if the current path. or. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array.0. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. A negative integer specifies leading components. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. except as part of a %–escape sequence.1e capabilities are supported.. 2001 16 . a ‘%’ if not.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function.true–text. zsh 4. Brace pairs can nest.#. which defaults to zero. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. or shell function given by %N. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’. This separator may not appear in the true–text. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed. The line number currently being executed in the script. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. The definition of ‘privileged’. Equivalent to ‘%(!. for these purposes. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. Clears to end of line. If there is none. The date in mm/dd/yy format.4 Last change: October 26. with prefix replacement.e. zero means the full path. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. has at least n elements. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. %E %# %v %{. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially. sourced file. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. The date in day–dd format. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. whichever was started most recently. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. if POSIX. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped. Negative integers count from the end of the array. including further ternary expressions. i. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. Inc.. The date in yy–mm–dd format. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter. that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors. is that either the effective user ID is zero.%%)’. The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. %(x.

.<%/’ will expand to ‘. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’. True if the effective gid of the current process is n. followed by a space. a truncation with argument zero (e. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences.<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory. respectively. Inc. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\\\<<. The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line. or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’.0. zsh 4. deprecated. The third. For example. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. 2001 17 . those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated. True if the array psvar has at least n elements.. i. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). note this does not undergo prompt expansion.4 Last change: October 26. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Without the ‘%<<’.. True if the shell is running with privileges. The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string. or in fact any character. the terminating character (‘<’..e/pike’. %c %. completely replacing the truncated string. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. Unless ‘%C’ is used. however. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/.g. True if the exit status of the last command was n. The numeric argument. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0).e. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct.. which ever comes first. In this string. %C Trailing component of $PWD.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. the prompt ‘%8<. True if the day of the month is equal to n. the prompt ’%10<.e. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. For example. it will appear in full. True if at least n shell constructs were started. In particular. ‘>’ or ‘]’). note when using print –P. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. tilde contraction is performed first." ’.

By default. commonly referred to as globbing. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. and may occur anywhere on the command line. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1). if it is the only history reference in a command. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. Inc. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’). and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. 2001 1 . With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. no history expansion occurs. The one most recent command is always retained in any case. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. Double quotes will not work for this. if neither of these designators is present. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. After these expansions. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. However. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. Filename Generation This expansion. respectively. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter. is always done last. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. history expansions do not nest. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’.0. which is ‘!’ by default. Immediately before execution. each command is saved in the history list. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. Conversely. it refers to the previous command. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. For example.4 Last change: October 26.

you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). The first argument. Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed.. Refer to the most recent command starting with str. In the list below. each preceded by a ‘:’. newline. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. Refer to command–line n.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. x defaults to 0. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. Refer to the previous command.0. 1. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). By itself. The last argument. except where noted. If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. replacing the string foo with bar. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. although the error may not be the most obvious one. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. Modifiers After the optional word designator. A range of words. Refer to the current command–line minus n. !# !{. Word designators include: ’. More precisely. this expansion repeats the previous command. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. ‘=’ or ‘(’. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. respectively. zsh 4. All the arguments.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. 2001 2 .. Anything else results in an error. ! Start a history expansion. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance. That is. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. The nth argument. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str. ‘∧ ’. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command.4 Last change: October 26. or a null value if there are none. of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. ∗’. Inc. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). except when followed by a blank. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input.

or ‘}’. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. In the case of the < or > forms. Quote the substituted words. This works like ‘dirname’. For arrays and for filename generation. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. 2001 3 . ‘]’. Does not work with parameter expansion. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). Remove all leading pathname components. leaving the head. For example. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’.0. Print the new command but do not execute it. escaping further substitutions. The character ‘&’. may be preceded immediately by a g. Repeat the previous s substitution. Unless preceded immediately by a g. The following f. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. in the right–hand–side r. leaving the root name. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. with no colon between. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. F:expr: Like f. Remove all but the extension.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. leaving the tail. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. but character strings. If < is used. opening parentheses are handled specially. Like s. if ‘(’. Convert the words to all lowercase. Like q. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. ‘[’. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. Substitute r for l as described below.4 Last change: October 26. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. the command argument will be a named pipe. F. respectively. otherwise. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. the closing delimiter should be ’)’. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. the shell runs process list asynchronously. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. Inc. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces.xxx’. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Convert the words to all uppercase. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. This works like ‘basename’. see above. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter. Only works with history expansion. but break into words at whitespace. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. this applies to each word of the expanded text. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion.

associative arrays. ${name:?word} zsh 4. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. unconditionally set name to word. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. in the second form. if the programme does not actually open the file. of the parameter name is substituted. In both cases. if any. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. and arithmetic expansion. the name. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. exceptions. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. digit. this is the first element of an array.0. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. one element per word. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. the expansion results in one word only. If name is missing. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. In addition. Note that these patterns. In addition to the following operations. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process. ${name} The value. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. In the former case. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. pastes the results together. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. substitute word. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. otherwise substitute word. If name is an array parameter. ‘˜’. In both forms. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. Inc. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. If = is used. command substitution. then the value of each element of name is substituted. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. all of which work with or without braces. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. In the second case. with KSH_ARRAYS. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. the value of the parameter is then substituted. Otherwise. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. 2001 4 . including arrays. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value.4 Last change: October 26. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’.

however. In the first case. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. For example. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. R. just substitute the value of name. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. not whether its value is null. in which case it must match at the end of the string.e. E and N are not useful.0. B.. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. otherwise. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. just substitute the value of name. otherwise. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. print word and exit from the shell. then the shell only checks whether name is set. while in the second ∗e case. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon.4 Last change: October 26. then substitute the empty string. otherwise. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. In the following expressions. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. Inc. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. the second form all occurrences. If word is omitted. a quoted backslash). In the first form. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). The repl may be an empty string. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. ${#spec} zsh 4. in the second form. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the flags M. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. the largest matching pattern is preferred. In the first form. the largest matching pattern is preferred. otherwise. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. then a standard message is printed. To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. otherwise substitute nothing. even at the start. or ‘%’. just substitute the value of name. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. in the second form. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. 2001 5 . or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used.

. In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful.. Create an array parameter with ‘${.g. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words. if the ‘=’ is doubled... Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted. E. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below.. This is done by default in most other shells.. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible.. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. below. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo). are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’.. in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" .. turn it ’ off. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. Each name or nested ${.} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1). ’. If this flag is given twice. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name. ‘${. In double quotes.. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements.. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. Inc. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’). if the ‘∧ is doubled. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1. If spec is an array expression.}’. which still applies within each array element.. the repetitions need not be consecutive. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags. ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’. if the ‘˜’ is doubled.}..0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. array elements are put into separate words. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. turn it off. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4.. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted. for example.} type parameter expression or a $(..g. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT.}’ or ‘${. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’).:=. create an associative array parameter.=.. substitute the number of elements of the result. there are two sets of quotes. one surrounding the whole expression. 2001 6 . This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. If a ${. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined. Internally.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’. When this option is set.}’. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions.. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution.. for example. turn it off.. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. The form with $(.::=.$var[2]. E.. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions. each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. using IFS as a delimiter.. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next.. see the examples below. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context.. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’.4 Last change: October 26.. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options. s or z flags. for example. Assignment is made before sorting or padding. When this option is set. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1].. and ‘˜’. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec.

the strings ${(P)foo}.0. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. the words are quoted in double quotes. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words. whose value will be used where appropriate. If it is given four times. Split the result of the expansion to lines. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics. Quote the resulting words with backslashes. Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. when creating an associative array. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’.}’ to activate field splitting. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. it can be one of ‘scalar’. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. If name refers to an associative array. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. ${(P)${foo}}. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. With o or O. ‘integer’. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution. For example. Perform parameter expansion. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. However. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. Capitalize the resulting words. count the total number of characters in an array. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’.. ‘array’. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges. 2001 7 . not to words that result from field splitting.4 Last change: October 26. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. ‘float’ or ‘association’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. sort case–independently. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. Sort the resulting words in descending order. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. If this flag is given twice. as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’)..

force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys.. either with the S flag..%... Used with k. This only applies when searching for substrings. as for the ‘(s)’ flag.)’. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator....//.} forms... s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string. Note that this is done very late. Likewise.... If both string1 and string2 are given. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right... ‘[.]’. count words in arrays or strings.} or ${..#.e.. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter./. with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string.. Used with subscripts. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4. With the ${.. S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends.. or the matching pairs ‘(. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string.%. With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported. Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide..} and ${. Inc.. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word..} forms./.. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument. So to access single words in the result. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option. Without the flag they are silently ignored.//... to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’. With substitution via ${. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter.. The default is to take the first match. Any character.. although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored. 2001 8 .}’. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters.>’. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.} or ${..} forms. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words. The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given.e.}. specifies non–greedy matching. r:expr::string1::string2: As l..4 Last change: October 26... Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left...} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted).... or with ${.. i. Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below.0.. i.. The following flags are meaningful with the ${. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element. taking into account any quoting in the value..%%./. ‘{. The S and I flags may also be used with the ${...} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown. With ${#name}.. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced. or ‘<.. before padding. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number).

which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value. Inc.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). but in reverse order.0.. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order.}. and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions. 4. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. 1. and the substitution appears in double quotes. ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. is applied.. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. possibly adjusted for quoting.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’. 3. such as ${var[3]}. but not to " ${${foo[2. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’. Include the length of the match in the result. Include the matched portion in the result. Thus if var is an array. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript.} forms are present.. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost. Subscripts are evaluated left to right. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution.. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). Include the index of the end of the match in the result. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest). the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes.e.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2. Any number of subscripts may appear.e. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution.4 Last change: October 26. by default a space. Note that ${foo[2. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. but ${var[2. As with 2. If the (j) flag is present. Note that.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). ‘witch’. i. 2001 9 . the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. 5. zsh 4. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’. 2. Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ${. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution. multiple subscripts can appear. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’. for example. substitution is performed from the inside outwards.. Some particular examples are given below. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array. the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. At each level. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${.

Inc. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" .. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. 12. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. The outer substitution " ${(@). Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’. zsh 4. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b.. The outer substitution " ${. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’.4 Last change: October 26. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between.)’ flags is applied. so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’. forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. 8. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line.)’ or ‘(r.. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. If a single word is not required. ‘%’. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines.. the word is split on occurrences of the specified string.. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. or 9. or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8. 11. produces a single word result " bar baz" . Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. or the same inside double quotes. 7.. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. which divides the file up by words. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’).. Note this step. which makes the entire content of the file a single string. Modifiers Any modifiers. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6. and joining did not take place at step 4. this rule is skipped. First. 2001 10 .0. ‘1’. In this case. are applied to the words of the value at this level. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS. too. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given. ‘b’ and ‘1’. The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present.[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. 9. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS. as specified by a trailing ‘#’.fill. ${=var}).[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present.fill. For example. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. 10. which has no array (@) flag. but also for command and arithmetic substitutions.g. the inner substitution " ${foo}" .

zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. In either case. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. and then split to give ‘a’. ‘ b’ and ‘’. which is joined to give " ax bx" .)’. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes. An expression of the form ‘{n1. If it does.. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). the output is eligible for filename generation. The final empty string will then be elided. or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. is replaced with its standard output. If so.. the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). it is left unchanged. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated. As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. Left–to–right order is preserved. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word. or quoted with grave accents. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. In particular. like ‘$(. with any trailing newlines deleted. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. If either number begins with a zero. where n1 and n2 are integers. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number. If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order.‘’. This construct may be nested.. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. as it is not in double quotes. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space).0. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’.yy. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. in the manner of a search set. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’. respectively.4 Last change: October 26.n2}’. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. zsh 4. like ‘‘.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’..bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place. 2001 11 . A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match. then the word up to a ‘/’. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. In that case. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found. Inc.

. Matches any character. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. in which case the word is deleted. e. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. If a command exists by that name. If so. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. If no matching pattern is found. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. in which case the word is left unchanged. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this. In filename generation. the [.’ or ‘. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’. a pattern for filename generation. 2001 12 .’ are not treated specially. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command. it is regarded as ∗’. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. If an alias exists by that name. There are also several named classes of characters. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’.4 Last change: October 26. Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string.]. ‘<’. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. inclusive. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3). These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace. except when the directory is / itself. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. for instance). The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. Inc. [. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric. the ‘=’. the ‘/’ and ‘. Named character sets can be used alongside other types. In other instances of pattern matching. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern. In this case.] form is more efficient. ‘’... The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion.. Like [. the word is replaced with the text of the alias.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.] [!.. when the shell prints a path. or ‘?’. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set. To match individual digits. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’...0. zsh 4.. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon). Matches any of the enclosed characters. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set.. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set. also. or unless the NOMATCH option is unset. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number. a ‘. ‘[’.g. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list.. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters.] [∧ . except that it matches any character which is not in the given set. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter. any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph. including the null string. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly.. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. the shell gives an error message. the EQUALS option is also respected.’. unless the GLOB option is unset.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y.

’ except ‘. ‘∗ ‘+’. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit. then a ‘@’. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’..) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. foo/any/bar.. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example. ‘’ (lowest).]’. x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories. this includes an empty string. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. to avoid interpretation as a pipeline. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.. (Like ‘(.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’. a character.) !(.) Match the pattern in the parentheses.. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses. for example.]]’). foo/any/anyother/bar.’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match. and so on. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects.. This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’.)##’..) ∗ ∗(. This operator has high precedence.. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘. ‘?’ ∗’. (Like ‘(.)’.. foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar.) Match at least one occurrence.) Match zero or one occurrence.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x.. As mentioned above.. as detailed below. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’. @(. Inc. (Like ‘(. a ‘/’ is not special. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead.... simply treated from left to right as part of a string.. ‘˜’. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’). (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.. rather than ‘(12)##’. while a ‘’ must do so. a pattern already followed by ‘##’. or a parenthesised expression). with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i. ‘∗ ‘+’. rather than ‘(12)#’. ‘/’ and ‘. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way.>’. (Like ‘(∧ (.) ?(.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x.) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y. or ‘!’. This operator has lower precedence than any other.) +(. ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’..) Match any number of occurrences. zsh 4. ∗’ (.4 Last change: October 26. This operator has high precedence.0. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated.e... in case statements and tests within ‘[[. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. This is used for grouping. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. For example. In the exclusion pattern (y). but the ‘(’ must be. This is a trap for the unwary. and the ‘∗ will match any others. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation).. The ∗’.))’... If the KSH_GLOB option is set. the remaining operators are ’.) Matches anything except the pattern x.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y... 2001 13 .. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. ‘[. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available.’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.)#’.. (Like ‘(. ‘?’.)’.) Matches the enclosed pattern. ‘<.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. such as ${array#pattern}. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. and so on. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example. and the start and end indices are set to –1. this does not work in filename generation. See the example for the m flag below. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation. B m Deactivate backreferences. as otherwise the string matched is obvious.e. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. 2001 14 . Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. not local to a group. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. only the data for the last match remains available. For example. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. zsh 4. such as ${param//pat/repl}. although sets of parentheses may be nested. Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option. i. respectively. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. or a global substitution. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group.0. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. and the indices of the end in the array $mend. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. The parameters $MATCH.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1].$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered.

with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once. Four types of error are recognised: 1. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. Unlike the other flags. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. Unlike backreferences. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. For example. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start.. 4. Finally. hence no references to match data will be created. ∗’ test/at/start.. A character missing in the target string. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters.] groups. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. i. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. these have only a local effect. Thus. as in fooxbar and fooybar. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. as with the pattern road and target string rod. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. Similarly. When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. Transposition of characters. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern. as with stove and strove.. zsh 4. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). as in banana and abnana. match anywhere except at the start of the string. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. but not strings of length two. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. but not by (#l)FOOXX. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. since all the ? must match. For example. 3. in/test/middle. and all slashes in filenames. at/end/test. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms.4 Last change: October 26. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. Another use is in parameter substitution. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type. Inc. 2.e. Approximate Matching When matching approximately.e. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. there is no speed penalty for using match references. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. 2001 15 . for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf.. An extra character appearing in the target string. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. e Deactivate the m flag. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately). the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. all vowels) into uppercase. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. M anum s. is potentially slow. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i.0. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set). Different characters. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

(#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. This form does not follow symbolic links. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. For example. so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. there is only one overall error count. Apart from exclusions. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. for example.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. which may not occur in the dog section. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. However. As a shorthand. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total.ME but not READ_ME. 2001 16 . Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. however. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. in that case. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. however. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. Thus. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. where approximation is turned off. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally.0. but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories.4 Last change: October 26. bling the parentheses. and this can be delimited by grouping. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match.

and ‘>’. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. if a ‘g’ is given. and for which other group members have no rights. If a ‘u’ is given. ‘{’. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. a ‘+’. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. a ‘+’.4 Last change: October 26. ‘g’.0. if combined with a ‘=’. or a ‘–’. Inc. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. ‘w’ for write access. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. respectively. zsh 4. If set to an array. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits. ‘}’. with a ‘+’. followed by a ‘=’. ‘}’. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. the bits in the number must not be set. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. and execute permission. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. estring The string will be executed as shell code. and with a ‘–’. those for the owner of the file are used. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. and ‘>’ respectively. 2001 17 . those of the group are checked. write. ‘[’. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. ‘x’. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. and ‘a’. independent of the permissions for other users. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. The ‘=’. The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. which overrides the value of REPLY. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command). and ‘t’. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. Thus. In addition. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. ‘o’. ‘s’. If none of these characters is given. while any other character matches itself. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. or a ‘–’. ‘w’. ‘{’. The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. ‘+’. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. or a octal digit. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’.

hence the first name in the list is the youngest file.0. if l they are sorted by the number of links. hours. except that it uses the file inode change time. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. if a. i. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). minutes or seconds instead of days. ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days). Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier.g.4 Last change: October 26. ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. weeks.g. ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. ‘}’. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. For instance. files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. if not. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. like ‘o’. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e. or inode change respectively. respectively. greater than ct (+). Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). Note that a.e. or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. 2001 18 . modification. ‘m’ (‘M’). following ∗(∧ any symbolic links. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. but sorts in descending order. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). m. m. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘w’. ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago.g. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files. Inc. ‘{’. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. Oc zsh 4. more than n bytes (+). Note the quotation marks. than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. ‘h’.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. if d. and c compare the age against the current time. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). and ‘>’ respectively. m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. except that it uses the file modification time. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. or exactly n bytes in length. megabytes. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option.

.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘D’.]’).c. lex.0. parse. These are the qualifiers ‘M’. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed).g. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex. Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list.[ch](∧ l1) ∗. Inc. More than one of these lists can be combined. however.c and parse. separated by commas. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. zsh 4. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp. the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[. 2001 19 . Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse). ‘N’.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. and ls ∗ ∗(W. ignoring symlinks.. E. ‘o’.h.: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1.3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions..h.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. ‘T’. Some qualifiers. affect all matches generated. ‘n’. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories.4 Last change: October 26. If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. independent of the sublist in which they are given.

name=(key value .. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’.. Note that this assigns to the entire array. an array (indexed numerically). or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter. The elements are numbered beginning with 1... or ‘!’. a value.))’. and they stay special even if unset.. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array. name=(value . ‘–’. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. it is replaced by a new array. To declare the type of a parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’. 2001 1 .. is set for name. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. value may be a scalar (a string). The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays. an integer. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript. To refer to the value of a parameter. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar. In the parameter lists that follow. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. The ∗’.0. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value .. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero. The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute.. the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. and a number of attributes. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. –i.. However.4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. To create an empty array (including associative arrays). Special parameters cannot have their type changed. write one of: set –A name value .) Every key must have a value in this case. Inc. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. the braced form is the only one that works.. ‘?’.) If no parameter name exists. ‘#’. ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details. use the typeset builtin. ‘$’. indexed by name). an ordinary array parameter is created.

if FOO is set to ‘foobar’.e. assign ‘()’ to that element.5]’ prints ‘ooba’. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??.." ’. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag. in no particular order. with elements separated by newlines. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes. if it is a scalar. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). For example. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] . inclusive. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. say –n. or the comma in a range. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters. Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number.0. i. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’.’.. 2001 2 . the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. See Subscript Parsing below for details. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset.. The subscript used is the number of the matching element. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. and ‘$foo[1. (This is not supported for associative arrays. but see Subscript Flags below). Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo. (Associative arrays are unordered. this means the value of the key ‘0’. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. Arrays do not nest. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. The default word separator is whitespace. so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. To delete an element of an associative array. and so do not support ranges. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys). For associative arrays. zsh 4. respectively). Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. then ‘echo $FOO[2. as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. To delete an element of an ordinary array. Inc. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array. shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??.. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1.4 Last change: October 26.(r)f∗ are possible.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. However. and therefore that the two characters ‘\" ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. one can still write ‘\" ’ (rather than ‘\\\" ’) for ‘" ’. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values. However. See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. ‘R’. behaves like ‘r’. so the rules have two important differences. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. gives all possible matches. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). zsh 4. Inc. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’). ‘\" ’ becomes ‘" ’). ‘i’ or ‘I’. this may not be combined with a second argument. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. 2001 3 . Like ‘r’. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. For associative arrays. for example. If used in a subscript on an associative array. Like ‘i’. ‘R’. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern. this behaves like ‘r’. ‘i’. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). and the first matching key found is the result. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. or character (if expr evaluates to n). This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. word. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. Therefore. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. ‘R’. but gives the index of the match instead. If used on another type of parameter. flags). R i Like ‘r’. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. etc. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. This flag is ignored when the array is associative.0. because of the standard shell quoting rules. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. ‘i’ or ‘I’. On the left side of an assignment. but gives the index of the last match. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements.4 Last change: October 26. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. However. For associative arrays. but not for assigning to associative arrays. makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. For associative arrays. This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. but gives the last match. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns.

once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. local and readonly (but not export). by assigning to the argv array. backslashes are interpreted twice. (Parameters are dynamically scoped.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the shell itself. thus ‘$argv[n]’. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. In a reverse subscript. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. That is. etc. 2001 4 .) The typeset builtin. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed. second. The parameter n. they are removed only once. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values. Note that. For complex patterns. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. Inc. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. see the section ‘Invocation’. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. because the positional parameters form an array. This has two effects: first. Therefore. a subscript expression. because then the backslashes.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. rather than as a pattern. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. to refer to the value of that key.. it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. and also the section ‘Functions’. positional parameters.. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed.) One final note. As in true double–quoting. where n is a number.. zsh 4. etc. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes. is the nth positional parameter. integer.5]’. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one\" two\" three\" quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression. from the innermost subscript outwards. brackets. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment.. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first. the expansion must be surrounded by braces.)’ is allowed.0. and its alternative forms declare. but ‘$2[3. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern. for example. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. parentheses.4 Last change: October 26. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. ‘${2[3. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. shell script. the subscript is a plain string in that case. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression.

_ <S> The last argument of the previous command. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. The number of positional parameters in decimal. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function.v. The name used to invoke the current shell. 2001 5 . If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set.4 Last change: October 26. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected). An array containing the positional parameters. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. status <S> <Z> Same as ?. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to.) However. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local.0. or declaring a new parameter with export. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. you may change the zsh 4. the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. parameter.. In particular. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. (That is.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. Special parameters may also be made local. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden. Also. the sequence ‘$#–. but argv is not itself a local ∗. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model).. as determined at run time. Inc. If you have sufficient privileges. q. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. even when argv is not set. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute. assigning to a non–existent parameter.

LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. as determined at compile time. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). Also (assuming sufficient privileges). you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. OLDPWD The previous working directory.0. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. PWD The present working directory. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command.4 Last change: October 26. This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). If this parameter is assigned a value. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. 2001 6 . sourced file. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. whichever was started most recently. If you have sufficient privileges. as determined at compile time. or shell function being executed. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. Inc. LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session. If you have sufficient privileges. OSTYPE The operating system. command)’ HOST The current hostname. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. zsh 4. GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment.

this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. they retain their special properties when recreated. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. If the stack gets larger than this.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. it will be truncated zsh 4.0. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). and not the modem. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. signals An array containing the names of the signals. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. in this case. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process.4 Last change: October 26. COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. Inc. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. If you have sufficient privileges. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). 2001 7 . such as path and PATH. If you have sufficient privileges. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter.g. if any. as determined at compile time. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. e. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. ARGV0 If exported.

this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions.0. tab. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. than these files are completed anyway. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. (Deprecated. HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS. Any characters from the set space. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism. then it is read and executed in the current environment. If an executable file is found. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. However. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. ’). LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field. Inc. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. newline and NUL).4 Last change: October 26. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. in hundredths of seconds. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. 2001 8 . that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. If unset. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. the history is not saved.

Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. The message will undergo parameter expansion. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor.4 Last change: October 26. If set to zero. 2001 9 . MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. The manpath array can be useful. When this parameter is set. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’.) For security reasons. For csh–like behavior. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits. Inc. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set. It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal. the number of matches to list without asking first. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. change this to :. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. unset this parameter. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. If the value is negative. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. This is initialized to a standard pathname. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. since setting it also sets MANPATH. For sh/ksh behavior. LISTMAX In the line editor. however. Defaults to cat. each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table.0. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. and vice versa. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The default is ‘?# ’. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction.4 Last change: October 26. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. but for array values rather than strings. The default is ‘%_> ’. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. PS2. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. respectively. the default is ‘+ ’. PS3 and PS4. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. In sh or ksh emulation. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt.0. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. All other prompt escapes are also allowed. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. Inc. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. printed before a command is read. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. 2001 10 . STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. Defaults to more. the default is ‘%m%# ’. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. and vice versa. reply As REPLY.

This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. 2001 11 . If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry.4 Last change: October 26. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. The observed action. the whole name is printed. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. If it contains the single word ‘all’. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty).g. i. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended. This is used when looking up termcap sequences. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. CPU seconds spent in user mode. The name of this job. these will not be local to the command. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it.’. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. The hostname up to the first ‘. If no trap is set. The line (tty) the user is logged in on. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). Inc. it is reported. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME. The full hostname of the remote host. as if it were not suspended. The CPU percentage.0. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. Elapsed time in seconds. zsh terminates. computed as (%U+%S)/%E. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. If there is a trap on SIGALRM. An entry in this list may consist of a username. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. if a login/logout event matches all of them.e. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. even if the value does not change (e. "logged on" or "logged off". Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’. TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. zsh 4. ‘TERM=$TERM’). then all login/logout events are reported. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line.

%(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. ‘m’ or ‘M’. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode.zshrc. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode.4 Last change: October 26. ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. the entire expression is omitted in this case. zsh 4. the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. If the result is ‘true’. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. this gives a string of characters. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. Either or both of the branches may be empty. Inc. The character following the x is arbitrary. in 12–hour. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option. etc). am/pm format. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. if not $HOME. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but both separators must be present in any case. Ternary expressions may be nested. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. in 24–hour format. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. ‘n’. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. ZBEEP If set. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. 2001 12 . which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. The time. The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. for example. and the false–text is skipped. or it may be ‘a’.0. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. If ‘false’.

Some options also have one or more single letter names. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). 2001 1 . ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). Inc. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. those set by default only in csh. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. or with the set. zsh 4. This inversion can only be done once. trailing whitespace will be ignored.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. When listing options (by ‘setopt’. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. ALL_EXPORT (–a. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. or zsh emulations are marked <C>. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set). so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. For example. as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. Thus.0. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default.4 Last change: October 26. <Z> as appropriate. For example. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. <K>. The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. perform the cd command to that directory. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. Similarly. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list. ‘noexec’. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. rather than overwrite it. ‘unsetopt’. and a full completion is inserted. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. setopt and unsetopt builtins. ksh. and the command is the name of a directory. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. <S>. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. in the order they are killed. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. sh. That is. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’.

’.). Inc. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion. The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected.4 Last change: October 26. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. if it contains no ‘’. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. (Otherwise. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. This option is set by default.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. the pattern will be left unchanged. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. (If this option is unset. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. 2001 2 . the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. If AUTO_MENU is set. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. etc. BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. C_BASES zsh 4. csh–style. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. remove the slash. automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. ‘:’. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’. print an error message. the automatically added character is deleted. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. a slash. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. treating the character ‘!’ specially.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

4 Last change: October 26. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’.. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files. ‘cd /foo/bar/. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. and does not begin with a slash. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory. it changes to /alt. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed.0. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. and ‘>>’ to create files. else such jobs will be killed automatically. Inc. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control. 2001 3 . instead resolve the path to the physical directory. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset. CLOBBER (+C. end’ instead of ‘do list. ‘foo/. done’. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started.. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4.. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). a ‘. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose. try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’). If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default). i. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP. Without this option set. Without this option. The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory.. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file.. with it set.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent.e.’ is the first part of the path. CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod.’ changes to /foo.’ is used. defaulting to the previous command. For example. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or if ‘. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference.’ would be removed from the path..

and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell. readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. execute the ZERR trap.) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set. Inc. Command substitutions are only expanded once. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. float. In double–quoted strings. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’.0. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. EXEC (+n. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). commands are read and checked for syntax errors. These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. integer. If the option is unset. zsh 4. Without this option. it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor. This is disabled while running initialization scripts.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file. and cannot be nested. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command. Overrides NOMATCH. if set. 2001 4 . This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands.) ERR_EXIT (–e. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function. GLOB (+F.4 Last change: October 26. etc. ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). but not executed. delete the pattern from the argument list. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. and exit. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command.

the startup files /etc/zprofile. 2001 5 . This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted. The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. If this option is unset. hash the directory containing it. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. This makes the first completion slower. ∗)’) with this option set. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed.g. filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there. so it works not only for files but for any completion. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time. no path hashing is done at all. when CORRECT is set. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor. make sure the entire command path is hashed first. avoiding a path search. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line.). GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. even if the duplicates are not contiguous. Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion.4 Last change: October 26. However. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘. /etc/zshrc. Inc. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. etc. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. user names. zsh 4. Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run. including inside local startup files (. etc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. not globbing. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.g.zshrc. This actually uses pattern matching. such as options. as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path.0. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’). You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list.

Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes.4 Last change: October 26. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. don’t execute the line directly. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. instead. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message. older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer. type a space and press return. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion. 2001 6 . zsh 4. Inc. not for completion widgets. HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked.0. Also. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. Require the use of exit or logout instead. This works only for normal widgets. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). INTERACTIVE (–i. HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells. However. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell. but can exceed this value between trimmings. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space.

marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. including declare. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. ‘?’ or ∗’. LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally. local and readonly. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function. Otherwise. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. export. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. integer. ‘!’. all options are shown. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. not under it as usual. ‘off’ otherwise. and must define the function itself. are processed. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. (By default. zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. 2001 7 . If this option is set. the function is defined to the contents of the file. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. More accurately. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. in other words. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. with it. Inc. float. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored. Without this option. This means that when a function is autoloaded. array elements are numbered from zero. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’). the corresponding file is merely executed. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted. the second match is to the right of the first one.0. that is done without a completion list being displayed. word splitting does not take place in those cases. that is. LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set. only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored. ‘∗ ‘+’. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26. However.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options.

MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST All unquoted arguments of the form ‘anything=expression’ appearing after the command name have filename expansion (that is. LOGIN (–l. then the previous status of the trap for that signal will be restored when the function exits. insert the first match immediately. remove the first match and insert the second match. Set by default in interactive shells. 2001 8 . zsh 4. MAIL_WARNING (–U) Print a warning message if a mail file has been accessed since the shell last checked. The argument is not otherwise treated specially. For example. print an error. where expression has a leading ‘˜’ or ‘=’) performed on expression as if it were a parameter assignment. NULL_GLOB (–G) If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. NOTIFY (–5. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. In other words.0. ksh: –X) Append a trailing ‘/’ to all directory names resulting from filename generation (globbing). trap ’’ INT. This option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option. rather than waiting until just before printing a prompt. Then when completion is requested again. if both options are in effect. NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. Inc. and not used as an actual parameter assignment. instead of leaving it unchanged in the argument list. For example. Overrides NOMATCH. unsetopt localtraps trap – INT fn() { setopt localtraps. in echo foo=˜/bar:˜/rod. the value on exit from the function is irrelevant.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting.4 Last change: October 26. ksh: –l) This is a login shell. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately. reverse–menu–complete may be used to loop through the list in the other direction. } will restore normally handling of SIGINT after the function exits. ksh: –m) Allow job control. it is passed to the command as a single argument. If this option is not explicitly set. When there are no more matches. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. MONITOR (–m. MENU_COMPLETE (–Y) On an ambiguous completion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) If this option is set when a signal trap is set inside a function. MARK_DIRS (–8. sleep 3. delete the pattern from the argument list instead of reporting an error. the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0] passed to the shell is a ‘–’. This option overrides AUTO_MENU. Note that this option must be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function. instead of listing possibilities or beeping. MULTIOS <Z> Perform implicit tees or cats when multiple redirections are attempted (see the section ‘Redirection’). Note that this happens anyway with typeset and similar statements. LONG_LIST_JOBS (–R) List jobs in the long format by default. etc. However. go back to the first one again. both occurrences of ˜ would be replaced. it does not need to be set before any global trap for that to be correctly restored by a function.

eval. and changing it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option. the command ‘/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit’ will be executed (assuming it exists). Parameter assignments specified before shell functions and special builtins are kept after the command completes unless the special builtin is prefixed with the command builtin. set. Inc. export. If zsh is invoked as ‘sh’ or ‘ksh’ with this option set. This takes place before any search indicated by this option./’ are not subject to the path search. PROMPT_BANG <K> If set. per IEEE Std 1003. sort the filenames numerically rather than lexicographically.’ or the current directory appear in the command search path. 2001 9 . PRIVILEGED (–p. /etc/suid_profile is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive shells). Commands explicitly beginning with ‘/’. builtin.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ksh: –p) Turn on privileged mode. source. return.0. This also applies to the . continue. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT If numeric filenames are matched by a filename generation pattern. PROMPT_SUBST <K> If set. break. ‘%’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. declare. PUSHD_IGNORE_DUPS Don’t push multiple copies of the same directory onto the directory stack. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’. PROMPT_CR (+V) <D> Print a carriage return just before printing a prompt in the line editor. zsh 4. This option disables sourcing user startup files./’ or ‘. integer. PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (–1) Print the exit value of programs with non–zero exit status. for example. See the section ‘Prompt Expansion’.2–1992 (ISO 9945–2:1993). Special builtins are . times. Turning this option off causes the effective user and group IDs to be set to the real user and group IDs.. Thus if ‘/usr/local/bin’ is in the user’s path.4 Last change: October 26. command substitution and arithmetic expansion are performed in prompts. date and time strings with leading zeroes. This option is not necessary if your system correctly returns the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)). PROMPT_PERCENT <C> <Z> If set. OCTAL_ZEROES <S> Interpret any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal. and regardless of whether ‘. POSIX_BUILTINS <K> <S> When this option is set the command builtin can be used to execute shell builtin commands. This is on by default as multi–line editing is only possible if the editor knows where the start of the line appears. This is enabled automatically on startup if the effective user (group) ID is not equal to the real user (group) ID. parameter expansion. exit.profile is disabled and the contents of the ENV variable is ignored.. OVERSTRIKE Start up the line editor in overstrike mode. local. :. ‘!’ is treated specially in prompt expansion. PATH_DIRS (–Q) Perform a path search even on command names with slashes in them. ‘. readonly. Note that subdirectories of the current directory are always searched for executables specified in this form. This option cannot be changed using the –m option of setopt and unsetopt. etc. trap and unset. shift. This is not enabled by default as it causes problems with parsing of. and he or she types ‘X11/xinit’. PRINT_EIGHT_BIT Print eight bit characters literally in completion lists. Sourcing ˜/.

’.rc}’ will work. RCS (+f) <D> After /etc/zshenv is sourced on startup. and some include them. and then manually import commands whenever you need them using ‘fc –RI’. RM_STAR_SILENT (–H) <K> <S> Do not query the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ ∗’ ∗’. zsh 4.. RESTRICTED (–r) Enables restricted mode. This option cannot be changed using unsetopt. If this option is unset. It is also possible to create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported commands. If this option is unset.. .. the /etc/zshenv file is still sourced. so things like ‘˜$USERNAME’ and ‘˜{pfalstad. PUSHD_SILENT (–E) Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c). SHARE_HISTORY <K> This option both imports new commands from the history file. command substitution. PUSHD_TO_HOME (–D) Have pushd with no arguments act like ‘pushd $HOME’. you may wish to turn SHARE_HISTORY off. See the section ‘Restricted Shell’. RC_QUOTES Allow the character sequence ‘’’’ to signify a single quote within singly quoted strings. INC_APPEND_HISTORY on. The wait and query can always be avoided by expanding the ‘∗ in ZLE ∗’ (with tab).zshrc. arithmetic expansion and brace expansion.g.zshenv. /etc/zprofile.zprofile. The history lines are also output with timestamps ala EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the spot where we left off reading the file after it gets re–written). /etc/zlogin. If you find that you want more control over when commands get imported. where a backslashed single quote can be used. it can be set at any time to prevent the remaining startup files after the currently executing one from being sourced. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) PUSHD_MINUS Exchanges the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ when used with a number to specify a directory in the stack. Note this does not apply in quoted strings using the format $’.4 Last change: October 26. ˜ expansion) before parameter expansion. 2001 10 . RC_EXPAND_PARAM (–P) Array expansions of the form ‘foo${xx}bar’.0. . /etc/zshrc. By default. RM_STAR_WAIT If querying the user before executing ‘rm ∗ or ‘rm path/∗ first wait ten seconds and ignore any∗’ ∗’. REC_EXACT (–S) In completion. history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local lines. This avoids the problem of reflexively answering ‘yes’ to the query when one didn’t really mean it.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. SH_FILE_EXPANSION <K> <S> Perform filename expansion (e. recognize exact matches even if they are ambiguous. and . and also causes your typed commands to be appended to the history file (the latter is like specifying INC_APPEND_HISTORY). source the . thing typed in that time. but you can toggle this on and off with the set–local–history zle binding. Inc. . but any of the others will not be. and setting it inside a function always changes it globally regardless of the LOCAL_OPTIONS option.zlogout files.zlogin. as described in the section ‘Files’. are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. it is performed after brace expansion.

‘)’ and ’<’ for globbing the result of parameter and command substitutions. These aliases are never used for output. This is useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small. SH_WORD_SPLIT (–y) <K> <S> Causes field splitting to be performed on unquoted parameter expansions. UNSET (+u. ZLE (–Z) Use the zsh line editor. ksh: –v) Print shell input lines as they are read. it exits after a single command has been executed. and function constructs. ksh: –s) Commands are being read from the standard input. any argument that would otherwise have been taken as a file to run will instead be treated as a normal positional parameter. SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK (–L) If a line ends with a backquote. select. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. SHIN_STDIN (–s. and there are an odd number of backquotes on the line. This also makes the shell non–interactive. use ‘:’ instead (see the section ‘Redirection’). Note that setting or unsetting this option on the command line does not necessarily affect the state the option will have while the shell is running – that is purely an indicator of whether on not commands are actually being read from standard input. OPTION ALIASES Some options have alternative names. If SHIN_STDIN is set explicitly on the command line. 2001 11 . but can be used just like normal option names when specifying options to the shell. and in some other places where the shell accepts patterns. This also affects the value of the – special parameter. Set by default in interactive shells connected to a terminal.) SINGLE_COMMAND (–t. ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z> Treat unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting. ksh: –x) Print commands and their arguments as they are executed. ignore the trailing backquote. XTRACE (–x. Inc. Note that this option has nothing to do with word splitting. Otherwise they are treated as an error. SH_NULLCMD <K> <S> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when doing redirections. (See the section ‘Parameter Expansion’. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. and the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it.4 Last change: October 26.0. SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (–M) <K> Use single–line command line editing instead of multi–line. unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set on the command line. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) SH_GLOB <K> <S> Disables the special meaning of ‘(’. if. This option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh. Commands are read from standard input if no command is specified with –c and no file of commands is specified. ksh: –t) If the shell is reading from standard input. ‘’. SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z> Allow the short forms of for.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. VERBOSE (–v. SH_OPTION_LETTERS <K> <S> If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter options (which are used with set and setopt) like ksh does. zsh 4.

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

BRACE_EXPAND NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility) DOT_GLOB GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility) HASH_ALL HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility) HIST_APPEND APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility) HIST_EXPAND BANG_HIST (bash compatibility) LOG NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility) MAIL_WARN MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility) ONE_CMD SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility) PHYSICAL CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility) PROMPT_VARS PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility) STDIN SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility) TRACK_ALL HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)
SINGLE LETTER OPTIONS Default set

–0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –B –C –D –E –F –G –H –I –J –K –L –M –N –O –P

CORRECT PRINT_EXIT_VALUE NO_BAD_PATTERN NO_NOMATCH GLOB_DOTS NOTIFY BG_NICE IGNORE_EOF MARK_DIRS AUTO_LIST NO_BEEP NO_CLOBBER PUSHD_TO_HOME PUSHD_SILENT NO_GLOB NULL_GLOB RM_STAR_SILENT IGNORE_BRACES AUTO_CD NO_BANG_HIST SUN_KEYBOARD_HACK SINGLE_LINE_ZLE AUTO_PUSHD CORRECT_ALL RC_EXPAND_PARAM

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

12

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–Q –R –S –T –U –V –W –X –Y –Z –a –e –f –g –h –i –k –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –w –x –y –C –X –a –b –e –f –i –l –m –n –p –r –s –t –u –v –x
Also note

PATH_DIRS LONG_LIST_JOBS REC_EXACT CDABLE_VARS MAIL_WARNING NO_PROMPT_CR AUTO_RESUME LIST_TYPES MENU_COMPLETE ZLE ALL_EXPORT ERR_EXIT NO_RCS HIST_IGNORE_SPACE HIST_IGNORE_DUPS INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE CHASE_LINKS XTRACE SH_WORD_SPLIT NO_CLOBBER MARK_DIRS ALL_EXPORT NOTIFY ERR_EXIT NO_GLOB INTERACTIVE LOGIN MONITOR NO_EXEC PRIVILEGED RESTRICTED SHIN_STDIN SINGLE_COMMAND NO_UNSET VERBOSE XTRACE Used by set for setting arrays Used on the command line to specify end of option processing Used on the command line to specify a single command Used by setopt for pattern–matching option setting Used in all places to allow use of long option names

sh/ksh emulation set

–A –b –c –m –o

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

13

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 )

–s

Used by set to sort positional parameters

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

14

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

NAME

zshbuiltins – zsh built–in commands
SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

– simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. . file [ arg ... ] Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment. If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of $path to find the directory containing file. Files in the current directory are not read unless ‘.’ appears somewhere in $path. If a file named ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file. If any arguments arg are given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed. : [ arg ... ] This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which may have effects on shell parameters. A zero exit code is returned. alias [ {+–}gmrL ] [ name[=value] ... ] For each name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion. If the –g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command position. For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any. With no arguments, print all currently defined aliases. If the –m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed. When printing aliases and the –g or –r flags are present, then restrict the printing to global or regular aliases, respectively. Using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’, or ending the option list with a single ‘+’, prevents the values of the aliases from being printed. If the –L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup script. The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias has been defined. autoload [ {+–}UXmt ] [ –wkz ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to functions –u, with the exception of –X/+X, –w, –k and –z. The flag –X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name. It causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments. This replaces the previous definition of the function. If no function definition is found, an error is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X attempts to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it. The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a definition for it was found. This does not replace any existing definition of the function. The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined or when no definition was found. In the latter case the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading. The flag +X may be combined with either –k or –z to make the function be loaded using ksh–style or zsh–style autoloading, respectively. If neither is given, the current setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD options determines how the function is loaded. With ksh–style autoloading, the contents of the file will not be executed immediately. Instead, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus given normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

With the –w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading. bg [ job ... ] job ... & Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified. bindkey See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1). break [ n ] Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one. builtin name [ args ... ] Executes the builtin name, with the given args. bye cap Same as exit. See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

cd [ –sLP ] [ arg ] cd [ –sLP ] old new cd [ –sLP ] {+–}n Change the current directory. In the first form, change the current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not specified. If arg is ‘–’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the previous directory. Otherwise, if a directory named arg is not found in the current directory and arg does not begin with a slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath. If no directory is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named arg exists whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory. In that case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table. The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory. The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that directory. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. If the –s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given pathname contains symlinks. If the –P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values. If the –L option is given symbolic links are followed regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option. chdir clone Same as cd. See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

command simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. comparguments See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compcall See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compctl See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1). compdescribe See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

compfiles See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compgroups See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compquote See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptags See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). comptry See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). compvalues See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1). continue [ n ] Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If n is specified, break out of n–1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop. declare Same as typeset. dirs [ –v ] [ arg ... ] With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack. If the –v option is given, number the directories in the stack when printing. Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command, and removed with the cd or popd commands. If arguments are specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack. disable [ –afmr ] name ... Temporarily disable the named hash table elements. The default is to disable builtin commands. This allows you to use an external command with the same name as a builtin command. The –a option causes disable to act on aliases. The –f option causes disable to act on shell functions. The –r options causes disable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are disabled. Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command. disown [ job ... ] job ... & job ... &! Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status, and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped. If no job is specified, disown the current job. echo [ –neE ] [ arg ... ] Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one. If the –n flag is not present, print a newline at the end. echo recognizes the following escape sequences: \a \b \c \e \f \n \r \t \v bell character backspace suppress final newline escape form feed linefeed (newline) carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

3

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

\\ backslash \0NNN character code in octal \xNN character code in hexadecimal The –E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences. In the latter case, –e flag can be used to enable them. echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1). echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1). emulate [ –LR ] {zshshkshcsh} Set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as possible. csh will never be fully emulated. If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zshmisc(1) . If the –R option is given, all options are reset to their default value corresponding to the specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive environment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered. If the –L option is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the immediately surrounding shell function, if any; normally these options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. enable [ –afmr ] name ... Enable the named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable. The default is to enable builtin commands. The –a option causes enable to act on aliases. The –f option causes enable to act on shell functions. The –r option causes enable to act on reserved words. Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed. With the –m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled. Enabled objects can be disabled with the disable builtin command. eval [ arg ... ] Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command in the current shell process. exec simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. exit [ n ] Exit the shell with the exit code specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit code from the last command executed. An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set. export [ name[=value] ... ] The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. Equivalent to typeset –gx. If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope. false [ arg ... ] Do nothing and return an exit code of 1. fc [ –e ename ] [ –nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ] fc –ARWI [ filename ] Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list. The arguments first and last may be specified as a number or as a string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current history event number. A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given string. All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

4

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

If the –l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output. If the –m flag is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history events matching this pattern will be shown. Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these history events. If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used. If ename is ‘–’, no editor is invoked. When editing is complete, the edited command is executed. If first is not specified, it will be set to –1 (the most recent event), or to –16 if the –l flag is given. If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to –1 if the –l flag is given. The flag –r reverses the order of the commands and the flag –n suppresses command numbers when listing. Also when listing, –d prints timestamps for each command, and –f prints full time–date stamps. Adding the –E flag causes the dates to be printed as ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’. Adding the –i flag causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy–mm–dd’ format. With the –D flag, fc prints elapsed times. ‘fc –R’ reads the history from the given file, ‘fc –W’ writes the history out to the given file, and ‘fc –A’ appends the history out to the given file. If no filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed. If the –I option is added to –R, only those events that are not already contained within the internal history list are added. If the –I option is added to –A or –W, only those events that are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written. In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries. fg [ job ... ] job ... Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground. If no job is specified, resume the current job. float [ {+–}EFghlrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not permitted. functions [ {+–}UXmtu ] [ name ... ] Equivalent to typeset –f. getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1). getln [ –AclneE ] name ... Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name. Equivalent to read –zr. getopts optstring name [ arg ... ] Checks the args for legal options. If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters. A valid option argument begins with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’. An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘–’, or the argument ‘– –’, ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg begins with a ‘+’. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG. The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND. OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function. OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts. If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not stored. The option itself is still stored in name in this case. A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set name to ‘?’ for an unknown option and to ‘:’ when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error message when an option is invalid. The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options. hash [ –Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the named directory hash table. Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory hash table). The choice of hash table to work on is determined by the –d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash table is used. Given no arguments, and neither the –r or –f options, the selected hash table will be listed in full. The –r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied. It will be subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion. The –f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt immediately. For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this adds all users’ home directories. These two options cannot be used with any arguments. The –m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted) and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are printed. This is the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements. For each name with a corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the selected hash table, associating it with the pathname ‘value’. In the command hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by ‘value’. In the named directory hash table, this means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘˜name’. For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table. If an appropriate value can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged. The –v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specification. If has no effect if used with –f. If the –L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a call to hash. history Same as fc –l. integer [ {+–}ghilrtux ] [ name[=value] ... ] Equivalent to typeset –i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted. jobs [ –dlprs ] [ job ... ] jobs –Z string Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted. The –l flag lists process IDs, and the –p flag lists process groups. If the –r flag is specified only running jobs will be listed and if the –s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown. If the –d flag is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown. The –Z option replaces the shell’s argument and environment space with the given string, truncated if necessary to fit. This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings. This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state. kill [ –s signal_name ] job ... kill [ –sig ] job ... kill –l [ sig ... ] Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the given jobs or processes. Signals are given by number or by names, without the ‘SIG’ prefix. If the signal being sent is not ‘KILL’ or ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if it is stopped. The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list. In the third form, kill –l, if sig is not specified the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of the signal is printed. let arg ... Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’ for a

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

6

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

description of arithmetic expressions. The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, and 1 otherwise. limit [ –hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ... Set or display resource limits. Unless the –s flag is given, the limit applies only the children of the shell. If –s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children. If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit to the specified value. If the –h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits. If no resource is given, print all limits. resource can be one of: addressspace Maximum amount of address space used. aiomemorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations. aiooperations Maximum number of AIO operations. cachedthreads Maximum number of cached threads. coredumpsize Maximum size of a core dump. cputime Maximum CPU seconds per process. datasize Maximum data size (including stack) for each process. descriptors Maximum value for a file descriptor. filesize Largest single file allowed. maxproc Maximum number of processes. maxpthreads Maximum number of threads per process. memorylocked Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM. memoryuse Maximum resident set size. resident Maximum resident set size. sockbufsize Maximum size of all socket buffers. stacksize Maximum stack size for each process. vmemorysize Maximum amount of virtual memory. Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system. resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix. limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows: nh nk nm [mm:]ss hours kilobytes (default) megabytes or minutes minutes and seconds

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

7

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 )

local [ {+–}AEFLRUZahilrtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ... Same as typeset, except that the options –g, and –f are not permitted. In this case the –x option does not force the use of –g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions. log List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch parameter. logout [ n ] Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell. noglob simple command See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’. popd [ {+–}n ] Remove an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory. With no argument, the current top entry is removed. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero. An argument of the form –n counts from the right. If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped. print [ –bnrslzpNDPoOicm ] [ –un ] [ –R [ –en ]] [ arg ... ] With no flags or with flag ‘–’, the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M–x’ metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), ‘\C–x’ produces a control character (‘\C–@’ and ‘\C–?’ give the characters NUL and delete), and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’. Finally, if not in an escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is not printed. –r –R Ignore the escape conventions of echo. Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless the –e flag is given. The –n flag suppresses the trailing newline. Only the –e and –n flags are recognized after –R; all other arguments and options are printed. Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1). Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern. Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output. Do not add a newline to the output. Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces. Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls. Print the arguments sorted in ascending order. Print the arguments sorted in descending order. If given together with –o or –O, sorting is performed case–independently. Print the arguments in columns. Print the arguments to file descriptor n. Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess. Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces. Treat the arguments as directory names, replacing prefixes with ˜ expressions, as appropriate. Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

–b –m –s –n –l –N –o –O –i –c –un –p –z –D –P pushd [ arg ] pushd old new pushd {+–}n

zsh 4.0.4

Last change: October 26, 2001

8

If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set. the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘–’ in this context are swapped.4 Last change: October 26. –r –q Raw mode: a ‘\’ at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote the following character and are not removed. With this flag set the return value is zero only if the character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’.0. without word splitting. with leftover fields assigned to the last name. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) Change the current directory. no input is assigned to the parameters. the words of the current command are read. the directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.. The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd. The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it. An argument of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command. –z Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name. 2001 9 . Input is read from the terminal unless one of –u or –p is present. All are assigned to the first name. arg is interpreted as it would be by cd. If the –e flag is used. starting with zero. read [ –rzpqAclneEt ] [ –k [ num ] ] [ –un ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name . The first field is assigned to the first name. pushln [ arg . –k [ num ] Read only one (or num) characters. etc. These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified with the –K flag to compctl). and push the old current directory onto the directory stack. even if used with the –p or –u or –z flags or with redirected input. The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list. If name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.. ] Read one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators. exchange the top two entries). If the –l flag is given. This option may also be used within zle widgets. The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.. or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack. without word splitting. If arg is not specified. pwd [ –rLP ] Print the absolute pathname of the current working directory. the whole line is assigned as a scalar. If both flags are –e –E –A –c –l zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ] Equivalent to print –nz. If the –c flag is given. See –u. If the –r or the –P flag is specified. This flag is ignored when the –k or –q flags are present.. An argument of the form ‘–n’ counts from the right. Note that this always reads from the terminal. the second field to the second name. Note that num must be in the argument word that follows –k. r Same as fc –e –. Text is pushed onto the stack with ‘print –z’ or with push–line from the line editor (see zshzle(1)). If the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set. change to the second directory on the stack (that is. not in the same word. the printed path will not contain symbolic links. In the first form. Read only one character from the terminal and set name to ‘y’ if this character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ otherwise. Inc. or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the –L flag is not given. This option may also be used within zle widgets. except as noted below. This flag is ignored when –q is present. Otherwise. change the current directory to arg..

Flags may be specified by name using the –o option. Otherwise the value is 0.. rehash Same as hash –r. With +s sort arguments in descending order. or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to test for input. If the first argument contains a ‘?’. –q. ] Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters. Input is read from the coprocess. with a non–zero status. if +A is used and name is an array. with –q which clears the input queue before reading. not word 0. If the –A flag is specified. –l is used and –c is ignored. when reading from the terminal with –k this is automatically handled. If the –s option is given.g. set [ {+–}options  {+–}o option_name ] . With –l. the return status is that of the last command executed.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHBUILTINS ( 1 ) present. or as described for –q. the number of the word the cursor is on is read. For the meaning of the other flags. The behavior of some combinations of the –k. see zshoptions(1). Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap is passed as the first argument. the index of the character the cursor is on is read. readonly Same as typeset –r. Inc. The –c or –l flags cancel any and all of –kpquz. Test if input is available before attempting to read. –u and –z flags is undefined. If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function. However. all arrays are printed. Input is read from file descriptor n. when called from within completion with –c or –l. name is set to an array containing the given args. –p.. the effect is different for zero and non–zero return status. so the statement ‘return $((128+$1))’ will return the same status as if the signal had not be