BladeLogic Network Shell Command Reference

Version 7.4.3

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© 2008 BladeLogic, Inc. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, reproduction, distribution and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of BladeLogic, Inc. BladeLogic, Enabling Continuous Configuration, and Network Shell are registered trademarks or trademarks of BladeLogic, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. BladeLogic reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. Restricted Rights Legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions asset forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at FAR 52.227-7013. BladeLogic, Inc. 10 Maguire Road, Building 3 Lexington, MA 02140 www.bladelogic.com

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

The Network Shell (NSH) commands are file manipulation utilities designed to look and feel like their UNIX counterparts. The difference is that the NSH commands are able to access and manipulate both local and remote files without using NFS/RFS or the .rhost remote authentication mechanisms. Using the NSH commands, you can manage your network of UNIX and Windows machines as one large host. You can perform system administrative functions on multiple remote hosts from a single machine. Instead of having to rlogin or telnet to a host to see what is going is on, or to make a quick change, you can just use the NSH commands to access files on local and remote hosts directly from the command line. You can use the NSH commands to write new scripts, or modify existing scripts and make them distributed. The Network Shell Command Reference provides both summarized and complete descriptions of all commands and utilities available in Network Shell. Use this document as follows:

• •

To view summarized descriptions of commands and utilities, see the alphabetized table in Summarized Descriptions of Commands. To view complete descriptions of commands and utilities, see Complete Descriptions of Commands.

Authenticating with Network Shell
When you use Network Shell in conjunction with a Network Shell Proxy Server, you must first authenticate. Once you successfully authenticate, you are issued a session credential, which grants you access to the proxy server. If you are using Network Shell interactively, you can either obtain a session credential using Configuration Manager or Provisioning Manager or you can use the blcred command line utility. If you are running Network Shell in batch mode, you must use blcred to obtain a session credential. For more information about blcred, refer to the blcred man page or see the BladeLogic Administration Guide, which describes typical scenarios for using the utility.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

4

ZSH Support
Network Shell supports both 4_0_4 and 4_3_4 versions of ZSH. By default, Network Shell calls the 4_0_4 version of ZSH. If you want to access the newer version of ZSH, do the following:
Procedure

1 2

Cd to <BladeLogic install directory>\bin. By default, this is C:\Program Files\BladeLogic\OM\bin on Windows and /usr/nsh/bin on UNIX. Do one of the following:

On UNIX, enter the following commands:
mv nsh nsh-4_0_4 ln –s zsh-4_3_4 nsh

On Windows, do the following:
a b

Rename the existing "nsh.exe" executable to "nsh-4_0_4.exe". Copy the "zsh-4_3_4.exe" executable to "nsh.exe".

Summarized Descriptions of Commands
The following table provides a brief description of all Network Shell commands and utilities.
Network Shell Command Description

agentctl agentinfo autolic awk bl_gen_ssl bl_srp_agent blcred blexpr blkeylogman bllogman blquery

Controls the functions of an RSCD agent. Provides information about an RSCD agent. Licenses RSCD agents using a web service. Scans files for specified patterns. Creates an X.509 certificate. Activates a user information cache on UNIX.

Manages authentication profiles, session credentials, and trusted certificates.
Creates and evaluates an expression based on input in the form of arguments. Remotely manages keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent. Remotely manages live RSCD agent logfiles. Extends the functionality of blexpr by providing functions that are able to query the asset types supported by the BladeLogic environment.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

5

Network Shell Command

Description

bzip2

Utility for compressing files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional compressors. Concatenates and prints files. Sets or changes the agent password on one or more Windows servers that have the BladeLogicRSCD agent running. Changes group (and user) ownership of files. Changes the mode (protection attributes) of a file. Changes user (and group) ownerships of files. Changes the current role. Display file checksums and block counts. Compares the content of two files checking to see if they are identical. Removes columns from a file. Selects or rejects lines common to two files. Compresses data. Copies files. Converts data in a comma-separated value format to XML format. Selects portions of each line of a file. Converts and copies a file. Compares the differences between files and directories. Executes a remote df command. Synchronizes two directories. Displays disk usage information for files. Echoes arguments. Expands tabs to spaces. Extracts specified fields from a data row. Determines file type. Walks a file hierarchy. Filters the contents of files to limit line length. Prints fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host. Extracts files from a ZIP archive in a pipe.

cat chapw chgrp chmod chown chrole cksum cmp colrm comm compress cp csv2xml cut dd diff df dsync du echo expand fields file find fold fdqn funzip

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

6

Network Shell Command

Description

getlic grep head hexdump hgrep hostname join lam less lesskey link ln ls man md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv ncp ncpu ndf ndircmp ndsync nexec nlogin nmem nnet nohup

Gets remote license data from RSCD agents. Searches files and selects lines matching specified patterns. Displays the first few lines of a file. Performs an ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal dump. Highlights the results of a grep. Prints the name of the current host. Provides a relational database operator. Outputs files side by side. Displays files on a CRT. Specifies key bindings that are used by the less command. Creates a link to a file. Creates a link to a file. Lists the contents of a directory. Get man pages from a remote host. Calculate the MD5 checksum of files. Create directories. Creates a named pipe. Creates a special file. Moves or renames files. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Displays CPU information. View usage statistics from one or more hosts. Compares contents of multiple directories. Copies/synchronizes multiple sources to multiple destinations. Provides an interface for running remote commands. Log in to a remote host. View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts. Displays network adaptor configuration data for one or more servers. Invokes a command immune to hangups.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

7

Network Shell Command

Description

nover nprocsum nps nsh NSH-Perl nshopt nshpath nstats ntop nukecert nunzip order paste pax pkgadd pr prune putcert putlic redi renice rm rmdir rscd rsu runcmd runscript

Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Displays process summary from one or more hosts. Displays process information from one or more hosts. Outlines the differences between Network Shell and other shells. Describes the use of the Network Shell Perl module. Tests different network write buffer sizes. Shows the path where an nsh executable resides. Displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Provides a collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers. Removes certificates from servers. Decompresses or compresses files. Sorts a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order. Merges corresponding or subsequent lines of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Provides a Network Shell wrapper to the pkgadd command. Print files. Prunes log files to a specified size. Pushes a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers. Uses raw licensing data to license remote RSCD agents. Used in conjunction with getlic. Redirects input to a file. Alters the priority of running processes. Removes a file. Removes an empty directory. Describes the Remote System Call Daemon (the RSCD agent). Runs an NSH command with alternate privileges. Runs a Network Shell command on one or more hosts. Runs a Network Shell script on one or more hosts.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

8

Network Shell Command

Description

scriptutil sdiff secadmin sed sort split strings su tail tar tee test touch tr uname uncompress uncp unexpand uniq unlink unzip unzipsfx uuencode uudecode version vi vsh vshview vtree

Copies and executes scripts on remote servers. Compares the differences between files and directories side-by-side. Defines encryption security when modifying the secure file. Provides a stream editor. Sorts or merges text files. Splits a file into pieces. Finds printable strings in a file. Substitutes a user identity. Outputs the last part of files. Reads and writes file archives and copies directory hierarchies. Copies standard input to standard output, making copies of the input. Tests the value of an expression. Changes the last update and modification times of a file. Translates or deletes characters. Prints the operating system name. Expands compressed data. Uncopies files that were backed up during a cp or dsync. Replaces spaces with tabs (see also expand). Reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. Unlinks a file and/or directory. Lists, tests, and extracts compressed files in a ZIP archive. Provides a self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives. Encodes a binary file. Decodes a binary file. Tells what version of BladeLogic software is installed on a server. Provides a text editor. Starts a shell and captures input and output. Views the log files created by vsh. Shows the directory structure of a file system.

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Network Shell Command Reference

Introduction

9

Network Shell Command

Description

wc zcat zip zipcloak zipgrep zipinfo zipnote zipsplit zshall

Counts the number of lines, words, and/or characters in a file. Expands compressed data. (zcat is an alias for uncompress.) Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Searches files in an archive for lines matching a pattern. Lists detailed information about an archive. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Packages and compresses (archives) files. Provides man pages for Network Shell’s preferred command interpreter, the Z shell.

Complete Descriptions of Commands
The following pages provide complete documentation for all commands and utilities available in Network Shell other than the BladeLogic configuration files. To view documentation for a particular command, use Adobe Acrobat® to click on the bookmark for that command. When viewed in Acrobat, bookmarks are listed alphabetically on the left.

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Network Shell Command Reference

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

NAME
agentctl − Control the functions of an RSCD agent

SYNOPSIS
agentctl [-b] [-f] [-q] [-r] [-v] \ list | start | stop | kill | restart | exec cmd [args]

DESCRIPTION
The agentctl command lets you control the running of the RSCD agent. This command is part of the agent distribution and controls only the agent on the local machine. You cannot control remote agents with this command. (Note that you can use the nexec command to remotely control the server agent.) The following actions are supported: list start List the current agent processes that are running. This list uses a style similar to the UNIX ps command. Start the agent on the local server. If the agent is already running, then a warning message is output and the operation is aborted unless you specified the -f or -r options. On UNIX systems, you must have root privileges to use this command. Otherwise the agent will not start. On Windows systems the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is started. stop Stop all RSCD agent processes on the local machine. If no agent processes are running, a corresponding warning message is output. On UNIX systems, when a sub-agent starts, it creates a new process group. When you issue the stop command, a SIGHUP (hangup) is first sent to all processes in the respective process groups, followed by a SIGINT (interrupt) one second later, followed by a SIGKILL (-9) one second later again. This hopes to allow processes to gently exit before they are forcefully terminated. On Windows systems, the BladeLogic RSCD Agent service is stopped. kill The option is similar to the stop command, except that on UNIX systems it does not try to gently terminate the processes, but rather just sends the SIGKILL (-9) to each respective process group. This option is recommended only when you need to halt immediately. This option is a combination of doing a stop followed by a start. This is not just a convenience command -- the restart command also lets you restart an agent remotely, using the nexec command, as described below. Once you issue a stop command, a remote start is no longer possible, because the agent is no longer running to service the nexec command. However, the restart command has been specifically designed to survive the agent going down while restart is still running. restart accomplishes this by changing its own process group ID, which allows it to run independently of the agent. To use this functionality, invoke restart with the -b option. For example, to remotely restart an agent, use the following syntax: nexec hostname agentctl -b restart The agentctl command attempts to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

restart

NSH

1

agentctl(1)

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agentctl(1)

exec

This option is similar to the restart command, but with the added ability to execute a given command between the stop and the start. When performing a restart create a new sub-process with a separate process group ID to do the actual work and just exit. This operation is necessary to be able to remotely restart an agent, because stopping an agent will also stop all sub-processes of the same process group ID. agentctl will attempt to automatically determine if its parent process is an agent. If it determines that its parent process is an agent, it automatically turns on the -b option.

OPTIONS
-b

-f

When starting an agent, either through the start, restart, or exec command, the default is not to start the agent if agentctl detects than an agent is already running. With this option, agentctl will always try to start the agent. Quiet mode. With this option, agentctl does not output warning messages. stdin, stdout, and stderr are all redirected from/to /dev/null (UNIX) or nul (Windows), so that no messages are displayed when the agent is started. Pass the -r option to the agent (UNIX only). The agent -r option tells the agent to retry (approximately every 10 seconds) listening on the effective TCP port, if the port is already being listened on. Verbose option. With this option, agentctl generates more output to let you know what the program is doing.

-q

-r

-v

EXAMPLES
sol8dev# agentctl list HOSTNAME USER PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI START TIME COMMAND sol8dev root 6086 0.0 0.8 4520 1840 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev root 6085 0.0 1.2 4656 2968 0 14:45:15 0:00 rscd sol8dev# agentctl -v stop Stopping pid 6086 ... Stopping pid 6085 ... Stopping pid 8488 ... sol8dev# agentctl restart agentctl: Warning - RSCD agent currently not running rscd - Copyright (C) 1996-2003, BladeLogic Inc. sol8dev# nexec winhost agentctl -b restart

EXIT VALUES
agentctl exits with a value of 0 if the requested operation was fulfilled without any problems or issues. Otherwise it exits with a non zero value.

ORIGIN
agentctl was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rscd(1).

NSH

2

SYNOPSIS agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . addresses of the hosts for which you want information. agentinfo outputs the information in the following manner: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : 6.agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. nsh% agentinfo solarishost windowshost solarishost: Agent Release : 6. With no arguments. Configuration Manager Display information about multiple hosts.0. hostname The names or I.. OPTIONS -? -c -H Displays a general usage message. the CSV file includes a header line. agentinfo outputs data about the current remote host.0.] DESCRIPTION The agentinfo command gives an overview of generally important information about a remote agent. List one host per line.160 NSH 1 .160 Hostname : linuxhost Operating System: Linux 2. Do not output a header. Tells agentinfo to output the data in a CSV (comma separated value) format.3. If the current directory is on the local host.3. use either the ncpu or nover commands.0.4.2-2 User Permissions: 4507/51 (tmk/man) Host ID : 44434057 # of Processors : 1 License Status : Licensed for NSH. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. the number of processors reported by agentinfo does not consider hyperthreading. Put a space between each host name. By default.P.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 Note that. by design. You can also specify the names or I. -f filename A flat file containing the names or I. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) NAME agentinfo − Output information about remote RSCD agents.3.P. EXAMPLE Display information about the current remote host..160 solarishost SunOS 5. Put a space between each host name. If you need CPU counts which account for hyperthreading.P. nsh% cd //linuxhost/ linuxhost% agentinfo Agent Release : 6. addresses of the hosts for which you want information. You can turn off the header line with the -H option. agentinfo displays a message to that effect.

agentinfo(1) Property of BladeLogic. version(1) NSH 2 .3. Strictly confidential and proprietary agentinfo(1) Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : windowshost: Agent Release : Hostname : Operating System: User Permissions: Host ID : # of Processors : License Status : solarishost SunOS 5.160 windowshost WindowsNT 5. nover (1). SEE ALSO ncpu (1).0. Configuration Manager ORIGIN The agentinfo utility was written by Thomas Kraus.0 SYSTEM F454127F 1 Licensed for NSH. Inc.8 4507/51 (tmk/sw) 80F8EC76 1 Expires Mon May 12 14:58:38 2005 6.

-c <count> The number of CPUs in the license request. Inc.autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. autolic processes all the hosts you specify.. The autolic command combines these three steps into a single non-interactive step. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) NAME autolic − License RSCD agents via web service SYNOPSIS autolic [-luexvV] [-f file] [-c count] user password [host1 . Your registered username on the BladeLogic support website. You can specify more than one option. License hosts that are currently un-licensed... Login to the BladeLogic support website. OPTIONS The following four options allow you to select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. Display license information for hosts that currently have a valid permanent license. hostn List of hosts for which you want to retrieve license information. List one host per line. Previously the licensing of an agent consisted of three steps: 1 2 3 Run the getlic command to gather data required for licensing.. -v -V Verbose output detailing individual steps. -proxyHost host Hostname of the proxy server -proxyPort port Port to connect to on the proxy server -proxyUser user User to connect to the proxy server as -proxyPass pass Password to use to connect to the proxy server NSH 1 .dat file. In most cases. host1 . Debug output. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts for which you want license information. upload the license file created by the getlic command. -l -u -e -x user password Your registered password for the above user on the BladeLogic support website. do not use this option. Apply the licenses with the putlic command. regardless of their license status. License hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. License hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. hostn] autolic [-proxyHost <host>] [-proxyPort <port>] [-proxyUser <user>] [-proxyPass <pass>] DESCRIPTION The autolic command lets you license RSCD agents in a single step via the BladeLogic licensing web service. If you do not include any of these four options. and then download the generated license.

NSH 2 . the BladeLogic licensing server automatically determines the license type. If you are going through a non-authenticating proxy. you must update the autolic configuration file called share/autolic. putlic(NSH). If Internet access is not available or if port 80 is blocked (for example. the host from which you launch autolic must have Internet access through port 80. ORIGIN autolic was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO getlic(NSH).autolic(1) Property of BladeLogic. CAVEATS You cannot select the license type (evaluation or permanent).com -proxyPort \ 8080 -proxyUser username -proxyPass password # # Proxy information # proxyhost=proxy. For autolic to function properly.conf: host $ autolic -proxyHost proxy.mycompany. based on the your current customer/prospect status. then use the getlic and putlic commands described above to license your agents. Instead. do not set the proxyuser and proxypassword entries. Running the following command will Add/Modify the entries in autolic.com proxyport=8080 proxyuser=username proxypassword=password Adjust values as required. Inc.mycompany. Strictly confidential and proprietary autolic(1) USAGE host $ autolic -u username bombay : Licensed for madras : Licensed for bagalore : Licensed for password bombay madras bagalore NSH/CM NSH/CM NSH/CM PROXY If you need to go through a proxy.conf (from the NSH install directory). by a firewall). agentinfo(NSH).

after the ‘do’ or ‘else’ keywords.. Inc. awk treats it as if ‘’ had been specified and uses <TAB> as the field separator. Set debug level to n. Define the input field separator to be the regular expression fs. while $0 refers to the entire line. If a field separator of ‘t’ is specified. Each line is matched against the pattern portion of every patternaction statement. In order to use a literal ‘t’ as the field separator.. a backslash (‘´) can be used to escape a newline between tokens. or ‘while’ statement. nawk . If FS is null. expression. the input line is split into one field per character. see the section on variables below). A pattern-action statement has the form pattern { action } A missing { action } means print the line. In order to set the field separator to a single blank. Normally. With each pattern there can be an associated action that will be performed when a line of a file matches the pattern. The file name ‘-’ means the standard input.pattern-directed scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS awk [-safe] [-V] [-d[n]] [-F fs] [-v var=value] [prog | -f progfile] file . Newlines are permitted after a terminating statement or following a comma (‘. . An input line is normally made up of fields separated by whitespace. A statement can be one of the following: if (expression) statement [else statement] while (expression) statement for (expression..cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. A value greater than 1 causes awk to dump core on fatal errors. Any file of the form var=value is treated as an assignment. process creation (cmd | getline. An action is a sequence of statements. and is executed at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename.. Additionally. the associated action is performed for each matched pattern.. Strictly confidential and proprietary cat(1) NAME awk . or by the value of RS. DESCRIPTION Awk scans each input file for lines that match any of a set of patterns specified literally in prog or in one or more files specified as -f progfile. The input is normally made up of input lines (records) separated by newlines. Pattern-action statements are separated by newlines or semicolons. any number of -v options may be present. This is convenient when working with multi-line records. and newlines are used as field separators (in addition to the value of FS). If RS is null. then any number of blank lines are used as the record separator. -f filename Read program code from the specified file filename instead of from the command line. an open brace (‘()’). Print the version number of awk to standard output and exit.’). -safe Disable file output (print >. $2. print >>). The fields are denoted $1. a logical AND (‘&&’).. system) and access to the environment (ENVIRON. expression) statement for (var in array) statement NSH 1 . print |. or 1 if n is not specified. or by the regular expression FS. any number of blanks separate fields. -V -v var=value Assign value to variable var before prog is executed. use the -F option with a value of ‘[t]’. a logical OR (‘||’). ‘for’. use the -F option with a value of ‘[ ]’. This is a first (and not very reliable) approximation to a ‘‘safe’’ version of . or after the closing parenthesis of an ‘if ’. not a filename.. The options are as follows: -d[n] -F fs Debug mode. a missing pattern always matches.

and a matchop is either ˜ (matches) or !˜ (does not match). the constituents are concatenated.j. The printf statement formats its expression list according to the format (see printf(3)). Regular expressions are as in egrep(1). Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to the entire line. not necessarily numeric. and terminated by the output record separator. A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by a comma. newlines or right braces. using the operators ˜ and !˜. a relational expression.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. Expressions take on string or numeric values as appropriate. Variables are initialized to the null string. array elements (denoted x[i]) or fields. Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular expressions and relational expressions. non-null members are taken as filenames.. except in the position of an isolated regular expression in a pattern.) inarray-name where a relop is any of the six relational operators in C. this allows for a form of associative memory. Array subscripts may be any string.]} expression # commonly var = expression print [expression-list][>expression] printf format [. open next. The special patterns BEGIN and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last. A conditional is an arithmetic expression. identical string values in different statements denote the same open file.. or a Boolean combination of these. with the usual C escapes recognized within (see printf(1) for a complete list of these). and are built using the operators + * / % ˆ (exponentiation). file and cmd may be literal names or parenthesized expressions. any string (constant or variable) may be used as a regular expression. String constants are quoted "". Argument array. . Multiple subscripts such as [i. Variables may be scalars. in this case. A relational expression is one of the following: expression matchop regular-expression expression relop expression expression in array-name (expr.k] are permitted. An empty expression-list stands for $0. separated by the current output field separator. Variable names with special meanings: ARGC ARGV Argument count. assignable. assignable. and concatenation (indicated by whitespace)... Regular expressions may also occur in relational expressions. separated by the value of SUBSEP (see the section on variables below)).. expr.. the action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the first pattern through an occurrence of the second.+= -= *= /= %= ˆ= > >= < <= == != ?: are also available in expressions. Inc. status is expression cat(1) Statements are terminated by semicolons. NSH 2 . /re/ is a constant regular expression. BEGIN and END do not combine with other patterns. start delete array[expression]# delete an array element delete array # delete all elements of array exit [expression]# exit immediately. The print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if | cmd is present). The operators ! ++ -. expression-list][>expression] return [expression] next # skip remaining patterns on this input line nextfile # skip rest of this file.. Strictly confidential and proprietary do statement while (expression) break continue { [statement .

FUNCTIONS The awk language has a variety of built-in functions: arithmetic. Strictly confidential and proprietary CONVFMT Conversion format when converting numbers (default "%. NSH 3 . Ordinal number of the current record. s) The same as sub() except that all occurrences of the regular expression are replaced. String Functions gsub(r. Return a random number. FNR FS NF NR OFMT OFS ORS Ordinal number of the current record in the current file. $NF can be used to obtain the value of the last field in the current record. the time of day is used instead. index(s. x) Return the arctangent of y/x in radians. Output format for numbers (default "%. FILENAME The name of the current input file. where x is in radians. n. input/output and general. or 0 if it does not. srand(expr) Sets seed for rand() to expr and returns the previous seed. Arithmetic Functions atan2(y. cat(1) Number of fields in the current record. Output field separator (default blank). string. Regular expression used to separate fields. Return x truncated to an integer value. such that 0<=n<1. t.6g").6g"). Inc. also settable by option -F fs. Return the sine of x. gsub() returns the number of replacements. RS RSTART The starting position of the string matched by the match() function. If expr is omitted. t) The position in s where the string t occurs. subscripts are names. Input record separator (default newline). Return the square root of x. SUBSEP Separates multiple subscripts (default 034).cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. ENVIRON Array of environment variables. where x is in radians. cos(x) exp(x) int(x) log(x) rand() sin(x) sqrt(x) Return the cosine of x. Return the exponential of x. Output record separator (default newline). Return the natural logarithm of x. RLENGTH The length of the string matched by the match() function.

fflush(expr) Flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe expr. If s is not given. m. toupper(str) Returns a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated to their corresponding upper-case equivalents. A literal backslash can be specified by preceding it with another backslash (‘\’). An empty string as field separator splits the string into one array element per character. n) Return at most the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted from 1. The stream remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). The variable RLENGTH is set to the length of the matched string. the variables $0 and NF are set. cmd | getline [var] Read a record of input from a stream piped from the output of cmd. As long as the stream remains open. The separation is done with the regular expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given. tolower(str) Returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters translated to their corresponding lower-case equivalents. If file is not open. t. . it is opened.) The string resulting from formatting expr. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from file. or 0 if it does not. and -1 for an error. r) The position in s where the regular expression r occurs. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. and -1 for an error. or -1 if no match is found. expr. or if n specifies more characters than are left in the string. getline returns 1 for a successful input. The variable RSTART is set to the starting position of the matched string (which is the same as the returned value) or zero if no match is found. A literal ampersand can be specified by preceding it with two backslashes (‘\’). file remains open until explicitly closed with a call to close(). a[n] and returns n. according to the printf(3) format fmt. If var is omitted. a[2]. This form of getline sets the variables NR and FNR. and FNR. the length of the substring is limited by the length of s.. sub() returns the number of replacements. . it is opened. s) Substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression r in the string s. getline Sets $0 to the next input record from the current input file... getline returns 1 for a successful input. As long as the stream remains open. 0 for end of file.. getline [var] < file Sets $0 to the next record from file. Strictly confidential and proprietary length(s) The length of s taken as a string. $0 is used. An ampersand (‘&’) in t is replaced in string s with regular expression r. Inc.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. sprintf(fmt. or of $0 if no argument is given.. cat(1) match(s. substr(s. If the stream is not open. Otherwise var is set. fs) Splits the string s into array elements a[1]. . NSH 4 . Otherwise var is set.. the variables $0 and NF are set. sub(r. If n is omitted. Input/Output and General Functions close(expr) Closes the file or pipe expr. If var is omitted.. a. 0 for end of file. NR. expr should match the string that was used to open the file or pipe. subsequent calls will read subsequent records from the stream. getline var Sets $0 to variable var. split(s. This form of getline sets the variables NF.

functions may be called recursively.. with input fields separated by comma and/or blanks and tabs: BEGIN { FS = ".. Addison-Wesley. printf(1). Parameters are local to the function. BUGS There are no explicit conversions between numbers and strings. Aho.. to force it to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it. return x } cat(1) Parameters are passed by value if scalar. i < ARGC. To force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it. $1 } Add up first column. Inc. 1988. c) { . HISTORY An awk utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. sed(1). modify.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby NSH 5 . Weinberger. and by reference if array name. EXAMPLES Print lines longer than 72 characters: length($0) > 72 Print first two fields in opposite order: { print $2. W. printf(3) A. and P. COPYRIGHT /**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use. Functions may be defined (at the position of a pattern-action statement) thusly: function foo(a. /stop/ Simulate echo(1): BEGIN { # Simulate echo(1) for (i = 1. B. The scope rules for variables in functions are a botch. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. $1 } Same. i++) printf "%s ".[ ]*|[ ]+" } { print $2. b. ARGV[i] printf "0 exit } Print an error message to standard error: { print "error!" > "/dev/stderr" } SEE ALSO egrep(1). the syntax is worse. s. V. The AWK Programming Language. Thus local variables may be created by providing excess parameters in the function definition. Kernighan. lex(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary system(cmd) Executes cmd and returns its exit status. all other variables are global. J. " average is". copy. s/NR } Print all lines between start/stop pairs: /start/. print sum and average: { s += $1 } END { print "sum is".

INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS.cat(1) Property of BladeLogic. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation. DATA OR PROFITS. written prior permission. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary granted. ****************************************************************/ cat(1) NSH 6 . LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE.

bladelogic. id. id.509 certificate in a file named id. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.pem. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. In Windows. the user is prompted for a private key password. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. such as /home/johnk. Once a certificate is created on a client. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. Inc.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. NSH 1 . Inc.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. On UNIX.

and role. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. After entering your user information. Inc.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. password. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. After you provide this information. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. NSH 1 . If you do not use this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. When you run bl_srp_agent. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. the system prompts for a user ID. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it.

or BLCLI) can connect to a BladeLogic Application Server or Network Shell Proxy Server.. the Authentication Service validates you as a user and issues a session credential. and trusted certificates. you must provide an authentication profile and other information.509 certificates. a BladeLogic client application (i. COMMAND OPTIONS -p <authentication profiles filename> Name and location of the authentication profile configuration file. Network Shell. you must also provide a user name and password. To obtain a session credential from an Authentication Service.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. and delete authentication profiles. and trusted certificates. The utility lets you test whether a valid session credential already exists and determine the lifetime remaining for that credential. or Network Shell Proxy Server. To log into a BladeLogic system. a user must first acquire a session credential from a BladeLogic Authentication Service. session credentials. If you are using Active Directory/Kerberos authentication. blcred lets you review and delete trusted X. the default authentication profile configuration file is used. The authentication profile identifies the Authentication Service you are contacting and your authentication mechanism. Using the information you provide. Provisioning Manager. SYNOPSIS blcred [-p <authentication profiles filename>] [-c <credential cache filename>] [-x <trusted certificates keystore filename>] [cred -list [-verbose] | -destroy | -acquire [-profile <profile_name>] [[-username <username>] | [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. If you are using SRP authentication. This session credential can be stored in a credential cache file. And.conf file>] | -test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)]] | [authprofile -list | -delete [-profile <profile name>] | -add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] | [cert -list | -delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] DESCRIPTION The blcred utility manages authentication profiles. a Kerberos TGT). The utility lets you show. To use blcred on a client machine. you must have Operations Manager installed. session credentials. which are used when establishing a TLS connection to an Authentication Service. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) NAME blcred − A command line utility for managing BladeLogic authentication profiles.e. Inc. This default file resides at <OM install directory>/br/authenticationProfiles.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. you must possess an AD/Kerberos user credential (that is. The blcred utility lets you acquire a session credential when using a command line environment. Application Server. Configuration Manager. which is an XML file that holds all authentication profile definitions. add. Using that session credential. If neither this option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable is specified.xml NSH 1 . This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE environment variable.

the user is prompted for a user name and password.dat file>] | [-loginconf <kerberos login. authentication type. the default keystore file is used. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable. If the username option is present. authprofile –delete [-profile <profile_name>] Deletes a profile with the given profile name. authprofile –list Displays information about each of the profiles defined in the authentication profile configuration file. cred –destroy Destroys the contents of the credential cache. If the time option is present. and expiration time of session credentials.pkcs12 for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings###BOT_TEXT###lt;Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\client_keystore.conf file. destination service URLs. the default credential cache file is used. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential issued to the named user.pkcs12 for Windows. blcred establishes a TLS connection to the Authentication Service. the SRP credential can be extracted from a persistent credential file (the user_info. If an authentication profile name is not specified. cred –acquire [-profile <profile_name>][[-username <username>] [-password <password>]] | [-i <srp user_info. blcred prompts the user to specify an authentication profile name. This option overrides whatever is specified by the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) -c <credential cache filename> Name and location of the credential cache file. The default keystore file resides at <user_home_dir>/.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. which presents its X509 certificate to the client. Both can be passed on the command line using the optional -username and -password parameters. NSH 2 .509 certificates.bladelogic/bl_sesscc for UNIX and C:\Documents and Settings###BOT_TEXT###lt;Windows_user_name>\Application Data\BladeLogic\bl_sesscc for Windows. When selecting an SRP profile. blcred prompts the user to provide a profile name. Using the optional -verbose argument causes the utility to display all information about credentials. This file resides at <user_home_dir>/. Default trust keystores are unique per user. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE environment variable is specified. If neither the -profile option nor the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable is specified. Inc. the user is prompted for a name. and service ticket. the user’s Kerberos credential is loaded from the local Kerberos cache. The user is prompted to trust the unrecognized certificate. The optional -profile argument overrides whatever is specified by the BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME environment variable. -x <trusted certificates keystore filename> Name and location of the keystore file. Default credential caches are unique per user. cred –list [-verbose] Displays the user name.dat) using the -i parameter. When employing an AD/Kerberos profile. If neither this option nor the BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE environment variable is specified. If a name is not specified. including the client IP address.conf file>] Acquires a session credential using the specified profile and stores it in the session credential cache. blcred tests for the presence of a valid credential with a remaining lifetime equal to or greater than the specified minutes remaining. blcred –test can return the exit codes described below in EXIT CODES. When an AD/Kerberos profile is employed.bladelogic/client_keystore. issuing service URL. cred –test [-profile <profile_name>] [-username <username>] [-time <min remaining lifetime (minutes)] Tests whether a cache contains a valid credential corresponding to the specified authentication profile. the -loginconf parameter can be used to override the default location of the blclient_login. To acquire a session credential. which holds trusted X. Alternatively.

The -all parameter deletes all certificates. The -alias lets you provide an alias for the certificate you want to delete. Additionally. Strictly confidential and proprietary blcred(1) authprofile –add [-profile <profile name>] [-host <auth_service host>:<auth_service port>] [-type [srp | adk -spn <auth_service SPN>]]] Adds a new profile to the authentication profile configuration file. Cached credential issued to user is different than named user. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES BL_AUTH_PROFILES_FILE Location of the authentication profile configuration file (override with -p). AD/Kerberos profiles must also specify a service principal name. BL_SSO_CRED_CACHE_FILE Location of the session credential cache file (override with -c). cert –delete [-all | -alias <cert alias>]] Deletes X. Users are prompted for omitted information. and authentication type can be specified on the command line through the -profile. Named authentication profile did not exist. cache contained credential with desired properties. -host.blcred(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLES See the BladeLogic Administration Guide for some typical scenarios that use blcred. In either case the profile must have a unique name and must be associated with an Authentication Service. Authentication Service. There are two types of authentication profiles: SRP and AD/Kerberos. NSH 3 . Lifetime remaining for the cached credential is less than minimum lifetime specified. BL_SSO_TRUSTED_CERT_KEYSTORE_FILE Location of the TLS certificate store (override with -x). and -type parameters. Inc. the AD/Kerberos service principal name can be specified using the –spn parameter. cert –list Lists all X. BL_AUTH_PROFILE_NAME Name of the selected BladeLogic authentication profile (override using the -profile option in conjunction with another option. (Use the -list option to obtain aliases for all certificates in the store.) ORIGIN blcred was written by Denis Knjazihhin. Cached credential did not match named authentication profile.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store. The profile name.) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 Successful test result. such as -acquire -profile profile_name.509 certificates in the trusted certificate store.

then creates and evaluates an expression.P.c. DESCRIPTION blexpr is generic expression evaluator. You can nest these (multiple levels) using parentheses ´(´ and ´)´.. address (converted to integer) String supporting \ for special characters String (no special character support) Variable name (see set_variable() function) Supported function.d "abc" ´abc´ $name function() Name Decimal Number Octal Number Percentage Floating point number Hex Number I. CR. blexpr reads the expression from stdin. TAB. You can use whitespaces (SPACE. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) NAME blexpr − BladeLogic Expression SYNOPSIS blexpr expr . OPERATORS blexpr supports the following operators. Lower priorities have higher precedence: Operator % / * + > >= != = <= < ! && || & | ˆ ˜ Name REMAINDER DIVIDE MULTIPLY SUBTRACT ADD GREAT GREAT THAN OR EQUAL NOT EQUAL EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL LESS NOT AND OR BINARY AND BINARY_OR BINARY_XOR BINARY NOT Priority 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 OPERANDS blexpr supports the following operands: Operand nnn 0nnn nnn% nn. It prints the result to stdout. If you do not specify any arguments.. Inc. LF) as optional operand/operator separators. OPERATOR TYPES blexpr supports the following operator types: Integers NSH 1 . An expression consists of operands and operators.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. It takes all of its arguments as input.b.mm 0xABC a.

If the string is not a recognizable numeric value. 7. 1. 4)’ 2 $ blexpr ’average (1.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic.. then proceeds with the operation. If it is. When blexpr encounters an operation between a string and a non-string value. 7)’ 0 equals_range (val. it returns 0 (false). blexpr will make the appropriate conversions as necessary.14"). 5)’ 1 $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. If one operator is a floating point value and the other is an integer or a 64 bit integer then blexpr converts the integer values to floating point.5000 atoi (val) Convert val into an integer value. max_val) This functions returns true (value of 1) if the value of val is greater than or equal to the value of min_val and less than or equal to the value of max_value. If one value is a 64 bit integer and the other is regular integer value then blexpr converts the (regular) integer value to a 64 bit integer. 2.. FUNCTIONS blexpr also supports functions to determine operand values. then divides by the number of arguments.. It detects octal numbers (strings starting with a zero). 3. arg1.) This function returns true (value of 1) if val equals any of the remaining function arguments. with the resulting value also being a floating point value. If atoi cannot convert val to an integer.5") * 2. . Example: $ blexpr ’equal_range (strlen ("Hello world"). 3. 2. blexpr converts the string to the respective numeric type. Inc.) Return the average of all arguments given. then blexpr returns an appropriate error value.. blexpr adds the arguments. decimal numbers. In the case of the three numeric types. Example: $ blexpr ’atoi ("4") * atoi (3. The supported functions are: average (arg1. hex numbers (strings starting with 0x). 4)’ 2. The function also checks for a trailing % which will cause the value to be treated as a percentage (meaning divide by 100). arg2. 3. min_val. it first checks to see if the string is a recognizable numeric value. blexpr handles operations between a string and a non-string value such that the operation does not just automatically fail. Strictly confidential and proprietary Floating point numbers 64 bit integers Strings blexpr(1) Here are some examples of how blexpr handles operations between two different operator types. If the argument is a string.0. 5. then this function uses the same function as the internals of the API to detect a numeric value.14)’ 12 equals_any (val. 12)’ 1 NSH 2 . with the result also being a 64 bit integer value. Example: $ blexpr ’equals_any (atoi ("3. Example: $ blexpr ’average (1. . and floating point numbers.

blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. Example: $ blexpr ’sprintf ("%12.%s %s --\n"..9s". $LASTNAME)’ Name = -. address notation (%p or %P) The functions also support left justification with the optional . Example: $ blexpr ’get_date ()’ 1060378146 $ blexpr ’show_date (get_date ())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 if (val.40) printf ("ADDRESS:\n DEC = %11u\n HEX = %11X\n IP = %p\n". 10. If val is true.. true_val.) sprintf (format. $FIRSTNAME.30.20. NSH 3 . 27)’ 14 printf (format.) Both these functions generate a formatted output. The functions support the following argument types: string (%s) floating point (%f) integer The functions support the following output format types: decimal (%d) unsigned int (%u) octal (%o) hex (%x or %X) I. it returns true_val. The printf function just prints the output to stdout and returns the number of bytes it wrote.after the % as well as output precision in the form of n[.P. otherwise it returns false_val Example: $ blexpr ’if (atoi ("3"). false_val) The if function evaluates the value of val. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary blexpr(1) get_date () This function returns the date and time on the local system. "Pan") sprintf ("Name = -.m]. while the sprintf function returns the formatted output as a string. "Peter") set_variable ("LASTNAME".. 14.Peter Pan -$ blexpr ’set_variable ("IP". The functions work in a similar way to the C-library printf function call but without all the bells and whistles.. "Hello " + "world")’ Hello wor $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FIRSTNAME". The date and time is expressed as the value in seconds since the epoch (00:00:00 Jan 1 1970). args . args . Use the show_date () function to turn this value into a more meaningful string format.

6)’ world strlen (string) Return the length of value string. Once you have created a variable this way. $IP).’ ADDRESS: DEC = 169090600 HEX = A141E28 IP = 10. Example: $ blexpr ’strlen ("Hello") + strlen ("World")’ 10$ NSH 4 . $IP. "ll")’ llo world $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world". Strictly confidential and proprietary $IP. you can use the variable in a subsequent expression by prefixing the variable name with a ’$’ symbol. In val is of type integer then the function returns the string with an offset of val bytes. and you define the value of the variable with expr. "%b %d %Y %H:%M:%S")’ Jan 14 2003 11:56:02 strstr (string. "bar") $FOO’ bar $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". val) strstr can be used in one of two ways. Example: $ blexpr ’strstr ("Hello world".20. The function uses the C-library strftime function to convert the value and therefore. You define the name of the variable with string. "Hello " + "world") toupper ($FOO)’ HELLO WORLD show_date (date.40 blexpr(1) set_variable (string.blexpr(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Example: $ blexpr ’ set_variable ("FOO". you should use the respective macros supported by the call. strlen returns a length of 0. If val is a string then the function returns the first occurrence of val in the string. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’show_date (get_date())’ Tue Jan 14 11:56:02 2003 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’show_date (get_date (). The optional format arguments specifies output format. expr) You can use the set_variable function to create an addressable variable. If you do not specify a format. format) This function takes the numeric date argument and converts it into a string representation. then the generated date is in the form of Fri Nov 08:31:22 2001. If you supply a value that is not a string.30.

On UNIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_gen_ssl(1) bl_gen_ssl(1) NAME bl_gen_ssl − create an X. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE bl_gen_ssl ORIGIN bl_gen_ssl was developed by BladeLogic. Once a certificate is created on a client. id.509 certificate SYNOPSIS bl_gen_ssl DESCRIPTION The bl_gen_ssl command creates an X. Creating this certificate generates a user’s public and private keys. Inc.bladelogic. Inc.509 certificate in a file named id. every time a Network Shell session is invoked. where <home_dir> is the user’s home directory. id.pem is stored in /<home_dir>/.pem. where <user_profile_dir> specifies a path such as /Documents and Settings/johnk. such as /home/johnk. Invoking bl_gen_ssl prompts the user to enter a password and confirm it.pem is stored in /<user_profile_dir>/Application Data/BladeLogic. NSH 1 . the user is prompted for a private key password. This password is used to gain access to user’s private key.Property of BladeLogic. In Windows.

.." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with.. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) NAME blkeylogman − remotely manage keystroke logfiles on a machine running an RSCD agent SYNOPSIS blkeylogman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. [TARGET]. COMMAND_OPTIONS... bllogkeyman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. as follows: list copy cat listsessions list <hostname> list --verify <hostname>|<keystrokelogfile> List (and optionally verify) keystroke logfiles for host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled keystroke logging on a remote host.g. DESCRIPTION blkeylogman allows a system administrator to manage live keystroke logfiles on the RSCD agent to accomplish basic tasks. e... //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> copy keystroke_logfile localfile Copy remote keystroke logfile to local host keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile.g.. e. //<hostname>/<Path to keystroke logfile> localfile Path to local file cat [-t 0123] [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] [-p] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> Output remote logfile -t List specified type of entries. and TARGETS NSH 1 . the status displays as "Unknown.. This option takes a combination of the following characters as input: 0 1 2 3 List live keystroke logfiles for a specific host Copy remote keystroke logfiles Concatenate remote keystroke logfiles View a list of nexec sessions logged in remote keystroke logfiles COMMANDS.. blkeylogman provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. This option displays the status of each keystroke file as either "Consistent".. There are four primary functions provided by blkeylogman. You can request the status of all the keystroke files on a host. and the resulting keystroke files have been digitally signed. Inc. If the signature file needed for verification is missing on the target host." hostname Name of host for which to list keystroke logfiles keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke logfile. or "Unknown.Property of BladeLogic. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION].. "Inconsistent". traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution. [TARGET]. or specify a full NSH path to an individual keystroke file to request just that file’s status.

g. e.Property of BladeLogic.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" keystroke_logfile Full NSH Path to remote keystroke log file listsessions [-s <session id>] [-h <clienthost>] [-u <clientuser>] [-a <time>] [-b <time>] <hostname>|<keystroke_logfile> List all nexec sessions on a particular host or keystroke logfile -s -h -u -a -b hostname Name of the host whose sessions you want to list keystroke_logfile Full NSH path to remote keystroke logfile whose sessions you want to list. the display gets garbled or sometimes even cleared. -b Show entries where "entry timestamp" < "specified timestamp". Exercising the p option. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) 0 Show STDIN entries 1 Show STDOUT entries 2 Show STDERR entries 3 Show STARTSESSION and ENDSESSION entries. -s -h -u -a -p Show entries for the session specified by <session id> Show entries for the specified client host Show entries for the specified client user Show entries where "entry timestamp" > "specified timestamp". The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS. makes blkeylogman process the special terminal control characters to printable ones. if output of interactive commands is logged inside a keystroke log file. The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.log To list all keystroke logfiles on host "linux1": $ blkeylogman list linux1 To list all keystroke logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": NSH 2 . The format of the timestamp is "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS.log" on the remote host "host1": $ blkeylogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/keystroke. //<hostname>/<path to keystroke log file> Show the session specified by <session id> Show sessions for the specified client host Show sessions for the specified client user Show sessions that were in progress after specified timestamp. executing a blkeylogman cat command causes the terminal to process and interpret special terminal handling control characters (contained in the log data).mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Show sessions that were in progress before the specified timestamp.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" Process non-printable output characters before printing Sometimes. As a result. Inc.mmm" or "MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS" EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "keystroke.

log2 To list nexec sessions on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions solaris10 To list nexec sessions from file "keystroke. Strictly confidential and proprietary blkeylogman(1) blkeylogman(1) $ blkeylogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log1" on host "solaris10": $ blkeylogman listsessions //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/keystroke.log1 ORIGIN blkeylogman was written by Rajesh Jangam of BladeLogic.Property of BladeLogic. Inc. SEE ALSO bllogman (1) exports (5) NSH 3 . Inc.

. [TARGET]... and there are command-specific options affecting only particular commands.. logman [GLOBAL_OPTION]. There are six primary functions provided by bllogman. COMMAND_OPTIONS.. as follows: -? -v Generate run-time usage Be verbose when performing functions COMMANDS. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file localfile Path to local file cat [-1|-2] [-d] [-l file] <-h host> | logfile Output remote logfile logfile -1 -2 Path to remote logfile Show INFO/INFO1 logfile entries only (default is all) Show INFO2 logfile entries only (default is all) NSH 1 . [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]....Property of BladeLogic.. Inc. bllogman is not intended to be a feature-complete logfile management solution... as follows: tail copy list cat rotate verify Tail remote logfiles Copy remote logfiles or signature files List live logfiles for a specific host Concatenate remote logfiles Rotate remote logfiles or signature files Verify a digitally signed log file locally GLOBAL OPTIONS There are global options which affect all functions. DESCRIPTION bllogman allows a system administrator to manage live RSCD agent logfiles to accomplish basic tasks. [TARGET]. Use only when copying a signature file. and TARGETS tail [-f -v] target Output the last part of a logfile -f -n n target Tail forever Tail n lines Name of remote logfile you want to tail copy [-S] logfile|signature_file localfile Copy remote logfile/signature_file to local host -S Indicates that the file you are copying is a signature file. traditional logfile management systems to provide a complete solution.. but rather provides a limited set of functionality that can be used in conjunction with existing. [COMMAND] [COMMAND_OPTION]. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) NAME bllogman − remotely manage live RSCD agent logfiles SYNOPSIS bllogman [GLOBAL_OPTION].

log." An "Inconsistent" status indicates that the log file may have been tampered with. logfile/signature_file Full NSH path to remote logfile/signature_file verify logfile signature_file certificate_file privatekey_file Verify log file consistency at local host. Inc." hostname Name of host for which to list logfiles rotate [-S] logfile/signature_file Rotate provides a simple. and the resulting log files have been digitally signed. Note: All files needed for this command should be local. -S Indicates that the file you are rotating is a signature file.1. this option returns a status as "Unknown." assuming "rscd. signature_file Full path to corresponding local signature file. and private key file on the local host.log NSH 2 .Property of BladeLogic. certificate_file Full path to the local certificate file that was used to sign the log file. privateKey_file Full path to the local privateKey file that was used to sign the log file. certificate file.1" does not already exist. Use only when rotating a signature file. For example. EXAMPLES The following will cat the logfile "rscd. To execute this command. If you have not enabled secure agent logging on the remote host.log" to "rscd. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) -d -h host -l file -s file Output selected fields in tab separated values format Show all logfiles for host Create a tab delimited ’last entry timestamp’ file Use the ’last entry timestamp’ file to determine start of searching list [--verify] hostname list --verify //hostname/Full_NSH_Path_To_logfile List logfiles on a host --verify This option is useful only when you have enabled secure agent logging on a remote host. the rotate option will rename the file "rscd. or "Unknown. This command is intended to be used for client side verification. you must have the corresponding signature file.log" on the remote host "host1": $ bllogman cat //host1/usr/nsh/log/rscd. "Inconsistent". or specify a full NSH path to an individual log file to request just that file’s status.log. iterative rotation function which simply increments the filename extension by one until an available filename is found. You can request the status of all the log files on a host. This option displays the status of each log file as either "Consistent". logfile Full path to local log file.

Inc. logman is just a copy or symlink of bllogman.log.pem": $ bllogman verify /usr/tmp/rscd.pem /usr/tmp/privateKey.log.log.pem" and the private key stored in "privateKey.log2 To copy a signature file from host solaris10 to local host: $ bllogman copy -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. Inc.log.log To rotate a signature file on host solaris10: $ bllogman rotate -S //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd. For backwards compatibility purposes a logman command is still included.3.sig3" using the certificate stored in file "certificate.0 release.pem All files need to be on the local host. Strictly confidential and proprietary bllogman(1) bllogman(1) To retrieve a list of tail-specific options and usage: bllogman tail -h For general usage: bllogman -h To list all logfiles on host "linux1": bllogman list linux1 To list all logfiles with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify solaris10 To list only one log file with verification status on host "solaris10": $ bllogman list --verify //solaris10/usr/nsh/log/rscd.sig2 To tail forever (or watch) logfile "rscd.log3 /usr/tmp/rscd. SEE ALSO exports (5) NSH 3 . ORIGIN bllogman was written by Damon Miller of BladeLogic.log" on host "sun1": bllogman tail -f //sun1/usr/nsh/log/rscd.Property of BladeLogic. bllogman should be the preferred utility moving forward as logman may be fully removed in the future. NOTE Logman was renamed bllogman as part of the 6.sig2 To verify the consistency of logfile "rscd.log3" against its corresponding signature file "rscd. You cannot use this command for remote logfiles.sig3 /usr/tmp/certificate.

blquery provides additional functions that can query various asset types in the BladeLogic environment. output only the resulting value. or against any number of remote servers. -f file -e expr A flat file containing the list of hosts you want to query. host1 .. Inc.then blquery reads input from stdin.. -E file FILE AND DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS file_is_directory (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) NAME blquery − Evaluate expression to query BladeLogic assets SYNOPSIS blquery [ -h -l ] [ host1 . otherwise it returns 0. hostn | -f file ] { -e expr | -E file } DESCRIPTION The blquery utility is an extension to the blexpr utility. The default output format for each server is: hostname: value OPTIONS -l -h Generate output only for hosts that resolve to true. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_regular ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 file_is_symlink (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a symbolic link. Do not include the hostname as part of the output. If you specify server names. Expression to run against the given hosts. If you do not specify a host name. you can also use the -f option to specify a hosts file. start them with a hash (#) and blquery will ignore them. NSH 1 . You can query against the local host (see CAVEATS). Instead. To query the local host. and the subsequent escaping thereof.. hostN The hosts you want to query. then blquery will query against each of the given servers. blquery will query the local server. blquery works by applying the given expression to each host and then outputting the results to stdout. To help avoid some of the shell special character handling issues. See the CAVEATS section for limitations on local servers.. To create comment lines. A file containing the expression you want to run. just omit any server names.Property of BladeLogic. otherwise it returns 0. If file is a . In addition to specifying host names on the command line. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_directory ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_is_regular (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host and is a regular file. This is the default behavior if you specify only a single host. otherwise it returns 0. you can also use the -E option to define a file containing your expression.

If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_uid ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 file_gid (path) This function returns the path’s group ownership as a numeric GID. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e ’file_gid ("/etc/passwd")’ solaris8: 3 linux: 0 file_mode (path) This function returns the path’s file permissions. and bundles.Property of BladeLogic. If the file does not exist then it returns a zero length string with the appropriate error set. they mostly support the general concept of software installations. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_size ("/etc/passwd")’ 635 file_uid (path) This function returns the path’s ownership as a numeric UID. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_md5sum ("/etc/passwd")’ f59c3bfa14ac178b4098e03f9afe64fe SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS Although the various supported platforms all have their own concept of what a software package is. otherwise it returns 0. NSH 2 . Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/passwd")’ 1 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_exists ("/etc/PASSWD")’ 0 file_size (path) This function returns the size of the file path. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux -e \ ’sprintf ("0%o". Inc. If the path does not exist or is not accessible it returns the value of -1. patches. file_mode ("/etc/passwd") & 07777)’ solaris8: 0444 linux: 0644 file_md5sum (file) This function returns the 32 byte string representation of the file’s MD5 checksum. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/passwd")’ 0 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’file_is_symlink ("/etc/hosts")’ 1 file_exists (path) This function returns 1 if the given path exists on the host.

These functions take an expression as their argument. NAME VERSION VENDOR DATE Installable name Installable version Installable vendor Installable date of installation (0 if you do not know the date) CATEGORY Installable software category (On AIX the install status) DESCRIPTION Installable short description SIZE Size of installable in KB (0 if you do not know the size) All the above variables are of type string with the exception of SIZE which is an integer. Example: blquery -h authpux11agt3 -e ’bundle_installed ("Base*")’ 1 You can use the next three functions to scan/search through the list of patches and software. Note that not all platforms furnish all the above data. and that bundles are HP-UX specific. with the exception of Linux. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’patch_installed ("109608-*")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’patch_installed ("Q811493")’ 1 package_installed (software) This function will check if the software package software is installed on the given server. because the function automatically determines the platform type at runtime. which does not support patches. The NSH 3 . patch_installed (patch) This function will check if the software patch patch is installed on the given server.Property of BladeLogic. patch_record_count (expr) package_record_count (expr) bundle_record_count (expr) rpm_record_count (expr) Return the number of installed patch/software/bundle/rpm components that match the expression expr. Note that the concept of patches is not supported on RedHat Linux systems.7-8")’ 1 $ blquery -h win2k -e ’package_installed ("Norton AntiVirus*")’ 1 bundle_installed (software) This function will check if the software bundle software is installed on the given server. All platforms support the concept of installed patches and software components (the names however differ from OS to OS). Bundles exist only on HPUX machines. so the values are not guaranteed to be set. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h linux -e ’package_installed ("cracklib-2. You do not need to specify the type of machine you dealing with. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The following three functions abstract this concept for the various platforms and will automatically adapt to the type of server you are dealing with. where the following dynamic variables are initialized for each software/patch entry.

Example: # # Number of hotfixes installed on Windows server # $ blquery win2k -e ’patch_record_count ()’ 25 # # Show install date of the "cracklib" RPMS # $ cat expr. making it seem like two different patches are installed. NAME)’).blq cracklib-2. Inc. "%b %d %Y"))) $ blquery linuxdev -E expr. In this case. patch_version (software) package_version (software) bundle_version (software) rpm_version (software) Return the software’s version number. Example: $ cat patch.7-8 .blq NSH 4 .Property of BladeLogic. include the printf call inside of the given expression.The standard CrackLib dictionaries.%s\n Install date: %s\n\n". $ blquery solaris8 -E patch. "Unknown install date". By using these functions. these functions return a zero length string. these functions may still have a universal appeal. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) concept of bundles however is supported only by HP-UX machines.7-8 . To do this. if (DATE <= 0. show_date (DATE. you can find the name of the patch that has the highest version number. The idea is that because the patch name also incorporates a version number (which is also stored in the VERSION field). you can also use them for reporting. Because these functions scan through all entries. Install date: Nov 16 2001 The following functions let you extract individual fields from a given piece of software.blq patch_record_count (’NAME = "109793-*" && printf ("%s\n". NAME. DESCRIPTION. you may have the same patch installed twice but with different versions.A password-checking library.blq package_record_count (’NAME = "cracklib*" && printf ("%s . patch_latest (software) package_latest (software) bundle_latest (software) rpm_latest (software) Although specifically designed for Solaris patches. Install date: Nov 16 2001 cracklib-dicts-2. Not all software has a version number.

"$5 = $HOME && printf (###BOT_TEXT###quot;%s\n###BOT_TEXT###quot;. NSH 5 . expr) This function returns the total number of records in the configfile that match the expression expr. Because you often want to match against specific fields within a record.’ root daemon sys nobody noaccess nobody4 config_record_number (configfile.. this function accepts an expression that it matches against each record. the file is found in <install dir>/om/scripts. it will skip over the first skip matched records allowing one to find alternate records to the first matching one. Inc. "/"). The first record/field is 0. If you omit the expression. The variable $FIELDS indicates the number of fields in the record. $0)"). skip) This function returns the record number of the first record in configfile that matches the expression expr. this function automatically recognizes and interprets specific variable names. the function returns the total number of records. the file is found in /usr/nsh/scripts. If you use it. The variable $RECORD indicates the current record number you are dealing with. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) 109793-12 109793-03 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_latest ("109793-*")’ 109793-12 $ blquery solaris8 -e ’patch_version (patch_latest ("109793-*"))’ 12 CONFIG FILE FUNCTIONS The following functions let you access the BladeLogic config files. The expr argument is optional. expr. The variable names matching the (string) fields are $0.. config_record_count ("/etc/passwd". This function is often used with the config_field_value() function to identify the particular record you need a field value for. As its second parameter. The skip parameter is optional. For UNIX and Linux systems. Example: # # Number of records in password file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e ’config_record_count ("/etc/passwd")’ 15 # # # # # $ Field 5 is the HOME directory field and as such we are finding all entries in the password file that have "/" as the HOME directory and outputting their user names blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("HOME". $1 . The grammar to be used to scan a given config file is automatically determined by consulting the index file. For Windows systems. Config files are generally treated as a series of sequential records that contain a number of fields. $N for each respective field in the current record. The supported functions are: config_record_count (configfile.Property of BladeLogic.

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: # # Record number for first entry in the passwd file with a HOME # directory of "/usr/bin" # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_record_number ("/etc/passwd". field) This function returns the value of field field from record record of the config file configfile. config_record_number ($PASSWD. "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. "/usr/bin") config_field_value ($PASSWD. If you do not know the specific record number you need a field value from.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". 4)’ Super-User # # # # # $ Output the username of the first account in the password file that has "/usr/bin" as it’s HOME directory blquery -h solaris8 -e ’ set_variable ("PASSWD". config_record_number ($INI. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. "$5 = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;/usr/bin###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 2 # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". $RECORD. In many cases. Inc. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_field_value (configfile. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). records occur in a config file in no particular order.Property of BladeLogic. 0. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". "$5 = $USRBIN"). 0)’ bin NSH 6 . "/etc/passwd") set_variable ("USRBIN". record. then you can use the config_record_number () function to search for a particular record. Example: # # Return the GCOS field of the first record in the # passwd file # $ blquery -h solaris8 -e \ ’config_field_value ("/etc/passwd".

COMMENT The comment associated with the user account. 1) ’ ReadWrite config_parent_record_number (configfile. On its own this function has limited value. Although config files are generally treated as flat files. For the user based functions that take a expression as an argument.BNI files and Linux Xinetd config files. $RECORD. NAME GROUP UID GID The username. "/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. there is an implicit hierarchy by which particular records may point to a parent record. "($0 = $ACCESS) && (config_parent_field_value ($INI. 0) = $CUSTDB)"). Example: # # Scan the Windows INI file and get the value of the entry # "Access" in the "connect CustomerDatabase" section # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("INI". This is the type of account which can be one of: NSH 7 .Property of BladeLogic. then the record does not have a parent record.BNI". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) config_parent_field_value (configfile. config_record_number ($INI. 3)’ 2 LOCAL USER AND GROUP ACCOUNTS These functions let you access local user and group accounts. but ones that do include Windows . These functions work cross platform (UNIX type systems and Windows systems) however some of the available data may be OS specific. "Access") set_variable ("CUSTDB". and returns the value of field field. the following dynamic variable are supported. Inc. Not all config files have a hierarchy. The numeric GID of the primary group the user is a member of. record) This function returns the parent record number of record record in the config file configfile. however you can use it in conjunction with the config_record_number() function to find particular records in a file. If the function returns a negative number (-1). "connect CustomerDatabase") config_field_value ($INI. The name of the primary group the user is a member of. The user’s initial shell (UNIX) or script (Windows) program. HOME SHELL TYPE The user’s HOME directory. FULLNAME The configured name of the user.BNI") set_variable ("ACCESS". The numeric UID of the user. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ config_parent_record_number ("/c/WINNT/MSDFMAP. Details are included below. field) This function looks at the parent record of record record in the config file configfile. record.

BUA_NORMAL_ACCOUNT (2) One UNIX systems. accounts that are Administrator accounts are of this type. NAME. This value is a space separated list of the groups to which the user belongs.Property of BladeLogic. expr. LASTLOGIN The date and time of the user’s last login. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_exits ("toor")’ linux1: 1 linux2: 0 linux3: 1 NSH 8 . EXPIRES GROUPS The date and time of the user’s password expiration. accounts that are root (UID = 0) accounts are considered to be of this type. If the local account does not exist it returns 0.’ root : Super User Account (uid = 0) daemon : Normal Account (uid = 1) bin : Normal Account (uid = 2) sys : Normal Account (uid = 3) adm : Normal Account (uid = 4) lp : Normal Account (uid = 71) . . This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. LASTCHANGE The date and time of the user’s last password change. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. accounts that are Normal accounts are of this type. If the date and time is not known this value is 0. if (TYPE = BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) BUA_ADMIN_ACCOUNT (1) On UNIX systems. Inc. ###BOT_TEXT###quot;Normal Account###BOT_TEXT###quot;). ###BOT_TEXT###quot;Super User Account###BOT_TEXT###quot;. The supported functions are: user_record_count (expr) This function enumerates through all local user accounts and returns the number of users that match the expression. BUA_GUEST_ACCOUNT (3) UNIX systems do not have the concept of guest user accounts and therefore will never be of this type. account have this type if they are not root accounts (UID != 0). On Windows systems. accounts that are Guest accounts are of this type. UID)"). This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. This value is expressed as a time in seconds since the epoch. On Windows systems. On Windows systems. Example: blquery -e ’user_record_count ()’ 15 $ blquery -e ’user_record_count ( "printf (###BOT_TEXT###quot;%-8s: %s (uid = %d)\n###BOT_TEXT###quot;. user_exists (user) This function returns 1 if the given user exists as a local user account.

Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_comment ("Administrator")’ win2k: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain user_homedir (user) This function returns the HOME directory of the user. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’user_gid ("root")’ solaris: 1 linux: 0 user_fullname (user) This function returns the fullname associated with the user. Example: $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’user_uid ("toor")’ linux1: 0 linux2: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "toor" linux3: 2 user_gid (user) This function returns the GID of the user. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_homedir ("bin")’ linux: /bin solaris: /usr/bin user_shell (user) This function returns the start program (shell) for when the user logs in. the function returns an error message. Note that the user_fullname () and user_comment () functions also return the GECOS field for UNIX systems. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. When it is set. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. Example: $ blquery win2k solaris -e ’user_fullname ("Administrator")’ win2k: Local Administrator Account solaris: Bad argument type: Unknown local user "Administrator" user_comment (user) This function returns the comment associated with the user. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_shell ("lp")’ solaris: /bin/sh linuxdev: /sbin/nologin NSH 9 . that field is returned. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. the function returns an error message. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. that field is returned. Inc. the function refers to a start script. On Windows. If the user does not exist then it returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_uid (user) This function returns the UID of the user. If the user does not exist. If the user does not exist. For UNIX systems the GECOS field is returned. local user accounts have such a field associated with the account and therefore. If the user does not exist then this function returns an error message. On Windows this value is most often not set and therefore has limited value. On Windows.

Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_count ("root")’ 11 NSH 10 . 2. an account is considered to be locked if you can unlock it without having to provide a new password. account type is one of the inherent account properties while for Unix systsems an account is an administrator account if the UID is 0.8.9. To display the date of last login in human readable form.2. For Windows.6.4. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) user_type (user) This function returns the type of user account user is.12 user_group_count (user) This function returns the number of groups to which the user belongs. For UNIX systems. Otherwise it is a normal account. There are three types of possible accounts: . Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_gids ("root". Inc. the function returns 0. If the function cannot determine a date of last login for the user. For Windows systems. otherwise it returns 0. administrator. the function returns an error message. If the user does not exist. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of GIDs to which the user belongs.0. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_locked ("Administrator")’ 0 $ blquery solaris -e ’user_locked ("Oracle")’ 1 user_group_names (user.3.5. and guest. or 3. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of user groups to which the user belongs. Example: $ blquery linux solaris -e ’user_type ("root")’ solaris: 1 linuxdev: 1 $ blquery win2k -e ’user_type ("Guest")’ 3 user_last_login (user) This function returns the date and time of last login (as expressed in seconds since the epoch) of user user. There are no guest accounts for UNIX systems. with respective return values of 1. ". The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values.7. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’user_group_names ("root")’ other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon user_group_gids (user. these are inherent attributes of a user account. The default separator is a SPACE character. The default separator is a SPACE character.")’ 1. use the show_date () function. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’user_last_login ("Guest")’ 1067983862 $ blquery solaris -e ’show_date (user_last_login ("root"))’ Fri Feb 13 13:30:48 2004 user_locked (user) This function returns value of 1 if the user’s account is locked. normal.

. The optional argument sep must be a string whose first character will be used as the separator for the list of values.Property of BladeLogic. The numeric GID of the user. The group related functions are: group_exists (group) This function returns 1 if the given group exists as a local group account. The users who are members of the group (space separated) COMMENT The comment string associated with the group. group Example: $ blquery solaris -e ’group_gid ("other")’ 1 group_comment (group) This function returns the comment field of the given local user group. sep) This function returns a string representing a list of users who are members of the given local user group. NAME GID MEMBERS The groupname. the following dynamic variables are supported. NAME. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) For the group based functions that take an expression as an argument. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_comment ("Administrators")’ Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer/dom group_members (group. printf ("-----------------\n"). Example: $ blquery linux solaris win2k -e ’group_exits ("uucp")’ linux: 1 solaris: 1 win2k: 0 group_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of groups that match the expression expr. GID)’). If the local account does not exist it returns 0. The default separator is a SPACE character. Example: blquery -e ’group_record_count ()’ 18 $ cat showgroups.blq printf ("Group GID\n").blq | blquery solaris -E Group GID ----------------root 0 other 1 bin 2 . Example: NSH 11 . group_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %d\n". $ cat showgroups. Inc. group_gid (group) This function returns the GID of the given local user.

IN OUT The number of bytes received by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The number of bytes sent by the adapter (supported only on Solaris and Linux) The name of the adapter (for example "hme0") The adapter’s MAC address. Example: $ blquery win2k -e ’group_member_count ("Administrator")’ 6 NETWORK ADAPTERS The following functions let you query against the configured network adapters and their respective settings.P. address in the standard 4 octet notation. The supported network functions are: net_interface_name (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_subnet_mask ("IP = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;10. Example: $ blquery solaris linux -e ’net_interface_name ("IP = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;10. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_mac_address ("NAME = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;hme0###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 08:00:20:c1:d6:8c net_ip_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.20.Property of BladeLogic. The adapter’s subnet mask in the standard 4 octet notation. This argument identifies the particular adapter you want to query. Inc.*###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ solaris: hme0 linux: eth0 net_mac_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.30.20. ". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) $ blquery solaris8 -e ’group_members ("uucp".30.uucp group_member_count (group) This function returns the number of users who are members of the local user group. you can use the following dynamic variables. and returns the subnet mask of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.20. NAME MAC IP SUBNET BROADCAST The adapter’s broadcast address in the standard 4 octet notation.40###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 255.P.255. The adapter’s I. and returns the MAC address of the first interface that matches the expression expr. All of these functions take an expression as an argument. Each hex value is treated as a two character value using lower case alpha characters. and returns the I. Within these expressions. and returns the name of the first interface that matches the expression expr. address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.255.0 NSH 12 .30.")’ root. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_ip_address ("NAME = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;hme0###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 10.40 net_subnet_mask (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.

1.blq SPEED = 100 Mb/sec (Auto) net_record_count (expr) This function enumerates all available adapters and returns the number of adapters that match the expression expr. if ($FLAGS & 32. This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. "Full Duplex". This function returns useful information for Solaris and Linux servers only. 2. If you do not specify expr. and returns the number of bytes received by the first interface that matches the expression expr. and returns the status flag for the first interface that matches the expression expr. "1Gb". Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_broadcast_address ("IP = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;10. $ blquery solaris8 -E speed. The return value is a 64 bit integer.20. NSH 13 .40###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 10. The interface is running in half duplex mode. and returns the broadcast address of the first interface that matches the expression expr as a string in the standard 4 octet notation.30. net_flags (’NAME = "hme0"’)) printf if if if ("SPEED ($FLAGS ($FLAGS ($FLAGS = & & & %s/sec (%s)0. The interface is running at a speed of 100Mb/sec. The interface is running in full duplex mode. Inc. "Half Duplex".20. The interface is running at a speed of 1000Mb/sec (1 Gb/sec). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) net_broadcast_address (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. "100 Mb". 4. if ($FLAGS & 64.30. "Auto"))). the function matches all adapters. The return value is a 64 bit integer. "NA"))). "10 Mb".255 net_bytes_in (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.blq set_variable ("FLAGS". Example: $ cat speed. The status flag of an interface is a series of bits that may have the following values (available only on Solaris) 1 2 4 32 64 The interface is running at a speed of 10Mb/sec. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;hme0###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 651703216 net_bytes_out (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters. Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_bytes_in ("NAME = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;hme0###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ 330533685 net_flags (expr) This function enumerates the available adapters.Property of BladeLogic. and returns the number of bytes sent by the first interface that matches the expression expr.

$ blquery solaris8 -E adapters.blq printf ("INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK\n").0.4. IP. such as Solaris and HPUX return a zero length string (meaning no value).2-2 win2k: SP3 sys_cpu_count () This function returns the number of CPUs on the system. It also has a series of pre-defined wrapper functions where you do not need to know any ntop details to get the information. the function returns the maintenance release.0.0. SUBNET)’).Property of BladeLogic. Inc.0 SYSTEM STATISTICS FUNCTIONS (NTOP VALUES) blquery has a generic mechanism to access ntop data. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Example: $ blquery solaris8 -e ’net_record_count ()’ 2 $ cat adapters. the function returns the kernel release number.255.255. followed by the generic functions.00 os_patch () This function returns the maintenance release of the each host.blq INTERFACE IP ADDRESS SUBNET MASK lo0 127. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_release ()’ solaris8: 5. Example: $ blquery solaris8 linux win2k hpux11 -e ’os_name ()’ solaris8: SunOS linux: RedHat win2k: WindowsNT hpux11: HP-UX os_release () This function return the OS release for each host. NAME.1 255.1 win2k: 5. os_name () This function return the name of the operating system of each host. Different operating systems deal with this in different ways. the function returns the Service Pack.21.0. The wrapper functions are described first.101 255.8 linux: 7.0 hme0 10. On Linux. Other platforms.0 hpux11: B.11.20. On AIX. On Windows. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’os_patch ()’ solaris8: linux: 2. net_record_count (’printf ("%-10s %12s %15s\n". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_count ()’ solaris8: 4 linux: 2 win2k: 1 NSH 14 .

Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) sys_cpu_speed () This function returns the CPU speed in MHz.0300 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_load_average ()’ solaris8: 0.0100 linux: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_cpu_speed ()’ solaris8: 440 linux: 2386 win2k: 797 sys_memory () This function returns the total amount of main memory in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_swap_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0.9100 win2k: 0.5100 linux: 0.1000 stat_proc_count () This function returns the number of processes running on the system. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_memory ()’ solaris8: 256 linux: 128 win2k: 511 sys_swap () This function returns the total amount of swap space in MB as reported by the OS. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’sys_swap ()’ solaris8: 513 linux: 258 win2k: 2047 stat_load_average () This function returns the systems load average as a floating point value.0800 win2k: 0.0100 linux: 0.4100 stat_swap_capacity () This function returns the percentage of swap space used on the system. Not all systems return a value.1400 stat_mem_capacity () This function returns the percentage of memory used on the system. Inc. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_mem_capacity ()’ solaris8: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_proc_count ()’ solaris8: 43 linux: 57 win2k: 38 NSH 15 .Property of BladeLogic.

"/usr"))’ solaris8: 2056211 linux: 1035660 win2k: 39045982 df_used (partition) This function returns the number of used blocks (in KB) of the named partition. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_capacity (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_used (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". Column names are specific to the particular ntop data type.2500 The following functions are generic functions to access ntop data. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 775191 linux: 829532 win2k: 9579678 df_free (partition) This function returns the number of free blocks (in KB) of the named partition. NSH 16 . the first line of output consists of the column names. Inc. "NET". expr) This function calls up the ntop data of type type (one of "PS". Check the individual ntop commands for more details. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_total (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT". "/C". "/usr"))’ solaris8: 1281020 linux: 206128 win2k: 29466303 df_capacity (partition) This function returns the percentage of used disk space of the named partition. "/C". Some columns have a two word name. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e \ ’df_free (if (os_name () = "WindowsNT".3800 linux: 0. "STATS".Property of BladeLogic. "/usr"))’ solaris8: 0. "DF". ntop_value (type. column. use the first word of the name to identify the column. "OVER". In this case. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) stat_uptime () This function returns the number seconds that the machine has been running (meaning the number of seconds since it was booted). A quick guideline is that if you run the corresponding ntop command.8000 win2k: 0. Example: $ blquery -h solaris8 linux win2k -e ’stat_uptime ()’ solaris8: 2524551 linux: 598933 win2k: 107898 df_total (partition) This function returns size in KB of the named partition. or "MEM") and returns the value the field named by column of the first record that matches the expression expr.

If the expression is a numeric. Records that do not match the expression are not included in the summary. If you do not specify an expression. Inc. The first record is 0.Property of BladeLogic. a value of -1 means the last record).1f MB". If the function does not find any matching records. the total amount of free disk space # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Total free space on %-9s: %8. column. Negative numbers tell the function to start looking from the back of the list (for example.1480 linux2: 0. "MEM". You may use column names to construct the expression. it returns a value of -1. "MOUNTED = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;/usr###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ linux: 0.0) ’ Total free space on linux : 7911. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) The expression argument (third argument) is useful for ntop data that consists of more than a single output record (such as. Example: # # For each server. the sum of memory usage (as %) # of all apache processes # $ blquery linux1 linux2 linux3 -e ’ set_variable ("APACHE_USER". "apache") set_variable ("APACHE_PROCNAME". Column names and ntop data types are equivalent to the workings of the ntop_value function (see above).0890 # # For each server. Example: # # Same as stat_swap_capacity () # $ blquery solaris8 linux -e ’ntop_value ("STATS". "(USER = $APACHE_USER) && (COMMAND = $APACHE_PROCNAME)") ’ linux1: 0.0100 # # Same as calling df_capacity ("/usr") # $ blquery linux -e ’ntop_value ("DF". the function will loop through all records and apply the expression to each record. "CAPACITY". $HOSTNAME. "*httpd*") ntop_sum ("PS". If you specify an expression as a string. the function considers the numeric to be the specific record number you want to access. "SWAP")’ solaris8: 0. expr) This function returns the sum of a series of ntop fields (named by column) of type type that match the expression expr.0560 linux3: 0.2 MB NSH 17 .1200 linux: 0. When a record matches the expression (expression evaluates to true). "DF" and "PS"). the function returns the field value of the first record.3800 ntop_sum (type. ntop_sum ("DF". the function returns the appropriate field value (based on column name). "FREE") / 1024.

within an expression string. Inc. Example: # # Total number of processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ntop_record_count ("PS")’ linux: 46 solaris8: 48 win2k: 44 # # Total number of java processes running # $ blquery linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ ntop_record_count ("PS". you need to escape it.1f%%". $HOSTNAME. reg_key_exists (keypath) This function returns 1 if the registry key keypath exists. Whenever you want to use a backslash in an expression string in NSH. "CAPACITY") * 100) ’ Average disk capacity on linux : 45.8 MB 36208. separate your registry key paths with two backslashes. Registry paths must always be absolute including the root hive name (for example.Property of BladeLogic.0 MB ntop_average (type. Example: $ blquery win2k -e \ ’reg_key_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE")’ 1 NSH 18 . otherwise it returns 0. "COMMAND = ###BOT_TEXT###quot;*java*###BOT_TEXT###quot;")’ linux: 8 solaris8: 13 win2k: 16 WINDOWS REGISTRY FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query a Windows registry. then it return the total number of entries.1% Average disk capacity on win2k : 7. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) Total free space on solaris8 : Total free space on win2k : 12101. column. expr) This function returns the number of entries in the ntop data type that match the expression expr. for example: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE".6% ntop_record_count (type. All registry key paths in Windows are backslash (\) separated. Example: # # Average free disk space of several servers # $ blquery -h linux solaris8 win2k -e ’ sprintf ("Average disk capacity on %-9s: %4. Therefore. If expr is not given. "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE").4% Average disk capacity on solaris8 : 13. ntop_average ("DF". expr) This function works just like the ntop_sum function with the exception that it returns the average value of the matched entries instead of the sum of the values.

and all others Returns a string consisting of the hex values of each item in the array of values.) depends on the registry value type. The supported types are: REG_DWORD. REG_MULTI_SZ Returns a string containing all strings in the multi string space separated. There are no NSH 19 . etc. REG_BINARY. Since -1 is a possible valid value of a registry value. you need to escape the backslashes (\) in the path of the registry value as follows: • Use two backslashes when using the $() form • Use four backslashes when using the ‘‘ form (back-tick form) $ LANG=$(blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SOFTWARE\INTEL\CurrentLanguage")’) $ echo $LANG $ ENU $ LANG=‘blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \\SOFTWARE\\INTEL\\CurrentLanguage")’‘ $ echo $LANG $ ENU The return type (for example. int. REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN Returns a 32 bit integer value. If valpath is not a valid registry path then the function returns -1. REG_EXPAND_SZ Returns a string. REG_LINK. use this function in conjunction with the reg_value_exists function to determine if the registry value exists. REG_SZ. string. otherwise it returns 0. when storing the results of a reg_value command in a variable (as shown in the following examples).Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) reg_value_exists (valpath) This function returns 1 if the registry value valpath exists. Examples: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\INTEL\CurrentLanguage")’ ENU $ blquery -h win2k -e ’reg_value ( "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\bounds" )’ 0030000000200000 Note. REG_NONE Returns a zero length string. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ reg_value_exists ("HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\INTEL\CurrentLanguage")’ 1 reg_value (valpath) This function returns the value of registry value valpath. Each hex value consists of two (zero filled) hex characters. Inc.

Property of BladeLogic. "SYSTEM_START". Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_exists ("MySql")’ win2k: 1 service_running (service) This function returns 1 if the named service exists and is currently running. service can be either a string or an integer. DESCRIPTION Description of service. the function returns the total number of configured services. There are several functions that let you pass an expression to find a matching service. If you do not specify expr. Example: # # Total number of services currently disabled # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("DISABLED". it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). See the top of this section for dynamic variable names and their possible values. These (sub) expressions support the following dynamic variable names: NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Name of service (short name). "AUTO_START". Account name service is run as.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE"))’ 1 service_record_count (expr) This function returns the number of services that match the expression expr. If the service does not exist. Display name of service (long name). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) spaces between the array values. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). In the case of a string. or if you are not accessing a Windows server then the function returns 0. "STOPPED".exe" is running # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE". the function returns 0. service_exists (name) This function returns 1 if the Windows service name (as defined by the service’s display name) exists. Inc. WINDOWS SERVICES FUNCTIONS The following functions let you query Windows services. One of "BOOT_START". or "DISABLED". If accessing a non Windows server or if the service does not exist. PROGRAM Name of executable used by service. If service is an integer. Example: $ blquery -h win2k -e ’service_running ("MySql")’ 1 # # Check if the service that runs "mysqld-nt. "*\mysqld-nt. if it is not running. One of "RUNNING". "DISABLED") NSH 20 . if you specified an out of range record number. "MANUAL". or "PENDING".

field) This function returns the string value of a particular service field. NAME DISPLAY STATUS STARTUP LOGON Returns the name of service (short name). This function is useful when you do not yet know the name of the service that you will be dealing with. field should be one of the following string values. service_record_count ()). $STOPPED). service_record_count (’STATUS = "RUNNING"’)) set_variable ("STOPPED". Returns one of the following strings:"RUNNING". Example: # # Find out if the service using the executable # "mysqld-nt. $RUNNING). skip) This function returns the record number for the first service that matches the expression expr. (" STOPPED: %d\n". service_record_count (’STATUS = "PENDING"’)) printf printf printf printf ("Total services: %d\n". See the top of this section for dynamic variable names that can be used in this expression. "SYSTEM_START". NSH 21 . DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the service. Once you get this record number. "AUTO_START". "MANUAL". "STOPPED". (" RUNNING: %d\n". Returns the display name of service (long name). Inc. or "PENDING". Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) service_record_count ("STARTUP = $DISABLED")’ 1 # # Services summary # $ cat expr. $ blquery win2k -E expr. "*\mysqld-nt.Property of BladeLogic. (" PENDING: %d\n".blq set_variable ("RUNNING".exe" is running or not. to access particular service records. # $ blquery -h win2k -e ’ set_variable ("EXE".blq Total services: 63 RUNNING: 35 STOPPED: 28 PENDING: 0 service_record_number (expr. Returns one of the following strings: "BOOT_START". or "DISABLED". you can use it in other services functions. service_record_count (’STATUS = "STOPPED"’)) set_variable ("PENDING". Returns the account name service is run as.exe") service_running (service_record_number ("PRORGAM = $EXE")) ’ 1 service_field_value (service. $PENDING). The optional skip parameter tells the function to skip the first skip number of matched records.

If service is an integer. "MySql") service_field_value ( service_record_number ("NAME = $MYSQL"). ndf (NSH). In the case of a string. The argument service can be either a string or an integer. it is taken to be a record number as returned by service_record_number (). NOTES The blquery utility itself is a very short program. nnet (NSH) NSH 22 . Inc. It just interfaces the underlying blquery API. nmem (NSH). nstats (NSH). Strictly confidential and proprietary blquery(1) blquery(1) PROGRAM <other> Returns the name of the executable used by the service. service is taken to be a service name (as defined by the service’s display name). "PROGRAM")’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt. nps (NSH). ORIGIN blquery was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr (NSH). Example: # # Get the name of the executable associated with # the MySql service # $ blquery win2k -e ’ service_field_value ("MySql".Property of BladeLogic. nover (NSH). ntop (NSH). "PROGRAM") ’ C:\nsh\mysql\bin\mysqld-nt.exe # # The same again # $ blquery win2k -e ’ set_variable ("MYSQL". Returns zero length string.exe CAVEATS Windows Services queries against the local server are not supported.

Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. the system prompts for a user ID.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background. After entering your user information. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. Inc. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. NSH 1 . bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. When you run bl_srp_agent. If you do not use this option. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. After you provide this information. and role. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. password.

NSH 1 . OPTIONS --background Instructs bl_srp_agent to run in the background.bl_srp_agent(1) Property of BladeLogic. After you provide this information. After entering your user information. and role. Other programs can use the information cached by bl_srp_agent whether bl_srp_agent is running in the foreground or background. To reuse this shared memory segment with Network Shell. Inc. bl_srp_agent runs in the background with the user information cached in a shared memory segment. where <xy> is the hexadecimal value of the location of the shared memory segment. This shared memory segment is only usable for the user who ran bl_srp_agent. the system prompts for a user ID. bl_srp_agent runs in the foreground. Strictly confidential and proprietary bl_srp_agent(1) NAME bl_srp_agent − activate a user information cache on UNIX SYNOPSIS bl_srp_agent --background DESCRIPTION The bl_srp_agent command activates a user information cache on UNIX. When you run bl_srp_agent. Inc. the system generates a message like the following: set BL_SRP_INFO to <xy> to reuse this private key. set the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: BL_SRP_INFO=<xy> Export the BL_SRP_INFO environment variable by issuing the following command: export BL_SRP_INFO The bl_srp_agent program remains in the background holding the user information cached in a shared memory segment until you kill it. EXAMPLE bl_srp_agent --background ORIGIN bl_srp_agent was developed by BladeLogic. password. If you do not use this option.

Each file is replaced by a compressed version of itself. bzip2 compresses from standard input to standard output. specify the −f flag. ownership as the corresponding original. v1.bz2. Inc. and Huffman coding. Integrity testing (−t) of concatenated compressed files is also supported. when possible. supplying no filenames causes decompression from standard input to standard output. The resulting outputs are fed sequentially to stdout.bz becomes filename filename.tbz. ] bzip2recover filename DESCRIPTION bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm.bz2 becomes filename filename. bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the command-line flags.tar filename. and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors.out appended. If you want this to happen. . with the name "original_name. but they are not identical. bunzip2 − a block-sorting file compressor. or have serious file name length restrictions. and uses the original name with . bunzip2 (or bzip2 −d) decompresses all specified files. The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU gzip.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. File name handling is naive in the sense that there is no mechanism for preserving original file names.tbz2 becomes filename. bzip2 complains that it cannot guess the name of the original file.tar anyothername becomes anyothername. . If no file names are specified... bzip2 and bunzip2 will by default not overwrite existing files. You can also compress or decompress files to the standard output by giving the −c flag. Files which were not created by bzip2 will be detected and ignored.tbz becomes filename.. bzip2 will decline to write compressed output to a terminal. permissions.tbz2 or . such as MS-DOS. The result is the concatenation of the corresponding uncompressed files. so that these properties can be correctly restored at decompression time. and.out If the file does not end in one of the recognised endings.bz2"..bz. Each compressed file has the same modification date. ownerships or dates in filesystems which lack these concepts. In this case. and a warning issued. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors. bunzip2 will correctly decompress a file which is the concatenation of two or more compressed files. as this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore pointless. . As with compression. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) NAME bzip2. 1 . permissions.. ] bzcat [ −s ] [ filenames . ] bunzip2 [ −fkvsVL ] [ filenames . Multiple files may be compressed and decompressed like this.. bzip2 attempts to guess the filename for the decompressed file from that of the compressed file as follows: filename.0 bzcat − decompresses files to stdout bzip2recover − recovers data from damaged bzip2 files SYNOPSIS bzip2 [ −cdfkqstvzVL123456789 ] [ filenames .

Random data (including the output of most file compressors) is coded at about 8. Normally. This means any file can be decompressed in 2300k of memory. &c). in that order. This guards against corruption of the compressed data. Be aware. giving an expansion of around 0.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. This flag overrides that mechanism.5 bytes per block byte. −k --keep Keep (don’t delete) input files during compression or decompression. even if the compressed file is slightly larger than the original. This gives a convenient way to supply default arguments. bzip2 will not overwrite existing output files. OPTIONS −c --stdout Compress or decompress to standard output. invalid flags. 3 for an internal consistency error (eg. 2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file.05 bits per byte. bzip2. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. −s --small Reduce memory usage. at the expense of your compression ratio. 1 for environmental problems (file not found. Files are decompressed and tested using a modified algorithm which only requires 2. bzcat (or bzip2 -dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. bug) which caused bzip2 to panic. Also forces bzip2 to break hard links to files. so it can only tell you that something is wrong. During compression.9. −d --decompress Force decompression. The chances of data corruption going undetected is microscopic. and against undetected bugs in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). that the check occurs upon decompression. bzip2 uses 32-bit CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file is identical to the original. In short. Files of less than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger. bunzip2 and bzcat are really the same program. −t --test Check integrity of the specified file(s). though. but don’t decompress them. 2 . Inc. You can use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged files. −s selects a block size of 200k. I/O errors. and will process them before any arguments read from the command line.0 or later. about one chance in four billion for each file processed. use −s for everything. −z --compress The complement to −d: forces compression. and forces bzip2 to decompress. Such a stream can be decompressed correctly only by bzip2 version 0. As a self-check for your protection. if your machine is low on memory (8 megabytes or less). Earlier versions of bzip2 will stop after decompressing the first file in the stream. It can’t help you recover the original uncompressed data. for compression. which it otherwise wouldn’t do. decompression and testing. bzip2 will read arguments from the environment variables BZIP2 and BZIP. This really performs a trial decompression and throws away the result. regardless of the invokation name.5%. albeit at about half the normal speed. Return values: 0 for a normal exit. since the compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the region of 50 bytes. and the decision about what actions to take is done on the basis of which name is used. which limits memory use to around the same figure. Compression is always performed. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Compression of multiple files in this manner generates a stream containing multiple compressed file representations. −f --force Force overwrite of output files.

try and use the largest block size memory constraints allow. For example. since the file is smaller than a block. At decompression time. 3 . Since block sizes are stored in compressed files. Compression and decompression requirements. and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory to decompress the file.9.5 and above.−myfilename. a fact worth bearing in mind when using bzip2 on small machines. −-repetitive-fast --repetitive-best These flags are redundant in versions 0. Inc. 900 k when compressing. which was sometimes useful. This is so you can handle files with names beginning with a dash. license terms and conditions. the decompressor will allocate 3700k but only touch 100k + 20000 * 4 = 180 kbytes. the block size used for compression is read from the header of the compressed file. in bytes.000 bytes (the default) respectively. −Treats all subsequent arguments as file names. even if they start with a dash. For files compressed with the default 900k block size.. Another significant point applies to files which fit in a single block -. Similarly. but only touch 400k + 20000 * 8 = 560 kbytes of it. so you should use this option only where necessary. −v --verbose Verbose mode -. See MEMORY MANAGEMENT below. The relevant flag is -s. bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately half this amount of memory. Has no effect when decompressing. In general.5 x block size ) Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal returns.000 bytes through 900. Messages pertaining to I/O errors and other critical events will not be suppressed.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. can be estimated as: Compression: 400k + ( 8 x block size ) Decompression: 100k + ( 4 x block size ). It is also important to appreciate that the decompression memory requirement is set at compression time by the choice of block size. Further −v’s increase the verbosity level.000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the compressor to allocate around 7600k of memory. Decompression speed is also halved. it follows that the flags −1 to −9 are irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. bunzip2 will require about 3700 kbytes to decompress. Compression and decompression speed are virtually unaffected by block size. 0.9. and the amount of memory needed for compression and decompression. about 2300 kbytes. or 100k + ( 2.show the compression ratio for each file processed. since that maximises the compression achieved. To support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine.that means most files you’d encounter using a large block size. They provided some coarse control over the behaviour of the sorting algorithm in earlier versions. −L --license -V --version Display the software version.5 and above have an improved algorithm which renders these flags irrelevant. for example: bzip2 −. −1 to −9 Set the block size to 100 k. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) −q --quiet Suppress non-essential warning messages. The flags −1 through −9 specify the block size to be 100. 200 k . Most of the compression comes from the first two or three hundred k of block size. The amount of real memory touched is proportional to the size of the file. The block size affects both the compression ratio achieved. MEMORY MANAGEMENT bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. spewing out lots of information which is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes. compressing a file 20.

bzip2recover takes a single argument..bz2". This column gives some feel for how compression varies with block size. PERFORMANCE NOTES The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar strings in the file. as these will contain many blocks. Inc.bz2 files.bz2". Versions 0. This means that performance. files containing very long runs of repeated symbols.bz2 file to become damaged.bz2 file. If a media or transmission error causes a multi-block . since a damaged block cannot be recovered. like "aabaabaabaab . Because of this. etc. both for compressing and decompressing. You can then use bzip2 −t to test the integrity of the resulting files. which makes it possible to find the block boundaries with reasonable certainty. It is clearly futile to use it on damaged single-block files. it may be possible to recover data from the undamaged blocks in the file. bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to operate in. Because of this.5 and above fare much better than previous versions in this respect. since the Corpus is dominated by smaller files.622 bytes. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage for different block sizes.for example..9. "bzip2 -dc rec*file. is largely determined by the speed at which your machine can service cache misses. containing the extracted blocks. The ratio between worst-case and average-case compression time is in the region of 10:1. If you wish to minimise any potential data loss through media or transmission errors. and then charges all over it in a fairly random fashion.bz2 > recovered_data" -. this figure was more like 100:1. and write each block out into its own . The compressed representation of each block is delimited by a 48-bit pattern. Each block is handled independently. and decompress those which are undamaged. These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger block sizes for larger files. and writes a number of files "rec0001file.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic. small changes to the 4 . Also recorded is the total compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compression Corpus totalling 3. "rec0002file. the name of the damaged file. The output filenames are designed so that the use of wildcards in subsequent processing -. you might consider compressing with a smaller block size. Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus Flag usage usage -s usage Size -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 1200k 2000k 2800k 3600k 4400k 5200k 6100k 6800k 7600k 500k 900k 1300k 1700k 2100k 2500k 2900k 3300k 3700k 350k 600k 850k 1100k 1350k 1600k 1850k 2100k 2350k 914704 877703 860338 846899 845160 838626 834096 828642 828642 RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES bzip2 compresses files in blocks. You can use the −vvvv option to monitor progress in great detail. bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to search for blocks in . if you want." (repeated several hundred times) may compress more slowly than normal.lists the files in the correct order. Each block also carries its own 32-bit CRC. usually 900kbytes long.141. bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large . Decompression speed is unaffected by these phenomena.bz2 files. so damaged blocks can be distinguished from undamaged ones. For previous versions.

bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit positions in compressed files. lent machines.0 and 0. 0. versions 0.demon.9. This manual page pertains to version 1. See the manual in the source distribution for pointers to sources of documentation.co. http://sourceware. jseward@acm.1pl2.5. but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem rather misleading. support and advice. 5 . Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the arithmetic coder in the original bzip). Inc. it will stop after decompressing just the first file in the stream.cygnus.com/bzip2 http://www. but with the following exception: 0. This could easily be fixed. I imagine bzip2 will perform best on machines with very large caches. Many people sent patches.uk The ideas embodied in bzip2 are due to (at least) the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler (for the block sorting transformation). so it cannot handle compressed files more than 512 megabytes long. Compressed data created by this version is entirely forwards and backwards compatible with the previous public releases. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for faster sorting algorithms.9. helped with portability problems.0 of bzip2. Peter Fenwick (for the structured coding model in the original bzip. I am much indebted for their help. AUTHOR Julian Seward. CAVEATS I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be.0 and above can correctly decompress multiple concatenated compressed files. David Wheeler (again. bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly. and many refinements). and Alistair Moffat.9. Strictly confidential and proprietary bzip2(1) code to reduce the miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately large performance improvements.muraroa.bzip2(1) Property of BladeLogic.1pl2 cannot do this. Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case compression performance.org. so as to speed up compression. 0. gave advice and were generally helpful. for the Huffman coder).

2-1992 (“POSIX. Implies the −v option and also prints tab characters as ‘ˆI’.CAT (1) Property of BladeLogic. STANDARDS The cat utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003. tail(1). print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an EOF ( ‘ˆD’ ) character. The cat utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. 1983. control-I. See the manual page for your shell (e. truncating file3 if it already exists. Control characters print as ‘ˆX’ for control-X. If file is a single dash ( ‘-’ ) or absent. . can be made visible via the −t option. Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) NAME cat − concatenate and print files SYNOPSIS cat [ −benstuv] [file . or cat -v Considered Harmful". starting at 1. vis(1). since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by cat when it encountered the first ‘-’ operand. "UNIX Style. sh(1). writing them to the standard output. which are displayed normally. setbuf(3) Rob Pike. The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as ‘ˆ?’. more(1). Implies the −v option and also prints a dollar sign ( ‘$’ ) at the end of each line. . The options are as follows: −b −e −n −s −t −u −v Implies the −n option but doesn’t count blank lines. USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings. EXAMPLES Print the contents of file1 to the standard output: $ cat file1 Sequentially print the contents of file1 and file2 to the file file3.file2 . Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as ‘M-’ (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits.file3 SEE ALSO head(1). BSD May 2. then finally output the contents of file3. cat reads from the standard input. print the contents of file2. Inc. Displays non-printing characters so they are visible.g. less(1). sh(1)) for more information on redirection. The file operands are processed in command-line order. read and output contents of the standard input again. pr(1). The tab character. $ cat file1 . 1995 1 . Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines. the second dash on the command-line would have no effect. Note that if the standard input referred to a file. Number the output lines. $ cat file1 file2 > file3 Print the contents of file1. with the exception of the tab and EOL characters..2”) specification.] DESCRIPTION The cat utility reads files sequentially. The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see setbuf(3)). causing the output to be single spaced.

CAT (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY A cat utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. 1995 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary CAT (1) The flags [ −benstv] are extensions to the specification. Inc. BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection. the command cat file1 file2 > file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! BSD May 2.

one can also name additional hosts as arguments on the command line. Strictly confidential and proprietary chapw(1) NAME chapw − Change RSCD Agent password on remote Windows servers SYNOPSIS chapw [-r] [-p passwd] [-q] [-f file] host1 [host2 . one can also use the -f file option to specify additional hosts from the file content. -r -q host . The name of the hosts to be updated. -p passwd By default one is prompted to enter (and confirm) the desired password.. the RSCD Agent looks at a pre-determined registry location (see below) in which a password may be set. If the registry location is not found/set. To determine which password to use. SEE ALSO rscd (1) NSH 1 . OPTIONS The following options are supported: -f file Specify a flat file containing the list of hosts whose RSCD Agent password one wishes to update. This command does not prompt for the old password as the default password with which the agent was shipped is unknown to the user.] DESCRIPTION This command is used to set / change the agent password on one or more Windows hosts that have BladeLogic agent running.. With this option one can specify the desired password as an argument. By default chapw displays information about the progress of the update. REGISTRY The password is kept encrypted in the following registry key: SECURITY\SAM\BladeLogic\Operations Manager\RSCD\P CAVEATS The specified hosts for this command should all be Windows systems and should have the agent running with the "Local System" privileges. To this end. the RSCD Agent needs to supply a password to the OS.. the RSCD Agent uses a default password shipped with the agent. In addition.chapw(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option only error messages are output. then the user should remove the RSCD registry location from the registry and delete the BladeLogicRSCD user. If for some reason the user decides to revert back to the default value with which the BladeLogic agent was shipped. If a password was not specified with the -p option. When the RSCD Agent comes up on a Windows server. Servers that are not Windows servers are not updated and an appropriate error message is output. Inc. then this option will cause chapw to automatically randomly generate a 16 character password.. In addition. it needs to impersonate the BladeLogicRSCD user (created at install time) in order to have the privileges it requires to run properly.

this option is turned on. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). DESCRIPTION chgrp changes the group or the group and user ownership of the named files. use the -l option. chgrp will resolve the username and groupname on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place. NSH 1 . and consequently a UID is not available for this user. By default. New owner of the file (user name or UID). Inc. By default.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic.. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) NAME chgrp − Change group (and user) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chgrp [-fhRv?] group file . chgrp [-fhRv?] user. $ chgrp bin myprog $ chgrp -R adm //paris/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chgrp: Unable to access file filename chgrp was unable to access the file filename. chgrp: Unable to change group ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename.. and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. Instead. However. then chgrp changes the user ownership as well.. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. Always resolve the groupname and optional username on the local system. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors that occur. if you precede the group name by a user name and a period (’. -R -v -? group user If any of the named arguments is a directory. See the -r option. this message will appear if chgrp is unable to access the directory dirname. The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to group adm on host paris. Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. chgrp: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. chgrp changes only the group ownership. Indicates that the groupname and the (optional) username are not numeric. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any ownerships.. To turn it off. then chgrp will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it. chgrp: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown.’). This can be useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. chgrp: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. EXAMPLE The first example changes the group ownership of the file myprog to bin.group file .

you may not achieve the ownership change you want. You specified an unknown GID or UID. Unable to get a license to use the software. ORIGIN chgrp was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO chown(1). and you use a groupname/username (as opposed to a GID/UID). CAVEATS If you do not specify either the -l option or the -r option. Strictly confidential and proprietary chgrp(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. If the GID/UID of the group/user differs on the host on which you are making the change. Inc. Unknown option or missing file argument. NSH 2 . chgrp was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. chgrp was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. chgrp resolves the groupname/username to the GID/UID on the local machine.chgrp(1) Property of BladeLogic. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)).

it defaults to the value of a u Modify the user permissions g Modify the group permissions o Modify the other permissions a Modify all permissions (same as ugo) You must specify one of the following values for the op section: + Add the specified permissions to the existing permissions of the file Subtract the specified permissions from the existing permissions of the file = Set the specified value as the file permissions Set the new permissions using any combination of the following characters r Modify the read permissions for who w Modify the write permissions for who x Modify the execute permissions for who s Modify the set UID/GID permissions for who t Modify the set sticky bit permissions for who If any of the named arguments is a directory. This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is a directory. since directories usually have different permissions than files. or a series of comma separated instructions. File whose mode you want to change. each having the following format: [who][op][perms] The who section determines whose permissions are to be changed. chmod silently skips it. op perms OPTIONS -R -d -f -v -? mode file NSH 1 . See the DESCRIPTION section above. This can be useful to monitor the progress of a recursive permissions change. Inc. The permissions changes you want to make. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change. Output a message for each file whose permissions are being changed. then chmod will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate permissions of all files and sub-directories below it. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if one does not want to change the permissions of any directories. who can be one or a combination of two or more characters from the following set: who If you do not specify a value for who .chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. etc). This option tells chmod to change the permissions of a file ONLY if the file is not a directory (i. mode can be an absolute octal value. chmod silently skips it. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without changing any permissions.. DESCRIPTION chmod changes the mode or access permissions of the named file(s) to mode. This can be a useful option in a recursive change of permissions if you only want to change the permissions of directories. regular files.. If chmod encounters a directory. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list.e. special files. . If chmod encounters a file that is not a directory. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) NAME chmod − Change the mode (protection attributes) of a file SYNOPSIS chmod [-Rdfv?] mode file .. This includes both files specifically named in the command argument list. and files encountered while doing a recursive (-R) permissions change..

chmod: Unable to access the file filename chmod was unable to access the filename chmod: Unable to access directory dirname When changing permissions of a file (directory) recursively. ORIGIN chmod was written by Thomas Kraus. execute for both the group and other users). chmod was unable to access the directory dirname chmod: Cannot change ownership of file filename An error occurred when changing the permissions of the file filename EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 255 No errors detected.chmod(1) Property of BladeLogic. execute permissions for the owner of the file. execute for user. Inc.u+rwx //madrid/u1/myprog DIAGNOSTICS chmod: Invalid mode (mode) The mode you specified contained unknown characters. and read. Unable to get a license to use the software. write. $ chmod 0755 myprog $ chmod o+x. NSH 2 . Unknown option or missing file argument. write. chmod was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. The second example adds execute permission to other users and read. chmod was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of permissions. Strictly confidential and proprietary chmod(1) EXAMPLE The first example changes the permissions of the file myprog to 755 (read.

Indicates that the username and the (optional) groupname are not numeric. New owner of the file (user name or UID). Output a message for each file whose ownership is being changed. chown [-fhlrRv?] user. You can turn it off with the -l option. OPTIONS -f -h -l -r Do not report any errors if they occur. Always resolve the username and optional groupname on the local system.. Inc. $ chown bin myprog $ chown -R adm //bern/u1/myapps DIAGNOSTICS chown: Unable to access file filename chown was unable to access the file filename. New group owner of the file (group name or GID). and therefore will not be resolved on the local system. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) NAME chown − Change user (and group) ownerships of files SYNOPSIS chown [-fhlrRv?] user file .chown(1) Property of BladeLogic.group file . chown: Unknown user ID username The username username is unknown. change the ownership of the link itself rather than the file it is pointing to. this option is turned on. this command changes only the user ownership.. EXAMPLE The first example changes the user ownership of the file myprog to bin. Instead. Useful for monitoring progress in recursive file ownership changes. chown: Unable to access directory dirname When changing ownerships of a file (directory) recursively. without changing any ownerships.’) and a group name to the user name. See the -r option. When changing the ownership of a file that is a symbolic link. By default.. chown: Unknown group ID groupname The groupname groupname is unknown. this message will appear if chown is unable to access the directory dirname. However. then chown will recursively descend the directory and change the appropriate ownerships of all files and sub-directories below it.. -R -v -? user group If any of the named arguments is a directory. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status. you can also change the group ownership of a file by appending a period (’. By default. and consequently a GID is not available for this group. chown: Unable to change user ownership of file filename An error has occurred when changing the ownership of the file filename. DESCRIPTION This command changes the user or the user and group ownership of the named files. NSH 1 . The second example changes the group ownership of all files in the directory /u1/myapps to user adm on host bern. and consequently a UID is not available for this user. the username and groupname will be resolved on the system on which the change of ownership is to take place.

Consequently. When a user or group name is explicitly used (as opposed to numeric values). Inc. Unable to get a license to use the software. The -h option may have no effect on systems that do not support the appropriate system call to perform this action (lchown(2)). chown encountered an unknown GID or UID. chown was unable to access one of the directories in a recursive change of ownership. Strictly confidential and proprietary chown(1) EXIT CODES 0 1 2 3 4 255 No errors detected. Unknown option or missing file argument. NSH 2 . the UID and GID of the user/group as defined on the local host is used.chown(1) Property of BladeLogic. chown was unable to access the file it was trying to change ownership of. SEE ALSO chgrp(1). the change of ownership may not reflect the desired effect if the UID/GID of the user/group differ on the host on which the change is being made. ORIGIN chown was written by Thomas Kraus.

The user is presented with a list of roles to choose from. Entering a chrole command only changes the role for new connections with Network Shell Proxy Servers. $ disconnect # Disconnect from all servers. you are presented with a numbered list of authorized roles and prompted to make a selection from that list. ORIGIN chrole was developed by BladeLogic. SYNOPSIS chrole [role] DESCRIPTION The chrole command changes the role preference for the current NSH session. $ chrole role2 # Change to role2. CAVEATS The chrole command is a "built-in" Network Shell command and can only be issued from within an active NSH session. To set up a new role for agents with which you already have proxy connections. DIAGNOSTICS If the user attempts to chrole to an unauthorized role. provided the active user is authorized for that role.chrole(1) Property of BladeLogic. $ cd //host1 # Connect to host1. and then reconnect. you must specify a new role preference. EXIT CODES 0 Always returns with a 0 exit code. COMMAND OPTIONS None EXAMPLES The following example changes the active role to WindowsAdmins. Strictly confidential and proprietary chrole(1) NAME chrole − Change the active role for the current Network Shell session. when you have an existing connection. $ cd // # Make no connection the active context. All subsequent NSH commands issued from within that session are executed within the context of the new role. Note that this command will not # disconnect from host1 if the current working directory is //host1. Because the chrole command does not change the role for the current session. Inc. If you do not provide a role preference when entering the chrole command. See the EXAMPLES section below for a demonstration of the required procedure. NSH 1 . $ chrole WindowsAdmins The following example shows the procedure that is necessary to change roles for existing connections to agents. the role selection is ignored. you must disconnect. $ cd //host1 # Reconnect to host1. Your current role is role1. disconnect from the host where you are currently connected.

the CRC value corresponding to a given file is defined by the following procedure: The n bits to be evaluated are considered to be the coefficients of a mod 2 polynomial M(x) of degree n-1. Please read the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section to determine the default behavior of this command. the standard input is used and no file name is written. The smallest number of octets capable of representing this integer are used.] DESCRIPTION The cksum utility writes to the standard output three whitespace separated fields for each input file. The coefficients of R(x) are considered to be a 32-bit sequence. overflow is discarded. -r -o 1 | 2 -? Same as -o 1. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) NAME cksum.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. least significant octet first. The cksum utility exits 0 on success. followed by one or more octets representing the length of the file as a binary value. These n bits are the bits from the file. This is a 16-bit checksum. padded with zero bits (if necessary) to achieve an integral number of octets. For historic reasons. with a right rotation before each addition.. M(x) is multiplied by xˆ32 (i. cksum = (r % 2ˆ16) + r / 2ˆ16. Use historic algorithms instead of the (superior) default one. the total number of octets in the file and the file name. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with calculating any checksums. Algorithm 2 is the algorithm used by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the default sum algorithm.] sum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . and is defined as follows: s = sum of all bytes. and >0 if an error occurs. Partial blocks are rounded up.. See description below.e. This is a 32-bit checksum. Sum is a link to cksum and is provided for compatibility. Using this interface. with the most significant bit being the most significant bit of the first octet of the file and the last bit being the least significant bit of the last octet. The bit sequence is complemented and the result is the CRC. one only has access to the historic algorithms ( -o 1 | 2 ). These fields are a checksum CRC. NSH 1 . the block size is 1024 for algorithm 1 and 512 for algorithm 2. If no file name is specified... The default CRC used is based on the polynomial used for CRC error checking in the networking standard ISO 8802-3: 1989 The CRC checksum encoding is defined by the generating polynomial: G(x) = xˆ32 + xˆ26 + xˆ23 + xˆ22 + xˆ16 + xˆ12 + xˆ11 + xˆ10 + xˆ8 + xˆ7 + xˆ5 + xˆ4 + xˆ2 + x + 1 Mathematically. OPTIONS The following options may modify the behavior of cksum. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1 is the algorithm used by historic BSD systems as the sum(1) algorithm and by historic AT&T System V UNIX systems as the sum algorithm when using the -r option. producing a remainder R(x) of degree <= 31. Both algorithm 1 and 2 write to the standard output the same fields as the default algorithm except that the size of the file in bytes is replaced with the size of the file in blocks. r = s % 2ˆ16 + (s % 2ˆ32) / 2ˆ16. sum − display file checksums and block counts SYNOPSIS cksum [-?] [-r] [-o [1 | 2]] [file . shifted left 32 bits) and divided by G(x) using mod 2 division. Inc..

Inc. ORIGIN Cksum includes software developed by the University of California. COPYRIGHT Please read the Copyright notice in intro(1) section of documentation. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be checksummed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments. algorithm 2 is used.cksum(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . With the P_ATT variable set. When the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR The universe setting only takes affect when the sum version of the command is used and no checksum type has been selected. Strictly confidential and proprietary cksum(1) EXAMPLE The first example prints out the checksum for two password files using the new improved checksum algorithm. The second example uses the historic AT&T algorithm for all files in the directory /home/data on host ottawa. SEE ALSO sum(1). A system error message follows the output of the error message. algorithm 1 is used. Berkeley and its contributors. $ cksum /etc/passwd //ottawa/etc/passwd $ cksum -o 2 //ottawa/home/data/* DIAGNOSTICS cksum: Cannot open file filename The file for which the checksum was to be calculated was not accessible. cksum(1).

rhosts if test $? -eq 1 then echo . If the standard input is being used ( file1 is ’-’). For each difference it finds. By default. If file1 is ’-’. and the two different character values found in the files. When this happens. $ $ > > > > > > $ cmp -s rhosts. Instead. EXIT CODES 0 Files are identical. cmp: Illegal option xyz The given option xyz is not a valid option. cmp outputs an appropriate message indicating which file is shorter.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. Start comparing at skip2 bytes from second file by seeking to that position in the file.rhosts chmod 0700 //oslo/. NSH 1 . This option tells cmp not to output any message when it finds a difference. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any comparing. -s -? file1 file2 skip1 skip2 EXAMPLE The following example checks to see the . then the offset is read instead of being seeked over.master //oslo/. cmp: EOF on filename If one of the two files is shorter than the other. cmp outputs a line consisting of the character number. find all differences in the files. The first file in the comparison. Start comparing at skip1 bytes from first file by seeking to that position in the file. then cmp uses the standard input. cmp stops processing after it finds the first difference.rhosts chown root. cp rhosts. cmp outputs an appropriate message and stops the comparison. the proper one is copied back over it with the proper permissions and ownerships. Inc. If one of the files is shorter in length than the other.master //oslo/. cmp always considers the files not to be identical. cmp exits with an exit code that indicates whether or not the files are identical. checking to see if they are identical.rhosts fi DIAGNOSTICS cmp: Cannot access file filename cmp was unable to access the file filename.rhosts file on a remote host has changed from the expected contents. cmp will just exit with the appropriate exit code. OPTIONS -l Do not stop checking after finding the first difference.rhosts file on host oslo has changed. The second file in the comparison. even with the -l option. If it has.root //oslo/. Strictly confidential and proprietary cmp(1) NAME cmp − Compare two files SYNOPSIS cmp [-ls?] file1 file2 [skip1] [skip2] DESCRIPTION cmp compares the content of two files.

Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 Files are not identical. or cmp encountered a bad or missing argument. NSH 2 . Unable to get a license to use the software.cmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. cmp(1) ORIGIN cmp was written by Thomas Kraus. One of the files was not accessible. Inc.

Inc. A column is defined as a single character in a line. Strictly confidential and proprietary colrm ( 1 ) NAME colrm . Backspace characters decrement the column count by one. ORIGIN Colrm includes software developed by the University of California. columns numbered less than the start column or greater than the stop column will be written.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If only the start column is specified. SEE ALSO column(1). columns numbered less than the start column will be written. Output is written to the standard output. paste(1) SunOS 5. Column numbering starts with one. Input is read from the standard input. not zero. If both start and stop columns are specified. cut(1). Tab characters increment the column count to the next multiple of eight.remove columns from a file SYNOPSIS colrm [start [stop]] DESCRIPTION Colrm removes selected columns from the lines of a file.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. Berkeley and its contributors.

lines printed in column number one will not have any tabs preceding them. if column number two is being suppressed. Suppress printing of column 3. sort(1). Comm assumes that the files are lexically sorted. ORIGIN Comm includes software developed by the University of California. and lines in both files. >0 if an error occurred. For example. Suppress printing of column 2. Strictly confidential and proprietary comm ( 1 ) NAME comm . which should be sorted lexically.8 Last change: NSH 1 . Each column will have a number of tab characters prepended to it equal to the number of lower numbered columns that are being printed. Comm exits 0 on success.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Berkeley and its contributors. Inc. The filename ‘‘-’’ means the standard input. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. all characters participate in line comparisons. The following options are available: -1 -2 -3 Suppress printing of column 1.select or reject lines common to two files SYNOPSIS comm [-123] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The comm utility reads file1 and file2. lines only in file2. SEE ALSO cmp(1). and produces three text columns as output: lines only in file1. uniq(1) SunOS 5. and lines printed in column number three will have one.

“. see gzip(1) for more information. This option implies −g.tgz”. the user is prompted (on the standard error output) for confirmation. 2008 1 . These defaults may be overridden by the −N and −n flags. zcat − compress and expand data (compress mode) SYNOPSIS compress [ −123456789cdfghLlNnOqrtVv] [ −b bits] [ −o filename] [ −S suffix] [file .Z”. . the file is ignored (unless −f is used). “. in compress mode. Instead. when compressing using the deflate scheme ( −g). . user ID. with compression factor of −1 to −9. the standard input is compressed or uncompressed to the standard output. files are overwritten without prompting for confirmation.gz”. If invoked as compress −g. but is relatively slow. Compression factor −9 provides the best level of compression. described below.] DESCRIPTION The compress utility reduces the size of the named files using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding.Z”. copy the input data without change to the standard BSD April 3. The default is −6. Extensions ending in “tgz” and “taz” are not removed when decompressing. −b bits Specify the bits code limit ( see below ) . the original file name and time stamp are stored in the compressed file. As many of the modification time. and the attributes of the input file are not retained. . “.Property of BladeLogic.9 Use the deflate scheme. The uncompress utility restores compressed files to their original form. If either the input or output files are not regular files. It has the ability to restore files compressed by both compress and gzip(1). −c −d −f Compressed or uncompressed output is written to the standard output. No files are modified (force zcat mode). “-tgz”. If compression would not reduce the size of a file. access time. “_gz”. but provides a poorer level of compression. Decompress the source files instead of compressing them (force uncompress mode). renaming the files by removing the extension (or by using the stored name if the −N flag is specified). When uncompressing. “_tgz”. file mode. and “_taz”. the deflate mode of compression is chosen. “-Z”. the files are not overwritten. and group ID as allowed by permissions are retained in the new file. Additionally. this information is not used. The options are as follows: −1.. the checks for reduction in size and file overwriting are not performed. “_Z”. If renaming the files would cause files to be overwritten and the standard input device is a terminal.] uncompress [ −cfhlNnqrtv] [ −o filename] [file . If no files are specified. If the input data is not in a format recognized by compress and if the option −c is also given. Compression factor −1 is the fastest. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) NAME compress. . . If prompting is not possible or confirmation is not received.. file flags. Force compression of file. the uncompressed file inherits the time stamp of the compressed version and the uncompressed file name is generated from the name of the compressed file as described above. Each file is renamed to the same name plus the extension “. the input file is not removed.taz”.] zcat [ −fghqr] [file . instead they are converted to “tar”. Inc. even if it is not actually reduced in size. The zcat command is equivalent in functionality to uncompress −c. uncompress. “-taz”. . By default. recognising the following extensions: “. “-gz”.

When compressing. This information is only available when the deflate scheme ( −g) is used. the algorithm switches to 10-bit codes and continues to use more bits until the limit specified by the −b flag is reached. −S suffix Set the suffix for compressed files. 32-bit CRC ( cyclic redundancy code ) of the uncompressed file. Ratio of the difference between the compressed and uncompressed sizes to the uncompressed size. Recursive mode: compress will descend into specified directories. −n −O −o filename Set the output file name. Name the file will be saved as when uncompressing. the following additional information is printed: compression method crc time stamp Name of the method used to compress the file. List information for the specified compressed files. The following information is listed: compressed size uncompressed size compression ratio uncompressed name Size of the compressed file. if any. 2008 2 . do not store the original file name and time stamp in the header of the compressed file. compress continues to use the existing code dictionary. compress discards the table of substrings and rebuilds it from scratch. Display the program version ( RCS IDs of the source files ) and exit. the time stamp stored in the compressed file is printed instead). −q −r Be quiet: suppress all messages. If it is increasing. After the bits limit is reached. However. Inc. Print a short help message. bits must be between 9 and 16 ( the default is 16 ) . Print the license. Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) output: let zcat behave as cat(1). −g −h −L −l Use the deflate scheme. Date and time corresponding to the last data modification time (mtime) of the compressed file (if the −n option is specified. compress periodically checks the compression ratio. BSD April 3.Property of BladeLogic. This allows the algorithm to adapt to the next “block” of the file. compress uses a modified Lempel-Ziv algorithm ( LZW ) . When code 512 is reached. Use compress mode (the default). −N When uncompressing or listing. If the −v option is specified. which reportedly provides better compression rates (force gzip(1) mode). for the uncompressed version. Print the percentage reduction of each file and other information. if the compression ratio decreases. use the time stamp and file name stored in the compressed file. Common substrings in the file are first replaced by 9-bit codes 257 and up. −t −V −v Test the integrity of each file leaving any files intact. Size of the file when uncompressed.

Terry A. uncompress. and zcat utilities exit with 0 on success.Property of BladeLogic. IEEE Computer. STANDARDS The compress. The amount of compression obtained depends on the size of the input. BSD April 3. Deflate compression support was added in OpenBSD 2.. 1984. HISTORY The compress command appeared in 4. 8−19. and zcat utilities are compliant with the specification. 2008 3 . June.3 BSD. and takes less time to compute. uncompress. or 2 if a warning occurred. the number of bits per code. The compress. text such as source code or English is reduced by 50 − 60% using compress. along with a magic number to ensure that neither decompression of random data nor recompression of compressed data is attempted. pp. The compress flags [ −123456789dghLlNnOqrtV].1. or adaptive Huffman coding (as used in the historical command compact). and the zcat flags [ −fghqr] are extensions to that specification. Compression is generally much better than that achieved by Huffman coding (as used in the historical command pack). Typically. uncompress flags [ −hlNnqrt]. SEE ALSO Welch. "A Technique for High Performance Data Compression". Strictly confidential and proprietary COMPRESS (1) System General Commands Manual COMPRESS (1) The −b flag is omitted for uncompress since the bits parameter specified during compression is encoded within the output. Inc. 1 if an error occurred. 17:6. and the distribution of common substrings.

cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). If the target directory does not already exist. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. If the destination directory does not exist. dir DESCRIPTION cp makes copies of files. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". cp always acts as if the destination directory does not exist. and is consequently overwritten. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. then it retains its current permissions and ownerships. Synchronize file permissions. and inherits the ownership of the calling user. This also applies to new directories being created. By default. When the destination directory does exist. If the target file already exists. If the destination directory does exist. then cp will create the directory as required. By default. cp overwrites it. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s permissions to match the source file’s permissions. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. when cp copies a directory. Don’t actually make any changes. cp copies multiple files into a directory. To turn on the file backup feature. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. if it exists. In the first form. In the second form. Synchronize file ownerships. cp creates copied files with the same names as the source files.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. when cp creates a new file. if the target file already exists. and access and modification times as the source file. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) NAME cp − Copy files SYNOPSIS cp [-bifnpPtuvBCLST?] [-s suf] file1 file2 cp [-bifnpPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] file . then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory.c˜) This option alone does not turn on the file backup feature. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. and copies the content into it. the new file gets the same permissions as the source file. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. then cp overwrites the file. cp creates it and copies the content into it. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. before copying over the new source file. permissions. Inc.. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. With his option. With the -P option. so that. cp copies the contents of one file to a second file. it behaves differently depending on whether or not the destination (directory) already exists. cp creates a new directory inside of the existing directory. OPTIONS -b -i Backup the target file.c becomes foo.. When copying to a directory. If a target file already exists. two consecutive copies to the same destination directory will always produce the same result. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. By default. use the -b command. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. With this option. for example. Even if the file itself does not get copied to the destination (conditional copy and no changes in file) the cp command will still update the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. Preserve parent. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. By default. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. If the target directory does already exist. -f -m -n -o -p -P -r -s suf NSH 1 . This option turns off the -i option. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file.

Strictly confidential and proprietary -t -u cp(1) Make a textual copy of the file. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. -S and -C. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. See the -u option. If the file sizes are the same. especially on a large file. $ cp -p myprog //brussels/usr/local/bin $ rm -fr //brussels/usr/local $ cp -rvf datadir //brussels/usr/local DIAGNOSTICS cp: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. write. They are -T. this message will appear if cp is unable to access the target directory (last argument). then the backup will not be overwritten. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. The second example copies the contents of the directory datadir to the directory /usr/local/datadir which is first created. follow symbolic links. The default action of the cp command would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. This option implies the -S option. Conditional copy. -K -L -P This option is like the -L option. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. should it be a symbolic link. Like -b except that if a backup version of the file already exists. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. This is the no parent option. Inc. NSH 2 . except that it applies only to the top level file. When recursing through directories. This option can be very resource intensive. -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. With the -P option. The target file will be overwritten only if its content differs from the source file. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. If you use this option with the -p option. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target files to determine if a difference exists. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files. See the -u option. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. Output a message for each file being copied. This option is the same as the -r option. EXAMPLE The first example copies the file myprog to the directory /usr/local/bin on the host brussels. Conditional copy.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. Conditional copy. and execute. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation.

cp: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r) . Inc. If cp is not able to create one of these directories. then this message appears. along with a possible reason why it was not able to access the file. If cp has a problem accessing a directory. Unable to get a license to use the software. along with a possible reason why cp was not able to create the file filename.cp(1) Property of BladeLogic. this message will appear. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. Strictly confidential and proprietary cp(1) cp: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. the -f option will override the -i option. cp: Unable to create file filename If the new target file cannot be created. indicating that cp cannot copy directories. cp will display this message. cp may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. cp traverses the source directory hierarchy. ORIGIN cp was written by Thomas Kraus. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). cp: Unable to access file filename cp: Unable to read file filename If cp is unable to access the source file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. SEE ALSO dsync (1). this message will appear. Unknown option or missing file argument. ncp(1). it will display this message. cp was unable to copy all files requested. cp: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. NSH 3 . EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. this message will appear indicating that the copy may not be complete. uncp(1). cp: Unable to access directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. the -i option will override the -f option. cp: Unable to create directory dirname When copying a directory recursively. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory.

It uses this header line to name the columns of input. Strictly confidential and proprietary csv2xml(1) NAME csv2xml − Convert CSV input to an XML output SYNOPSIS csv2xml [-?] [-<number>] [-h] [-n name] [-s sep] [-q quote] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The csv2xml utility is a filter that converts a CSV input stream to an XML output stream.’) character as the field separator. Inc. Do not output the XML header entry. Do not output the root node tag. athens% nover -c -h london rome | csv2xml -1 -n "Host Overview" <?xml version="1. OPTIONS -<number> By default. The -n option lets you specify name as the master XML tag. The -q option lets you specify the first character of quote as a string delimiter.csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. Output a usage message and exit with a 0 exit code. -s sep By default csv2xml uses the comma (’. Use this option only if you will be embedding the output into another XML document. and in turn XML tags. hostname) that can be used as an identifier. in the format of column-<record number>. With this option.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="yes"?> <csv2xml name="Host Overview"> <record name="london"> <HOSTNAME>london</HOSTNAME> <OS>RedHat ES3</OS> <MAINT>2. -n name By default the master XML tag is called csv2xml. csv2xml generates column names.EL</MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>797</SPEED> <ARCH>i686</ARCH> <MEMORY>121</MEMORY> <SWAP>251</SWAP> <DISK>18</DISK> </record> <record name="rome"> <HOSTNAME>rome</HOSTNAME> <OS>SunOS 5.21-4. The -s option lets you specify the first character of sep as the field separator. This option is often used in conjunction with the -x option. -q quote By default csv2xml uses the double quote (’"’) character as a string delimiter. csv2xml uses the value of column (field) <number> of the respective line as the record name.4. With this option.8</OS> <MAINT></MAINT> <CPUS>1</CPUS> <SPEED>440</SPEED> <ARCH>sparcv9</ARCH> <MEMORY>256</MEMORY> <SWAP>513</SWAP> <DISK>17</DISK> -r -x -? EXAMPLE NSH 1 . record names are numbered sequentially starting from 1. This can be useful if the CSV input contains a unique field (for example. -h By default csv2xml assumes that the first line of the CSV input is a header line.

If subsequent records have more fields than the first record. csv2xml will add empty fields to the record. Strictly confidential and proprietary </record> </csv2xml> csv2xml(1) CAVEATS The first record (line of input) determines the number of fields that csv2xml will display. nstats(1). If csv2xml finds an unsupported character. nover(1).csv2xml(1) Property of BladeLogic. csv2xml may need to modify these fields to ensure that they do not contain unsupported characters. Because csv2xml generates XML tag names based on the fields in the first line of input. XML has certain restrictions as to which characters are allowed in an XML tag. NSH 2 . ndf(1). nmem(1). csv2xml will not display these additional fields. nnet(1). If subsequent records have fewer fields than the first record. it converts it to an underscore (’_’) character. Inc. ncpu(1). ORIGIN csv2xml was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO The following commands are able to output in CSV format (-c option): nps(1).

Numbers and number ranges may be repeated. Numbers or number ranges may be followed by a dash. overlapping. Numbers or number ranges may be preceded by a dash. and in any order. a dash (-). Berkeley and its contributors. Strictly confidential and proprietary cut(1) NAME cut − select portions of each line of a file SYNOPSIS cut -c list file . and writes them to the standard output.cut(1) Property of BladeLogic. Consequently the command: cut -d : -f 2is equivalent to: cut -d: -f2- EXIT CODES The cut utility exits 0 on success. -d. Output fields are separated by a single tab character unless you use -d to specify a different field delimiter.. It is not an error to select fields or columns not present in the input line. Column numbering starts from 1. which selects all fields or columns from 1 to the first number. -f list Indicates that the list specifies fields. -d string Specifies that the first character of the string should function as the field delimiter character instead of the tab character. inclusively. that character is used to separate output fields. OPTIONS The cut utility accepts the following options: -c list Identifies the list specifying character positions.. The cut utility includes software developed by the University of California. lines with no delimiters are passed through unmodified. delimited in the input by a single tab character. and a second number and select the fields or columns from the first number to the second.. which selects all fields or columns from the last number to the end of the line. If you do. Unless specified. DESCRIPTION The cut utility selects portions of each line (as specified by list) from each file (or the standard input by default). Suppresses lines with no field delimiter characters. Inc. SEE ALSO paste(1) NSH 1 . Number ranges consist of a number. and -f must not be separate arguments and can also be defined directly after the option. cut -f list [-d string] [-s] file . 1 if an error occurred. List is a comma or whitespace separated set of increasing numbers and/or number ranges. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. -s The arguments following the options -c.. The items specified by list can be in terms of column position or in terms of fields delimited by a special character.

.) There are two conversion maps for ASCII. oldascii The same as the unblock value except that characters are translated from ECBDIC to ASCII before the records are converted. existing blocks are read and the data discarded. The conversion record size is required by the record oriented conversion values. Otherwise. a lseek(2) operation is used. Read input from file instead of the standard input. cbs=n count=n Copy only n input blocks. superseding the ibs and obs operands. If an initial portion of the output file is skipped (see the seek operand) the output file is truncated at that point.. Set the conversion record size to n bytes. NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) NAME dd .3BSD-reno systems. If no conversion values other than noerror. Skip n blocks from the beginning of the input before copying. Input data is read and written in 512-byte blocks. space from the current end of file to the specified offset is filled with blocks of NUL bytes. Write output to file instead of the standard output.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. it is positioned using the tape ioctl(2) function calls.] Where value is one of the symbols from the following list. Set the input block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. input from multiple reads are aggregated to form the output block. Otherwise. The value oldascii specifies the one used in historic AT&T and pre-4.. If the user does not have read permission for the tape. (These values imply unblock if the operand cbs is also specified. Any regular output file is truncated unless the notrunc conversion value is specified. For pipes. The number of truncated input records.] DESCRIPTION The dd utility copies the standard input to the standard output. if any.. the correct number of bytes is read. ascii. Each input record is converted to a fixed length output record where the length is specified by the cbs operand. files=n ibs=n if=file obs=n of=file seek=n skip=n conv= value[. notrunc or sync are specified. the correct number of blocks is read without distinguishing between a partial or complete block being read.convert and copy a file SYNOPSIS dd [operands . input data is read and discarded. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks and truncated input records to the standard error output. Copy n input files before terminating. Set the output block size to n bytes instead of the default 512. This operand is only applicable when the input device is a tape. On input which supports seeks. Any trailing newline character is discarded. a lseek(2) operation is used. value . Seek n blocks from the beginning of the output before copying. Inc. Input records shorter than the conversion record size are padded with spaces. For all other devices. The value ascii specifies the recommended one which is compatible with System V. On non-tape devices. If the seek operation is past the end of file. When finished. If input reads are short. block Treats the input as a sequence of newline or end-offile terminated variable length records independent of input and output block boundaries. are reported to the standard error output at the completion of the copy. The following operands are available: bs=n Set both input and output block size. then each input block is copied to the output as a single block without any aggregation of short blocks. Input records longer than the conversion record size are truncated.

swab sync ucase unblock Treats the input as a sequence of fixed length records independent of input and output block boundaries. ibm. a diagnostic message followed by the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. This will preserve any blocks in the output file not explicitly written by dd The notrunc value is not supported for tapes. respectively. If dd receives a SIGINFO (see the ‘‘status’’ argument for stty(1)) signal. If dd receives a SIGINT signal. Partial output blocks to tape devices are considered fatal errors. If the sync conversion is also specified. The values oldebcdic and oldibm are maps used in historic AT&T and pre-4. This option is incompatible with use of the bs=n block size specification.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic. truncated input records and odd-length byte-swapping blocks to the standard error output. If the input file is not a multiple of the output block size after conversion. Pad every input block to the input buffer size. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message. notrunc Do not truncate the output file. otherwise NUL bytes are used. lcase noerror Transform uppercase characters into lowercase characters. Spaces are used for pad bytes if a block oriented conversion value is specified. dd displays the number of complete and partial input and output blocks. data resulting from input or conversion or both are aggregated into output blocks of the specified size. any remaining output is written as a block. Strictly confidential and proprietary dd(1) ebcdic. the last byte will be ignored during swapping. Inc. 1048576 (1M) or the number of bytes in an integer. If an input buffer has an odd number of bytes.) There are four conversion maps for EBCDIC. A partial input block is one where less than the input block size was read. A truncated input block is one where a variable length record oriented conversion value was specified and the input line was too long to fit in the conversion record or was not newline terminated. the rest of the block will be written. ‘‘m’’ or ‘‘w’’. Transform lowercase characters into uppercase characters. The value ibm is a slightly different mapping. Where sizes are specified. the input block is omitted from the output. (These values imply block if the operand cbs is also specified. A partial output block is one where less than the output block size was written. the number is multiplied by 512. which is compatible with the AT&T System V UNIX ibm value. On input files which are not tapes or pipes. 1024 (1K).3BSD-reno systems. a decimal number of bytes is expected. NSH 2 . If the sync conversion is not specified. When finished. If the number ends with a ‘‘b’’. Do not stop processing on an input error. oldebcdic. Normally. Otherwise. the current input and output block counts will be written to the standard error output in the same format as the standard completion message and dd will exit. When an input error occurs. this conversion forces the final output block to be the same size as preceding blocks for use on devices that require regularly sized blocks to be written. ‘‘k’’. osync Pad the final output block to the full output block size. Partial output blocks to character devices will produce a warning message. oldibm The same as the block value except that characters are translated from ASCII to EBCDIC after the records are converted. any missing input data will be replaced with NUL bytes (or with spaces if a block oriented conversion value was specified) and processed as a normal input buffer. Swap every pair of input bytes. After the end of input is reached. This means that the final output block may be shorter than the output block size. The length of the input records is specified by the cbs operand. The value ebcdic specifies the recommended one which is compatible with AT&T System V UNIX. Any trailing space characters are discarded and a newline character is appended. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ‘‘x’’ to indicate a product. the file offset will be positioned past the block in which the error occurred using lseek(2).

tr(1) STANDARDS The dd utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std1003. dd(1) ORIGIN Dd includes software developed by the University of California.dd(1) Property of BladeLogic.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. SEE ALSO cp(1). ebcdic. Strictly confidential and proprietary The dd utility exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. NSH 3 . Inc. oldascii. Berkeley and its contributors. oldebcdic and oldibm values are extensions to the POSIX standard. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. The files operand and the ascii. ibm.

. df again uses the current host. EXAMPLE The first example displays the disk usage of a remote host. Strictly confidential and proprietary df(1) NAME df − Execute remote df command SYNOPSIS df [df options] [target . which may be a directory or host name. this header line will be included for each named target. If one of the targets is a directory name only. ORIGIN df was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . Inc. OPTIONS df on its own does not support any options. //rome/tmp CAVEATS Remote df commands typically output a one line header as part of the disk usage report. The second example displays the disk usage of the current directory of the current host and also the disk usage of a remote directory. paris $ df -k //athens paris $ df . df will execute a remote df command on the appropriate host and then print the returned output. If you do not specify any targets.. Since a remote df command is executed for each named target. then df uses the current host (as directed by nsh) as the remote host. Any options it does find are passed to the remote df command.df(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION For each named target.

2003 1 .DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. unlike with −c. but in reverse order. −f −n −q −u Identical output to that of the −e flag. differ” if files contain binary characters. Just print a line when the files differ. Produces a unified diff with 3 lines of context. It cannot be digested by ed(1). Produces output in a form suitable as input for the editor utility. Normally diff will simply print “Binary files . Use of this option forces diff to produce a diff. Does not output a list of changes. . which can then be used to convert file1 into file2. BSD July 21. The lines removed from file1 are marked with ‘.’. ed(1). −e −C number Like −c but produces a diff with number lines of context. . with C preprocessor controls included so that a compilation of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling file1. Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with −e. With −c the output format is modified slightly: the output begins with identification of the files involved and their creation dates and then each change is separated by a line with fifteen ∗’s. Changes which lie within 3 lines of each other are grouped together on output. Output options (mutually exclusive): −c Produces a diff with 3 lines of context. while defining string will yield file2. This is the form used by rcsdiff(1). −D string Creates a merged version of file1 and file2 on the standard output. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) NAME diff − differential file and directory comparator SYNOPSIS diff diff diff diff diff [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −C number file1 file2 [ −abdilqtw] [ −I pattern] −D string file1 file2 [ −abdilpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −L label] −U number file1 file2 [ −abdilNPpqtTw] [ −I pattern] [ −c | −e | −f | −n | −u] [ −L label] [ −r] [ −s] [ −S name] [ −X file] [ −x pattern] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to the standard output the list of changes necessary to convert one file into the other. all lines to be changed (added and/or removed) are present in a single section. −U number Like −u but produces a diff with number lines of context. However. Produces a script similar to that of −e. Comparison options: −a Treat all files as ASCII text. A unified diff is similar to the context diff produced by the −c option. Lines which are changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with ‘! ’. so that the result is a sh(1) script for converting text files which are common to the two directories from their state in dir1 to their state in dir2. No output is produced if the files are identical. those added to file2 are marked ‘+ ’. but in the opposite order and with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command. Inc.

g. Normal or −c output adds character(s) to the front of each line which may screw up the indentation of the original source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret. an underscore or a dollar sign. 2003 2 . beginning with file name. This may consume a lot of processing power and memory when processing large files with many changes. act as if it was found in the other directory too but was of zero size. producing a change list. Patterns are matched using shell-style globbing via fnmatch(3). this will show the prototype of the function the change applies to. Inc. This option will preserve the original source’s indentation. Multiple −x options may be specified. other differences are remembered and summarized after all text file differences are reported. Multiple −X options may be specified. if this option is specified twice) file name and time in the context or unified diff header. Is similar to −b but causes whitespace (blanks and tabs) to be totally ignored.. and other strings of blanks to compare equal. Multiple −I patterns may be specified. Binary files which differ. Causes application of diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered. context or unified output formats.g. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expression patterns. For C source code following standard layout conventions. −I pattern Ignores changes. All lines in the change must match some pattern for the change to be ignored. and deletions whose lines match the extended regular expression pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) −b −d Causes trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) to be ignored. −L label Print label instead of the first (and second. If a file is found only in dir2. on text files which are different. Causes diff to report files which are the same. act as if it was found in dir1 too but was of zero size. and then runs the regular file diff algorithm. diff sorts the contents of the directories by name. E. E. insertions. This makes the alignment of tabs in the line consistent. −i −l Ignores the case of letters. If a file is found in only one directory. −t −T −w Directory comparison options: −N −P −r −s −S name Re-starts a directory diff in the middle. Try very hard to produce a diff as small as possible. If a non-regular file such as a device special file or BSD July 21. Long output format. If both arguments are directories.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. which are otherwise not mentioned.. each text file diff´d is piped through pr(1) to paginate it. −p With unified and context diffs. In directory mode only regular files and directories are compared. Will expand tabs in output lines. common subdirectories. −x pattern Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match pattern. and files which appear in only one directory are described as such. Print a tab rather than a space before the rest of the line for the normal. “A” will compare equal to “a”. “if ( a == b )” will compare equal to “if(a==b)”. show with each change the first 40 characters of the last line before the context beginning with a letter. −X file Exclude files and subdirectories from comparison whose basenames match lines in file.

As in ed(1).XXXXXXXX Temporary file used when comparing a device or the standard input. ed(1). append the contents of line YY of file2 to make them equal. Thus. those after pertain to file2. SEE ALSO cmp(1). XXcYY Change the line XX in file1 to the line YY in file2. XX. BUGS When comparing directories with the −b. XXaYY These lines resemble ed(1) subcommands to convert file1 into file2. Note that the temporary file is unlinked as soon as it is created so it will not show up in a directory listing.ZZ Same as above. diff is applied to the non-directory file and the file contained in the directory file with a filename that is the same as the last component of the non-directory file. XX. The line numbers before the action letters pertain to file1.YYcZZ Replace the range of specified lines with the line ZZ. YY.QQ Replace the range XX. −c. by exchanging a for d and reading the line in reverse order. If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory. diff3(1). diff will use the directory specified by TMPDIR as the temporary directory. QQ are line numbers respective of file order. the standard input is used in its place. ZZ. and then decides to run the diff algorithm if they are not equal. 2003 3 .QQ from file2.YY from file1 with the range ZZ.YYcZZ. HISTORY A diff command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. If either file1 or file2 is ‘ − ’. identical pairs (where num1 = num2) are abbreviated as a single number. fnmatch(3). re_format(7) STANDARDS The diff utility is expected to be a superset of the 1003. YY through ZZ of file2 to line XX of file1. Differences were found. Output Style The default (without −e. comm(1). Inc. At (the end of) line XX of file1. where XX. diff first compares the files ala cmp(1). XXaYY. An error occurred. or −n options) output contains lines of these forms. ENVIRONMENT TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR exists. This may cause a small amount of BSD July 21.1-2001 specification. XX. but append the range of lines. Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) FIFO is encountered. −w or −i options specified.YYdZZ Delete the range of lines XX through YY in file1. FILES /tmp/diff. one can also determine how to convert file2 into file1. XXdYY At line XX delete the line. The value YY tells to which line the change would bring file1 in line with file1. pr(1). DIAGNOSTICS The diff utility exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 No differences were found.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. a diagnostic message is printed.

BSD July 21. 2003 4 . Strictly confidential and proprietary DIFF (1) spurious output if the files then turn out to be identical because the only differences are insignificant whitespace or case differences. Inc.DIFF (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

because the security models for file permissions may differ. Note that you need root permissions to change file ownerships. This option however does a further check on the file’s permissions and makes sure that the target file has the same permissions as the source file. by default. then cp will prompt the user to see if the user wants cp to overwrite the file. however when running dsync. because the security models for file ownerships may differ. Be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. -f. Synchronize file permissions for files that do not need to be updated. cp appends the target file name with the suffix "˜". By default. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) NAME dsync − Synchronize two directories SYNOPSIS dsync [-bdifmnopPrtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] [-IX wildcarded path] dir1 dir2 DESCRIPTION The dsync command is a link to the cp command. and -u. it leaves it alone. By default. Also. and access times. By default. be careful about using this option when you are copying between UNIX and Windows type systems. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. turned on the following options: -r. while preserving the file ownerships. -b -i Backup the target file.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. The following options are the common options between cp and dsync with dsync having. -p. permissions. If the target directory dir2 does not exist. -o Synchronize file ownerships for files that do not need to be updated. -d Use this option with care. -m NSH 1 . The ownership comparisons are based on the respective numeric UID and GID and not the respective user/group name that a particular UID/GID may be mapped to on a particular system. You can use the -s suf option to specify a different suffix. changing the target file’s permissions if necessary. because it deletes any files/directories in the target (dir2) directory that are not in the source (dir1) directory. This lets you make sure that there are no extra files in the target directory and is conceptually equivalent to first removing the target directory and then recreating it from the source directory. All options are described here. Inc. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. if dsync finds a file that does not need to be updated. $ dsync dir1 dir2 is equivalent to: $ cp -fpru dir1 dir2 This does a copy of all files and directories in the directory dir1 to directory dir2 only if the file size or date of last modification are different. If a target file already exists. The default behavior of dsync is equivalent to making a conditional copy with the cp command. OPTIONS The dsync command has the same options as the cp command with the addition of the -d option. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. When you run cp as dsync. This option however does a further check on the file’s ownership (UID and GID) and (if necessary) updates the destination file’s user/group ownerships to match the source file’s user/group ownerships. if it exists. (The -P option is not turned on by default. before copying over the new source file. then cp overwrites the file. it leaves it alone. it has same behavior as if -P had been turned on). it attempts to synchronize the contents of two directories. then it will be created.

write. follow symbolic links. These options cause the target file to be overwritten only if either the file sizes differ or if the source file has a newer modification date than the target file. The -u option is equivalent to using the -T and -S options. With the -P option. Like -b except that if the backup version of the file already exists then the backup will not be overwritten. This option will ensure proper handling of the <CR><LF> issues. If you use this option with the -p option. There are three options you can use to perform conditional copies. Output a message for each file being copied. This option is useful when (recursively) copying the content of one directory to another existing directory. The default action would be to re-create the source directory in the destination directory. Set the suffix for backup files to suf. -L -P When recursing through directories. then the -R option is treated as a -r option. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if the modification date of the source file is newer than the modification date of the target file.c becomes foo. if one of the files to be copied is a directory. -R -S -T -X (wildcarded path) This option excludes the specified files/directories from the sync operation. it will retain its current file permissions after cp overwrites it. cp will perform a byte for byte analysis of the source and target file to determine if a difference exists. then cp recursively copies all files and sub-directories from the directory into the target directory.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option turns off the -i option. cp will attempt to give the target file the same ownerships (UID/GID). Useful for monitoring progress in a recursive copy. This also applies to new directories being created. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f dsync(1) By default. -n -p -r -s suf -t -u -v -B -C -I (wildcarded path) This option includes the specified files/directories in the sync operation. Inc. This option can be very resource intensive. Conditional copy. This option is useful when copying text files to or from a Windows based system. If the file sizes are the same. This option tells cp to overwrite target files only if source and target file sizes differ. The default suffix for files being backed up is "˜" (foo. -S and -C. This option is the same as the -r option. See the -u option. so that the target file inherits the same file permissions as the source file. then cp will create the directory as required. This is the no parent option. NSH 2 .c˜) Make a textual copy of the file. if the target file already exists. then cp will create the new target directory within the (existing) target directory. With this option. This option automatically turns on the verbose option -v and just lists the copies that cp would make if you had not turned on the -n option. See the -u option. permissions. They are -T. and execute. and access and modification times as the source file. cp will overwrite the target file only if its content differs from the source file. the content of the source directory is re-created in the target directory essentially overlaying the source directory on to the destination instead of creating the subdirectory. This option is useful when you are performing a conditional copy and you just want to see what files would be copied if you were doing a real copy. If the target directory does not already exist. This option implies the -S option. Conditional copy. except that newly created directories automatically get the user permissions read. Conditional copy. This option deletes the target file before the copy begins. With this option. cp does not create or remove any files or directories. especially on a large file. If the target directory does already exist. Don’t actually make any changes.

along with the possible reason as to why it could not create the file filename. it may need to create new directories in the target directory tree. dsync: Error writing to file filename If an error occurs while copying a file into the new target file. it will output this message. Inc. dsync: Target file (filename) must be a directory When copying multiple files to a directory. If dsync is not able to create one of these directories. but it gives verbose output and it deletes any files and directories on the webserver which do not exist in the local www directory. the -f option will override the -i option. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. the -i option will override the -f option. EXAMPLE The first example synchronizes the content of the www directory with the www directory on the machine webserver. Unable to get a license to use the software. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you specify both the -i and -f options. NSH 3 . dsync outputs this message. dsync: Unable to create file filename If dsync cannot create the new target file. dsync: Unable to access file filename dsync: Unable to read file filename If dsync is unable to access the source file filename. it traverses the source directory hierarchy. $ dsync www //webserver/www $ dsync -vd www //webserver/www DIAGNOSTICS dsync: Target directory (dirname) not found When copying multiple files to a directory. With the P_ATT variable set. along with the possible reason as to why it was not able to access the file. indicating that it cannot copy directories. it outputs this message. this message will appear if the target directory (last argument) is not a directory. Unknown option or missing file argument. dsync: file filename is a directory (not copied) If one of the files to be copied is a directory and you did not specify the recursive option (-r). dsync: Unable to create directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. The second example does the same as the first. dsync: Unable to access directory dirname When dsync is recursively copying a directory. ORIGIN dsync was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? dsync(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without copying any files.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. indicating that the copy may not be complete. dsync was unable to copy all files requested. it will output this message. this message will appear if dsync is unable to access the target directory (last argument). then dsync outputs this message. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). If dsync has a problem accessing a directory. it outputs this message.

NSH 4 . Inc.dsync(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary dsync(1) SEE ALSO cp(1).

du ignores this option if you also specify the -s option. (By default. while traversing a directory. du displays disk usage information for the current directory. OPTIONS -a -d -f -k -o Output a disk usage statement for each file encountered in the directory hierarchy. du counts linked files only once. Instead of outputting a disk usage statement for each directory encountered. findings are already reported in KB. then do not include the contents of that directory in the disk usage summary. This option tells du not to count the disk usage of sub-directories when calculating the disk usage of a directory. du ignores all files with more than one link. NSH 1 . du searches directories recursively. Strictly confidential and proprietary du(1) NAME du − Display disk usage information for files SYNOPSIS du -[adfkosrux?] [filename . du outputs a disk usage statement for directories only.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Same as -d. du ignores this option if you also specify the -a option.. The second example will give the total amount of disk usage of the root partition on host vilnius in KB. This gives you a grand total of disk usage for the named directories. When the P_BSD variable is set. du counts files with multiple links only once. With this option.) If. See the UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR section for information on how du handles this option. -S -s -r -u -x -? EXAMPLE The first example will output the amount of disk usage of the directory src giving sub-totals of all its subdirectories. and outputs a sub-total for all sub-directories.] DESCRIPTION du calculates the number of blocks that the file system has allocated for all named files and directories. Report the directories that du cannot search. EXIT CODES 0 No errors detected. This option has meaning only when the P_ATT variable is set. du: Unable to access file filename Unable to determine the status (size) of file filename. If you do not specify any files or directories. Report disk usage totals in KB instead of blocks. This effectively causes du to count only the disk usage of files in the directory. output only a summary for all directories searched. Display a grand total at the end of all computations. By default. Same as -d. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing disk usage summarizing. $ du src $ du -fsk //vilnius/ DIAGNOSTICS du: Unable to access directory dirname Unable to descend into the directory dirname to determine its size. du comes across a directory that is not in the same partition as the source directory..

Inc. du does not report errors. du assumes that a block is 1K large. the universe flag determines the size of a block. With the P_ATT variable set. Unable to get a license to use the software. unless you specify the -r option. With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). du was unable to access to access a directory or determine the size of a file. Furthermore. ORIGIN du was written by Thomas Kraus. With the P_ATT variable set. NSH 2 . du assumes that a block is 512 bytes large. du automatically reports any errors encountered while trying to access a directory.du(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary 1 2 255 You specified an unknown option. du(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).

backslash (OCT 0134. DEC 92. $ echo "Hello world\c" $ echo //stockholm/etc/p* EXAMPLE EXIT CODES 0 1 255 No errors detected. The main advantage of using echo over the built in echo command in the sh(1) is that it understands file wildcarding on remote hosts. ORIGIN echo was written by Thomas Kraus.echo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Form feed (OCT 014. $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/p* $ echo //stockholm/etc/pa* //stockholm/etc/password //stockholm/etc/password. Do not output a new-line at the end. DEC 11. Strictly confidential and proprietary echo(1) NAME echo − Echo arguments SYNOPSIS echo [-?] [-n] [arg . DEC 9. Unable to get a license to use the software. tab (OCT 011. NSH 1 . DEC 12. new line (OCT 012. DEC 10. Notice the different outputs when accessing remote files. If echo finds a backslash ’\’ in an argument. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without echoing any arguments. vertical tab (OCT 013. HEX B). HEX D)..] DESCRIPTION echo outputs each of its arguments separated by a space and then outputs a new-line character. carriage return (OCT 015. You specified an unknown option. DEC 13. HEX 5C). File wildcards interpreted by sh(1) are for local files only. HEX C). HEX 8).. Argument to be echoed. HEX A). then it looks at the next character and interprets it as follows: b c f n r t v \ Backspace (OCT 010. DEC 8. HEX 9).old OPTIONS -n -? arg Output a line without a new-line character.

Inc. If a single tabstop argument is given. Backspace characters are preserved into the output and decrement the column count for tab calculations. If the -a option is given. unexpand [-a] file .. only leading blanks and tabs are reconverted to maximal strings of tabs. and vice versa SYNOPSIS expand [-tabstop] [-tab1. Option (with unexpand only): -a By default. If multiple tabstops are given then the tabs are set at those specific columns.. Unexpand puts tabs back into the data from the standard input or the named files and writes the result on the standard output.expand tabs to spaces. ORIGIN Expand and unexpand includes software developed by the University of California. etc. DESCRIPTION Expand processes the named files or the standard input writing the standard output with tabs changed into blanks.expand(1) Property of BladeLogic... Berkeley and its contributors.) that contain tabs. looking at specific columns.tab2. then tabs are inserted whenever they would compress the resultant file by replacing two or more characters.. NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary expand(1) NAME expand.tabn] file . then tabs are set tabstop spaces apart instead of the default 8... Expand is useful for pre-processing character files (before sorting. unexpand .. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

If this option is not provided. If the field number is 0. If you specify a positive field number. the entire data row is extracted.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you specify a negative field number. A field separator distinguishes the fields in each row. the space character (’ ’) is used as the default separator. such as -2. the fifth field from the start of the data row is extracted. the second field from the end of the data row is extracted. such as 5. EXAMPLES Consider the following input file. Inc. % cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/bash daemon:x:2:2:Daemon:/sbin:/bin/bash lp:x:4:7:Printing daemon:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/bash mail:x:8:12:Mailer daemon:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/bin/false games:x:12:100:Games account:/var/games:/bin/bash wwwrun:x:30:8:WWW daemon apache:/var/lib/wwwrun:/bin/false ftp:x:40:49:FTP account:/srv/ftp:/bin/bash nobody:x:65534:65533:nobody:/var/lib/nobody:/bin/bash ldap:x:76:70:User for OpenLDAP:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/bash sshd:x:71:65:SSH daemon:/var/lib/sshd:/bin/false ntp:x:74:65534:NTP daemon:/var/lib/ntp:/bin/false postfix:x:51:51:Postfix Daemon:/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false at:x:25:25:Batch jobs daemon:/var/spool/atjobs:/bin/bash blade:x:1000:100::/home/blade:/bin/bash smbguest:x:4000:4000::/dev/null:/bin/false man:x:13:62:Manual pages viewer:/var/cache/man:/bin/bash news:x:9:13:News system:/etc/news:/bin/bash uucp:x:10:14:Unix-to-Unix CoPy system:/etc/uucp:/bin/bash +:::::: % fields -d : 1 5 6 -1 < /etc/passwd root root /root /bin/bash bin bin /bin /bin/bash daemon Daemon /sbin /bin/bash lp Printing daemon /var/spool/lpd /bin/bash mail Mailer daemon /var/spool/clientmqueue /bin/false games Games account /var/games /bin/bash wwwrun WWW daemon apache /var/lib/wwwrun /bin/false ftp FTP account /srv/ftp /bin/bash nobody nobody /var/lib/nobody /bin/bash ldap User for OpenLDAP /var/lib/ldap /bin/bash sshd SSH daemon /var/lib/sshd /bin/false ntp NTP daemon /var/lib/ntp /bin/false postfix Postfix Daemon /var/spool/postfix /bin/false NSH 1 . Strictly confidential and proprietary fields(1) NAME fields − extracts specified fields from a data row SYNOPSIS fields [-d c | -D c] <field#> DESCRIPTION The fields command extracts specified fields from a data row. OPTIONS -d or -D Specifies the separator character used to distinguish the individual fields. It contains fields separated by the ’:’ character.

Strictly confidential and proprietary at Batch jobs daemon /var/spool/atjobs /bin/bash blade /home/blade /bin/bash /bin/bash smbguest /dev/null /bin/false /bin/false man Manual pages viewer /var/cache/man /bin/bash news News system /etc/news /bin/bash uucp Unix-to-Unix CoPy system /etc/uucp /bin/bash + + fields(1) ORIGIN fields was developed by BladeLogic.fields(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 2 . Inc. Inc.

The options are as follows: −b −C −c Do not prepend filenames to output lines (brief mode). For each magic number file. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. The filesystem tests are based on examining the return from a stat(2) system call. The language tests look for particular strings (cf names. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) NAME file − determine file type SYNOPSIS file [ −bckLNnrsvz] [ −F separator] [ −f namefile] [ −m magicfiles] file .h〉 and possibly 〈exec. The concept of magic number has been applied by extension to data files. tar archives) that are known to contain binary data. and which of several types thereof. Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file.out(5).h〉 in the standard include directory and is explained in a. People depend on knowing that all the readable files in a directory have the word “text” printed. .br indicates that the file is most likely a troff(1) input file. so they are performed last. performed in this order: filesystem tests. “executable” (the file contains the result of compiling a program in a form understandable to some UNIX kernel or another). just as the keyword struct indicates a C program. The magic number tests are used to check for files with data in particular fixed formats. file attempts to guess its language. The type printed will usually contain one of the words “text” (the file contains only ASCII characters and is probably safe to read on an ASCII terminal). BSD December 4. whose format is defined in 〈a. or named pipes (FIFOs) on those systems that implement them) are intuited if they are defined in the system header file 〈sys/stat. or “data” meaning anything else (data is usually binary or non-printable). change “shell commands text” to “shell script”.out file.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or if it’s some sort of special file. There are three sets of tests. write a magic. This is usually used in conjunction with −m to debug a new magic file before installing it. These tests are less reliable than the previous two groups. . These files have a “magic number” stored in a particular place near the beginning of the file that tells the UNIX operating system that the file is a binary executable. For example. When modifying the file /etc/magic or the program itself. preserve these keywords. the keyword . If an argument appears to be an ASCII file. file [ −m magicfiles] −C DESCRIPTION The file utility tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. Exceptions are well-known file formats (core files. The language test routines also test for some miscellany (such as tar(1) archives) and determine whether an unknown file should be labelled as “ASCII text” or “data”. Any known file types appropriate to the system you are running on (sockets.out. magic number tests. 2004 1 .h) that can appear anywhere in the first few blocks of a file. symbolic links.mgc output file that contains a preparsed (compiled) version of it. The program checks to see if the file is empty. The information in these files is read from the magic file /etc/magic. The canonical example of this is a binary executable (compiled program) a. Any file with some invariant identifier at a small fixed offset into the file can usually be described in this way. Don’t do as Berkeley did. Inc.h〉. and language tests.

If a compiled magic file is found alongside. This version knows more magic. −m magiclist Specify an alternate list. magic(5) STANDARDS CONFORMANCE This program is believed to exceed the System V Interface Definition of FILE(CMD). Try to look inside files that have been run through compress(1). −f namefile Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Normally. use ‘-’ as a filename argument. separated by colon characters. This can be a single file or a colon-separated list of files.mgc” to the value of this variable as appropriate. keep going. −k −L Don’t stop at the first match. Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. This prevents problems. ls(1). 2004 2 . Cause symlinks to be followed. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions. −N −n −r −s Don’t pad filenames so that they align in the output. −v −z ENVIRONMENT MAGIC Default magic number files. as the like-named option in ls(1) (on systems that support symbolic links). as near as one can determine from the vague language contained therein. a. file adds “. The one significant difference between this version and System V is that this version treats any white space as a delimiter. od(1). Print the version of the program and exit. Specifying the −s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. however. hexdump(1). strings(1). Normally file translates unprintable characters to their octal representation (raw mode). BSD December 4. so that spaces in pattern strings must be escaped. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions. FILES /etc/magic default list of magic numbers SEE ALSO compress(1). magiclist. Inc. Don’t translate unprintable characters to ‘\ooo’. Defaults to ‘:’. of files containing magic numbers. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2). This is only useful if checking a list of files. file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. For example. to test the standard input.out(5). because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. which are block special files. it will be used instead. Its behaviour is mostly compatible with the System V program of the same name. so it will produce different (albeit more accurate) output in many cases. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) −F separator Use the specified string as the separator between the filename and the file result returned.

for example. Inc.com〉. My version differs from Sun’s only in minor ways. thank you. Darwin 〈ian@darwinisys. it must be escaped.com〉. 2004 3 . but with some extensions.2 and later from Sun Microsystems include a file command derived from the System V one. Canada. John Gilmore revised the code extensively. was written by Ian F.c were written by John Gilmore from his public-domain tar program.ac. If your old file command uses a magic file. It includes the extension of the ‘&’ operator. keep the old magic file around for comparison purposes (rename it to /etc/magic.uk〉. The files tar. LEGAL NOTICE Copyright (c) Ian F. based on the System V version. 2000. if a pattern string contains a backslash. This slowed the program down slightly but made it a lot more flexible. and are not covered by the above license. 1989. mainly USENET.com〉. >16 long&0x7fffffff >0 not stripped MAGIC DIRECTORY The magic file entries have been collected from various sources. Primary development and maintenence from 1990 to the present by Christos Zoulas 〈christos@zoulas. Toronto. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) >10 >10 0 0 string language impress string language\ impress string string \begindata (imPRESS data) (imPRESS data) in an existing magic file would have to be changed to In addition. Geoff Collyer found several inadequacies and provided some magic file entries. The list of contributors to the “magdir” directory (source for the /etc/magic file) is too long to include here. For example Andrew Toolkit document in an existing magic file would have to be changed to \begindata Andrew Toolkit document SunOS releases 3. to identify character codes and attempt to identify the languages of non-ASCII files. This program. 1973).NOTICE in the distribution. Altered by Eric Fischer 〈enf@pobox. used as. 1986-1999. Christos Zoulas (address below) will collect additional or corrected magic file entries.com〉 without looking at anybody else’s source code.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2000: Handle the −i option to output mime type strings and using an alternative magic file and internal logic. A consolidation of magic file entries will be distributed periodically. July. The System V version introduced one significant major change: the external list of magic number types. the order that they are put together may be incorrect. see the file LEGAL. making it better than the first version. You know who you are. Altered by Chris Lowth 〈chris@lowth.orig). The order of entries in the magic file is significant. HISTORY There has been a file command in every UNIX since at least Research Version 4 (man page dated November. Guy Harris 〈guy@auspex. in this version. Depending on what system you are using. Contributions to the ‘&’ operator by Rob McMahon 〈cudcv@warwick. and contributed by various authors.com〉 made many changes from 1993 to the present.h and is_tar. Darwin. BSD December 4. Covered by the standard Berkeley Software Distribution copyright.

It should be able to figure FORTRAN by seeing some keywords which appear indented at the start of line. the magic file should be compiled into binary (say. This program is slower than some vendors’ file commands. AVAILABILITY You can obtain the original author’s latest version by anonymous FTP on ftp.. The list of keywords in ascmagic probably belongs in the Magic file. “Newsgroups:” versus "Return-Path:"). Complain about conflicts in the magic file entries. Regular expression support would make this easy. Strictly confidential and proprietary FILE (1) BUGS There must be a better way to automate the construction of the Magic file from all the glop in Magdir.g. The magic file and keywords should have regular expression support. Another optimization would be to sort the magic file so that we can just run down all the tests for the first byte. BSD December 4. What is it? Better yet. Still. There should be an “else” clause to follow a series of continuation lines. once we have fetched it. ndbm(3) or. “From ” as first 5 chars of file) because they are not as good as other guesses (e. Regular expression support would make this easy. etc. Make a rule that the magic entries sort based on file offset rather than position within the magic file? The program should provide a way to give an estimate of “how good” a guess is.g.YY. The support for ASCII files (primarily for programming languages) is simplistic. is too long. 2004 4 . first long. It might be advisable to allow upper-case letters in keywords for e.com in the directory /pub/file/file-X.g. Their use of ASCII TAB as a field delimiter is ugly and makes it hard to edit the files. first word. but is entrenched. and particularly this section. inefficient and requires recompilation to update. This could be done by using some keyword like ‘∗’ for the offset value. We end up removing guesses (e. This manual page. troff(1) commands vs man page macros.tar.astron. file uses several algorithms that favor speed over accuracy. it should be possible to use the first guess. thus it can be misled about the contents of ASCII files..gz. Inc. Then the program would run as fast as the Version 7 program of the same name. fixed-length ASCII strings for use in heterogenous network environments) for faster startup. if the others don’t pan out. The program doesn’t grok FORTRAN.FILE (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.. with the flexibility of the System V version. better yet.

−h −L −X −x PRIMARIES -amin n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. Alternatively. the file information and type will be for the link itself. An alias for the −L option. and the file is skipped. -print is assumed. is n minutes. is n minutes. BSD December 4. rounded up to the next full minute. This option exists for backwards compatibility. backslash ( ‘\’ ) . −f path Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse. not the link itself. File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immediately following the options. By default. before their contents. 1999 1 . the −print0 primary may be used in conjunction with the −0 option to xargs(1). is n 24-hour periods. not the link itself.. find visits directories in pre-order i.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. allowing all file names to be processed safely.e. tab. the file information and type will be for the link itself. The delimiting characters include single ( ‘’’ ) and double ( ‘"’ ) quotes. The options are as follows: −d Causes find to visit directories in post-order i. Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device number different than that of the file from which the descent began. a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error. -anewer file True if the current file has a more recent last access time than file. all entries in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself. -cmin n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -atime n True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started. evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands” listed below) in terms of each file in the tree. −H Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link. In the absence of an expression. [expression] DESCRIPTION find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed. and newline ( ‘\n’ ) characters.. Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1). Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link. rounded up to the next full minute. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs. If the referenced file does not exist. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. If the referenced file does not exist. space. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) NAME find − walk a file hierarchy SYNOPSIS find [ −dHhLWXx] [ −f path] path .e. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

-exec utility [argument . group. . True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status. owner. size in 512-byte blocks. . The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ( ‘. -iname pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. -follow Follow symbolic links. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. -inum n True if the file has inode number n.]. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. -execdir utility [argument . the major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. Inc. Case insensitive. file permissions. -mindepth n True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in n. is n 24-hour periods. These do not describe actual file system types. utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. -ctime n True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information and the time find was started. -group gname True if the file belongs to the group gname. If the file is a symbolic link. 1999 2 . The format is identical to that produced by “ls −dgils”. the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “−>”. -fstype type True if the file is contained in a file system of type type. . Two special file system types are recognized: “local” and “rdonly”. . -ls This primary always evaluates to true.’ ) . -empty True if the current file or directory is empty. If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD December 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -cnewer file True if the current file has a more recent last change time than file. If the file is a block or character special file. -mmin n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. is n minutes. the former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. and pathname. -maxdepth n True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is specified in n. size in bytes. If gname is numeric and there is no such group name. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file. The filename substituted for the string "{}" is not qualified.]. then gname is treated as a group ID. -links n True if the file has n links. last modification time. rounded up to the next full minute. number of hard links.

-ok utility [argument . -ok. Note. Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a response. the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash. the given expression shall be effectively replaced by (given expression) -print. If n is followed by a ‘c’. this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file’s mode bits. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. It causes find to not descend into the current file. Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. -perm [ − ] mode The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number. If the mode is not preceded by a dash. -nogroup True if the file belongs to an unknown group. -path pattern True if the pathname being examined matches pattern. this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file’s mode bits. Slashes ( ‘/’ ) are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched explicitly.]. If the response is other than ‘y’ the command is not executed and the value of the ok expression is false. These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . -name pattern True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. ‘]’. BSD December 4. in 512-byte blocks is n. 1999 3 . . These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash ( ‘\’ ) . Special shell pattern matching characters (‘[’. and ‘?’) may be used as part of pattern. rounded up. then the primary is true if the file’s size is n bytes. the -prune primary has no effect if the −d option was specified. followed by a newline ( ‘\n’ ) character. Inc. -ls. nor -print0 is specified. ‘∗’. -size n[c] True if the file’s size. If the mode is octal. If the mode is preceded by a dash ( ‘−’ ) . Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -mtime n True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started. It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. ‘]’. only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the file’s mode bits participate in the comparison.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If the mode is symbolic. Note. . -nouser True if the file belongs to an unknown user. -newer file True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file. -print0 This primary always evaluates to true. a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process’s file mode creation mask. rounded up to the next full 24-hour period. ‘∗’. is n 24-hour periods. If neither -exec. -prune This primary always evaluates to true. followed by a null character. -print This primary always evaluates to true.

expression -and expression expression expression The -and operator is the logical AND operator. and neither means “exactly n”. a preceding minus sign means “less than n”.c”: $ find / \! -name ’∗. The operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence. EXAMPLES Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in “. !expression This is the unary NOT operator. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) -type t True if the file is of the specified type. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. Possible file types are as follows: b c d f l p s block special character special directory regular file symbolic link FIFO socket -user uname True if the file belongs to the user uname.c’ -print Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are newer than the file “ttt”: $ find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than “ttt” and owned by “wnj”: $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj” or that are newer than “ttt”: BSD December 4. All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign ( ‘+’ ) or a minus sign ( ‘−’ ) . then uname is treated as a user ID. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. expression -or expression The -or operator is the logical OR operator. 1999 4 . It evaluates to true if the expression is false. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. A preceding plus sign means “more than n”. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. Inc. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find. OPERATORS The primaries may be combined using the following operators. (expression) This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true. The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true.

This is not the case. -follow. which(1). -execdir. ‘?’. and −x options were implemented using the primaries -depth.’ may have to be escaped from the shell. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began.2 (“POSIX. -fstype. some legal expressions could have unexpected results. -mindepth. These primaries always evaluated to true. ‘[’. getpwent(3). The operator -or was implemented as −o. locate(1). As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression. it is difficult to specify files named “-xdev” or “!”. and -print0 are extensions to IEEE Std 1003. -links. In particular. the characters ‘∗’. These problems are handled by the −f option and the getopt(3) “−−” construct. BSD December 4. and -xdev. strmode(3). This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears.FIND (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Historically. The -iname option was inspired by GNU find. ‘\’. ‘)’. 1999 5 . Inc. -follow. -iname. The options and primaries -amin.2 (“POSIX. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs.[0-9] SEE ALSO chflags(1). symlink(7) STANDARDS The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003. ‘]’. xargs(1). stat(2). but skip directory /usr/src/gnu: $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -or -name \∗\. getgrent(3). and the operator -and was implemented as −a. −H. -maxdepth. An example is the expression “−print −o −depth”. the −d. -cmin. Strictly confidential and proprietary FIND (1) $ find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print Print out a list of all core files on local file systems: $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -or -name ’∗. ‘!’. -ls. whereis(1). chmod(1). and ‘. Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace characters. HISTORY A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX. ‘(’. -mmin.2”) standard. fts(3). -inum. As −print always evaluates to true. the standard order of evaluation implies that −depth would never be evaluated.core’ -print Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit. -empty.2”).

DESCRIPTION Fold is a filter which folds the contents of the specified files.fold long lines for finite width output device SYNOPSIS fold [-w width] file . expand(1) BUGS If underlining is present it may be messed up by folding.8 Last change: NSH 1 . SunOS 5.. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -w SEE ALSO Specifies a line width to use instead of the default 80 characters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. or the standard input if no files are specified.. Width should be a multiple of 8 if tabs are present. Strictly confidential and proprietary fold ( 1 ) NAME fold . Inc. Berkeley and its contributors. breaking the lines to have maximum of 80 characters. or the tabs should be expanded using expand(1) before using fold. ORIGIN Fold includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

-a Print fqdn of the current hostname resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <dns> . <local> .domaincomponent1. <nis> ... <nis> NSH 1 . and NIS.. OPTIONS -u Print usage.domaincomponent2. only the first hostname from the left in the given hostname list is considered.. <nis> ....conf like file..conf like file. This command typically determines the host’s corresponding fqdn by querying the name resolution database entries specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.Property of BladeLogic... in that particular sequence.. -a <hostname> Print fqdn of <hostname> resolved using all the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch.domaincomponent2.com <nis> .. <dns> . If multiple hostnames are specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) NAME fqdn − print fully qualified domain name of the current or specified host SYNOPSIS fqdn [ [ -u ] | [ -a ] [ <hostname> ] ] DESCRIPTION fqdn prints out the fully qualified domain name (fqdn) of the current or specified host.conf like file. No Argument Print the first fqdn resolved name of the current hostname resolved by any one of the name resolution database specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch. <local> <dns> ...conf like file on the operating system.domaincomponent1.. Example 2 [host3] $ fqdn -a host2 <local> .. in that particular sequence. EXAMPLES Example 1 [host1] $ fqdn host1 host1. DNS. <dns> host2. Inc.com The following example shows host2 being resolved from host3’s local name resolution database (/etc/hosts)..conf like file. Empty sections signify either absence of the hostname in the name resolution database or unavailability of the database. <local> . <hostname> Print the first fqdn resolved name of <hostname> resolved using any one of the name resolution databases specified along the hosts stanza of the nsswitch..

Inc.domaincomponent1..com host4...com loghost <dns> .domaincomponent2.domaincomponent1.... Strictly confidential and proprietary fqdn(1) fqdn(1) Example 3 [host4] $ fqdn -a <local> . NSH 2 . <dns> . <dns> host4.com ORIGIN fqdn was written by Jaswinder Bhamra.domaincomponent3. <dns> . <local> .. <local> ...domaincomponent2..Property of BladeLogic.. SEE ALSO hostname(1)..domaincomponent2. <local> host4 host4.

it assumes that a ZIP archive (or a gzip’d(1) file) is being piped into standard input. the terminal may sometimes be reset to a non-echo mode. if any) by prefixing the password with a dash. unzipsfx(1L).]  funzip [–password]  [.z i p. . . i nf o. DESCRIPTION funzip acts as a filter. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. unzip(1L). The functionality of funzip should be incorporated into unzip itself (future release). This is apparently due to a race condition between the two programs. . Note that this constitutes a security risk on many systems.zip > /dev/null To use zip and funzip in place of compress(1) and zcat(1) (or gzip(1L) and gzcat(1L)) for tape backups: tar cf – . then the input comes from the specified file instead of from stdin. and more then ‘‘restores’’ the terminal to this mode before exiting. and command-line histories can be read. Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) NAME funzip – filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe SYNOPSIS [. run funzip on the same file but redirect to /dev/null rather than piping into more. and it extracts the first member from the archive to stdout. .g. for example.zip (any errors will be reported on standard error): funzip test. If the first entry of the zip file is encrypted and no password is specified on the command line.zip  [. currently running processes are often visible via simple commands (e. There is presently no way to extract any member but the first from a ZIP archive. | zip –7 | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=8k dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=8k | funzip | tar xf – (where. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. zipnote(1L).zip and to pipe it into more(1): funzip test. or Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3. zipcloak(1L). zip(1L). funzip simply creates the directory and exits. . . See DESCRIPTION for more details. To recover. ps(1) under Unix). funzip changes the terminal mode to non-echo before more reads its state.] funzip [–password] input. zipinfo(1L). In the case where the first member is a directory. i n f o . The following section includes an example illustrating this usage in the case of disk backups to tape. nrst0 is a SCSI tape drive).] ARGUMENTS [–password] Optional password to be used if ZIP archive is encrypted. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ . BUGS When piping an encrypted file into more and allowing funzip to prompt for password. after prompting again for the password. This would be useful in the case where a ZIP archive is included within another archive. If there is an argument.Misc. SEE ALSO gzip(1L).zip | more To use funzip to test the first member file of test. . Decryption may not be supported at some sites..] funzip [–password] input.z i p . that is.93) 1 . . then the user is prompted for a password and the password is not echoed on the console. Given the limitation on single-member extraction. EXAMPLES To use funzip to extract the first member file of the archive test. funzip is most useful in conjunction with a secondary archiver program such as tar(1). funzip will reset the terminal properly.gz  [. A password for encrypted zip files can be specified on the command line (preceding the file name. Inc.

93) 2 . Strictly confidential and proprietary FUNZIP ( 1L ) AUTHOR Mark Adler (Info-ZIP) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v3.Misc. Inc. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.

Get license data from hosts that are currently un-licensed. Strictly confidential and proprietary getlic(1) NAME getlic − Get remote license data from agents SYNOPSIS getlic [-luenxv] [-f file] [host1 ..dat. Each entry consists of a hostname.. a product code.raw file. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. host1 . You can specify multiple options.raw bombay 1 AF23B1C9 madras 1 2F23B1C4 CAVEATS This command works even if the remote agent is currently not licensed.dat to license the remote agents. and an optional expiration key.dat file can contain multiple entries. Verbose output. -l -u -e -x -n -v Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid permanent license.raw. getlic gets license data from all the hosts you specify. putlic creates an appropriate license based on the data.. Do not create a license. The license. ORIGIN getlic was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . OPTIONS The following four options let you select a subset of hosts based on their current license status. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and generates a file called license. a license key. hostn] DESCRIPTION The getlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the putlic command. This is useful when you just want to get an overview of your licensing situation. regardless of license status.getlic(1) Property of BladeLogic. Other options include: -f filename Instead of listing your hosts one at a time on the command line as arguments. Get license data from hosts that currently have an expired evaluation license. The putlic command uses license. you can use this option to point to a file containing a list of hosts (one per line) from which you want to obtain license information. and writes this data to a file called license. The getlic command gathers necessary license data from each remote host.. putlic sends this data to each remote host specified in the first (hostname) field of each entry. Inc. one entry per line. Displays the status of each host. If you do not specify any of these four options. hostn List of hosts whose license information you want to retrieve. Get license data from hosts that currently have a valid evaluation (timed) license. See the -v option for more details. USAGE host $ getlic -n -v bombay madras bagalore Host bombay is not licensed Host madras has a valid evaluation license Host bagalore has a valid permanent license host $ getlic bombay madras host $ cat license.

You can specify multiple -e options to specify multiple patterns. -B num Print num lines of leading context before each match.. selecting lines that match one or more patterns. By default. -h -i Never print filename headers with output lines. List the pathname for each file. The egrep utility can handle extended regular expressions and multi-line patterns.. egrep. The fgrep utility is quick but can handle only fixed patterns consisting of one or more lines. If you specified -R. it writes the pathname ‘-’. and write the names of these files to standard output.file pattern searcher SYNOPSIS grep [-AB num] [-CEFGHILPRSUVabchilnoqsvwx] [-e pattern] [-f file] [pattern] [file . in front of the matching line. An empty expression matches every line. Select the input files that do NOT contain lines that match the pattern(s). Ignore binary files. follow all symbolic links. Newlines are not considered part of a pattern. Display version information. fgrep .grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. If grep searched the standard input. Equivalent to -A 2 -B 2. an input line matches a pattern if any regular expression (RE) in the pattern matches the input line without its trailing newline. NSH 1 . Write only a count of matching lines. Recursively search the subdirectories you specify. If you specified the -R option. Search binary files. grep selects an input line if it matches any of the specified patterns.] DESCRIPTION The grep utilities search the given input files. If you specified the -R option. allowing any of the pattern lines to match a portion of the input. but do not attempt to print them. display the offset in bytes of the matching pattern. Force grep to behave as grep. Perform case insensitive matching. follow symbolic links only if they were explicitly listed on the command line. Each input line that matches at least one of the patterns is written to the standard output. grep does not follow symbolic links. OPTIONS -A num Print num lines of trailing context after each match. Force grep to behave as fgrep. -P -R -S -U -V -a -b -c -e expression Specify a pattern to use to search the input. Strictly confidential and proprietary grep(1) NAME grep. -f pattern_file Read one or more newline separated patterns from pattern_file. When displaying a matching line. Inc. The grep utility is used for simple patterns and ex(1) or ed(1) style regular expressions. Force grep to behave as egrep. -C -E -F -G -H -I -L Print two lines of leading context and two lines of trailing context after each match. Treat all files as text.

Match 1 or less sequential repetitions of the pattern. RETURN VALUES grep exits with one of the following values: 0 1 >1 One or more lines were selected.’ which would otherwise match any character. Add another pattern (see example below). Ignore nonexistent and unreadable files. These special characters are: EXAMPLES To find all occurrences of the word patricia in a file: grep patricia myfile To find all occurrences of the pattern ‘. Escape special characters that have meaning to egrep.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. -l. If grep searched the standard input. Align the match from the beginning of the line. ‘$. Match specified number of sequential repetitions of the pattern. Always print filename headers with output lines. Silent mode. Precede each output line with its relative line number in the file. it writes the pathname ‘-’. EXTENDED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The following characters are interpreted by egrep: $ ˆ | ? + * {} [] \ Align the match from the end of the line. grep ignores this option if you specify -c. Select lines that do not match any of the specified patterns. grep resets the line number counter for each file it processes. An error occurred. Inc. No lines were selected.Pp’ at the beginning of a line: grep’ˆ\. The first line of each file is 1. Search for the expression as a word (as if surrounded by ‘[[:<:]]’ and ‘[[:>:]]’). Only input lines selected against an entire fixed string or regular expression are considered to be matching lines. Match 1 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern.ˆ[]|?+*{}()\’. Suppress normal output. Match 0 or more sequential repetitions of the pattern.Pp’ The apostrophes ensure the entire expression is evaluated by grep instead of by your shell. List the pathname for each file. grep uses the standard input. Strictly confidential and proprietary -l grep(1) Select the input files that contain lines that match the pattern(s). Match any single character or range of characters enclosed in the brackets. or -q. and write the names of these files to standard output. To find all lines in a file that do not contain the words foo or bar: NSH 2 . The caret ‘ˆ’ matches the null string at the beginning of a line. -n -o -q -s -v -w -x If you do not specify any file arguments. and the ‘\’ escapes the ‘.

20 or 25.grep(1) Property of BladeLogic. grep(1) HISTORY The grep command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. NSH 3 . Strictly confidential and proprietary $ grep -v -e foo -e bar myfile A simple example of an extended regular expression: $ egrep ’19|20|25’ calendar Peruses the file calendar looking for either 19. Inc.

Inc. -n -? file Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output. This is the default.c files. if you are using the -c option) to be count. File whose first few lines you want to display. ORIGIN head was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO tail(1) NSH 1 . One of the files you want to view was not accessible. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any viewing. Strictly confidential and proprietary head(1) NAME head − Display first few lines of a file SYNOPSIS head [-?] [-l | -c | -n count | -n] [file . the head command by default reads lines of text in TEXTUAL mode. if you are using the -c option) to be n. Measure quantities in lines. head displays the first few lines from the standard input. If you do not specify any file names. CAVEATS There are two ways in which to define the number of lines/characters to be output. $ head -20 *. If you do not specify any files. When you specify the -B option. EXAMPLE The first example views the first 20 lines of all . head displays the first few lines from the standard input. display count number of characters.head(1) Property of BladeLogic. This is done for compatibility purposes. The second example views the first 1024 characters in the password file on the host vienna. meaning that lines of text are terminated with a <LF> rather than the Windows standard <CR><LF>." meaning <CR><LF> remains <CR><LF>.c $ head -c -n 1024 //vienna/etc/passwd DIAGNOSTICS head: Cannot open file filename This message is output if head is unable to access the file filename. You specified an unknown option. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. OPTIONS -B On Windows systems. head outputs the file "as is. Instead of displaying count number of lines. -c -l -n count Set the number of lines to be output (or characters to be output.] DESCRIPTION head displays the first few lines (by default... 10 lines) from the named file(s) to the standard output. Unable to get a license to use the software.

with the following exceptions: NSH 1 . per line. followed by eight space-separated. in a user specified format. zero-filled. -f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings.. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored. characters of input data per line.hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. offset is interpreted as a decimal number. -n length Interpret only length bytes of input. per line. The byte count is an optional positive integer. four column. Each format is applied iteration count times. five column. offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number. If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. Without the -v option. otherwise. in unsigned decimal. which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets). By default.ascii. k. bytes of input data. decimal. per line. which defaults to one. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format. a single slash must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. Inc. or the standard input. -e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data. The iteration count is an optional positive integer. in octal. DESCRIPTION The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files. in hexadecimal. Appending the character b. space separated. -v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. hexadecimal. followed by eight space-separated. For each input file. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. OPTIONS The options are as follows: -b -c -d One-byte octal display. three column. space-filled. With a leading 0x or 0X. two byte quantities of input data. followed by eight. Display the input offset in hexadecimal. are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk. a byte count. offset is interpreted as an octal number. if no files are specified. six column. Two-byte decimal display. The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks. hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output. 1024. in octal. -o Two-byte octal display. or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) NAME hexdump. three column.. in the order that they were specified. It is interpreted as a fprintfstyle format string (see fprintf(3)). od. or 1048576. transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options. -s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. respectively. two-byte quantities of input data. xd . Two-byte hexadecimal display. zero-filled. any number of groups of output lines. octal dump SYNOPSIS hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file . separated by whitespace. and a format. two-byte units of input data. followed by sixteen space-separated. with a leading 0. zero-filled. One-byte character display. zero-filled. -x FORMATS A format string contains any number of format units. followed by sixteen spaceseparated. per line.

one. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character. which is the iteration count times the byte count. %_u.hexdump(1) + + + + Property of BladeLogic. o. and x specify the display base as decimal. %c %d. The input is manipulated in ‘‘blocks’’. Output characters in the default character set. whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single ‘‘. %u. octal or hexadecimal respectively. Inc. ‘‘p’’ and ‘‘q’’ are not supported. are displayed as hexadecimal strings. names. %x %E. two and four byte counts supported. zero-padded octal. hexdump(1) A byte count or field precision is required for each ‘‘s’’ conversion character (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is unspecified). with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following. %e. or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified. %i.’’. %f. The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported: NUL ###BOT_TEXT### <alert character> \a <backspace> \b <form-feed> \f <newline> \n <carriage return> \r <tab> \t <vertical tab> \v Hexdump also supports the the following additional conversion strings: _a[dox] Display the input offset. Output US ASCII characters. four byte counts supported. %g One byte counts only. %G. Format strings interpreting less than an input block’s worth of data. %X. lower-case. where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above). hexadecimal. 000 nul 001 soh 002 stx 003 etx 004 eot 005 enq 006 ack 007 bel 008 bs 009 ht 00A lf 00B vt 00C ff 00D cr 00E so 00F si 010 dle 011 dc1 012 dc2 013 dc3 014 dc4 015 nak 016 syn 017 etb 018 can 019 em 01A sub 01B esc 01C fs 01D gs 01E rs 01F us 0FF del The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows: %_c. have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in NSH 2 . of the next byte to be displayed. ‘‘l’’. Characters greater than 0xff. _A[dox] Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once. Eight byte default. The appended characters d. which are displayed as two character strings. _p _u The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit. Four byte default. %o. cumulative across input files. %_p. when all of the input data has been processed. _c Output characters in the default character set. Strictly confidential and proprietary An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision. ‘‘n’’. The conversion characters ‘‘h’’.

hexdump(1) Property of BladeLogic. no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration. Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. If. an iteration count is greater than one. the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i. Strictly confidential and proprietary hexdump(1) the block to satisfy the format string. SEE ALSO od(1) NSH 3 . the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option. any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes). as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached. and referencing a NULL string. hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred. If no format strings are specified. Inc. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘‘+’’.7_Ax\n" "%07. either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above. input data only partially satisfies a format string. If.6_ao " 12/1 "%3_u " "\t\t" "%_p " "\n" Implement the -x option: "%07. ‘‘#’’ conversion flag characters removed. It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A. Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. ‘‘ ’’.e.7_ax " 8/2 "%04x " "\n" Hexdump includes software developed by the University of California. EXAMPLES Display the input in perusal format: "%06.

It takes the results of the grep and highlights the word that was searched for. Strictly confidential and proprietary HGREP ( 1 ) NAME hgrep . SunOS 5. front-end for grep. Quoting is not handled.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but cute.highlight results of a grep SYNOPSIS hgrep <grep args> Hgrep is a trivial. Inc.8 Last change: 23 October 1988 1 . DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO grep(1) BUGS Meta-characters are not handled.

This command does NOT let you set the name of the current host. ORIGIN hostname was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uname(1). OPTIONS hostname has no options. Strictly confidential and proprietary hostname(1) NAME hostname − print name of current host SYNOPSIS hostname DESCRIPTION hostname prints out the name of the host on which your current directory resides.hostname(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH 1 . Inc.

There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have identical join fields. Multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator. For example. the following options are available: -a In addition to the default output. A a simpler approach is to use multiple -o options. produce a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. The default output field separator is a single space character.) Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and output. The default input field separators are tab and space characters. the remaining fields from file1 and then the remaining fields from file2. produce a line for each unpairable line in both file 1 and file 2. If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘‘-’’. join on the field specified by field.’’) or whitespace separated. Every occurrence of char in a line is significant. where file_number is a file number and field is a field number.using the -b option. The join utility exits 0 on success. The first field in each line is used by default.join(1) Property of BladeLogic. The ‘‘join field’’ is the field in each file by which the files are compared. Both file numbers and field numbers are 1 based. The elements of list must be either comma (‘‘. For example. join on the field specified by field. join on the field specified by field. join uses the standard input. Each output line consists of the join field. -j2 field In file 2. and leading tabs and spaces are ignored. When you are using the default field delimiter characters. and >0 if an error occurs. -j2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. Otherwise. -j1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. the collating sequence should be the same as sort without the -b option. For example. on the fields on which they are to be joined. Strictly confidential and proprietary join(1) NAME join . In file 2. join on the field specified by field. you should order the files you are joining in the collating sequence of sort(1). Many of the options use file and field numbers. -1 field -2 field In file 1. When you specify the field delimiter characters with the -t option. NSH 1 . -e string Replace empty output fields with string. -o list The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each file for each line with matching join fields. meaning the first file on the command line is file number 1 and the first field is field number 1. -2 3 means join on the third field in file 2. Each element of the list has the form ‘file_number.relational database operator SYNOPSIS join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-j file_number field] [-o list] [-t char] [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The join utility performs an ‘‘equality join’’ on the specified files and writes the result to the standard output. You can specify options -v 1 and -v 2 at the same time. -t char -v file_number Do not display the default output. OPTIONS -a file_number In addition to the default output. join may not report all field matches. -1 3 means join on the third field in file 1. Inc.field’. but display a line for each unpairable line in file file_number. For example. -j1 field In file 1. (The latter requires quoting to protect it from the shell. COMPATIBILITY For compatibility with historic versions of join.

comm(1). In general. SEE ALSO awk(1). join on the field specified by field.2’’. join(1) -o list . These arguments were of the form ‘‘file_number. Strictly confidential and proprietary -j field In both file 1 and file 2. do not use these options..join(1) Property of BladeLogic. paste(1). Inc. This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named ‘‘1.. uniq(1) NSH 2 . Berkeley and its contributors.field_number’’ as described for the current -o option. sort(1). Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments to the -o option. These options are available only so historic shellscripts do not require modification. ORIGIN join includes software developed by the University of California.

SunOS 5. Strictly confidential and proprietary lam ( 1 ) NAME lam – laminate files SYNOPSIS lam [ –[fp] min. –f min. –t c The input line terminator is c instead of a newline.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. zeros will be added to make up the field width. each option affects only the file after it.max Like –f.. The options are described below. To merge the lines from four different files use lam file1 –S " \ " file2 file3 file4 Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with lam – – < file and a form letter with substitutions keyed by ‘@’ can be done with lam –t @ letter changes ORIGIN Lam includes software developed by the University of California. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. and if it begins with a ‘–’. where min is the minimum field width and max the maximum field width. Berkeley and its contributors. To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use pr(1). SEE ALSO join(1).max. –s sepstring Print sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. DESCRIPTION Lam copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. pr(1). The name ‘–’ means the standard input. but pad this file’s field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active.. The n-th input lines from the input files are considered fragments of the single long n-th output line into which they are assembled.max Print line fragments according to the format string min.8 Last change: NSH 1 . If min begins with a zero.max ] [ –s sepstring ] [ –t c ] file . Normally. –p min. This option may appear after the last file. the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. EXAMPLES The command lam file1 file2 file3 file4 joins 4 files together along each line. Inc. and may be repeated.

remember this one. it becomes the new window size. default 1. so it can run on a variety of terminals. as indicated.. The number is used by some commands. less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems).LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 1 . In this mode. z Like SPACE. Also. If you forget all the other commands. the differences are in the prompt and that more exits by default when it gets to the end of the file.) This version of less also acts as more(1) if it is called as more. even if it reaches end-of-file in the process. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) NAME less. for example ESC-v means the two character sequence "ESCAPE". lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret. but scrolls a full screensful. ESC stands for the ESCAPE key. but if N is specified.] DESCRIPTION less is a program similar to the traditional more(1). even if N is more than the screen size. default one window (see option -z below). Commands may be preceded by a decimal number. so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi(1). Inc.] [ −y lines] [ −[z] lines] [ −# shift] [+[+] cmd] [ −− ] [filename . called N in the descriptions below. . If N is specified. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. . BSD January 17. less does not have to read the entire input file before starting.. RETURN | ˆN | e | ˆE | j | ˆJ Scroll forward N lines. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character.. but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. default one half of the screen size. SPACE | ˆV | f | ˆF Scroll forward N lines. Commands are based on both traditional more and vi(1). ˆX means control-X. (On a hardcopy terminal. then "v". If N is more than the screen size. h | H Help: display a summary of these commands. ESC-SPACE Like SPACE. The entire N lines are displayed. more − view files on a CRT SYNOPSIS less more less more less more less more less more | −? | −-help | −V | −-version | [ −[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX˜] [ −b space] [ −h lines] [ −j line] [ −k keyfile] [ −o | −O logfile] [ −p pattern] [ −P prompt] [ −t tag] [ −T tagsfile] [ −x tab. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. COMMANDS In the following descriptions. d | ˆD Scroll forward N lines. only the final screenful is displayed.

default one window (see option -z below). If N is more than the screen size. but if N is specified. The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. rather than a file. even if N is more than the screen size. If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top line. Inc. While the text is scrolled. it becomes the new window size. If a number N is specified. ESC-( | LEFTARROW Scroll horizontally left N characters. Like }. it becomes the new default for subsequent d and u commands. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. default one half of the screen size. the { command will go to the matching right curly bracket. Normally this command would be used when already at the end of the file. is being read. Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed. (The behavior is similar to the "tail -f" command. default 1.) g | < | ESC-< Go to line N in the file. N should be between 0 and 100. r | ˆR | ˆL Repaint the screen.) G | > | ESC-> Go to line N in the file. the } command will go to the matching left curly bracket. discarding any buffered input. (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. u | ˆU Scroll backward N lines. a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. R F Repaint the screen. ESC-) | RIGHTARROW Scroll horizontally right N characters. default half the screen width (see the -# option). If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen. If there is more than one right curly bracket on the top line. It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. only the final screenful is displayed. and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. If a number N is specified. If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or if N is not specified and standard input. If N is specified. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. Warning: some systems use ˆY as a special job control character. } ( ) BSD January 17.) p | % { Go to a position N percent into the file. it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) b | ˆB | ESC-v Scroll backward N lines. but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets. w Like ESC-v. default half the screen width (see the -# option). it acts as though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect. Like {. default the end of the file. y | ˆY | ˆP | k | ˆK Scroll backward N lines. The entire N lines are displayed. 2003 2 . (Warning: this may be slow if N is large. default 1 (beginning of file). a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line. Scroll forward.

"ESC ˆB < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line. Inc. m ’ Followed by any lowercase letter. The search starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed. which change this). acts like }. as recognized by ed(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) [ ] Like {. so the ’ command can be used to switch between input files. marks the current position with that letter.) Followed by any lowercase letter. The search starts at the second line displayed (but see the -a and -j options. Like }. the search continues in the next file in the command line list. For example. ˆXˆX Same as single quote. Certain characters are special. Followed by another single quote. That is. respectively. as in the / command: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list. acts like {. ESC-ˆF Followed by two characters. (Single quote. returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter. Search multiple files. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets. if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match. ˆF | @ ˆK ˆR ?pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. do a simple textual comparison. they modify the type of search rather than become part of the pattern: ˆN | ! ˆE | ∗ Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern. the search continues in the previous file in the command line list. respectively. Search multiple files. The pattern is a regular expression. but don’t move to the first match (KEEP current position). That is. but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets. "ESC ˆF < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line. that is. but uses the two characters as open and close brackets.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD January 17. Don’t interpret regular expression metacharacters. /pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. Followed by a ˆ or $. N defaults to 1. Marks are preserved when a new file is examined. For example. returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. 2003 3 . ESC-ˆB Followed by two characters. jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match. Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen. Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern.

If the previous search was modified by ˆE. N ESC-n Repeat previous search. If the previous search was modified by ˆR.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. for N-th line containing the last pattern. The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. If highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u command. you may not be able to use ˆV. two consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign. they are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. the search continues in the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file. There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ˆF or ˆK. Any search command will also turn highlighting back on. A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file. ESC-?pattern Same as "?∗". If a number N is specified. ESC-N Repeat previous search. :n :p Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line). turn highlighting back on. the N-th next file is examined. Inc. The effect is as if the previous search were modified by ∗. Repeat previous search. but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries. If the filename consists of several files. the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option). ˆXˆV | E Same as :e. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file. 2003 4 . n Repeat previous search. ESC-u Undo search highlighting. regardless of what is currently displayed on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options. As in forward searches. Similarly. the N-th previous file is examined. If a number N is specified. If the filename contains one or more spaces. If the previous search was modified by ˆN. but crossing file boundaries. As in forward searches. (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option. ˆK ˆR ESC-/pattern Same as "/∗". the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined. the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆF | @ Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list. but in the reverse direction. Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern. Examine the previous file in the command line list. the search is done without using regular expressions. This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name. On such systems. two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with a single percent sign. in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on. BSD January 17. If the filename is missing.) :e [filename] Examine a new file. Warning: some systems use ˆV as a special literalization character.

depending on your particular installation. If a ˆP (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash. but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. q | Q | :q | :Q | ZZ Exits less. If a number N is specified. (Double underscore. See also the discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below. if defined. − Followed by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below). Like the −+ command. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. 2003 5 . including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line being displayed. or a string value (such as -P or -t). Like the −! command. This does not work for numeric or string-valued options. +G causes less to initially display each file starting at the end rather than the beginning. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :t :x :d t T Go to the specified tag. The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL. If possible. Go to the next tag. = | ˆG | :f Prints some information about the file being viewed. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. a message describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed. If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h). Followed by one of the command line option letters. it also prints the length of the file. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. V Prints the version number of less being run. For example. this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. as in the − command. the setting of the option is changed but no message is printed. the number of lines in the file and the percent of the file above the last displayed line. but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter. Go to the previous tag. Like the − command. A ˆP immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the new setting.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. The setting of the option is not changed. The following four commands may or may not be valid. the N-th file in the list is examined. or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined. if there were more than one matches for the current tag. a new value may be entered after the option letter. You must press RETURN after typing the option name. this will print a message describing the current setting of that option. Followed by one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message describing the new setting. BSD January 17. v Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed.) Like the _ (underscore) command. (The "−+X" command does the same thing as "−+X" on the command line.) This does not work for string-valued options.) Followed by one of the command line option letters. Remove the current file from the list of files. (Underscore. this will change the setting of that option and print a message describing the new setting. Inc. If no new value is entered. Examine the first file in the command line list. −− −+ −−+ −! −−! _ __ +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. See the −t option for more details about tags.

thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen. (Depending on how your shell interprets the question mark. since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. so command line options override the LESS environment variable. or newline. This only works if the input is a pipe. Options are also taken from the environment variable LESS if the command is less. OPTIONS Command line options are described below. it may be necessary to quote the question mark. Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. A long option name may be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. "!!" repeats the last shell command. as distinct from --quit-at-eof. <m> may also be ˆ or $ to indicate beginning or end of file respectively. For example. Inc. −bn | −-buffers=n Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file. export LESS The environment variable is parsed before the command line. A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file. A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. or from the environment variable MORE if the command is more. it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with "−+". the remainder of the name may be in either case. such as --QUIT-AT-EOF. The shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL. For example. By default 64K of buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe. Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter. If an option appears in the LESS variable. but not --qui. see the -j option).. The BSD January 17. --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit. to separate a prompt value from any other options with dollar sign between them: LESS="-Ps--More--$-C -e" −? | −-help This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). For options like -P which take a following string. | <m> shell-command <m> represents any mark letter." each time less is invoked. Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized. s filename Save the input to a file. to avoid typing "less -options . in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes).) −a | −-search-skip-screen Causes searches to start after the last line displayed on the screen. For example. the current screen is piped.. see the -B option). --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF. Some long option names are in uppercase. If <m> is . By default. you might tell csh(1): setenv LESS -options or if you use sh(1): LESS="-options". via the "−" command. 2003 6 . not an ordinary file. For example. Most options may be changed while less is running. "!" with no shell command simply invokes a shell. thus: "-\?". Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ! shell-command Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given. or two dashes followed by a long option name. searches start at the second line on the screen (or after the last found line. or defaults to "sh". The section of the file to be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string.

since only the most recently viewed part of the file is kept in memory. −B | −-auto-buffers By default. This option is on by default when invoked as more. By default. The -g option changes this behavior to highlight only the particular string which was found by the last search command. that is. that is. any earlier data is lost.]’’. −f | −-force Forces non-regular files to be opened. −c | −-clear-screen Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down. ’q’ to quit. If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines. buffer space is unlimited. 2003 7 . (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file. the screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. This can cause less to run somewhat faster than the default. The -d option also causes the message ‘‘[Press ’h’ for instructions. the only way to exit less is via the "q" command. the entire file is read into memory. −F | −-quit-if-one-screen Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen. The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buffers for pipes. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file. By default. −G | −-HILITE-SEARCH The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands. lacks some important capability. such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. Inc. full screen repaints are done by scrolling from the bottom of the screen. buffers are allocated automatically as needed.) BSD January 17. If a large amount of data is read from the pipe.]’’ to be displayed when an invalid command is entered (normally. Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display. −hn | −-max-back-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. when data is read from a pipe. but the screen is cleared before it is repainted.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. -h0 is implied. −E | −-QUIT-AT-EOF Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file. so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe. −C | −-CLEAR-SCREEN The -C option is like -c. this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. the bell is rung). −d | −-dumb (less only) The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb. If n is -1. −e | −-quit-at-eof Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. −d (more only) The -d option causes the default prompt to include the basic directions ‘‘[Press space to continue. less will refuse to open non-regular files. By default. −g | −-hilite-search Normally.) Also suppresses the warning message when a binary file is opened. The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal. (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward. This option is useful in environments where users may not be experienced with pagers.

This option is ignored if any uppercase letters appear in the search pattern. searches begin at the line immediately after the target line. if a pattern contains uppercase letters. If the LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set. The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect. When invoked as more. and the v command will pass the current line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below). the target line is the fourth line on the screen. not an ordinary file. less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it. −m | −-long-prompt Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more). −ofilename | −-log-file=filename Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. tag search. The status column shows the lines that matched the current search. Inc. but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation. the next is 2. Multiple -k options may be specified. and so on. and so on. −M | −-LONG-PROMPT Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more. that is. uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. the second to the bottom is -2.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −jn | −-jump-target=n Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned. −n | −-line-numbers Suppresses line numbers. in other words. jump to a line number. with the percent into the file. If the file already exists. Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. if "-j4" is used. but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters. then that search does not ignore case. −L | −-no-lessopen Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). −kfilename | −-lesskey-file=filename Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey(1) file. 2003 8 . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −i | −-ignore-case Causes searches to ignore case. This option can be set from within less. BSD January 17. so searches begin at the fifth line on the screen. less prompts with a colon. especially with a very large input file. Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command. but it will apply only to files opened subsequently. the LESSOPEN environment variable is ignored by default. For example. If the -j option is used. This applies only when the input file is a pipe. it is also used as a lesskey file. The screen line is specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1. −J | −-status-column Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. −N | −-LINE-NUMBERS Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display. −Ofilename | −-LOG-FILE=filename The -O option is like -o. or jump to a marked position. jump to a file percentage. −I | −-IGNORE-CASE Like -i. A target line is the object of a text search. not to the file which is currently open. or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS). The number may be negative to specify a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1. By default. The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases.

for example. The bell will be rung on certain other errors. That is. This option would normally be put in the LESS environment variable. -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file. -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen. but tries to keep track of the screen appearance where possible. m where the ".. a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "ˆA".. less cannot keep track of the actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character). Inc. such as long lines being split in the wrong place. Without a file name. −r | −-raw-control-chars Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed. This works only if the input consists of normal text and possibly some ANSI "color" escape sequences. various display problems may result. −S | −-chop-long-lines Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded. Warning: when the -r option is used. Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS variable. all control characters and all ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. 2003 9 . -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string. The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases. For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance. that is. rather than being typed in with each less command. it tells less to start at the first occurrence of pattern in the file. All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) If no log file has been specified. that is. You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color escape sequence. The default is to fold long lines. -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. such as typing an invalid character. The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less. -P= changes the message printed by the = command. −Q | −-QUIET | −-SILENT Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −ppattern | −-pattern=pattern The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern. −Pprompt | −-prompt=prompt Provides a way to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. the portion of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. they will simply report the name of the log file. which are sequences of the form: ESC [ .. This is useful when viewing nroff(1) output. -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command).. or be terminated by a dollar sign. See the section on PROMPTS for more details. display the remainder on the next line. −R | −-RAW-CONTROL-CHARS Like -r. The default is to display control characters using the caret notation. −q | −-quiet | −-silent Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or before the beginning of the file. Thus. −s | −-squeeze-blank-lines Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line. it is used instead. If the terminal has a "visual bell". BSD January 17." is zero or more characters other than "m".

−X | −-no-init Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. -x9. −Ttagsfile | −-tag-file=tagsfile Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags". 33. which was previously built by ctags(1) or an equivalent command. that is. If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set. for example. The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the − command) as a way of examining a new file.gnu.. −W | −-HILITE-UNREAD Like -w. By default. BSD January 17. For example. −U | −-UNDERLINE-SPECIAL Causes backspaces. This is sometimes desirable if the deinitialization string does something unnecessary. −u | −-underline-special Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters. followed immediately by a TAG. The default for n is 8. Other backspaces are deleted. 17. that is. will edit the file containing that tag. The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within less. For this to work. The first "new" line is the line immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. they are handled as specified by the -r option. unless the -J option is in effect. (See http://www. backspaces which appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the terminal’s hardware boldface capability. 25. 2003 10 . If only one n is specified. there may be a file in the current directory called "tags".... Text which is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect. etc. −-no-keypad Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. Also. along with the preceding character.17 will set tabs at positions 9. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −ttag | −-tag=tag The -t option. but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.html). −w | −-hilite-unread Temporarily highlights the first "new" line after a forward movement of a full page.org/software/global/global. it is taken to be the name of a command compatible with global. and then continue with the same spacing as the last two. Also highlights the target line after a g or p command. Carriage returns immediately followed by a newline are deleted. tab stops are set at multiples of n. backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are treated specially: the underlined text is displayed using the terminal’s hardware underlining capability. and that command is executed to find the tag. tag information must be available. Inc. | −-tabs=n. The entire line is highlighted. If multiple values separated by commas are specified. if neither -u nor -U is given. The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters.. like clearing the screen. in which case only the status column is highlighted. Sets tab stops. tab stops are set at those positions. −xn. This is sometimes useful if the keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner. −V | −-version Displays the version number of less.. they are sent to the terminal when they appear in the input.

changes the open quote to the first character. see the caveat under the "g" command above). LEFTARROW [ESC-h] Move the cursor one space to the left. this changes the quote character to that character. If a command line option begins with +. Any arguments following this are interpreted as filenames. -cc | −-quotes=cc Changes the filename quoting character. not just the first one. it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and quote characters. −˜ | −-tilde Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (˜). it starts the display at the specified line number (however. The default is one screenful. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) −yn | −-max-forw-scroll=n Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the "literal" character. Followed by two characters. For example. Note that even after the quote characters are changed.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. −[z]n | −-window=n Changes the default scrolling window size to n lines. this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote). the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less. or the pattern for a search command). If the option starts with ++. If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines. any forward movement causes scrolling. As a special case. Followed by a single character. By default. certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line. if the screen is 24 lines. a filename for the :e command. Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. and the close quote to the second character. If the number n is negative. The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an initial command for every file. that is. This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+". 2003 11 . −# | −-shift Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20 lines. +G tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning. + LINE EDITING When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example. either ˆV or ˆA. and +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the file. BSD January 17. the screen is repainted instead. The z and w commands can also be used to change the window size. −− A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments. it indicates n lines less than the current screen size. Filenames containing a space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with more. The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed as blank lines. Filenames containing a space should then be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes. Inc. For example. +<number> acts like +<number>g. If the number specified is zero. the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines. If the screen is resized to 40 lines. the initial command applies to every file being viewed. RIGHTARROW [ESC-l] Move the cursor one space to the right.

KEY BINDINGS You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey(1) to create a lesskey file.) Move the cursor one word to the right. BACKTAB [ESC-TAB] Like TAB. the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless. less uses that as the name of the lesskey file.) Move the cursor one word to the left. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. less looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On OpenBSD. all matches are entered into the command line (if they fit). less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously. This file specifies a set of command keys and an action associated with each key. BACKSPACE Delete the character to the left of the cursor. DELETE or [ESC-x] Delete the character under the cursor. Otherwise. ˆBACKSPACE [ESC-BACKSPACE] (That is. ˆL ˆU Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. Inc. You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING). and to set environment variables. If it matches more than one filename. Otherwise.) Delete the word under the cursor.less". If it matches more than one filename. CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously. If you have changed your line-kill character to something other than ˆU.) Delete the word to the left of the cursor. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. a "/" is appended to the filename. that character is used instead of ˆU. END [ESC-$] Move the cursor to the end of the line. ˆDELETE [ESC-X or ESC-DELETE] (That is. Delete the entire command line. DOWNARROW [ESC-j] Retrieve the next command line. If the environment variable LESSKEY is set. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. the first match is entered into the command line. See the lesskey(1) manual page for more details. BSD January 17. HOME [ESC-0] Move the cursor to the beginning of the line. If the completed filename is a directory. UPARROW [ESC-k] Retrieve the previous command line. CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously. ˆRIGHTARROW [ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW] (That is. The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name. or cancel the command if the command line is empty. TAB Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ˆLEFTARROW [ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW] (That is. 2003 12 . Repeated TABs will cycle through the other matching filenames. but cycles in the reverse direction through the matching filenames.

sh: #! /bin/sh rm $2 To use these scripts. set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. To set up an input preprocessor. that is. More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files.$$ else rm -f /tmp/less. put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen. and LESSCLOSE="lessclose. rather than putting the data into a replacement file. It may include two occurrences of the string "%s". called the replacement file. However. it will call another program. which writes the contents of the file to a different file. as normal. An input preprocessor receives one command line argument.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script).sh %s". esac lessclose. then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file.. less will display the original filename as the name of the current file. Before less opens a file. it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened. but still let less view them directly: lessopen. called the input postprocessor. set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor. as entered by the user.sh %s %s". it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way the contents of the file are displayed. 2>/dev/null BSD January 17. It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less. This program receives two command line arguments. For example. and so on. It should create the replacement file. less uses the original file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) INPUT PREPROCESSOR You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. 2003 13 . the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file. To set up an input postprocessor. as normal.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. When less closes a file opened in such a way. An input preprocessor that works this way is called an input pipe. If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard output. make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe. This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it. The input preprocessor is not called when viewing standard input. which was output by LESSOPEN. Inc. and when finished print the name of the replacement file to its standard output.Z) uncompress -c $1 >/tmp/less. and the name of the replacement file. the original filename. then echo /tmp/less. these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format. If the input preprocessor does not output a replacement filename. which will be replaced by the filename when the input preprocessor command is invoked. the original filename as entered by the user. instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output. writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s".$$ ]. which may perform any desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). An input pipe. The contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place of the contents of the original file.$$ if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ fi . To use an input pipe.

A decimal number may be used for repetition. It should be set to a string where each character in the string represents one character in the character set. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) For example. and does not necessarily represent any real character set. All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last. and formfeed are control characters. This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1. For example. The character ". Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used. the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".. 2 and 3 are control. Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set. Selects an EBCDIC character set. Should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files. 6 and 7 are binary. and 8 is normal. NL. 5.Z) uncompress -c $1 . You get similar results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment. Possible values for LESSCHARSET are: ascii iso8859 latin1 latin9 dos ebcdic IBM-1047 BS. put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe. In this case. but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement file to clean up. the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set.sh: #! /bin/sh case "$1" in ∗. Same as iso8859. but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab). (This is an example. A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal. and binary. "c" for control. all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal.) BSD January 17." would mean character 0 is binary. TAB.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. and "b" for binary. When an input pipe is used. NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS There are three types of characters in the input file: normal characters control characters binary characters Can be displayed directly to the screen.sh %s". it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET. this script will work like the previous example scripts: lesspipe. CR. except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal characters. and all others are binary. Should not be displayed directly. This is the same as ASCII. Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers. control. Selects a Russian character set. Inc. esac 2>/dev/null To use this script. so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. 1. 4. The LESSCHARSET environment variable may be used to select a character set." is used for a normal character. 2003 14 . koi8-r next utf-8 In special cases. Selects an ISO 8859 character set. Same as iso8859. In this case. Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS. "bccc4b.

8bcccbcc18b95. o. and "∗n" is normal.7b 9. a "b" means use the bottom line. A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is: %bX Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file. Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character. setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.bb125. This format can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable. normal attribute is assumed. "∗u" is underlined. The default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "∗s<%X>". The line to be used is determined by the X. a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line. 8bcccbcc18b95.bb If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set. ˆA for control-A)..b. The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET: ascii dos ebcdic IBM-1047 iso8859 koi8-r latin1 next 8bcccbcc18b95. Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file.10b6. but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings. If the character is a "t". the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. then the default character set is utf-8. binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets. the byte offset of the top line in the display is used.8b8. Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). etc. an "m" means use the middle line. Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen. Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially.33b.). if the setlocale interface is also not available.17b3. Finally. as with the %b option. as specified by the -j option. The prompt mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility. Replaced by the number of pages in the input file.33b. For example. but the string "UTF-8" is found in the LC_ALL. 8bcccbcc18b95. the page number of the last line in the input file. Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible (e. LESSBINFMT may begin with a "∗" and one character to select the display attribute: "∗k" is blinking.8b8.3b9. but your system supports the setlocale interface. if LESSBINFMT is "∗u[%x]". Replaced by the size of the current input file. the default character set is latin1.9b7. %B %c %dX %D BSD January 17.b. The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used. If that string is not found.g.b.8b6. 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc 191. 5bc6bcc7bcc41b. "∗d" is bold.b.9b5. LC_TYPE or LANG environment variables. 2003 15 . Inc. less will use setlocale to determine the character set. and a "j" means use the "target" line. The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt string.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Otherwise. "∗s" is standout.b128.b 8bcccbcc12bc5b95.7b9.b 8bcccbcc18b95.b. X. d. PROMPTS The -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference. If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "∗".b9.6b10. or equivalently.

Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file. the file size if input is a pipe).LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. True if the line number of the last line in the file is known. Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. as with the %b option. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. a question mark is printed instead. If the condition is true. Replaced by the percent into the current input file. but may appear anywhere. True if there is more than one input file. The format of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. True if the percent into the current input file. a condition is evaluated. True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero). based on byte offsets. The line used is determined by the X. if and only if the IF condition is false. Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files. Inc. based on line numbers. Replaced by the name of the current input file. as with the %b option. True if at end-of-file. True if the line number of the specified line is known. up to a period. if input is not a pipe). If the condition is false. True if there is an input filename (that is. BSD January 17. True if this is the first prompt in a new input file. True if the size of the current input file is known. or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not defined). such characters are not included. Replaced by the total number of input files. Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list. Same as %B. as with the %b option. of the specified line is known. True if the percent into the current input file. A question mark followed by a single character acts like an "IF": depending on the following character. Usually used at the end of the string. based on byte offsets. The line to be used is determined by the X. True if the page number of the specified line is known. are included in the prompt. any characters following the question mark and condition character. based on line numbers. Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) %E %f %i %lX %L %m %pX %PX %s %t %x Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable. A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period are included in the string. of the specified line is known. If any item is unknown (for example. Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be: ?a ?bX ?B ?c ?dX ?e ?f ?lX ?L ?m ?n ?pX ?PX True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far. True if the byte offset of the specified line is known. The line used is determined by the X. 2003 16 . See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.

%t This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in a file. The filename is followed by the line number.?e(END) ?x. otherwise the string "Standard input". If your editor does not accept the "+linenumber" syntax. For reference. byte %bB?s/%s.?e(END) ?x.. This prompt prints the filename. here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and -M respectively).LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. if we are at end-of-file.. True if there is a next input file (that is.?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-. Finally. if known. Some examples: ?f%f:Standard input. This prompt would print the filename. the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file. The default value for LESSEDIT is: %E ?lm+%lm.?m(file %i of %m) . less runs in a "secure" mode. The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings. .?m(file %i of %m) . if the current input file is not the last one).Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%. %f Note that this expands to the editor name. ?f%f .Next\: %x.: ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s. the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.. followed by the file name. or has other differences in invocation syntax.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L..%t The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined..?n?m(file %i of %m) . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) ?s ?x Same as "?B". . Any characters other than the special ones (question mark.. ?n?f%f . Otherwise.?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L.?m(file %i of %m) . Notice how each question mark has a matching period. if known. 2003 17 . This is the default prompt. SECURITY When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1. a dash is printed. Inc.Next\: %x. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%. followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input file. if there is one. Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash. This means these features are disabled: ! | The shell command. any trailing spaces are truncated. otherwise the byte offset if known.?e(END) ?x. BSD January 17. and backslash) become literally part of the prompt. The pipe command. and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash. followed by a + and the line number..%t And here is the default message produced by the = command: ?f%f . : byte %bB?s/%s.. Each is broken into two lines here for readability only. otherwise the percent if known. Then.. ?n?f%f . it is used as the command to be executed when the v command is invoked.. period. if known. colon.%t ?f%f . percent.

) EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command). Filename completion (TAB. COLUMNS Sets the number of columns on the screen. The editing command. See discussion under PROMPTS. Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable. If environment variables are defined in more than one place. LESSEDIT Editor prototype string (used for the v command). ENVIRONMENT Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual. BSD January 17. (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. Language for determining the character set. Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode. If not set. LESSBINFMT Format for displaying non-printable. global tags are not used. LESSCHARSET Selects a predefined character set. LESSCLOSE Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. non-control characters. HOME LANG Name of the user’s home directory (used to find a lesskey file). 2003 18 . Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) :e v s -o -k -t The examine command. Use of tags files. Use of lesskey files. ˆL). which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. LESS Options which are passed to less automatically. LESSGLOBALTAGS Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global command. such as "∗". LC_CTYPE Language for determining the character set. or in a lesskey(1) file. Log files. LESSCHARDEF Defines a character set. Inc. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. LESSANSIENDCHARS Characters which are assumed to end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m"). Metacharacters in filenames.

com〉 Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to 〈bug−less@gnu. Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable. and one of the named files has been viewed previously. Inc. search highlighting will cause an erroneous display. LESSMETACHARS List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell. as well as to expand filenames. If the :e command is used to name more than one file. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file. CAVEATS The = command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line numbers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen. Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey(1) file. In certain cases.org〉.LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 2003 19 . (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the POSIX regular expression package. but the byte and percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen. On such terminals. search highlighting is disabled by default to avoid possible problems. VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command). (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD. commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.com/less. See discussion under SECURITY. On certain older terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals). TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run. LESSSECURE Runs less in "secure" mode.) SHELL The shell used to execute the ! command. the window system’s idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables. If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string. SEE ALSO lesskey(1) AUTHORS Mark Nudelman 〈markn@greenwoodsoftware. LESSMETAESCAPE Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. the new files may be entered into the list in an unexpected order. see the less homepage at http://www. more text than the matching string may be highlighted. LESSSEPARATOR String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.) BSD January 17. LINES Sets the number of lines on the screen. LESSOPEN Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor. For more information. when search highlighting is enabled and a search pattern begins with a ˆ.greenwoodsoftware.

search highlighting may change the color of some of the text which follows the highlighted text.com/less for the latest list of known bugs in this version of less. This causes less to treat some binary files as ordinary. set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to "ascii" (or whatever character set is appropriate). Strictly confidential and proprietary LESS (1) When viewing text containing ANSI color escape sequences using the -R option. To workaround this problem. searching will not find text containing an embedded escape sequence.greenwoodsoftware. 2003 20 .LESS (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. non-binary files. Also. setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 through 31 are control characters rather than binary characters. Inc. BSD January 17. On some systems. See http://www.

The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings. The −V or −−version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immediately exit. The input file consists of one or more sections. If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set. and the environment variable LESSKEY is set. If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide file. Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored. A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. except for the special section header lines. less(1) looks in a standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On NSH the system-wide lesskey file is /etc/sysless . The output file is a binary file which is used by less(1). by default $HOME/. If no output file is specified. or a sequence of up to 15 keys. A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to specify a character by its octal value. If −V or −−version is present. #line-edit Defines new line-editing keys. a standard filename is used as the name of the output file. The characters in the string may appear literally.LESSKEY(1) LESSKEY(1) NAME lesskey − specify key bindings for less SYNOPSIS lesskey [ o output | −− output = output ] [ input ] lesskey -V | --version DESCRIPTION lesskey is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by less(1). standard input is read. Otherwise. key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file. or be prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key. The command section consists of lines of the form: string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline> Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs. If the input file is ‘-’. COMMAND SECTION The command section begins with the line #command If the command section is the first section in the file. If no input file is specified. A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input characters as follows: \b \e \n \r \t \ku \kd \kr BACKSPACE ESCAPE NEWLINE RETURN TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW RIGHT ARROW NSH 1 . less(1) uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file. a standard filename is used as the name of the input file. The string is the command key(s) which invoke the action. Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section. The action is the name of the less action. by default $HOME/. The string may be a single command key. from the list below. other options and arguments are ignored. this line may be omitted. lesskey will overwrite it. Possible sections are: #command Defines new command keys.lesskey .less is used. #env Defines environment variables. Otherwise. If the output file already exists. the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file.

tab and the backslash itself. and then the extra string is parsed. For example. just as if it were typed in to less. This feature can be used in certain cases to extend the functionality of a command. space. Characters which must be preceded by backslash include caret. When such a command is entered while running less. An action may be followed by an "extra" string. The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action: when less quits. first character of the extra string is used as its exit status. The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less: #command \r forw-line \n forw-line e forw-line j forw-line \kd forw-line ˆE forw-line ˆN forw-line k back-line y back-line ˆY back-line ˆK back-line ˆP back-line J forw-line-force K back-line-force Y back-line-force d forw-scroll ˆD forw-scroll u back-scroll ˆU back-scroll 0 forw-screen f forw-screen ˆF forw-screen ˆV forw-screen \kD forw-screen b back-screen ˆB back-screen \ev back-screen \kU back-screen z forw-window w back-window \e0 forw-screen-force F forw-forever R repaint-flush r repaint ˆR repaint ˆL repaint \eu undo-hilite g goto-line NSH 2 . see the ‘{’ and ‘:t’ commands in the example below.LESSKEY(1) \kl \kU \kD \kh \ke \kx LEFT ARROW PAGE UP PAGE DOWN HOME END DELETE LESSKEY(1) A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken literally. the action is performed.

LESSKEY(1) \kh < \e< p % \e[ \e] \e( \e) { } ( ) [ ] \eˆF \eˆB G \e> > \ke = ˆG :f / ? \e/ \e? n \en N \eN m ´ ˆXˆX E :e ˆXˆV :n :p t T :x :d :t s _ | v ! + H h goto-line goto-line goto-line percent percent left-scroll right-scroll left-scroll right-scroll forw-bracket {} back-bracket {} forw-bracket () back-bracket () forw-bracket [] back-bracket [] forw-bracket back-bracket goto-end goto-end goto-end goto-end status status status forw-search back-search forw-search * back-search * repeat-search repeat-search-all reverse-search reverse-search-all set-mark goto-mark goto-mark examine examine examine next-file prev-file next-tag prev-tag index-file remove-file toggle-option toggle-option t toggle-option o display-option pipe visual shell firstcmd help help LESSKEY(1) NSH 3 .

In addition. "noaction" is similar to "invalid" but less will give an error beep for an "incalid" command. a key may be defined to do nothing by using the action "noaction".LESSKEY(1) V 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q Q :q :Q ZZ version digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit digit quit quit quit quit quit LESSKEY(1) PRECEDENCE Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands. you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line to enable all necessary actions. The following input file describes the set of default line-editing keys used by less: #line-edit \t forw-complete 7 back-complete \e\t back-complete ˆL expand ˆV literal ˆA literal \el right \kr right \eh left \kl left \eb word-left \e\kl word-left \ew word-right \e\kr word-right NSH 4 . Since all default commands are disabled. For example. The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions. LINE EDITING SECTION The line-editing section begins with the line: #line-edit This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands. in a manner similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command section. failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration. The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file. ALL default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file: #stop This will cause all default commands to be ignored. Be aware that #stop can be dangerous. one per line as in the example below. but not for a "noaction" command. A default command key may be disabled by including it in the input file with the action "invalid". Alternatively.

The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed. Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less. Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the environment. such as uparrow. and specifies the character set to be "latin1" : #env LESS = -i LESSCHARSET = latin1 ENVIRONMENT LESSKEY Name of the default lesskey file.less Default lesskey file. the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored in one file. The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run. FILES $HOME/. which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file. variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the system environment. NSH 5 . /etc/sysless Default system-wide lesskey file. SEE ALSO less(1) CAVEATS It is not possible to specify special keys.LESSKEY(1) \ei \ex \kx \eX \ekx \e\b \e0 \kh \e$ \ke \ek \ku \ej insert delete delete word-delete word-delete word-backspace home home end end up up down LESSKEY(1) ENVIRONMENT SECTION The environment variable section begins with the line #env Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments. an equals sign (‘=’) and the value to be assigned to the environment variable. Whitespace before and after the equals sign is ignored. in a keyboard-independent manner. $HOME/. LESSKEY_SYSTEM Name of the default system-wide lesskey file. Each line consists of an environment variable name. If environment variables are defined in more than one place.lesskey Default lesskey input file.

CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. SEE ALSO ln(1) ORIGIN link was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES On some systems. link always exits with an exit code of 0. Errors of any kind in creating the link are silently ignored. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. do not use it except in exceptional cases. Normally. Links to directories. you should use the ln command instead. and links across hosts will not work. Inc. The second example creates a new file /u1/data/yourdata which is linked to the file /u1/data/mydata on the host reykjavik. Unable to get a license to use the software. We strongly suggest that you use the ln command instead of the link command. file2 must be on the same disk partition as file1. change the ownership of the file to root and the mode to 500. OPTIONS link has only one option. Existing file to be linked. EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. The link command creates file2 without doing any type of error checking. links to files on different partitions. $ link foo bar $ link //reykjavik/u1/data/mydata //reykjavik/u1/data/yourdata DIAGNOSTICS Since link errors are ignored. If you want this behavior. NSH 1 . since improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems.link(1) Property of BladeLogic. This is not the default for link. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. only the super user can use the link command. Strictly confidential and proprietary link(1) NAME link − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS link [-?] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION The link command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. Newly created link file.

ln will not ask for confirmation before overwriting the target file.] directory DESCRIPTION In the first case. -? file1 file2 Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without linking any files. Inc.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. then ln will first ask for confirmation to overwrite the file. Symbolic links however. the name of the file to which the symbolic link points does not need to exist at the time that you create the link. Existing file to be linked. then the target file must be a directory. You cannot create hard links or symbolic links between files on different hosts. It simply deletes the current version of the target file. The advantage of symbolic links over hard links is that symbolic links can cross disk partitions. You cannot create a symbolic link if the file (symbolic link to be created) already exists. With this option. $ ln foo bar $ ln -s //belgrade/u1/file1 //belgrade/u1/file2 $ ls -li foo bar //belgrade/u1/file2 total 3 113380 -rw-r--r-. if the target file already exists. consist of a special file. This allows you to create symbolic links to directories and between files on different disk partitions. In the second case. With this option. The second example creates the symbolic link /u1/file2 which points to the file /u1/file1 on the host belgrade. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. if the target file already exists.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 foo 113380 -rw-r--r-. You can create hard links only between files (not directories) residing on the same disk partition. With this option. NSH 1 . In the output of the ls command. and it does not have appropriate write permissions. links to the named (existing) files are made in the named directory. and you can make symbolic links to directories. Create symbolic links instead of hard links. -i -n -s EXAMPLE The first example links the file foo to the file bar. then ln will NOT create the link which would have overwritten the current target file.2 tmk 328 Nov 7 14:43 bar 385299 lrwxrwxrwx 1 tmk 3 Nov 7 14:43 //belgrade/u1/file2 -> /u1/file1 DIAGNOSTICS ln: Target directory (dirname) not found When linking more than one file. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) NAME ln − Create a link to a file SYNOPSIS ln [-?fins] file1 file2 ln [-?fins] file1 [file2 . If you use the -f option with the -i option. OPTIONS -f By default.. ln does not ask for this confirmation. Furthermore. notice that both files have the same inode number and have two links to them (first and third column).. the ln command creates a link from the existing file file1 to the file file2 which will be newly created. if the target file of a link already exists. ln creates either hard links (the default) or symbolic links. Newly created link file. ln will ask for confirmation to unlink the file. containing the name of the file to which it is linked.

then the target file must be a directory. The target file is not a directory. SEE ALSO link(1). it has many varying implementations on the supported platforms. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message. avoid using it except in exceptional cases. ln: Unable to create link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a hard link to the file filename. and the target file already exists. ln: Unable to create symbolic link to file filename An error occurred while trying to create a symbolic link to the file filename. The -n option causes ln not to overwrite existing target files. NSH 2 . This is not possible to do. ln: Will not create link file filename: File exists You used the -n option.4 and also to be behave in a similar way as other NSH commands.ln(1) Property of BladeLogic. ln: Unable to link files across hosts You tried to create a link to a file that is not on the same host as the file to which the link should be created. Unable to get a license to use the software. One of the files to be removed was not removable. An unknown option was given. You should normally use the ln command. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. This implementation was selected to closely resemble System V. CAVEATS Since link does not perform any error checking. ORIGIN ln was written by Thomas Kraus NOTES With regards to the available options for the ln command. Strictly confidential and proprietary ln(1) ln: Target file (filename) must be a directory When linking more than one file. Inc. This message is followed my an appropriate system error message.

ls is the standard program. then ls uses the current directory (. If the COLUMNS variable is not set.) If you use the -c option with the -l option (or other options that produce a long listing). With the P_BSD variable set. then ls includes the date of last modification in the listing. it uses the default value of 80. and -g options). Each derivative has a specific option turned on. (This is the default behavior. -o. lx − List the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [-1aAbcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux?] [filename . With this option. The remaining programs are derivatives of ls. ls will output all non-printable characters in the form \nnn where nnn is the octal value of the unprintable character (also see the -q option). ls tries to determine the width of the screen by looking at the value of the COLUMNS variable. Before ls displays a listing. lf. With this option. If ls is still not able to determine the width of the screen. When using a multi-column output. lc. With the P_ATT variable set. if it is being redirected or piped). This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by column.. This may be the default. By default. If you do not specify an output format. For each file argument. ls uses a single column output (like with the -1 option). ls displays the contents of the directory. a multi-column listing (see the -C.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. l lc lf lr lx Automatically turns on the option -l Automatically turns on the option -C Automatically turns on the options -C and -F Automatically turns on the options -C and -R Automatically turns on the option -x For each directory argument. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. If the output is not going to a terminal (for example. ls displays the name of the file itself along with any other requested information. If you do not specify any file arguments. ls will output a listing for the directory itself and not its contents. If the output is going to a terminal. This option is similar to the -a option. then ls will try to determine the width of the screen by using the value of the TERM variable to consult the terminfo or termcap database (depending on the type of system the command is running on). then the default format depends on two things.. ls uses a multi-column output (like with the -x option)." and ". This option tells ls to include all files beginning with a period. This often includes the directories ". Consequently. or if it has a value less than 20. Inc. -x. lr. then ls sorts the listing by date of last modification." (parent directory). Strictly confidential and proprietary ls(1) NAME ls. then ls outputs the listing in a single column. then ls usually will list the contents of that directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works. If one of the file arguments to ls is a directory.". it sorts the listing (by default) alphabetically.. l. if a file contains special characters in the name.). If you use the -c option with the -t option (sort the listing by time). then the default universe behavior determines the output format. and -1 options).. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable." (current directory) and ".] DESCRIPTION The ls program family outputs listings of the named files. By default. or a stream listing (see the -m option). however it does not include the directories ". OPTIONS -1 -a This option tells ls to produce a single column output instead of a multi-column output.). ls does not display files beginning with a period (. depending on the universe setting. The output format of the listing can also be in the form of a long listing (see the -l. -A -b -c -C -d NSH 1 .

If sorting the listing by time with the -t option. with the contents of each directory being listed as found (no sorting). ls will output the file’s size in blocks in a separate field before the name of the file. This option is like the -F option. The checksum of a symlink is the checksum of its target. ls will output the file’s inode number in a separate field before the name of the file. Consequently. When used with the -u option. ls sorts the listing by file name. With the P_ATT variable set. Inc. ls sorts the listing by file name. For each file found. when an argument is a symbolic link. and -r are turned off. This option tells ls to dereference (follow) arguments that are symbolic links. -F -g -i -l -L -m -M -n -o -p -q -r -R -s -S -t -u -v -x NSH 2 . This option causes ls to mark certain file types with an identifying character after the file name. For each file found. When used with the -l option (or other options producing a long listing). By default. the options -l. This option tells ls to output the a multi-column listing sorted by rows. With this option. This option tells ls to output a long listing. and sockets are marked with a ’=’. while the -a option is turned on. If ls comes across a directory. -s. -t. Strictly confidential and proprietary -f ls(1) With this option. See the -t option and the -u option for more information. ls does not display the owner name/ID field. ls surrounds directories with square brackets ([ and ]). does a reverse sort by user name. ls produces blank output for otherwise non-regular files (directories. This makes it easy to identify directories. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option works.) When outputting a long listing. See the options -c and -u for more information.. ls also displays the owner name/ID field. use the numeric values of the UID and GID instead of their associated names. the output may look jumbled and/or unreadable. With this option turned on. This option tells ls to output a long listing. The block size can either be 1024 (P_BSD) or 512 (P_ATT) depending on the universe setting. files with the user execute bit set are marked with a ’*’. ls treats each file argument as a directory. ls sorts the listing by file size. except that ls does not display the group name/ID. . putting a comma and a space between file names. ls will output all non-printable characters as question marks (?). This option is similar to the -l option. does a reverse sort by time stamp. Include the md5 checksum of the file as a field in the output. With this option. By default. With this option.. tells ls to output the date of last access instead of the date of last modification. symbolic links are marked with a ’@’. if a file contains special characters in the name. ls outputs the name of the files as it finds them. This option causes ls to put a slash (’/’) after each file that is a directory. With the P_BSD variable set. then ls will recursively descend the directory and produce a listing for that directory. By default. By default. etc. block/character special. but instead of marking directories with a slash (/).ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. The default time stamp is date of last modification. Each line contains detailed information about the file. A stream format means that ls will display as many file names as it can fit on a line. When used with the -t option. A long listing consists of a single line for each file. Directories are marked with a ’/’. ls sorts the listing by time stamp. This option causes ls to output the files in a stream format. ls treats it as such and does not follow it. then sort the listing by the date of last access instead of the date of last modification.

ls: %s: Unable to access directory dirname Ls was unable to access the directory dirname to determine its contents. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given One of the files to be listed was not accessible Unable to get a license to use the software. $ ls -pC $ ls -lrt //berlin/bin/a* DIAGNOSTICS ls: filename <system error message> Ls was unable to determine detailed information about the file filename. With the P_ATT variable set. If a long listing is being output. The -g flag has two very different meanings depending on your universe setting. Any directories found in the current directory have a ’/’ appended to their names. or -x options). ls ignores column settings less than 20. Multi-column listings are presented differently depending on your universe setting. ls uses the default screen width of 80. then with the P_BSD variable set the default behavior is not to output the group name field. ORIGIN ls was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 3 . With the P_ATT variable set. Instead.ls(1) Property of BladeLogic. When using the -s option to display file sizes in blocks. there are several option conflicts. then with the P_BSD variable set. the group name field is also included in long listings. then with the P_BSD variable set ls will default to a multi-column output equivalent to the -x option. ls calculates column widths based on the longest file name with an interval of two spaces between columns. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR Because of the large number of options for this command. ls aligns columns to the nearest 8 character interval with columns separated by TAB characters. With the P_ATT variable set ls assumes block sizes to be 512 bytes large. -C. With the P_ATT variable set ls defaults to a single column output equivalent to the -1 option. the default behavior is to output the group name field. With the P_BSD variable set. The second example produces a long listing sorted in reverse by time of last modifications of all files/directories beginning with the letter ’a’ in the directory bin on the host berlin. and the user has not selected an output format (-1. If a long listing is not being produced. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? ls(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any listing. With the P_BSD variable set. EXAMPLE The first example outputs a multi-column listing of the current directory. There are 25 options for this command. With the P_ATT variable set. ls assumes block sizes to be 1024 bytes large. a long listing is automatically made with the group name file not shown.

OPTIONS -h -? The name of the host that contains the man page. Unable to get a license to use the software. man: Error in starting remote program This error message is output when no data was received back from the remote host when executing the man command on it. No data was returned from the remote host. man does not know on which host to look for man pages. Inc. The second example prints the man page for the command wait in section 2 of the man pages.man(1) Property of BladeLogic. you specify the name of the host that contains the man page. Strictly confidential and proprietary man(1) NAME man − Get man pages from remote host SYNOPSIS man [-h host] man_options DESCRIPTION man invokes a man page on a selected remote host. Normally. This version of man does not. The available options for the man command differ from system to system. man displays the output of the remote man command. NSH 1 . using the -h host option. thus letting you effectively access the man page on the remote host. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without displaying any man pages. found on the host dublin (as defined by the P_MANHOST variable). man was unable to determine where to look for the man page. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Because of this. man will check the shell variable P_MANHOST for the name of a host. CAVEATS Some versions of man automatically redirect their output to the more command for easier browsing. You must use the command syntax for the host from which you are retrieving the man page. $ man -h dublin man $ P_MANHOST=dublin $ export P_MANHOST $ man -s 2 wait DIAGNOSTICS man: Do not know on which host to look for man pages on This message is output if you did not specify the -h option and the P_MANHOST variable was not set. If you do not specify this option. EXAMPLE The first example prints the man page for the command man which is found on the host dublin.

If you specify a file on a remote host.. If the size value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. Light mode.] DESCRIPTION The md5sum command calculates the MD5 checksum of each file you specify as an argument. Strictly confidential and proprietary md5sum(1) NAME md5sum − Calculate MD5 checksum of files SYNOPSIS md5sum [-bltf] [-o offset] [-s size] [file .md5sum(1) Property of BladeLogic. If the offset value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. This is the default behavior. Do not output warning messages. -f -o offset This option tells md5sum what offset in bytes to start calculating from.. AUTHOR md5sum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO ls (-M option) NSH 1 . If the size value ends with an ’m’ md5sum will interpret the value as a MB value. the remote RSCD agent calculates the MD5 checksum. You can use this option in conjunction with the -o option to checksum subsets of the file. OPTIONS -b -l -t This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in binary mode (as opposed to textual mode). If the offset value ends with a ’k’ md5sum will interpret the value as a KB value. so as not to have to pull the whole file across the network. This option is useful when dealing with textual files on a Windows system. If you do not specify any files. where you do not want to have the different end of line characters (which differ between UNIX and Windows) affect the calculation. You can use this option in conjunction with the -s option to checksum subsets of the file. Inc. md5sum takes its input from stdin. -s size This option tells md5sum the number of bytes to use in the calculation. Only read (up to) the first 512 bytes (same as -s 512). This option tells the md5sum command to read the file in textual mode (as opposed to binary mode).

mkdir was unable to create one of the named directories. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. With this option. DESCRIPTION mkdir creates new directories. where mode is an octal value. mkdir creates the directory /u2/newdir/src. Otherwise a warning message appears. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) NAME mkdir − Create directories SYNOPSIS mkdir [-m mode] [-p] [-?] dirname . mkdir: Invalid mode (mode) The mode the directory should be set to must be in octal (digits 0-7). The second example first makes sure the directories /u2 and /u2/newdir exist. EXAMPLE The first example creates the directory newdir in the local directory. Set the initial user ownership to user. On Windows this must be numeric and you must have appropriate permissions on the file. mkdir will create parent directories as required. Otherwise a warning message appears. Each of the created directories will have their permissions set to mode.mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. then this error message will appear.. (This may be altered by the value of current umask.. OPTIONS -m mode Set the file permissions of all created directories to mode. Second. Unable to get a license to use the software. If either directory does not exist.) Parent directories for the new directory must already exist unless you use the -p option (see below). An unknown option was given. mkdir creates the missing directory. By default the mode of the newly created directories is calculated to be: 0777 minus <current umask of local host> -p By default the parent of the directory must already exist. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. -u user -g group Set the initial group ownership to group. This message is followed by a system error message indicating the possible problem. Inc. -? Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without creating any directories. NSH 1 . By default. mkdir creates directories with the mode 0777. If the mode contains non octal digits. dirname The name of the directory you want to create. $ mkdir newdir $ mkdir -p -m 0755 //andorra/u2/newdir/src //madrid/u2/newdir/src DIAGNOSTICS mkdir: Error creating directories dirname An error was encountered while creating the directory dirname.

mkdir(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkdir(1) ORIGIN mkdir was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Inc.

EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. Unable to get a license to use the software. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing.. ORIGIN mkfifo was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mknod(1).mkfifo(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary mkfifo(1) NAME mkfifo − Create named pipe (FIFO) SYNOPSIS mkfifo name . CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. The second example creates the named pipes /tmp/pipe1 and /tmp/pipe2 on host montecarlo $ mkfifo mypipe $ mkfifo //montecarlo/u2/pipe1 //montecarlo/u2/pipe2 DIAGNOSTICS mkfifo: Error creating named pipe filename If an error occurred while creating the named pipe. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. DESCRIPTION mkfifo creates a named pipe (FIFO) for each of the named arguments. NSH 1 . The mode of the newly created named pipe is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name The name of the named pipe you want to create. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.. mkfifo was unable to create the special file.

tells mknod to create a character special file. Unable to get a license to use the software. You specified an unknown option or an option was missing. which can be either a named pipe (FIFO) (p). The second example creates the character special file /tmp/null on host tirana # mknod mypipe -p # mknod //tirana/tmp/null c 3 2 DIAGNOSTICS mknod: Error creating special file filename If an error occurred while creating the special file. EXAMPLE The first example creates the named pipe mypipe in the local directory. ORIGIN mknod was written by Thomas Kraus. The major number of the character/block special file. As the second argument.mknod(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary mknod(1) NAME mknod − Create a special file SYNOPSIS mknod name [p] [b | c major minor] DESCRIPTION mknod creates a special file. The minor number of the character/block special file. this error message will appear along with an appropriate system message. The mode of the newly created special file is calculated as follows: 0666 minus <current umask of local host> OPTIONS name p c b major minor As the first argument. You cannot create a special file if a file of that name already exists. CAVEATS You must be a super user to create character and block special files. mknod was unable to create the special file. If you create a character or block special file. the name of the special file you want to create. tells mknod to create a named pipe (FIFO). you must also specify the major and minor number of the device. Inc. As the second argument. or a block special file (b). tells mknod to create a block special file. The first argument is the name of the special file. a character special file (c). NSH 1 . The second argument specifies the type of special file. As the second argument. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected.

mv: Unable to access parent directory dirname The parent directory of the target file/directory could not be found. The named directory (last argument) does not seem to exist. Second. then the target file must be a directory. $ mv foo. The last argument given to mv is the destination file/directory (target). Destination file or directory.bar foobar $ mv //bucharest/u1/src/*.. An error occurred while trying to move a file. then the target must be a directory. mv checks to see if the target file already exists. you can use it to move files/directories from one directory into another. NSH 1 . It simply overwrites the file. then the target file must be a directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option.bar to foobar..c new_src EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. mv: Unable to access file filename The file to be moved (filename) was not accessible. Inc. Source file. Unable to get a license to use the software. if a target file already exists.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. then mv overwrites the file. mv: Target file (filename) must be a directory When moving more than one file. dir DESCRIPTION mv works in two forms. -f -? file1 file2 EXAMPLE The first example renames the file foo. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv(1) NAME mv − Move or rename files SYNOPSIS mv [-fi?] file1 file2 mv [-fi?] file . An unknown option was given. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without moving any files. you can use it to rename files.c files from the directory /u1/src from host bucharest to the local directory new_src. then mv will ask for confirmation to overwrite the target file. and makes sure that the file has appropriate write permissions allowing it to be overwritten. mv prompts you to see if it should overwrite the file anyway. First. With the -f option. The target file is not a directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y. If the file exists and does not have appropriate permissions. By default. If there are two or more files to be moved to the target. DIAGNOSTICS mv: Target directory (dirname) not found When moving more than one file. mv does not display this prompt. This option tells mv not to check for potential overwrite problems in the target file’s mode. OPTIONS -i With this option. The second examples moves all .

the source file is removed. The target file could not be created. See cp for more details on copying directories. There was an error deleting the source file. the -i option will override the -f option.mv(1) Property of BladeLogic. mv: Unable to move directory dirname across partitions or hosts You can move directories only within a disk partition. You cannot move directories over partition or host borders. There was an error removing the source file. Inc. mv: Error writing to file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. mv: Could not unlink file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the files are actually copied. the -f option will override the -i option. NSH 2 . ORIGIN mv was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO cp(1). mv: Unable to create file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. The source file to be copied could not be accessed. mv: Unable to open file filename If a cross partition/host move is to be made. the files are actually copied. After having copied the source file to the target file. Strictly confidential and proprietary mv: Unable to create link to new file filename An error occurred while moving the file filename. the files are actually copied. mv(1) mv: Unable to unlink file filename After the source file has been linked to the target file. The target file could not be created. With the P_ATT variable set. the files are actually copied. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If you use both the -i and -f options. There was an error copying the source file to the target file. the source must be deleted.

then the <sources> must be absolute path names. destN ndsync [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 . The available options are: -h If you are not using any other options. unless you are using the -d option. This option can be used in conjunction with the -h option to indicate the (absolute) directory on the destination host into which you want to copy the <sources>. OPTIONS The command line arguments are split into multiple sections. allowing users to copy/synchronize multiple files and/or directories to multiple destinations.//athens/etc/host //paris/etc/hosts NSH 1 . a separate process should be created to perform the copy. Inc.. because the overhead of each fork and subsequent copy of a single file may outweigh the rewards of doing things in parallel. If you use this option. This option indicates that for each source/destination pair. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncp(1) NAME ncp. sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 .ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. This option lets you define a list of destinations inside a flat file... The sections are: ncp <cp options> <sources> <ncp options> <destinations> <cp options> Since ncp/ndsync are supersets of cp/dsync. -f file -d dir -p n -v EXAMPLE The following example copies a file to multiple destinations rome $ ncp /etc/hosts . destN DESCRIPTION ncp and ndsync are supersets of their respective cp and dsync parents. This indicates that the destinations are actually hostnames or I. the flat file should contain a list of files/directories to which you want to copy the <sources>. <ncp options> These options affect the way in which the source files/directories are copied to the destinations. These commands provide an alternate interface. see their respective documentation. because the <sources> are copied to the same location on the destination hosts.. This option is more useful when copying directories than individual files. These commands are most useful when you want to update multiple remote hosts with the same data. A maximum of n processes in parallel are started at any time... sourceN -[hv] [-d dir] [-p n] dest1 .P. The descriptions below apply to both the ncp and ndsync commands. you must include a dash (-) to delimit the start of your target destination(s). Copy in parallel.. This option tell the program to output verbose messages that include percentages of how far a particular file has been copied. addresses to which you want to copy the <sources>. Otherwise. these options are the same options supported by the respective parent command. For full details of how the cp/dsync commands work. If you use this option with the -h option (above) then the flat file should contain a list of hosts.. <sources> These are the files and/or directories that you want to copy to the given destinations. ndsync − Copy/synchronize multiple sources to multiple destinations SYNOPSIS ncp [-bifnprtuvBCLPRST?] [-s suf] source1 .

Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //moscow/tmp/hosts .. ORIGIN The cp command family (cp.ncp(1) Property of BladeLogic.. ndsync) was written by Thomas Kraus... Strictly confidential and proprietary You could have done the same thing as follows: rome $ ncp /etc/hosts -h athens paris Or as follows: rome $ cd /etc rome $ ncp hosts -h -d /etc athens paris Here is an example of using the -f option rome $ cat hosts athens moscow lisbon rome $ ncp -v /etc/hosts -h -f hosts -d /tmp Copy /etc/hosts -> //athens/tmp/hosts . Done The following example copies a directory to several remote hosts and does so in parallel: rome $ ncp -rvp /foo/bar -p 3 -h athens paris london -d /foo ncp(1) DIAGNOSTICS See DIAGNOSTICS section in cp documentation. Done Copy /etc/hosts -> //lisbon/tmp/hosts . Inc. NSH 2 . SEE ALSO dsync(1). cp(1).. EXIT CODES See EXIT CODES section in cp documentation. uncp(1). ncp. dsync..

AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed. some systems (for example. this data may not be available for all servers. By default ncpu sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.2. addresses. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. ncpu2 can display the value as a number or a string.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] ncpu2 [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Reverse sort order. See the -f option below. This option overrides the -t option. Quit application. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose CPU information you want to display. Do not show a header on output. Quit application. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. -t NSH 1 .or 5. SLOT Indicates which slot this CPU occupies..Property of BladeLogic. With this option the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Therefore. Load the list of servers whose CPU information you want to display. ncpu displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.3. addresses.. Show only entries that match the given expression.P.P. Refresh screen. Inc. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) NAME ncpu − View CPU information from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ncpu [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Replace the # character with 1. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. ncpu displays the value as a number. See the -s option below. TYPE The manufacturer and model type of the CPU. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I.. This data is not available on all systems. STATUS Indicates whether the CPU is online or offline. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION ncpu displays CPU information in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. In addition. Sort on the specified column.4.

8 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. host% ncpu2 engaix43agt2 engaix53lp1 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engaix53lp1 00-00 1648 Online engaix43agt2 00-00 0 Online TYPE PowerPC_POWER5 PowerPC_604e EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Switch to process summary view. Inc. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. including NOT. nstats(1) NSH 2 .Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. nnet(1). Switch to system info view. Switch to process info view. ORIGIN ncpu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). EXAMPLE This example shows how to view CPU information for multiple hosts (and operating systems). AND. wildcards are supported. For full details on expressions. Switch to statistics view. and OR. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. host% ncpu -h engsuse8agt1 engsol9agt2 HOSTNAME SLOT SPEED STATUS engsol9agt2 0 548 Online engsuse8agt1 0 2800 Online engsuse8agt1 1 2800 Online TYPE sparcv9 GenuineIntel Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2. Switch to disk info view. Switch to network info view. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. see the man page for blexpr. nmem(1). ndf(1).8 This example shows how to view non-numeric slot information using ncpu2. When an expression is used to match a string. but does not mimic it exactly. nps(1). Switch to memory info view. Strictly confidential and proprietary ncpu(1) ncpu(1) e d m n o p s u -w Define an expression to filter the output data. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.

P.P. Load the list of servers from which to get disk usage information. Comparisons are made case neutral. Behave top like. See the -f option below. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. addresses. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. This option overrides the -t option.. Property of BladeLogic. By default ndf sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the disk usage capacity. -c -e expr -f file -H Output disk usage information as a set of comma separated values. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the disk usage information. Inc. addresses. Inc. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second -t NSH 1 . MOUNTED ON The directory (or drive) associated with the disk partition OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of ndf. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. FILESYSTEM The name of the system device associated with the disk partition KBYTES The total amount of available disk space in KB USED FREE The total amount of used disk space in KB The total amount of available disk space in KB CAPACITY Amount of disk space used in terms of percentage of total available. See the -s option below. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Do not show a header on output. -r -s field Sort in reverse order.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndf(1) NAME ndf − View disk usage statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Only show entries which match the given expression.. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. The field should be one of the column headers as described above.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ndf displays disk usage statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to.

you can define an expression used to filter the output data.e. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. Switch to statistics view. including NOT. Inc. Switch to process summary view.ndf(1) Property of BladeLogic. nnet(1). and OR. nps(1). Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. ORIGIN ndf was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).3.6. or 0 (10). ndf(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting disk usage information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available disk space: host% ndf -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s Free EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. AND.4. When an expression is used to match a string.8.9. Switch to network info view. Switch to disk info view. Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument (i. Inc. Switch to process info view.5.7. nover(1). Switch to system info view. Switch to memory info view.2. nstats(1) NSH 2 . For full details on expressions. nmem(1). wildcards are supported. Strictly confidential and proprietary # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1.. see the man page for blexpr. enclose the expression in single quotes).

Also compare file sizes. and -p options. then depending on which options you specified. -t. Traverse directories recursively.. Also compare file permissions. The file exists but has a different time of last modification. When you specify the -p option. Will only appear if you specified the -p option. If ndircmp detects different file permissions. Each entry is preceded with a code field indicating what differences exist. Will only appear if you specified the -t option. In its base use. If ndircmp detects a different file ownership. each entry for an existing file will include the username/groupname of the file in parentheses. Do not output files if they are equal or missing. Also compare file ownerships. The file exists but has different access permissions. If you specify this option without specifying any additional comparisons (besides existence) then ndircmp will not output a report. If the file exists. it indicates this permissions difference by including the letter P in the compare code. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ndircmp(1) NAME ndircmp − Compare contents of multiple directories SYNOPSIS ndircmp [-aeMmnOoprst] dir1 dir2 . Do not output files if they are equal.. This option tells ndircmp to calculate the optimal spacing for the generated output based on the width of the output device. When you specify the -o option. Will only appear if you specified the -o option. Will only appear if you specified the -s option. and date of latest modification. the following codes may also appear. each entry for an -m -n -O -o -p -r -s NSH 1 . file permissions.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic. DESCRIPTION The ndircmp utility lets you compare the contents of multiple directories. You can change the output device width by using the -w option. Use the directories listed in file as arguments for the command. it indicates this size difference by including the letter S in the compare code. -o. Output file ownerships numerically (UID/GID) instead of by username/groupname. S T O P The file exists but is of a different size. Not only does it compare the contents (file names) of the directories (which files exist or do not exist) but it can also optionally compare file size. When you specify the -s option. By default. the width is set to 80 characters. Also compare the files’ respective MD5 checksums in the comparison. The file exists but has different file ownerships. each entry for an existing file will include the octal file permissions of the file in parentheses. it indicates this ownership difference by including the letter O in the compare code. The file is equal (the same) based on all of the comparison parameters you specified. ndircmp outputs a report of the aggregate files in all given directories. If ndircmp detects different file sizes. file ownerships. with the first given directory taken as a base line for the remaining directories. The calculation of MD5 checksums will significantly increase the amount of time it takes to perform the file/directory comparisons. OPTIONS -a -e -f file -M Equivalent to specifying the -s. The possible codes are: < = The file is missing from this directory.

where N is the number of directories being checked.. SEE ALSO cp(1). By default. When you specify the -t option. NSH 2 . Inc. ndircmp(1) -t Also compare dates of last modification. These options (-1. ORIGIN ndircmp was written by Thomas Kraus.. If ndircmp detects different dates of last modification. ndircmp outputs a table that has N columns. dsync(1). The default assumption is 80 characters. -9) let you specify how many columns to output with directory results (sets of columns) separated by a form feed (Ctrl-L) character. it indicates this last modification difference by including the letter T in the compare code. Strictly confidential and proprietary existing file will include the file size in parentheses. When calculating the optimal output. assume the output device width to be width characters. -2 . each entry for an existing file will include the date of last modification of the file in parentheses. -w width -[1-9] Specify the maximum number of columns to output.ndircmp(1) Property of BladeLogic.

an entry in the Network Shell remote_cmds configuration file must exist indicating that this command should be treated as a remote command. not all platforms fully support the utmp entry. If you specify this option. The remaining arguments are the name and arguments of the remote program to be executed. as determined by the current working directory. It then invokes the cmd args using the effective remote user’s default shell and also sets argv[0] of the executing program (the effective remote user’s default shell) to "-". Solaris /bin/vi or AIX smit). You should only use this option when the remote interactive program does not behave as expected on screen.g.. Note that if the cmd executed is the effective remote user’s default shell then nexec will execute the command directly instead of spawning their shell twice. In addition. For more information. It sets the HOME.) for indicating that the shell is a login shell and that the shell’s startup scripts (e. etc. this option creates an appropriate entry in the utmp database for use by utilities such as who. The other way to call the nexec program is by calling a command that is implicitly linked to the nexec program. Without this option. which some interactive programs need (e. and USER environment variables to their respective values based on the remote permissions. where the host is determined by the program’s present working directory. Inc. the remote stdout/stderr outputs are written to the respective local stdout/stderr. The first argument is either the name of the host on which the specified command should be executed or the command option -e. This is a traditional method understood by shells (sh. Strictly confidential and proprietary nexec(1) NAME nexec − Engine to interface remote commands. If the program is called explicitly. bash. This option attempts to start the remote program in a way that simulates an actual login session. see the NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES section below. it uses the syntax nexec ARG1 ARG2. any messages to standard error messages are indistinguishable from standard output messages. Nexec captures all stdin and sends it to the remote command (see -n option).g. .. Client sends ’nexec -l -e ls -la’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh -c "ls -la" Client sends ’nexec -l -e ksh’ Agent executes ’/bin/ksh -ksh’ NSH 1 . It sets your initial working directory to the home directory of the effective remote user. Finally. On UNIX agents. Note that this option only applies when the remote server is a UNIX-like machine.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. Invoking a command that is linked to nexec automatically translates the command from <command> to nexec <host> <command>. Once the remote program has been started. Tells the agent to run in a pure interactive mode. and it displays all stdout/stderr it gets sent by the remote command. The following examples show what exactly gets executed (assuming a default shell of /bin/ksh). the nexec command acts as an I/O interface to the remotely running command. -l Simulates a login session. a pseudo tty is created in which the program is run while on Windows agents a simple pipe-based I/O mechanism is used to communictae with the command. COMMAND OPTIONS -e -i Executes the command on the current remote host. LOGNAME. ksh. SYNOPSIS nexec [-?] [-t term] [-o] [-i] [-l] [-nohup hostname "cmd &"] -e | hostname cmd [args] DESCRIPTION The nexec program works in one of two ways.profile) should be run. which indicates that the command should be executed on the current remote host. For the command to be executed directly from /bin/nsh.

With this option nexec will convert all output (stdout/stderr) generated by the command from the local code page of the target server to UTF8. Strictly confidential and proprietary -n nexec(1) Leave stdin alone (do not read any data from stdin). See examples below. Tells nexec to ignore the value of the TERM variable and use term instead as the terminal type. This option is available on agents running 7. By default. then one should use the -r (raw) option to have no transcoding done.0 introduced some synchronization fixes to the nexec protocol. To deal with this nexec will now. nexec will read all data it gets from stdin and sent it to the remote command as standard input (stdin). input (stdin) captured by the nexec client is converted to UTF-8 before it is sent to the agent where. a Windows server localized for Japanese with a code page of CP932 and a Solaris server also localized for Japanese but with a code page of EUC-JP. Now imagine that from the Windows server one kicks off a command (via nexec) on the Solaris server that generates Japanese output. the command to be executed cannot be an interactive command. -o -r -u Use the legacy version of the nexec protocol. X11 FORWARDING The nexec utility automatically configures the agent to capture X11 traffic by resetting the DISPLAY variable and tunneling traffic to the server that initiated the nexec call.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. DEFAULT PROGRAMS The Network Shell provides the following pre-configured links: arp finger ifconfig Address resolution display and control Display information about users Configure and show network interface parameters NSH 2 . Use this option to tell nexec not to use the synchronization fixes. Imagine for example. meaning no auto transcoding. See INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES below for more details. If this type of behaviour is not wanted. is converted to the local code page. As such. INTERNATIONALIZATION ISSUES One of the issues a user could run into when dealing with multiple computers is how these computers meaningfully interact in a mixed code page environment.3 or later. This assumes that the generated output consists of proper code page sequences. With this option stdin is not read and as such should only be used with commands that do not require any input. Release 7. by default. -nohup hostname "cmd &" Executes a command in the background on the specified server. automatically transcode data. It must be a batch (output only) command. random binary data may not be converted properly and invalid and/or unrecognized sequences will be converted to question marks (’?’). that unrecognized characters are replaced with question marks (’?’). This allows you to securely tunnel X11 traffic using the same security features as other NSH utilities. In the same way. When using the nexec command to execute a command on a Windows host. -t term See the EXAMPLES section below for more information. The output which would now be displayed on the Windows server will be incorrect as the Windows is looking to output CP932 code sequences and the Solaris server is providing EUC-JP code sequences. before it is passed to the application. Inc. Do not transcode input/output. It should be noted that if there are any transcoding issues. As this automatic transcoding may not always be desired there is the -r option to have all data dealt with in raw mode. Output generated by the command is captured by the agent and converted to UTF-8 before being sent back to the nexec client where it is converted to the local code page before it is output to the terminal/screen. As such the output will be not very useful.0.

take the following steps. # # # # # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ cd bin ln -s nexec foobar cd . First. see the nsh man page. For more information./share echo "foobar <path_to_foobar>" >> remote_cmds Now from the Network Shell environment you can: $ /bin/nsh $ cd //rome/home/foo $ foobar -now In the above example. nexec(1) NETWORK SHELL UTILITIES To have the Network Shell seamlessly execute remote programs.. the second field (<path_to_foobar>) is an optional path to the remote executable. In the first instance. This field is only required if the executable is not found in the PATH of the remote RSCD Agent (daemon) when the Agent is started. Strictly confidential and proprietary ipconfig (NT) mem (NT) mount nbtstat (NT) net (NT) netstat nfsstat ps size swap umount uptime who xterm Configure and show network interface parameters Display memory usage Mount or show mounted file system Show nbt statistics Interface to net command Show network statistics Display NFS status/statistics Display process status/statistics Report size of an object file Display swap space status/statistics on System V type systems Unmount files system Determine how long a system has been up Display who is logged in on a system Start a remote xterm displaying on your local screen. The following example shows how a remote utility called foobar can be configured for remote execution. EXAMPLES The following example shows typical uses of nexec: unix% $ nexec winhost net start unix% $ cd //winhost winhost% $ nexec -e net start winhost% $ nexec linux rpm -qai Notice in the next example the effect of the -n option. Inc. make a link to the Network Shell utility nexec and then make a corresponding entry in the remote_cmds file to indicate the program is a remote command. In the second example all entries in the file are handled as nexec is not reading stdin input. host% cat hosts NSH 3 .nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic. the first line of the stdin is read via the read host command and the remaining entries are gobbled up by nexec and as such only one line of output is generated.

Strictly confidential and proprietary madrid lisbon rome host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid.bletch. ORIGIN nexec was written by Thomas Kraus. Inc. and programs needing full Console support may hang or not function as expected.com In the following example.bletch. this capability is currently limited on Windows machines to simple input/output programs.com Hostname for lisbon is: lisbon. SEE ALSO rsh(1). While the nexec command does support the ability to interface remote interactive commands. nexec runs a command named bgCmd in the background on a server named RemoteHost : nexec -nohup RemoteHost "bgCmd &" CAVEATS Programs/utilities vary between hosts and operating systems.com nexec(1) host% cat hosts | while read host do echo -n "Hostname for $host is: " nexec -n $host hostname done Hostname for madrid is: madrid. The best example of this is the ps command. not all commands are available on all hosts. NSH 4 .bletch.nexec(1) Property of BladeLogic.bletch.com Hostname for rome is: rome. An option may not be universal to all platforms. Its options vary drastically between BSD and ATT systems. Similarly.

host% nlogin santiago Password for tmk@santiago: ******* $ EXAMPLES CAVEATS You can only nlogin to UNIX style machines. and/or ssh. If you do not specify a username with which to log in to the remote host (by using the -l user option). Utilities such as telnet have a special escape key sequence that lets you exit the protocol and take local action. OPTIONS -? -l user host Displays a general usage message. NSH 1 . If the remote server successfully authenticates the username and password. This capability may be a suitable replacement for utilities such as telnet. nlogin does not have such an escape key sequence. nlogin will attempt to log into the remote host using your current login name.nlogin(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nlogin(1) NAME nlogin − Secure remote login (through RSCD Agent) SYNOPSIS nlogin [-?] [-l user] host DESCRIPTION nlogin is a special instance of the nexec utility. Inc. The login session uses the same encrypted protocol as all other NSH utilities and therefore provides a secure remote login capability. rlogin. telnet(1). SEE ALSO nexec(1). The name of the remote host you want to log into. The user name with which you want to log into the remote host. the remote user’s login shell will be started in the remote user’s HOME directory. It performs a remote login to host. ORIGIN nlogin was written by Thomas Kraus. nlogin will prompt you to enter the appropriate remote password.

Inc. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. MEMFREE The amount of free memory available in KB %MEM Amount of memory used in terms of percentage of total available. SWAPTOTAL The total amount of swap space in KB. Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nmem(1) NAME nmem − View memory and swap statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nmem displays memory and swap statistics of one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Comparisons are made case neutral.. This option overrides the -t option. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. MEMTOTAL The total amount of physical memory in KB. Only show entries which match the given expression. -c -e expr -f file -H Output memory information as a set of comma separated values. See the -s option below. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application -t NSH 1 . OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nmem. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option.P. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Inc. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the memory information. addresses. MEMUSED The amount of memory used in KB. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on.nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. Load the list of servers from which to get memory information.P. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. SWAPUSED The amount of swap space used in KB SWAPFREE The amount of free swap space available in KB %SWAP Amount of swap space used in terms of percentage of total available. Behave top like. See the -f option below. addresses. Do not show a header on output. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. By default nmem sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the swap usage percentage.

. including NOT. nstats(1) NSH 2 .nmem(1) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of getting memory and swap information from multiple hosts sorted (largest to smallest) by total used memory host% nmem -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s MEMUSED EXPRESSIONS With the -e option. Switch to system info view. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details.3. Switch to process summary view. wildcards are supported. Switch to memory info view. For full details on expressions. Switch to disk info view. nnet(1). and OR. ndf(1). Inc.2. see the man page for blexpr. ORIGIN nmem was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).7. or 0 (10). Switch to statistics view.6. -w Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.4. Switch to process info view.8.5. Switch to network info view. you can define an expression used to filter output data. CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. When an expression is used to match a string. The expression should be a single argument (i. nover(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Property of BladeLogic. nps(1). enclose the expression in single quotes). Inc.e. AND. Strictly confidential and proprietary q r + # e d m n o p s u Quit application Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. nmem(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.9.

Reverse sort order. See the -s option below. If there is no MAC address.P. the MAC address appears as all zeros.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nnet displays network adapter configuration data for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. SPEED NIC speed in Mbit. Do not show a header on output. or if you do not have the required permissions. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. nnet displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. I. In addition. This option overrides the -t option. BROADCAST Broadcast address for the adapter. IP SUBNET OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file Output network adapter configuration information as a set of comma separated values. Not all adapters have a MAC address.P. nnet sorts in reverse alphabetical order by host name. Refresh screen. Quit application. addresses. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. Load the list of servers whose network adapter configuration information you want to display.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. Show only entries that match the given expression. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. NAME Adapter name. -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose network adapter configuration information you want to display. NSH 1 . NIC speed is obtainable only if the user has appropriate permissions. you might not have the permissions to gather MAC address data. Quit application. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. -r -s field -t Sort in reverse order. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. With this option.. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data.2 and beyond. address of the adapter. See the -f option below. Strictly confidential and proprietary nnet(1) NAME nnet − View network adapter configuration data SYNOPSIS nnet [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. By default.P. addresses. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. NIC speed for HP-UX is supported from version 10. MAC Adapter MAC address. Subnet mask for the adapter. Inc..

Replace the # character with 1.6. nmem(1).4.3. nstats(1). CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. ORIGIN nnet was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary # -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. nnet(1) Sort on the specified column.nnet(1) Property of BladeLogic. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes.5. ndf(1) NSH 2 . Inc. nover(1). see the man page for blexpr. but does not mimic it exactly. For full details on expressions. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get network adapter configuration information from multiple hosts: host% nnet -h solarishost linuxhost winhost EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. nps(1).2. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. or 7.

the exit status of nohup shall be that of utility. SEE ALSO signal(3) STANDARDS The nohup command is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. . Strictly confidential and proprietary NOHUP (1) NAME nohup − invoke a command immune to hangups SYNOPSIS nohup utility [arg .] DESCRIPTION The nohup utility invokes command with its arguments and at this time sets the signal SIGHUP to be ignored. BSD June 6. the nohup utility uses the directory named by HOME to create the file.2 (“POSIX. ENVIRONMENT HOME If the output file nohup. the standard output is appended to the file nohup. 1993 1 . Inc. If the standard output is a terminal. The nohup utility shall exit with one of the following values: 126 127 The utility was found but could not be invoked.2”) compatible. .out cannot be created in the current directory.out in the current directory.NOHUP (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The utility could not be found or an error occurred in nohup. If standard error is a terminal. it is directed to the same place as the standard output. Otherwise.

This field has different meanings for different operating systems and includes the service pack for Windows. ARCH The system hardware architecture. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system overview information. OS The system’s operating system MAINT The current maintenance release of the OS. The data it displays is displayed in columns as follows: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. MEMORY The amount of memory in MB SWAP DISK The amount of swap space in MB The total amount of local disk space in GB. addresses. addresses. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. the release level for AIX. See the -s option below.. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. See the -f option below. SPEED The estimated CPU speed in MHz.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. With the -i option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. With this option the data is displayed such that it is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Load the list of servers from which to get system overview information. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without needing to re-specify the -h option. Strictly confidential and proprietary nover(1) NAME nover − View system overview from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . and as not set for Solaris.P. Behave top like. Windows systems. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q Refresh the data Refresh screen Quit application Quit application -t NSH 1 . The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. -c -e expr -f file -H Output system overview information as a set of comma separated values. Property of BladeLogic. The field should be one of the column headers as described above. Inc.. Only show entries which match the given expression. CPUS The number of system CPUs (online and off). This option overrides the -t option. By default nover sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the CPU speed. This data is not available on all systems while some systems (e. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Inc. AIX) require root access to determine CPU speed and as such this data may not be available for all servers. the kernel release for Linux. Comparisons are made case neutral.P.g. Do not show a header on output. OPTIONS The following options are available to modify the behaviour of nover.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Nover displays a system overview in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.

or 0 (10). ndf(1). Switch to process info view. host% nover -h solaris8 linux HOSTNAME OS MAINT linux RedHat ES3 2. see the man page for blexpr.EL solaris8 SunOS 5. Inc. EXAMPLE The following illustrates a simple example of viewing an overview of multiple hosts (and operating systems). nps(1).8.5. you can define an expression used to filter output data.2. Please see the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width.nover(1) Property of BladeLogic. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands.4. and OR. Inc.. wildcards are supported. Switch to statistics view. Switch to process summary view. including NOT. For full details on expressions. When an expression is used to match a string.7. nmem(1).21-4. Switch to disk info view. Switch to memory info view. nstats(1) NSH 2 . nnet(1).6. Switch to system info view.8 CPUS 1 1 SPEED 797 MHz 440 MHz ARCH i686 sun4u MEMORY 121 MB 256 MB SWAP 251 MB 513 MB DIS 18 G 17 G EXPRESSIONS With the -e option.4. AND. ORIGIN nover was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1). CAVEATS The top like behaviour is not meant to exactly mimic the top command. Strictly confidential and proprietary r + # e d m n o p s u -w Reverse sort order Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second Sort on column # which is a value of 1. nover(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data.9. Switch to network info view. The expression should be a single argument (i. enclose the expression in single quotes).e.3. Property of BladeLogic.

This option overrides the -t option. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) NAME nprocsum − View process summary from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nprocsum [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Do not show a header on output. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. USER NPROCS Total number of processes. The username of the owner of the processes on the remote host. Quit application.P. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process summary information you want to display. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. Show only entries that match the given expression. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. nprocsum displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option.. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + Refresh the data. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. addresses. The percentage of CPU that the processes have used altogether. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. Reverse sort order. Quit application. Refresh screen.P. -t NSH 1 . Load the list of servers whose process summary information you want to display. addresses. With this option the data is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. Output process summary information as a set of comma separated values. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second.Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. See the -f option below.Property of BladeLogic. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The total amount of real memory that the processes are using altogether.. By default nprocsum sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the total number of processes. MEMORY The percentage of total memory that the processes are using altogether. Inc. VSIZE RSS The total amount of virtual memory that the processes are using altogether. The field must be one of the column headers listed above.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nprocsum displays process summary for one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. TIME CPU The cumulative amount of CPU that the processes have used altogether. See the -s option below.

Sort on the specified column. Switch to memory info view. Switch to system info view. Switch to network info view. Replace the # character with 1. nnet(1). but does not mimic it exactly. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. For full details on expressions. wildcards are supported. Inc. see the man page for blexpr. Define an expression to filter the output data. Switch to process summary view. nstats(1) NSH 2 .Property of BladeLogic.4.3. nps(1). Switch to statistics view. When an expression is used to match a string. Switch to process info view. ORIGIN nprocsum was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO blexpr(1).6.5. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process summary information from multiple hosts sorted (smallest to largest) by the available number of processes: host% nprocsum -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -s NPROCS EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. 7 or 8. Strictly confidential and proprietary nprocsum(1) nprocsum(1) # e d m n o p s u -w Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. Switch to disk info view. and OR. including NOT.2. Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. nover(1). nmem(1). AND.

The total amount of real memory that the process is using. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. COMMAND The command name and arguments of the given process. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Refresh the data.) The process ID. The meaning of the value may differ from system type to system type. The process’ priority. nps displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. The total amount of virtual memory that the process is using.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nps displays process statistics for the processes running on one or more servers in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system.. The percentage of total memory that the process is using. START The start time of the process. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode. This option overrides the -t option. -h hosts Specify a list of hosts whose process information you want to display. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid IP addresses. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output process information as a set of comma separated values.. Inc. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. The cumulative amount of CPU that the process has used. -t NSH 1 . Do not show a header on output. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Strictly confidential and proprietary nps(1) NAME nps − Displays process information for one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . USER PPID PID CPU MEM VSIZE RSS PRI TIME The username of the owner of the process on the remote host. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. Refresh screen. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically. The percentage of CPU that the process is using. All Windows processes are currently owned by root. With this option. (This column only appears in the -c output. By default nps sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the percentage of CPU in use. This field has no relevant value for Windows systems. The parent process ID.nps(1) Property of BladeLogic. Various systems may have different algorithms to determine this value. See the -s option below. Load the list of servers whose process information you want to display. Show only entries that match the given expression.

2. Switch to memory info view. or 0. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Property of BladeLogic. nover(1). Switch to process info view. see the man page for blexpr. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. and OR. Define an expression to filter the output data. nstats(1) NSH 2 . sorted (largest to smallest) by the amount of real memory the process is using. When an expression is used to match a string. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -e ’user != "root"’ This example searches for non root processes that may be running out of control. ndf(1). For example. AND. Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. wildcards are supported.nps(1) q r + # e d m n o p s u -w Property of BladeLogic. Switch to process summary view. nmem(1). See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. For full details on expressions. Reverse sort order.8. but does not mimic it exactly. including NOT.3. ORIGIN nps was developed by BladeLogic.5. nps(1) Sort on the specified column. Switch to system info view. Replace the # character with 1. nnet(1). Switch to network info view. EXAMPLE This example shows how to get process information from multiple hosts. Strictly confidential and proprietary Quit application. you could create an expression like the following: host% nps -e ’COMMAND = "*sbin*"’ Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Inc.9. Switch to disk info view. host% nps -h solarishost -e ’user != "root" & CPU > 5% & mem > 3%’ EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. Inc. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. Switch to statistics view.7. host% nps -h solarishost linuxhost winhost -r -s RSS This second example shows all non root processes. Inc. 0 indicates column 10. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second.6.4. SEE ALSO blexpr(1).

34 #1 Fri May 8 16:05:57 EDT 1998 i586 i386 otter $ vi termcap When you access a remote host. If you have set a root directory.0.EXE In Network Shell. You can access remote files from the command line: beaver $ vi //otter/etc/termcap You can also use the command line to specify files on multiple hosts: beaver $ diff //otter/etc/termcap //duckbill/etc/termcap REMOTE WINDOWS DRIVES When accessing a remote Windows (NT4/2000) machine. the \h sequence takes on a new value. such as C:. To access other drives on the computer. as the following example illustrates. The code generating the prompt replaces the sequence \h with the name of the host you are currently accessing rather than the name of the local host. If you have not set a root directory and you do not provide a drive letter. you do not have to include the drive letter in the name.assuming the default shell prompt (PS1) has not been previously set. the shell connects you to the // (root) directory. When you cd to a new host. If you do not. ACCESSING REMOTE FILES AND HOSTS WITH THE CD COMMAND The following example shows how to use the cd command to access remote hosts: beaver $ cd //otter/etc otter $ pwd //otter/etc otter $ uname -a Linux otter 2. you should also specify a directory. then the Network Shell environment defaults to the <SYSTEMDRIVE> drive. you should treat the drive letter as a directory even though that differs from how Windows treats drives.bat unix $ cd //nt/d nt $ ls /e/*. NSH 1 . SHELL PROMPT The first thing you may notice when you start Network Shell is that the default shell prompt incorporates the name of the host you are currently on -. You can never access the root of a drive. then a drive is irrelevant because the root directory itself is the highest point you can access on the directory tree. explicitly mention the drive letter as shown in the following examples: $ /bin/nsh unix $ cat //windows/c/autoexec. Inc. The Network Shell is a link to a distributed version of zsh.Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) NAME nsh − Network Shell SYNOPSIS This manual page outlines the differences between the Network Shell and a regular shell. nor can you access any other drives. It does not provide a detailed description of Network Shell behavior. See the man pages for zsh to obtain detailed information on how the Network Shell works.

tar /etc The following section describes the two methods for executing commands on a remote host. the command returns the hostid of host2.. the version of the command that is executed is the one pointed to by the path specified in the remote_cmds file. Host$ /bin/tar -cvf /tmp/etc. The action is equivalent to running "nexec -e hostid" while being rooted on host2 in Network Shell. The later is supported for backwards compatibility. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) THE // DIRECTORY The Network Shell supports the // directory. you can make entries in the // directory with the mkdir command and remove them with the rmdir command. For example./.Property of BladeLogic. For a command for which there is a native version and a Network Shell equivalent. EXECUTING COMMANDS FROM A REMOTE HOST Network Shell supports two methods for executing commands from a remote host: the default implied "nexec" method and the remote_cmds file method. execution of a native command which is not a Network Shell command will result in an "nexec" execution of the native command on the remote server. which is a virtual directory that contains only hostname entries. The // directory allows you to change directories to another host using relative path names. Network Shell equivalents of native commands are executed by default in either state. For example: host1 $ cd // host1 $ ls host1 host2 host1 $ cd host2 host2 $ pwd //host2/ In another example: host1 $ pwd //host1/etc host1 $ cd . to execute the native command.. enter the command with a fully qualified path. Inc. host3 host4 EXECUTING A COMMAND There are three categories of commands you can execute through Network Shell. You cannot create regular files and other special files in this directory. Each entry correspond to another host’s root (/) directory. or unique Network Shell commands that do not have native equivalents. Implied nexec Execution of Commands on a Remote Host When your current directory is on a remote host. When executing a command. you can be in one of two states: on the local host or on a remote host. Native commands. Network Shell equivalents of native commands. In the following example. and the command has a native equivalent on the remote host with a different path. When executing a command that has an entry in the remote_cmds file./host2/etc host2 $ pwd //host2/etc If you have root privileges. Note that you do not need an entry for a remote host in the // directory to access data on that remote host. This last category is referred to as Network Shell utilities. nsh# cd //host2 host2 nsh# hostid NSH 2 .

the shell searches for the command in the PATH of the RSCD Agent (daemon). The remote_cmds file resides in the share directory of the Network Shell install directory. you wanted to run the remote command myapp. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) Specifying Remote Commands Using the remote_cmds File The remote_cmds file contains a list of remote commands that the Network Shell supports. If this field is not set. (White space can be a TAB or SPACE. To continue with the above example. First. the PATH variable is automatically initialized to include the Network Shell bin directory as the first element in the PATH. The soft link should have the same name as the remote command. the RSCD Agent on Windows NT4/2000 machines supports the built-in commands df. By entering a value of -. This is necessary to properly implement redirection to files on remote hosts. the shell assumes an error has occured and the command is aborted. If. but. The max_time field represents the maximum time in seconds that the remote command should need to execute. If the remote command does not finish after the maximum allocated time. Note that by default the Network Shell is not configured to run the halt and reboot commands. Some typical commands in the remote_cmds file are who and ps. This ensures that all Network Shell utilities are available. Each entry consists of up to three white space-delimited fields. as described earlier. Inc. PATH VARIABLE When the Network Shell is started. create a soft link to the program nexec. and reboot.Property of BladeLogic. First. for example. halt. Any arguments to these utilities must conform with the remote commands arguments and must be in the PATH of the rscd program. the shell attempts to execute the named program on the remote host. the second step for the myapp program could look something like this: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd share # echo "myapp /home/me/bin/myapp -" >> remote_cmds When the Network Shell (actually the nexec program) executes a remote command. REDIRECTION Redirection in the Network Shell is implemented with pipes rather than the usual dup() or dup2 () system calls. you would create a soft link as follows: # cd ‘cat /usr/lib/rsc/HOME‘ # cd bin # ln -s nexec myapp Next. For example: command_name . These remote utilities CANNOT require any terminal input because their standard input is redirected from /dev/null. Adjust this value if you anticipate that the remote command might take longer than 300 seconds to execute. If you want to use Network Shell to run these commands. There are a few limitations when using redirection. The command_path should be the absolute path name to the program on the remote host. they can be set to use default values. you must run them in conjunction with the nexec command.) command_name command_path max_time The command_path and max_time fields are optional. in the bin directory of the Network Shell installation directory. create an entry in the remote_cmds file in the share directory relative to the Network Shell installation directory. you must perform two steps. It should be a non-interactive program. In addition to regular DOS commands. This can be unset.The command_name field must be the basename of the remote command you want to execute. To add a supported remote command using this method. capturing both its standard output and standard error. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes). the Network Shell maps its known utilities to utilities in the Network Shell bin directory. only the file descriptors 1 (standard output) and 2 (standard error) are NSH 3 .

The remaining types of redirections work (with the restrictions described above).nshenv $ZDOTDIR/.. To ensure that you do not exhaust system resources. is treated the same as the < redirection type.nshlogin $ZDOTDIR/. They can be included in your PATH or expressed as an absolute pathname. If no arguments are given.Property of BladeLogic. REMOTE SHELL SCRIPTS It is possible to execute remote shell scripts. When accessing relatively few remote hosts. which causes the output file to be opened for both read and write.nshrc $ZDOTDIR/. these connections remain open until the user exits the shell or executes the disconnect command. THE SHELL VARIABLE The SHELL variable is often used to tell programs the default shell to use when a program needs to run a shell process. it is a good idea to call the disconnect command occasionally. THE DISCONNECT COMMAND The Network Shell dynamically creates network connections to the remote hosts that it accesses. Other values may produce unexpected results. This command closes the network connections of the hosts given to it as arguments. For example. the redirection type <>. especially if you are accessing large numbers of remote hosts. Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) supported for redirection. The NSH differs from ZSH in that all startup/shutdown files are prepended with nsh instead of z or zsh. For efficiency reasons. All of the Network Shell utilities ignore this variable and always use /bin/nsh when a shell process is required. $ZDOTDIR/.. the shell closes all connections. you must escape the -? option as shown below: agentinfo -\? NSH 4 . STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES See the zsh(1) man page for more information on startup/shutdown files. The Network Shell utilities manage their own network connections and do not affect the shell. For example: $ agentinfo -? Usage: agentinfo [-?] [-c] [-H] [-f file] [hostname . The following is a list of valid startup/shutdown files for NSH. calling the disconnect command is not required.] -? Output this message -c Output data in CSV format -f file Load list of host from flat file -H Do not output a header line if -c used If you want to use the -? option when you are WITHIN the NSH shell. If the Network Shell again needs access to a remote host. then a new dynamic network connection is created.nshlogout ${TMPPREFIX}* (default is /tmp/nsh*) /etc/nshenv /etc/nshprofile /etc/nshrc /etc/nshlogin /etc/nshlogout (installation−specific − /etc is the default) USING THE -? OPTION WITHIN THE NSH SHELL A number of NSH commands let you display brief usage information by specifying the -? option. The network connection to the host on which the current directory exists is not closed even if specifically asked to do so. Next. Inc.nshprofile $ZDOTDIR/. instead of using /etc/zshenv you would use /etc/nshenv instead.

Strictly confidential and proprietary nsh(1) nsh(1) SEE ALSO zsh(1) NSH 5 . Inc.Property of BladeLogic.

The NSH module currently supports 45 calls which interface the corresponding Network Shell distributed API. SYNOPSIS use NSH.. NSH:: FUNCTIONS NSH::access (char *path. DESCRIPTION The NSH Perl Module gives Perl programmers the ability to access remote files and commands. All arguments which are file or directory names support UNC syntax which allows the use of a hostname as part of the filename. $count = NSH::read ($fd. int mode) Change the mode (protection attributes) of the file path to mode. The NSH module acts as glue between Perl and the Network Shell core technology. NSH::chmod (char *path. NSH::unlink("file"). $buf.Network Shell Perl module to access and manipulate remote files. If mode is ommitted it checks for file readability (R_OK). NSH::chdir (".. 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". NSH::close($fd). (W_OK) Test for write permission. $fd = NSH::open ("bar". 100). The following examples will help clarify their use. $count = NSH::read ($fd. $fd = NSH::open ("//hostname/foo/bar"."). 0777). 0777). NSH::chmod ("bar". 0. 0777). then you current host is changed to be that host and all subsequent access to any files which are not in full UNC (do not include a hosrtname) will be assumed to be on the given host. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo". processes. use NSH. NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") !! die "Can’t cd: $!\n"). Inc. 100). NSH::close($fd). If no hostname is included in the argument. If dirname is a full UNC path (includes a hostname). NSH::. The NSH calls emulate their C function counter parts. Network Shell Perl Module 1 . NSH::chdir ("//hostname/foo/") || die "Can’t cd: $!\n". NSH::rmdir ("bar"). NSH::chmod ("//hostname/foo/bar". 0) || die "Cant open file: $!\n". (R_OK) Test for read permission. $buf. then the file on the current host is used. 0. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NAME NSH:: . int mode) NSH::access() checks the file pointed to by path for accessibility according to the bit pattern contained in mode The values for mode can be the ORing of the following values: 0 1 2 4 (F_OK) Check existence of file (X_OK) Test for execute or search permission. and commands. NSH::chdir (char *dirname) Change you current directory to dirname..NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic.

NSH::closedir (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd which was returned from a successfull call to NSH::opendir $fd = NSH::opendir(". NSH::close ($fd). 200). $fd = NSH::creat ($filename. int mode) Create the file filename with an initial mode (protection attribute) of mode. int gid) Change the file ownership of the file path to be of owner uid. pwd = NSH::getcwd (). NSH::dup (int fd) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd NSH::dup2(int fd1. NSH::creat (char *filename. 100. NSH::fchdir($fd). NSH::close (int fd) Close the file descriptor fd. NSH::fchdir (int fd) Change directory to the pth pointed to by the file descriptor fd. NSH::close ($fd). int gid) Change the file ownership of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to be of owner uid. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $filename\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::chown (char *path. "Hello world\n". 200). $fd = NSH::open ("/foo/bar") || die "Open failed: $!\n". $fd = NSH::open("foo") || die "Cant open file: $!\n". 12). } NSH::closedir ($fd). int fd) Read the next line of input from the file descriptor $fd up to a maximum of size bytes. int size. NSH::chown ("foo". 0777) || die "Cant create: $!\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $fd = NSH::open("//hostname/foo"). while (($filename. 100. int fd2) Duplicate the open file descriptor fd1 to filedescriptor fd2 NSH::fchown (int fd. int uid. NSH::write ($fd. and group gid. and group gid. int uid.") || die "Can’t open current directory: $!\n". Inc. NSH::fgets (char *buffer. Network Shell Perl Module 2 . print "PWD = $pwd". NSH::close ($fd). NSH::fchown ($fd.

NSH::fstat (int fd) Return information on the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. process group or user. know what you are doing with the call. then it is assumed that the priority for the given process (PRIO_PROCESS) is desired. The format of the returned value will be a UNC type name (//hostname/directory) if the current NSH:: directory is on a remote host. In other words. $pwd = NSH::getcwd (). Network Shell Perl Module 3 . and can have any of the following values ORed together. Remove lock. 9). Specific signals may have different values on different OSes. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. while (NSH::fgets ($buffer. Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) If NSH::getpriority is called with only one argumnet. 1 2 4 8 Apply shared lock (LOCK_SH). Make operation non-blocking (LOCK_NB). $prio = NSH::getpriority (0.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. NSH::flock (int fd. Inc. Apply exclusive lock (LOCK_SH). NSH::ftruncate (int fd. The argument op determines what operation is to be performed. or just a regular path name if the current NSH:: directory is on the local host. NSH::getcwd () Return the current NSH:: working directory. Pid is the Process ID of the process to receive the signal while sig is the numberic signal to be sent. If sig is ommitted. NSH::getpriority (int which. NSH::kill (100. } NSH::close ($fd). int op) Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file pointed to by the filedescriptor fd. 512. $fd) { print "Next line is: $buffer". 100). $prio = NSH::getpriority (100). int who) Get the scheduling priority for a process. then a SIGTERM is sent. NSH::kill (int pid. long pos) Truncate the size of the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd to pos bytes. int sig) Send a signal to a process. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) $fd = NSH::open ($filename) || die "Cant open $filename: $!\n". The following examples both get the priority of the process with PID 100.

int mode = 0666) Open a file for reading and/or writing. The following example move the read pointer to the end of the file. the pointer is set to its current location plus offset bytes. NSH::lseek ($fd. 0777). NSH::mkfifo (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("foo. When creating a file. then the file is opened for reading. If mode is ommitted. if the second (and third) argument are not given. Network Shell Perl Module 4 . int mode) Create the new directory dirname with initial permissions set to mode. NSH::mkdir ("foo. The second argument controls how the file is opened. If mode is ommitted. int whence) Move the read write pointer of the file descriptor fd as follows: • • • If whence is 0 (SEEK_SET). int mode. 0). file2") || warn ("Link failed: $!\n". NSH::lstat() works like NSH::stat() with the exception of when the file is a symbolic link. NSH::chdir("//hostname/foo"). NSH::mknod (char *filename. long offset. If none is given. the pointer is set to offset bytes. 0777). int mode) Create the new FIFO special device called filename with initial permissions set to mode. int flags = O_RDONLY. For other read options or to write to a file the remaining arguments must be set. Inc. NSH::link ("file1". If only a single argument is given. in which case information about the link is returned rather than the information about the file the link references. char *newname) Create a hard link called newname to the existing file called existing. If whence is 2 (SEEK_END). NSH::lseek (int fd. NSH::lstat (char *filename) Return information on the file filename. 2. NSH::mkdir (char *dirname. mode is assumed to be 0755. then the file is opened for reading in binary mode. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls. NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). the pointer is set to size of the file plus offset bytes. mode is assumed to be 0755. you can determine it’s file permissions with the third argument. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::link (char *existing. The value of the mode argument can be a ORed value of the following flags. As previously mentioned.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. int min) NSH::open (char *filename. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar"). $fd = NSH::open ("bar"). NSH::chdir ("//hostname"). Both newname can only be created on the same host and disk partition as that of the existing file. the mode 0666 is used (read/write for all). If whence is 1 (SEEK_CUR). int maj. NSH::mkdir ("//hostname/foo/bar").

Open file in text mode (Not usefull for UNIX files) Open file in binary mode (default) NSH::(1) NSH::opendir (char *dirname) Open the directory dirname for reading. If the string mode begins with a ’r’ then subsequent NSH::read() will read the standard output of the command while if mode begins with a ’w’. } NSH::read (int fd. returning a file descriptor which can be used in subsequent calls to NSH::readdir() to determine the contents of the given directory. char *mode) Execute the Network Shell command cmd and returns a file descriptor which allows you to either read or write to the command depending on the value of mode. ls") while (NSH::read ($fd. This function pushes the filename and the filename’s inode number on the stack.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t access foo: $!\n". If mode is ommited. 100)) { print $buf. $buf. NSH::readdir (int fd) Read the next directory entry of the directory pointed to by the descriptor fd returned by a successfull call to NSH::opendir(). it is assumed to be ’r’. NSH::pclose (int fd) Close a file descriptor returned by a successfull call to NSH::popen(). int nbytes) Read the next nbytes bytes from the file descriptor fd storing the result in buf which will always be ’null’ terminated. char *buffer. $fd = NSH::opendir("//hostname/foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n (filename) = NSH::readdir($fd). Network Shell Perl Module 5 . NSH::closedir($fd). $fd = NSH::popen ("cd //hostname/foo. NSH::popen (char *cmd. Inc. Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary 0 1 2 4 8 16 64 96 256 512 1024 2048 32768 262144 524288 Open for reading Open for writing only Open for reading and writing Non-blocking I/O Append. subsequent NSH::write() will write data to the standard input of the command. Writes guaranteed at the end of file Synchronized file update option Synchronized data update option Non-blocking I/O (POSIX) Open with file create (uses third argument if given) Open with truncation Exclusive open Don’t allocate controlling tty (POSIX) Synchronized file update option.

NSH::rename (char *oldname. Network Shell Perl Module 6 . then they are assumed to be a process ID and it’s new priority. NSH::rename ("foo". NSH::rewinddir ($fd). Which is one of 0 1 2 who is a process identifier (PRIO_PROCESS) who is a process group identifier (PRIO_PGRP) who is a user ID (PRIO_USER) Finally. Please see the STAT section below for further information on the stat family of calls.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. process group or user. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). $pos = NSH::telldir ($fd). char *newname) Rename the file oldname to newname. int prio) Set the scheduling priority for a process. NSH::stat (char *filename) Return information about the file filename. $pos). If NSH::setprio() is only called with two arguments. prio is the new priority to be set. $inode) = NSH::readdir($fd)) { print "FILENAME = $FILENAME INODE = $inode\n". } NSH::closedir($fd). NSH::rewinddir (int fd) Move the read pointer to the start of the directory. NSH::seekdir ($fd. Inc. $linkname = NSH::readlink("foobar"). NSH::rmdir ("//hostname/foo/bar") || warn "Cant remove directory: $!\n" NSH::seekdir (int fd. "bar") || die "Can’t rename: $!\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary while (($filename. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". $fd = NSH::opendir ("foo") || die "Can’t read directory: $!\n". int pos) Move the read pointer of the directory descriptor fd to pos which must be a value returned by a previous call to NSH::telldir(). NSH::setpriority (int which. int who. NSH::rmdir (char *dirname) Remove the empty directory dirname. ($filename) = NSH::readdir ($fd). NSH::(1) NSH::readlink (char *filename) Return the value of a symbolic link.

stat. NSH::write (int fd. $version. @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [0]). foreach $host ("//host1". will not work outside the Network Shell environment. $release. %d\n". %d\n". ($sysname. $nodename. Network Shell Perl Module 7 . These types of symbolic links however. the following command is generated and executed. @PROPS = NSH::stat ("//hostname/etc/passwd"). "//host3") { nsh::chdir($host). In essence. printf printf printf printf printf ("Device ID of parent dir ("File inode number ("File mode/permissions ("Number of links to file ("File UID = = = = = %d\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary NSH::(1) NSH::symlink (char *name. long atime) Adjust the date of last modification and last access of the file filename to mtime and atime respectively. [3]). $machine) = NSH:uname ( } NSH::unlink (char *filename) Unlink (remove) the file filename.NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. "//host2". char *buffer. symbolic links may traverse hosts (name -> //hostname/foo/bar). If either mtime or atime are not given. Inc. fstat) of these functions return an array of values representing the various properties of the file in question. NSH::truncate (char *filename. int nbytes) Write nbytes of data in buffer to the file pointed to by the file descriptor fd. In the Network Shell environment. char *newname) Create the symbolic link newname to the file name. [1]). long pos) Truncate the file filename to be of size pos bytes. All three (lstat. NSH::uname () This command pushes on the stack information about the host on which the current working NSH directory is. 200). [4]). NSH::system (char *cmd) Run the Network Shell command cmd and output it’s standard output and error. STAT This section gives a more detailed outline the return value of the stat family of calls. The best way to document this is through an example: use NSH. %d\n". NSH::utime (char *filename. The returned value is only of use to the NSH::seekdir() function and should not be interpreted to be mean anything specific. NSH::utime ("//hostanme/foo/bar"). %d\n". exec /bin/nsh -D <pwd> -c <cmd> NSH::telldir (int fd) Return the current location of the directory descriptor fd. long mtime. NSH::truncate ("foobar". then the current date of the local host is used. [2]).

@PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS @PROPS [5]). %d\n". [11]). %d\n". Perl Module Strictly confidential and proprietary printf printf printf printf printf printf printf printf ("File ("Rdev ("File ("Time ("Time ("Time ("Size ("Size GID (for special files) size of last access of last modification of last status change of a block of file in blocks = = = = = = = = %d\n". [6]). %d\n". [10]). %d\n". [8]). NSH::(1) Network Shell Perl Module 8 . %d\n". [9]). [7]). Inc. %d\n".NSH::(1) Property of BladeLogic. [12]). %d\n".

OPTIONS -i size -k size Instead of starting with a write buffer size of 512 and using an increment of 512 bytes. nshopt writes a 2MB file to a remote host multiple times. .. # nshopt hpux Trying 512 bytes Trying 1024 bytes Trying 1536 bytes Trying 2048 bytes Trying 2560 bytes Trying 3072 bytes .. .. NSH 1 .. done. By default nshopt starts with a buffer size equivalent to the increment size (512 bytes).nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you anticipate that you will be receiving large amounts of data. nshopt prints the results of each test to the standard output for review. To determine the optimal write buffer size. but sometimes this value may not be optimal....... It does not test how fast it can receive data. perform a bulk write rather than a regular write.020 seconds for 2048 KB = 678 (51. done. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) NSHOPT nshopt − Test different network write buffer sizes SYNOPSIS nshopt [-i size] [-k size] [-s bytes] [-b] host1 . each time using different network write buffer sizes and determining the time it takes to send the file. nshopt starts with a write buffer size of 512 bytes and continues to perform the test in 512 byte increments up to a maximum buffer size of 16384 bytes (16KB). DESCRIPTION Depending on the network. A regular write does perform those checks and therefore will take a little longer. The cp command performs bulk writes when copying a file to a remote host. (52.. -b When writing data to the remote host. EXAMPLE The following example tests the host hpux. . Inc. use the secadmin command to configure the new buffer size. This example then uses the command secadmin to update the configuration file with the desired buffer size. The default write buffer size is 4480 bytes.012 seconds for 2048 KB = 39 (3.. .. start with a write buffer size and use an increment size of size. done. The difference between the two is that with a bulk write there is no checking or return code to verify that the write actually worked. Instead of transferring a 2 MB (2048 KB) test file as a sample. using specific write buffer sizes when communicating with remote hosts can improve the net throughput of data.) Once nshopt has determined an optimal buffer size. (See EXAMPLE..145 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. then you should be running this test from the agent server to the client server (where you will need to install an agent to test it properly). -s bytes Start off with a buffer size of bytes. ORIGIN nshopt was written by Thomas Kraus. This lets you determine the optimal network write buffer size to use when communicating with the given host. done.173 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 (51. use a file size KB large. .147 seconds for 2048 KB = 40 KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) KB/sec) 1024 CAVEATS The nshopt command tests how best to send data to a remote host. done. From the data you can see that a buffer size of 1024 bytes is optimal for transferring data from the local host to the host hpux. . # secadmin -W hpux to to to to to to hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux hpux .

nshopt(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 2 . secure(1). cp(1). Strictly confidential and proprietary nshopt(1) SEE ALSO secadmin(1).

a user working on machine ’host1’ would do the following: host1% nshpath host2 /usr/nsh/bin/nsh This tells the user that nsh has been installed and that the nsh executable resides at /usr/nsh/bin on the ’host2’ machine. OPTIONS None EXAMPLE To determine the path of nsh installed on a remote machine called ’host2’. NSH 1 . ORIGIN nshpath was developed by BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary nshpath(1) NAME nshpath − show the path where an nsh executable resides on a local and/or remote machine SYNOPSIS nshpath [hostname . Inc..] DESCRIPTION The nshpath command displays the path where an nsh executable resides on a local or remote machine..nshpath(1) Property of BladeLogic. Inc.

See the -f option below. With the -s option you can specify an alternate field to sort on. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. nstats displays data in the following columns: HOSTNAME The name of the host the entry applies to. Increase wait time between refreshes by 1 second. -h hosts Specify the list of hosts from which to get the system statistics. Show only entries that match the given expression. The current time on the system.4. or 7. With this option. Strictly confidential and proprietary nstats(1) NAME nstats − View system statistics from one or more hosts SYNOPSIS nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION nstats displays some system statistics in a standardized format independent of the server’s operating system. Quit application. Display data similar to the way the top command displays data. You can specify multiple space separated hostnames without re-specifying the -h option. addresses. addresses. Refresh screen. MEMORY The percentage of total memory currently being used.5. -r -s field Sort in reverse order. Reverse sort order.P. This option overrides the -t option. Quit application. Do not show a header on output. For UNIX. SWAP TIME UPTIME The amount of time the system has been running. PROCS The total number of processes currently running. Inc. The field must be one of the column headers listed above. See the -s option below. it shows a CPU usage percentage.P. see uptime (1)... Sort on the specified column. Decrease wait time between refreshes by 1 second. The following keyboard commands are available while in top mode.3. LOAD The system’s current load average. nstats sorts in reverse order (largest to smallest) on the current load average. By default. -t NSH 1 .nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. Replace the # character with 1. the data display is truncated by screen size and repeated periodically.2. For Windows. The values must be resolvable hostnames or valid I. The file should be a flat file containing either resolvable hostnames or valid I. Load the list of servers from which to get system statistics. OPTIONS -c -e expr -f file -H Output system statistics as a set of comma separated values. <SPACE> Ctrl-L Ctrl-C q r + # Refresh the data. The percentage of total swap space currently being used.6.

For full details on expressions. but does not mimic it exactly. AND. and OR. Strictly confidential and proprietary e d m n o p s u -w nstats(1) Define an expression used to filter the output data. When an expression is used to match a string. EXAMPLE These examples show how to get an overview of key system statistics.00 98% 0% 39 16:12 solaris8dev 0.00 87% 20% 63 16:14 UPTIME 6 days 05:12:48 56 days 04:43:39 88 days 15:04:57 host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows -e ’LOAD > 0’ windows 0. nps(1). Switch to disk info view. wildcards are supported.03 68% 1% 43 16:13 linuxdev 0. ORIGIN nstats was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO uptime(1). Switch to process summary view. The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. See the EXPRESSIONS section below for more details. nnet(1). Expressions can contain multiple operators and operands. Switch to memory info view. Switch to process info view. blexpr(1). Truncate each line of output to the actual screen width. CAVEATS The -t option mimics the top command’s behavior. Inc. Switch to network info view. nmem(1).nstats(1) Property of BladeLogic. Switch to statistics view. including NOT. Switch to system info view. host% nstats -h solaris8 linux windows HOSTNAME LOAD MEMORY SWAP PROCS TIME windows 0. nover(1) NSH 2 .03 68% 1% 43 16:13 6 days 05:13:52 EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. see the man page for blexpr. ndf(1).

.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nstats [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . Inc... nstats − A collection of commands used to view information and statistics for one or more servers SYNOPSIS ndf [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . please read the individual man page for each command.ntop(1) Property of BladeLogic. nmem.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ntop(1) NAME ndf.. nps. SEE ALSO blexpr(1). nover(1).. ndf(1) NSH 1 .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nps [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nover [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host . For more information.] [-r] [-s field] [-t] DESCRIPTION Ntop is a family of commands that can be used to view information and statistics about one or more servers... nover. nmem(1). nstats(1).] [-r] [-s field] [-t] nmem [-c] [-e expr] [-f file] [-H] [-h host .. nps(1).. blquery(1).

OPTIONS user_name The user for whom certificates should be removed. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary nukecert(1) NAME nukecert − remove certificates from servers SYNOPSIS nukecert user_name server1 [<server2> <server2>] DESCRIPTION The nukecert command removes user certificates from servers that you specify. Inc. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers from which certificates should be removed. EXAMPLE nukecert johnk linuxBuild solarisQA ORIGIN nukecert was developed by BladeLogic.nukecert(1) Property of BladeLogic. SEE ALSO putcert(NSH) NSH 1 .

gzip − decompress or compress files SYNOPSIS nunzip [-cv] [--no-name] [--quiet] [--verbose] file DESCRIPTION The nunzip command takes a list of files and decompresses or compresses each file whose name ends with .tar. The resulting file is an uncompressed (or compressed) file without the original extension. copy the time stamp from the compressed file.TGZ. gzip -c file1 > foo. This option is the default when decompressing.gz is uncompressed. --quiet --verbose Same as -v. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed. . --no-name When decompressing. or . Verbose output. do not restore the original file name if one is present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if one is present. provided that the file has the correct header. --help file Display a help screen and quit. Strictly confidential and proprietary nunzip1(NSH) NAME nunzip. . the name of the resulting uncompressed file is config. File or files to be compressed or decompressed.gz. gzcat. For example.gz nunzip --verbose foo.gz gzip -c file2 >> foo.tar. Instead. gunzip.GZ. 1 . when config. OPTIONS -c -v Uncompress to stdout. Inc.gz Suppress all warnings.tgz.nunzip1(NSH) Property of BladeLogic. EXAMPLES ORIGIN nunzip was developed by BladeLogic.gz nunzip foo. Inc.

The strings are only grouped by tag. OPTIONS -s -r -u Sort the list in ascending order. If tag fields are provided in the input list. ORDER STYLE -1 If specified. Sort the list in descending order. Within each tag group. it must be enclosed within round brackets ’()’.txt. input lines are contained in a file called list.txt (city) bangalore (country) australia (city) new york asia (country) united states (city) adelaide (city) new york NSH 1 . the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> EXAMPLES In this example. the resulting list contains strings grouped by the tag fields. If you provide a tag field. Each entry in the list of strings that are input must have the following syntax: (<tag>) <character string or line>. Sorting is alphabetical. the strings are sorted in a user-specified order. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag>: <character string> -3 If specified. the tag field is optional. Note: if both the -s and -r options are specified. Strictly confidential and proprietary order(1) NAME order − sort a list of strings (or lines) in a specified order SYNOPSIS order s|r [-u] [order-style] DESCRIPTION The order command is used to sort a list of strings (or lines) in an order specified by the user. In the syntax shown above. the resulting list is printed in the format (<tag>) <character string> If no order style option is specified. The resulting list contains only unique entries.order(1) Property of BladeLogic. If you do not provide a sorting option. the string order is not changed. $cat list. The tag groups themselves are always sorted in ascending alphabetical order. only the -s option is considered. Remove duplicate entries. the resulting list is printed in the format <tag> <character string> -2 If specified. Inc.

txt europe order(1) NSH 2 .order(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary america (country) india (country) australia (country) england europe (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) germany If no sorting option is provided: $order < list.txt america asia europe (city) Rome (city) adelaide (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) new york (city) new york (country) australia (country) australia (country) australia (country) england (country) germany (country) india (country) united states If descending order is specified with the -u (unique) option and the order style specified as -2: $order -r -u -2 < list.txt asia america europe (city) bangalore (city) new york (city) adelaide (city) new york (city) new york (city) Rome (country) australia (country) united states (country) india (country) australia (country) england (country) australia (country) germany If ascending order is specified: $order -s < list. Inc.

Strictly confidential and proprietary asia america city:new york city:bangalore city:adelaide city:Rome country:united states country:india country:germany country:england country:australia order(1) ORIGIN order was developed by BladeLogic. Inc. NSH 3 . Inc.order(1) Property of BladeLogic.

DESCRIPTION The Paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files. standard input is read one line at a time. Berkeley and its contributors. ORIGIN Paste includes software developed by the University of California. If end-offile is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data. and writes the resulting lines to standard output. The following special characters can also be used in list: Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. \n \t \ ###BOT_TEXT### -s newline character tab character backslash character Empty string (not a null character). The characters in list are used circularly. circularly. and >0 if an error occurs. The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab.. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.8 Last change: NSH 1 .merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS paste [-s] [-d list] file . SEE ALSO cut(1) SunOS 5. the standard input is used.. unless otherwise specified by the -d option. Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed. Inc. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character.e. at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. The paste utility exits 0 on success.. when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. replacing all but the last file’s newline characters with a single tab character.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If ‘-’ is specified for one or more of the input files. the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. i. Strictly confidential and proprietary paste ( 1 ) NAME paste . for each instance of ‘-’.

The table of contents will contain the members of the archive file whose pathnames match the specified patterns.. When a file operand is also a directory the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included. [-o options] . [-U user] .. [file . pax operation is independent of the specific archive format. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) NAME pax. For a description of tar options.. [-G group] . Copy. Write.. pax will read an archive file from standard input.....to_date]] .] pax [-cdnv] [-f archive] [-s replstr] ..tar .. [-U user] .to_date]] . and will copy directory hierarchies. the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory will be included.. [pattern .. [-s replstr] . [-E limit] [-U user] . pax copies the file operands to the destination directory. If you do not specify any file operands. write.. -w -r -w NSH 1 ..to_date] [/[c][m]]] ... -r Read.. While processing a damaged archive during a read or list operation. The result of a copy under these conditions is unpredictable. and list the members of an archive file.. If you do not specify any file operands. [-T [from_date] [.. [-B bytes] [-T [from_date] [. [-p string] .... The presence of the -r and the -w options specifies which of the following functional modes pax will operate under: list. and extract the archive file members whose pathnames match the specified patterns. except that there may be hard links between the original and the copied files (see the -l option below). [-T [from_date] [.] directory DESCRIPTION pax will read. The table of contents contains one filename per line and is written using single line buffering... pax extracts the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory... Inc. [file .. [pattern .. access and modification times..... pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from standard input. All extracted files are created relative to the current file hierarchy. pax will attempt to recover from media defects and will search through the archive to locate and process the largest number of archive members possible (see the -E option for more details on error handling)..] pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize] [[-a] [-f archive]] [-x format] [-s replstr] .... see the -x option..] pax -r -w [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ] [-p string] . and copy... For a list of supported archive formats. [-G group] .to_date] [/[c][m]]] . and file mode of the extracted files are discussed in more detail under the -p option.read and write file archives and copy directory hierarchies SYNOPSIS tar -[bcefmprutvwxBLPX[0-9]] [option arguments] [files .. [-T [from_date] [. The archive format and blocking is automatically determined on input. When a file operand is also a directory. [-G group] . [-U user] . The effect of the copy is as if the copied files were written to an archive file and then subsequently extracted.] pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-f archive] [-o options] .. [-s replstr] . pax will read an archive file from standard input.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. write.. see the section below. read... The setting of ownership. pax writes an archive containing the file operands to standard output using the specified archive format.. and supports a wide variety of different archive formats. and write a table of contents to standard output.... <none> List... Warning: The destination directory must not be one of the file operands or a member of a file hierarchy rooted at one of the file operands. pax also supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. pax reads a list of files to copy with one per line from the standard input. [-G group] . When an extracted file is a directory.

If any intermediate directories are needed in order to extract an archive member. pax uses the archive’s existing format. or archive members of type directory being extracted. and S_IRWXO as the mode argument. When a file operand does not select at least one archive member. the default block size depends on the specific archive format being used (see the -x option). If you do not supply a pattern operand. If you do not specify any file operands. pax selects the entire file hierarchy rooted at that directory. overriding the default standard input (for list and read) or standard output (for write). or if it is not writable by the user. When a pattern operand does not select at least one archive member. Any attempt to append to an archive stored on such a device may damage the archive or have other unpredictable results. Inc. When a pattern matches a directory. An archive stored in a regular file system file or on a disk device will usually support an append operation. If you do not specify an archive format -x option. A single archive may span multiple files and different archive devices. When required. pax will write these file operand pathnames in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a non-zero exit status. pax selects archive members using the pattern matching notation described by fnmatch(3). respectively. The file operand specifies the pathname of a file to be copied or archived. Its maximum is 32256 bytes. pattern operands. and will continue to use that blocking size for the remainder of the archive volume. The directory operand specifies a destination directory pathname. You can separate a pair of blocksizes by x to indicate a product. pax reads standard input for a list of pathnames with one per line without any leading or trailing <blanks>. pax exits immediately with a non-zero exit status.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. pax will write these pattern operands in a diagnostic message to standard error and then exit with a nonzero exit status. and file operands. When the selected archive format supports the specification of linked files and these files cannot be linked while the archive is being extracted. Tape drives in particular are more likely to not support an append operation. A blocksize can end with k or b to specify multiplication by 1024 (1K) or 512. If you try to append to an archive. Warning: Many storage devices are not able to support the operations necessary to perform an append operation. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with a non-zero exit status at the completion of operation. pax will observe the blocking size being used in the archive volume where the writing starts. to match only the directory file or archive member and not the file hierarchy rooted at the directory. pax will prompt for the pathname of the file or -w -a -f archive NSH 2 . or if it is not of type directory. The pattern operand is used to select one or more pathnames of archive members. If you do not specify a block size. blocksize must be a positive decimal integer that is a multiple of 512 bytes. Specify archive as the pathname of the input or output archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) OPERANDS There are three types of operands: directory operands. Append files to the end of a previously written archive. OPTIONS -r Read an archive file from standard input and extract the specified files. these directories will be created as if mkdir(2) was called with the bitwise inclusive OR of S_IRWXU. Write files to the standard output in the specified archive format. Cause files of type directory being copied or archived. S_IRWXG. pax selects all members of the archive. -b blocksize Tells pax the size of the output block (bytes per write) it should use when writing an archive. -c -d Match all file or archive members except those specified by the pattern and file operands. pax will exit with a non-zero exit status. using a format different from the archive’s existing format. A specific archive device may impose additional restrictions on the size of blocking it will support. If the directory operand does not exist.

pax will then read a line from /dev/tty. subject to the permissions of the invoking process. Strictly confidential and proprietary device of the next volume in the archive. The e flag is the sum of the o and p flags. By default. pax will not set the S_ISUID (setuid) and S_ISGID (setgid) bits of the file mode. its file mode and. This is intended to be used by root. Otherwise the attribute of the extracted file is determined as part of the normal file creation action. In the copy mode ( -r -w). Preserve the user ID and group ID.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. These options are specific to the archive format specified by -x. if -p eme is specified. pax preserves file modification times whenever possible. The file times are preserved by default. pax will write a diagnostic message to standard error. pax skips the file or archive member. (This option is the letter ell). If this line is blank. file mode bits. In general. options take the form: name=value -p string Specify one or more file characteristic options (privileges). Otherwise. in order to preserve all aspects of the files as they are recorded in the archive. and file modification time. For example. The string consists of the specification characters a. This intended to be used by a user with regular privileges who wants to preserve all aspects of the file other than the ownership. pax replaces its name with the contents of the line. The meanings of the specification characters are: a e Do not preserve file access times. For each archive member matching a pattern operand or each file matching a file operand. file modification times are still preserved. -k -l -n -o options Information to modify the algorithm for extracting or writing archive files. ‘preserve’ indicates that an attribute stored in the archive is given to the extracted file. If the file characteristic letters in any of the string option-arguments are duplicated or conflict with each other. e. Match no more than one archive member for each pattern. and you can specify multiple -p options. pax will immediately exit with a non-zero exit status if <EOF> is encountered when reading a response or if /dev/tty cannot be opened for reading and writing. Link files. If this line consists of a single period. Do not overwrite existing files. or the user ID and group ID are not preserved for any reason. but two other flags are offered to disable this and use the time of extraction instead. When pax matches members of type directory. o. it also matches the file hierarchy rooted at that directory (unless -d is also specified). Preserve everything -. but will not cause the extracted file to be deleted. group ID. someone with all the appropriate privileges. the one(s) given last will take precedence. NSH 3 . -i pax(1) Interactively rename files or archive members. pax will prompt to /dev/tty giving the name of the file. Do not preserve file modification times. Select the first archive member that matches each pattern operand. pax makes hard links between the source and destination file hierarchies whenever possible. m o p In the preceding list. The string option-argument is a string specifying file characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. its modification time. and p (described below). If neither the e nor the o specification character is specified. pax processes the file or archive member with no modification to its name. m. You can concatenate multiple characteristics within the same string. By default.the user ID. file access time. Preserve the file mode bits. pax preserves file access times whenever possible. Failure to preserve these items will affect the final exit status. Inc. If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason.

The optional trailing p will cause the final result of a successful substitution to be written to standard error in the following format: <original pathname> >> <new pathname> File or archive member names that substitute to the empty string are not selected and will be skipped. with the default format being ustar. During write. Otherwise. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> == <link name> For pathnames representing a symbolic link. The trailing <newline>. Therefore. Inc. Ignore files that are older (having a less recent file modification time) than a pre-existing file or archive member with the same name. and is written only after the file has been read or written. During read. The first unsuccessful substitution stops the operation of the g option. -x format Specify the output archive format. The old string may also contain <newline> characters. During copy. \n (where n is a digit) back-references. the file in the destination hierarchy is replaced by the file in the source hierarchy or by a link to the file in the source hierarchy if the file in the source hierarchy is newer. During a list operation. for all the other operational modes ( read. write. produce a verbose table of contents using the format of the ls(1) utility with the -l option. The format of these regular expressions is: /old/new/[gp] As in ed(1). do not use this format if other formats are -v bcpio NSH 4 . The old binary cpio format. an archive member with the same name as a file in the file system will be extracted if the archive member is newer than the file. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. and copy). pax currently supports the following formats: cpio The extended cpio interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. For pathnames representing a hard link to a previous member of the archive. read or accessed them. pax writes pathnames and flushes them to standard error without a trailing <newline> as soon as processing begins on that file or archive member. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes.pax(1) -s replstr Property of BladeLogic. Any non-null character can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here). old is a basic regular expression and new can contain an ampersand (&). pax detects the truncation and repairs it. a file system member with the same name as an archive member will be written to the archive if it is newer than the archive member. using the syntax of the ed(1) utility regular expressions. is not buffered. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links).2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. -t -u Reset the access times of any file or directory that pax read or accessed to be the same as they were before pax. The optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution expression to the pathname substring which starts with the first character following the end of the last successful substitution. You can specify multiple -s expressions. the output has the format: <ls -l listing> => <link name> Where <ls -l listing> is the output format specified by the ls(1) utility when used with the -l option. or subexpression matching. This format is not very portable. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) Modify the file or archive member names specified by the pattern or file operands according to the substitution expression replstr. terminating with the first successful substitution. pax applies the expressions in the order you specify them on the command line.

or b to specify multiplication by 1048576 (1M). k. This option takes the form: -o write_opt=nodir The extended tar interchange format specified in the IEEE Std1003. NSH 5 . The individual archive formats may impose additional restrictions on use. A pair of bytes limits can be separated by x to indicate a product. With a positive limit. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links).pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. The default limit is a small positive number of retries.3. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. You can use a ’´ to escape the #. Pathnames stored by this format must be 250 characters or less in length. The default blocksize for this format is 5120 bytes. A limit of 0 will cause pax to stop operation after it detects the first read error on an archive volume. The System V release 4 cpio with file crc checksums. You can supply multiple -G options. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. The old BSD tar format as found in BSD4. soft links. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). Instead. gid. Do not follow symbolic links. a -o option can be used when writing an archive to omit the storage of directories. except that pax checks the file inode change time instead of the file modification time. or when starting with a #. -E limit Limit the number of consecutive read faults while trying to read a flawed archive to the number specified here. sv4cpio The System V release 4 cpio. If this format truncates inode and device information about a file (used for detecting file hard links). perform a physical file system traversal. -D This option is the same as the -u option. Pathnames stored by this format must be 100 characters or less in length. etc. pax detects the truncation and repairs it. -B bytes Limit the number of bytes written to a single archive volume to the value you specify here. Warning: Use NONE with extreme caution. -H -L -P Follow only command line symbolic links while performing a physical file system traversal. sv4crc tar ustar pax will detect and report any file that it is unable to store or extract as the result of any specific archive format restrictions. Follow all symbolic links to perform a logical file system traversal. a numeric gid. respectively. Checking stops with the first match. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. pax will attempt to recover from an archive read error and will continue processing starting with the next file stored in the archive. Only regular files. A limit of NONE will cause pax to attempt to recover from read errors forever. link pathname length and the type of the file. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) available. We do not recommend using this option with a floppy or hard disk. The bytes limit can end with m. file size. and directories will be archived (other file system types are not supported). The file inode change time can be used to select files whose inode information (for example.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. 1024 (1K) or 512. For backwards compatibility with even older tar formats. Inc. because pax may get stuck in an infinite loop on a very badly flawed archive. Typical archive format restrictions include (but are not limited to): file pathname length. -G group Select a file based on its group name. uid. The default blocksize for this format is 10240 bytes. This is the default mode. hard links. Warning: Use this option only when writing an archive to a device that supports an end of file read condition based on last (or largest) write offset (such as a regular file or a tape drive).) is newer than a copy of the file in the destination directory.

Finally the -v option will write the names resulting from these modifications. and ss is the seconds (from 00 to 59). the last time there was a change of owner. the second mm is the minute (from 00 to 59). mode. -u. except that pax checks the inode change time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. etc). Finally the -v option will write the names NSH 6 .pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. -T. yy. Time comparisons using both file times are useful when you are using pax to create a time based incremental archive (only files that were changed during a specified time range will be archived). file modification or both) pax should use in the comparison. do not descend into directories that have a different device ID. -Y -Z The options that operate on the names of files or archive members ( -c. the first mm is the month (from 01 to 12). -U. See the st_dev field as described in stat(2) for more information about device IDs. the names of these selected files. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or younger than the fromdate. dd. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) -T [from_date][. Then during a copy operation the -Y and the -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. a numeric uid. -n. except that pax checks the modification time using the pathname created after all the file name modifications have completed. while the other fields are optional and must be added in the following order: hh. A time range is made up of six different fields. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. When traversing the file hierarchy specified by a pathname. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pathnames as modified by the -n. -n. pax selects all files with a modification or inode change time equal to or older than the to-date. The m tells pax to compare the file modification time (the time when the file was last written). This option is the same as the -D option. You can supply multiple -T time ranges. Then any -s and -i options will modify in that order. The ss field may be added independently of the other fields. or copying files during a copy operation. -s. so -T 1234/cm would select all files with a modification or inode change time of 12:34 PM today or later. When the from_date is equal to the to_date. the names of these selected files. then pax compares both the modification time and the inode change time. When extracting files during a read operation. and -Z) interact as follows. dd is the day of the month (from 01 to 31). -T. -U user -X Select a file based on its user name. you can use the optional trailing field [c][m] to specify which file time (inode change. archive members are selected based only on the user specified pattern operands as modified by the -c. -U options. -T. group. Then the -Y and -Z options will be applied based on the final pathname. The format is: [yy[mm[dd[hh]]]]mm[. for example. or selecting files that were recently created and had their modification time reset to an older time (as happens when a file is extracted from an archive and the modification time is preserved). -i. -G. Inc. If you specify neither. When archiving files during a write operation. and -U options (the -D option applies only during a copy operation). -u. When pax is in the write or copy mode. -Y. -u. A ’´ can be used to escape the #. If you supply only a from_date. The minute field mm is required. -D. Each field must contain two digits. mm.ss] Where yy is the last two digits of the year. -v. or when starting with a #. -G. If you specify both c and m. If you supply only a to_date. This option is the same as the -u option. Checking stops with the first match. pax defaults to using the file modification time only. You can supply multiple -U options. -G. Time ranges are relative to the current time. -D. -D. pax selects only files with a modification or inode change time of exactly that time. hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23). The c tells pax to compare the inode change time (the time when the file inode was last changed. The inode change time comparison is useful in selecting files whose attributes were recently changed.to_date][/[c][m]] Allow files to be selected based on a file modification or inode change time falling within a specified time range of from_date to to_date (the dates are inclusive). Checking stops with the first match.

Do not pass over mount points in the file system.’ -f a. Append to the archive.pax(1) Property of BladeLogic. [14578] Use tape device /dev/rmt/ N EXAMPLES The command: pax -w -f /dev/rst0 . file mode. pax does not select a file unless it is newer than the file to which it is compared. The command: pax -r -s ’. Follow command line symlinks only. Extract data from archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary resulting from these modifications. The respective argument is the name of the archive to create/view/update. Stop after first error. along with the -n option. Do not follow symlinks.pax reads the archive a. newdir will copy the entire olddir directory hierarchy to newdir. Interactive file rename. The following commands: mkdir newdir cd olddir pax -rw . In this case the following options are supported. Create an archive. NSH 7 . group ID. Inc. List contents of the tape. copies the contents of the current directory to the device /dev/rst0. pax(1) If you specify one or both of the -u or -D options. Preserve user ID. Do not preserve modification time. b c e f m p r u t v w x H L P X The respective argument is the desired blocksize to use. Verbose operation mode.ˆ//*usr//*. TAR OPTIONS The pax utility supports a tar interface if the basename of argv[0] is tar. The command: pax -r -v -f filename gives the verbose table of contents for an archive stored in filename.. Follow symlinks. access/modification times.pax. with all files rooted in ‘‘/usr’’ into the archive extracted relative to the current directory. Append to the archive.

-E. -U. pax will not create a second copy of the file. Inc.pax will extract all files from the archive a. it exits with a non-zero exit status. The command: pax -r -pe -U root -G bin -f a. Berkeley and its contributors. pax may have only partially extracted a file the user wanted. tar. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and when pax completes. -H. STANDARDS The pax utility is a superset of the IEEE Std1003. pax writes a diagnostic message to standard error and returns a non-zero exit status. The options -B. If. If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. while doing a copy.pax that are owned by root with group bin and will preserve all file permissions. -Z. or cannot preserve the user ID. Whenever pax cannot create a file or a link when reading an archive or cannot find a file when writing an archive. Strictly confidential and proprietary pax(1) can be used to interactively select the files to copy from the current directory to dest_dir. or file mode when the -p option is specified.pax(1) The command: pax -rw -i . -T. The command: pax -r -w -v -Y -Z home /backup will update (and list) only those files in the destination directory /backup that are older (less recent inode change or file modification times) than files with the same name found in the source file tree home. pax does not copy the file. NSH 8 . ORIGIN pax includes software developed by the University of California. sv4cpio. In the case where pax cannot create a link to a file. pax may have only partially created the archive which may violate the specific archive format specification. and the modification and access times may be wrong. dest_dir Property of BladeLogic. pax detects a file is about to overwrite itself. -Y. -P. If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or error. 1 An error occurred.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) standard. the file modes of extracted files and directories may have incorrect file bits. Additionally. -G. group ID. but continues processing. sv4crc. ERRORS pax will exit with one of the following values: 0 All files were processed successfully. and the flawed archive handling during list and read operations are extensions to the POSIX standard. -L. the archive formats bcpio. -D.

Install a package on the local system where the package file also exists on the local system. it needs a staging area to hold all files required for the installation. /bin/ksh. You can specify multiple hostname/I. rather than copying a complete CDROM to a remote host in order to install a single package.pkgadd(1) Property of BladeLogic. as well as any optional response or admin files. pkgadd installs the package the host from which you executed the package command. the pkgadd command will emulate the standard pkgadd command. address of the host on which you want to install the package. If you do not use this option.06-sol8-sparc-local Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on the local host. The pkgadd wrapper utility works by automatically determining which files (package. address arguments. solaris # pkgadd -d //athens/tmp/bc-1. This utility lets you install Solaris packages onto any number of remote (or local) hosts. copying the necessary files to those target hosts. For example. etc. pkgadd will selectively copy just the package needed for the installation. The packages you install. and/or response) need to be copied to each target host. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary pkgadd(1) NAME pkgadd − Network Shell wrapper to pkgadd command SYNOPSIS pkgadd [-h host1 [hostn]] [-T tmpdir] <pkgadd arguments> DESCRIPTION The Network Shell version of pkgadd is a distributed utility wrapped around the Solaris pkgadd utility. pkgadd supports both individual files as well as directories. The following examples are meant to work from within the Network Shell environment and may not necessarily work on any Solaris standard shell. solaris # pkgadd -d SUNWppm Install a package on the local system where the package file exists on the remote host athens. Because the pkgadd utility acts as a wrapper utility that eventually executes the pkgadd command on the target Solaris server. <pkgadd arguments> See the man section for the pkgadd (1M) command to see what options the pkgadd command supports. admin. -h host The resolvable hostname or I. and then will selectively copy those packages (directories) to each target host. When you use the -d option to install a directory of packages in file system format (not a single file datastream). and executing the Solaris pkgadd command with the selected arguments on the target hosts.P. It will first determine which packages you want to install.P. can reside on any server. solaris # pkgadd -h rome -d SUNppm The previous example could have also been done from the Network Shell as follows: solaris # cd //rome/tmp rome # pkgadd -d //@/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product/SUNWppm NSH 1 . such as /bin/sh. OPTIONS The pkgadd wrapper understands all the standard pkgadd command options as well as the options below. -T tmpdir EXAMPLES The pkgadd wrapper is designed for use from within the Network Shell (nsh). including remote servers. Defines an alternative directory for the default staging directory /tmp.

pkgadd(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pkgadd(1)

Install a package on a remote host where the package file exists on that same remote host. solaris # cd //budapest/tmp budapest # pkgadd -d apache-1.3.12-sol8-sparc-local.gz Install a package on two remote hosts where the package file exists on the local host. solaris # pkgadd -h rome paris -d SUNWppm Install a package on a remote host where the package file (directory) exists on a different remote server. solaris # pkgadd -h london -d //athens/cdrom/cdrom0/s0/Solaris_8/Product

DIAGNOSTICS
pkgadd has several of its own self-explanatory diagnostic messages. It also outputs all messages from the execution of the remote pkgadd command.

EXIT CODES
pkgadd exits with a zero value if all package adds work successfully. If a remote pkgadd commands fails, it returns an exit code of 6. General errors return an exit code of 1.

CAVEATS
When installing a remote package to a series of hosts where the remote package is being copied from a (slower) WAN to hosts on a (faster) LAN, there is no option to tell the pkgadd command to copy the remote package into the LAN environment first and then copy the package to each of the remote hosts. Instead, pkgadd copies the package from the WAN to the LAN for each host. You can install packages only on Solaris hosts, as reported by the uname system call (looking for "SunOS").

ORIGIN
The pkgadd wrapper utility was written by Thomas Kraus.

SEE ALSO
pkgadd(1M), nsh(NSH).

NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

NAME

pr - print files
SYNOPSIS

pr [+page] [-column] [-adFmrt] [[-e] [char] [gap]] [-h header] [[-i] [char] [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n] [char] [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]
DESCRIPTION

The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for text files. When multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input is separated into 66-line pages, each with A 5-line header with the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file. A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines. If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages are suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing. When multiple column output is specified, text columns are of equal width. By default text columns are separated by at least one <blank>. Input lines that do not fit into a text column are truncated. Lines are not truncated under single column output.
OPTIONS

In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers and gap is a nonnegative decimal integer. +page Begin output at page number page of the formatted input. -column Produce output that is columns wide (default is 1) that is written vertically down each column in the order in which the text is received from the input file. The options -e and -i are assumed. This option should not be used with -m. When used with -t , the minimum number of lines is used to display the output. -a Modify the effect of the -column option so that the columns are filled across the page in a roundrobin order (e.g., when column is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line in column 1, etc.). This option requires the use of the -column option. Produce output that is double spaced. An extra <newline> character is output following every <newline> found in the input.

-d

-e [char][gap] Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by the formula n∗gap+1, where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted the default is 8. All <tab> characters in the input are expanded into the appropriate number of <space>s. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the input tab character. -F -h header header Use the string header to replace the file name in the header line. -i [char][gap] In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s whenever two or more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1, 2∗gap+1, etc. If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab> settings at every eighth column position is used. If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character. -l lines Override the 66 line default and reset the page length to lines. If lines is not greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses output of both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect. Use a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead of the default behavior that uses a sequence of <newline> characters.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

pr ( 1 )

-m

Merge the contents of multiple files. One line from each file specified by a file operand is written side by side into text columns of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column positions. The number of text columns depends on the number of file operands successfully opened. The maximum number of files merged depends on page width and the per process open file limit. The options -e and -i are assumed.

-n [char][width] Provide width digit line numbering. The default for width, if not specified, is 5. The number occupies the first width column positions of each text column or each line of -m output. If char (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows. The default for char is a <tab>. Line numbers longer than width columns are truncated. -o offset Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s. If the option is not specified, the default is zero. The space taken is in addition to the output line width. -r -s char -t Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open a file. Separate text columns by the single character char instead of by the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char is the <tab> character). Print neither the five-line identifying header nor the five-line trailer usually supplied for each page. Quit printing after the last line of each file without spacing to the end of the page.

-w width Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output only. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the default width is 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s option is specified, the default width is 512. file A pathname of a file to be printed. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’, the standard input is used. The standard input is used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is ‘-’.

The -s option does not allow the option letter to be separated from its argument, and the options -e, -i , and -n require that both arguments, if present, not be separated from the option letter.
ERRORS

If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it flushes all accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.
EXIT CODES

The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs. Error messages are written to standard error during the printing process (if output is redirected) or after all successful file printing is complete (when printing to a terminal).
SEE ALSO

cat(1), more(1)
ORIGIN

Pr includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

prune(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

prune(1)

NAME
prune − prune log files to specified size

SYNOPSIS
prune

DESCRIPTION
prune is a utility that prunes log files to a specific size. prune clips off the tops of the log files to shorten them. prune reads the file share/prune/prune_list (from the Network Shell install directory) to find the names of the files to prune. Each line of prune_list should consist of two white space separated fields. The first field is the name of the file you want to prune and the second field is the size in KB that the file should be pruned to. Lines beginning with a ’#’ are treated as comment lines and are ignored. prune was designed to run from cron. When running from cron with root privileges be sure to allow root access on remote hosts in order for prune to work (See exports(1)).

AUTHORS
prune was originally written by Ray Davis, with modifications made by Thomas Kraus.

NSH

1

putcert(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putcert(1)

NAME
putcert − push a certificate generated by bl_gen_ssl to one or more servers

SYNOPSIS
putcert user_name id.pem server1 [<server2> <server2>]

DESCRIPTION
The putcert command pushes a certificate that was generated by the bl_gen_ssl command to one or more servers. When the putcert command is issued, BladeLogic places the public key in a file called <user_name>. The file resides in the /nsh/certs directory on UNIX-style servers and in /Program Files/BladeLogic/RSC/certs on Windows servers.

OPTIONS
user_name The name of the user who created the certificate by running bl_gen_ssl. id.pem The path to the id.pem file generated by the bl_gen_ssl command. server1 [<server2> <server2>] A space-delimited list of the names or IP addresses of the servers to which the certificate should be pushed.

EXAMPLE
putcert gopal id.pem linuxBuild solarisQA

ORIGIN
putcert was developed by BladeLogic, Inc.

SEE ALSO
bl_gen_ssl(NSH), nukecert(NSH)

NSH

1

putlic(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

putlic(1)

NAME
putlic − License remote agents

SYNOPSIS
putlic

DESCRIPTION
The putlic command is meant to be used in conjunction with the getlic command. The basic idea is to let you remotely license multiple servers. The getlic command gathers necessary license information from each remote host, and places this information in a file called license.raw. BladeLogic’s licensing web page takes this file and creates a file called license.dat. putlic uses license.dat to license the remote agents. The license.dat file can contain multiple entries, one per line. Each entry consists of a hostname, a product code, a license key, and an optional expiration key. putlic sends this data to each remote host (listed in the first field of each entry) and creates an appropriate license based on the data.

USAGE
The putlic command takes an optional argument that specifies the name of the file containing the license data. If you do not specify a file name, putlic defaults to using the license.dat file. host $ putlic Host bombay successfully licensed Host madras successfully licensed

CAVEATS
To install new licenses on remote UNIX-style machines, you usually need root privileges.

ORIGIN
putlic was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
getlic(NSH), agentinfo(NSH).

NSH

1

redi(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

redi(1)

NAME
redi − redirect input to a file

SYNOPSIS
redi [-?] [-a] filename

DESCRIPTION
redi reads the standard input and writes it to filename. If the file does not exist, redi creates it. The primary purpose of this utility is to let you perform distributed redirection. In other words, you can use redi as a replacement for the output redirection sh(1) commands (> and >>) in a distributed environment by piping the data to the redi command.

OPTIONS
-a -? Append to the file instead of overwriting the file. If the file does not exist, create it. Equivalent to the >> command. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without redirecting any input. $ wc *.c | redi files.wc This would be equivalent to: $ wc *.c > files.wc The following example appends the data found by the fgrep utility into the file /etc/users.bad on host vaduz. $ fgrep evil /etc/passwd | redi -a //vaduz/etc/users.bad

EXAMPLE

DIAGNOSTICS
redi: Unable to redirect output to file filename redi was unable to create or append to the file filename. redi: Error redirecting output to file filename An error occurred while trying to write data to the named output file. This message will be followed by system error message offering a possible reason for the error.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. An error occurred in redirecting the data to the named output file. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
redi was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
sh(1).

NSH

1

RENICE ( 8 )

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. BSD System Manager’s Manual Strictly confidential and proprietary

RENICE ( 8 )

NAME renice – alter priority of running processes SYNOPSIS renice priority [ [ –p] pid ...] [ [ –g] pgrp ...] [ [ –u] user ...] DESCRIPTION Renice alters the scheduling priority of one or more running processes. The following who parameters are interpreted as process ID’s, process group ID’s, or user names. Renice’ing a process group causes all processes in the process group to have their scheduling priority altered. Renice’ing a user causes all processes owned by the user to have their scheduling priority altered. By default, the processes to be affected are specified by their process ID’s. Options supported by renice: –g –u –p Force who parameters to be interpreted as process group ID’s. Force the who parameters to be interpreted as user names. Resets the who interpretation to be (the default) process ID’s.

For example, renice +1 987 -u daemon root -p 32 would change the priority of process ID’s 987 and 32, and all processes owned by users daemon and root. Users other than the super-user may only alter the priority of processes they own, and can only monotonically increase their ‘‘nice value’’ within the range 0 to PRIO_MAX (20). (This prevents overriding administrative fiats.) The super-user may alter the priority of any process and set the priority to any value in the range PRIO_MIN (–20) to PRIO_MAX. Useful priorities are: 20 (the affected processes will run only when nothing else in the system wants to), 0 (the ‘‘base’’ scheduling priority), anything negative (to make things go very fast). FILES /etc/passwd to map user names to user ID’s SEE ALSO getpriority(2), setpriority(2) BUGS Non super-users can not increase scheduling priorities of their own processes, even if they were the ones that decreased the priorities in the first place. The Linux kernel (at least version 2.0.0) and linux libc (at least version 5.2.18) does not agree entierly on what the specifics of the systemcall interface to set nice values is. Thus causes renice to report bogus previous nice values. HISTORY The renice command appeared in 4.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution

June 9, 1993

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rm(1)

NAME
rm − Remove a file

SYNOPSIS
rm [-] [-firRv?] file ...

DESCRIPTION
rm removes the named files. rm removes a file by unlinking it from its parent directory. If this link was the last link the file had, then rm also destroys the file. rm does not remove directories unless you use the -r option. In this case, rm deletes ALL files and subdirectories in the named directory.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rm not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rm to first prompt the user to see if rm should remove the file/directory. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rm removes the file/directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. If any of the named arguments is a directory, then rm will recursively descend the directory and try to remove all files and sub-directories below it. Same as -r Output a message for each file or directory to be removed. Useful for monitoring recursive file removal. This option causes rm to treat the remaining arguments as file names. This can be useful when trying to remove a file starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any files. File to be removed

-r -R -v -? file

EXAMPLE
The first example removes all .old files in the directory /tmp The second example removes all .old files in the directory /u1/data on host helsinki. $ rm /tmp/*.old $ rm -frv //helsinki/u1/data/*.old

DIAGNOSTICS
rm: filename non existent You asked rm to remove a file that does not exist. rm: dirname is a directory You asked rm to remove a directory without using the -r option. rm: Unable to access directory dirname When removing a directory recursively, rm was unable to access a directory within the directory hierarchy. rm: Unable to remove file filename There was a problem in removing the file filename. rm: Unable to remove directory dirname There was a problem in removing the directory dirname.

EXIT CODES
0 1 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option.

NSH

1

rm(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary 2 255 One of the files to be removed was not removable. Unable to get a license to use the software.

rm(1)

CAVEATS
rm will not allow you to delete the directories . and ..

UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR
If both the -i and -f options are used, then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior), the -i option will override the -f option. With the P_ATT variable set, the -f option will override the -i option.

ORIGIN
rm was written by Thomas Kraus

SEE ALSO
rmdir(1).

NSH

2

rmdir(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

rmdir(1)

NAME
rmdir − Remove an empty directory

SYNOPSIS
rmdir [-] [-ifps?] directory ...

DESCRIPTION
rmdir tries to remove the named directories. For a directory to be removed, it must be empty, meaning that it must not contain any files or sub-directories.

OPTIONS
-f -i This option causes rmdir not to output any error messages that occur. This option causes rmdir to first prompt the user to see if the directory should be removed. If the user confirms with an entry beginning with the letter y, then rmdir will remove the directory. See UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR for details on how this option interacts with the -f option. This option causes rmdir to try to also delete any of the named parent directories. If the parent directory is not explicitly named as a component of the directory, then rmdir will not delete it. This option is used in conjunction with the -p option, where if there are any errors in removing a directory, then no error messages are output. This option causes rmdir to treat the remaining arguments as directory names. This can be useful when trying to remove a directory starting with the character ’-’. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without removing any directories. Directory to be removed

-p -s -? directory

EXAMPLE
The first example will first ask for confirmation that the directory mydir should be deleted. The second example deletes the directory mydir/foo and then tries to remove the (parent) directory mydir on host valetta. $ rmdir -i mydir $ rmdir -p //valleta/mydir/foo

DIAGNOSTICS
rmdir: Cannot remove directories . or .. rmdir does not allow you to remove the directories ’.’ and ’..’. If you try to do this, and you are not suppressing error messages, then rmdir displays this message. rmdir: Unable to delete directory dirname If there is an error in deleting the directory dirname, rmdir displays this message, along with a possible explanation of why the operation failed.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected. You specified an unknown option. One of the files to be deleted was not accessible. Unable to get a license to use the software.

CAVEATS
By default the command ls does not show hidden files in a directory (files beginning with the character ’.’). Consequently, running ls in a directory may seem to indicate that the directory is empty, but when you try to remove the directory using rmdir, rmdir may complain that the directory is not empty. Use the -a option in ls to find hidden files.

NSH

1

ORIGIN rmdir was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO mkdir(1). NSH 2 . the -i option will override the -f option. Strictly confidential and proprietary rmdir(1) UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR If both the -i and -f options are used. Inc. With the P_ATT variable set. the -f option will override the -i option. then with the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior).rmdir(1) Property of BladeLogic.

If you started the agent with the -i option (start from inetd) then the fork does not occur. the agent closes the connection. determine how the communication between the two should occur. 2 . it initially accepts the connection and then checks to see if the connection is allowed. Inc. because some of the criteria for acceptance can only be determined after the initial handshake. it uses the configured port number. 1 . 3 . Next. See the -i option for the RSCD agent below. If it finds an entry in the database.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. either from a command line or from a script. the agent defaults to port 4750. When it hears a connection. With this mechanism. If not. 4 . The agent will use this information in further security related checks. then verifies that it is a valid handshake. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) NAME rscd . the agent consults the exports file to determine if the client is even allowed to make the connection. RSCD AND SECURITY When a Network Shell utility (client) attempts to access a remote host. so that the Network Shell utilities can access the host. the Internet services daemon ( inetd ) acts as the master process and just forks off rscd sub-processes as needed. the agent needs to determine the TCP/IP port on which it should be listening. If necessary. NSH 1 .Before going any further. it looks for an rscd entry in the Internet service database (often /etc/services ). the connection to the agent is closed and the agent terminates. If the handshake is valid. the agent closes the connection. the RSCD agent first turns itself into a daemon. The second way to start the RSCD agent is through the inetd mechanism. If it finds an entry.Remote System Call Daemon SYNOPSIS rscd [-D] [-d] [-f] [-i] [-r] [-x] DESCRIPTION The RSCD agent (or daemon) is the piece of software that needs to be installed and running on each remote host. among other things. the initial handshake will include valuable information about the connecting client.Determine the client machine from which the connection is coming. At this time full acceptance of the client has not yet occurred.If it does not find an entry in either the secure file or in the Internet services database. 3 . This master process will eventually fork off sub-processes for client connections as these connections are made and validated.Based on the client host.The agent must now handle the initial handshake between the client and daemon (server). In this case. This information is found in the secure file and includes. so that it can run in background mode. the agent forks off a child process to handle all future requests from that one client (connection). the agent determines and sets appropriate permissions (see below). 2 . If the handshake is invalid (which usually occurs when the encryption type and/or encryption keys do not match). The first way is to start the RSCD agent directly. It goes through the following steps: 1 . STARTING THE RSCD AGENT There are two ways to start the RSCD agent.It looks for an rscd entry in the secure file. Before the client exits. For now it will proceed and fork off a sub-process to continue handling the acceptance. it basically attempts to make a connection to the RSCD daemon running on that remote host. The agent determines its TCP/IP port in the following way. Once the agent has determined its TCP/IP port.If it does not find an entry there. the agent decrypts the data that the client sent. But first. When an RSCD agent receives a connection. the encryption type and encryption key or keys. it uses the configured port number. it opens a connection on that port and listens for Network Shell client connections.

A sample entry for the /etc/inetd. and what permissions the client should have. but rather by the rscd Internet service entry found in the /etc/services file or other respective configuration file. ORIGIN rscd was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO exports (1). secure (1). The following options are not recommended for use and exist only for debugging purposes. the daemon sets them.conf file might look something like this: rscd stream tcp nowait root /opt/nsh/bin/rscd rscd -i When you use this option. Do not fork. Output some debug messages. If the client is not allowed to have access. the daemon now consults the users file see if there should be any specific (override) permissions for the connecting user. If there should be overrides. These are also known as the user overrides. OPTIONS The RSCD agent accepts the following options: -i Use this option when you are starting the daemon from inetd. users (1). Note that if the daemon was initiated by inetd then the port will never be free (not being listened on). and the daemon will just keep trying and trying and trying. Sometimes after the master RSCD daemon exits. the default TCP/IP communications port is not determined by the secure file.Once the daemon has all the relevant information. the port it was listening on may continue to be busy for a short time longer. Implied if -i option is used and basically makes the daemon single use. Inc. NSH 2 . which includes performing a seteuid and setegid (UNIX type systems only). -D -f -d -x Do not go into daemon mode. If the client is allowed to have access.Once it has the initial handshake data. -r This option tells the RSCD daemon to retry listening on the configured TCP/IP port if the port is currently already being listened on.rscd(1) Property of BladeLogic. 6 . the daemon closes the connection without processing any requests. Output brief usage description. Strictly confidential and proprietary rscd(1) 5 . then the daemon sets the final permissions. After the first client exits the daemon exits as well. This option tells the daemon to retry listening on the port every 10 seconds until it succeeds. it decides whether or not the client should have access.

The specified user’s permissions will override the standard permissions. you will not get access to the host. To do this. Password for root@host3: . Normally. you will not gain access to the remote server... use the -p option.] DESCRIPTION You can use the rsu command to run a command with a different set of permissions on a remote machine.. when you run an NSH command to access a remote host. OPTIONS You can configure the RSCD agent to let you rsu to the remote server without having to enter a password.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic.. Except when you are using the -p option (see below). If the user/password combination does not properly authenticate on the remote host. When the command accesses a remote host for the first time. If the remote user is not set up this way. you can select an alternate user whose permissions will be granted to the selected NSH command you are using to access the remote host. The user and entered password are then authenticated on the remote server.. Inc. just as if you had entered an incorrect password. It does not apply to any sub-commands (processes). you will need to enter the respective password for the user for each host. the RSCD agent (NSH server) of that host assigns you a specific set of permissions. Otherwise the command will continue on with the new permissions. With the rsu command. the remote user must be configured on the remote server as a user who does not need a password. if you rsu root a vi session and enter into a sub-shell. Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) NAME rsu − Run NSH command with alternate privileges SYNOPSIS rsu [-p] user command [args . $ /bin/nsh host1 $ id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ nexec host2 id uid=503(tmk) gid=600(nsh) host1 $ rsu root nexec host2 id Password for root@host2: uid=0(root) gid=1(other) host1 $ In this example you can look at a restricted file on two hosts $ /bin/nsh host1 $ cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow cat: Cannot open file //host2/etc/shadow: Permission denied cat: Cannot open file //host3/etc/shadow: Permission denied host1 $ rsu root cat //host2/etc/shadow //host3/etc/shadow Password for root@host2: . Those permissions govern your access to that host. If you are accessing multiple hosts. you will be prompted for the user’s password for that host. this change in permissions applies only to the selected command. In other words. host1 $ NSH 1 . the sub-shell and subsequent commands you run from the shell will NOT have the new permissions. You obtain the specified user’s permissions by providing the password for the user on the remote host. For this option to work. EXAMPLE The following example shows a sample session where you can determine your effective UID on the various hosts you are working with..

Strictly confidential and proprietary rsu(1) CAVEATS The -p option will work only if the target server has been specifically configured to allow the rsu command to access the server without providing a password. Inc. EXIT CODES rsu exits with the same exit code as that of the finished command. Appropriate entries (rsu=. and/or exports file must exist. exports (1). ORIGIN rsu was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO users(1).) in the users. See the users and/or exports man pages for more details. users..local.rsu(1) Property of BladeLogic. rscd(1) NSH 2 ..

-n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to output a CR (carriage return) after the header. This option must be the last option. NSH 1 . -e cmd .. The default header is "==> %h <==" where the macro "%h" is substituted by the name of the host where the program is about to be executed. Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) NAME runcmd − Run a Network Shell command on one or more hosts SYNOPSIS runcmd [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . All arguments after the -e are assumed to be part of the commands to be executed on each host..runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. Depending on what action you are currently performing. the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_HOST is set for each sub-command that is run. hostn] [-e command1 .. This option indicates the host(s) on which you want to run the command. The -H header option lets you specify a custom header.. -h host . which consists of a hostname and directory... you have the option of also specifying a start directory on each host. commandn] DESCRIPTION The programs runcmd and runscript let you run the same command on multiple machines. if you specified -H "%h belongs to Engineering" for the host eng1. For example. Inc. runcmd and runscript output a brief header before the command is executed. You can specify multiple hosts by putting spaces between host names.. This lets you easily differentiate the output that each host produces. each -h argument can be either a hostname or a UNC name. The format of this file is one entry per line.. As with each entry in the file specified with the -f file option. If you do not specify a start directory with the host.. OPTIONS -c Execute a Network Shell command on each host. Furthermore the environment variable NSH_RUNCMD_DIR is set indicating the current Network Shell path. you may want to know which host you are dealing with. commandn] runscript [-v -n -p n] [-H header] [-NH] [-s | -c] [-d directory] [-f file] [-h host1 . The difference between the two is that runcmd executes a shell command. hostn] [-e command1 . This is implicit if the program name is runcmd -d dirname When you specify the hosts on which you want to run the command. your header line would read eng1 belongs to Engineering. where each entry can be either a hostname or a UNC name. while runscript runs the given Network Shell script on each machine. runcmd and runscript consider all subsequent arguments to be host names.. -H header By default.. To this end. This option specifies the command to execute. which consists of a hostname and directory. until runcmd and runscript encounter another option (an argument starting with ´-´). -f file This option indicates that file file contains the names of the hosts on which the command is to be executed. you can specify it using the -d option’s dirname. After encountering the -h option..

This is implicit if the program name is runscript. the output generated by each instance may overall not be output in a linear way. Output the effective command executed for each host. Tag each line with the name of the host the output is coming from. then these programs will exit with a status of 0. Execute a Network Shell script on each host. This includes the default header or any header you defined using the -H option. The host name is preceded by a ( and followed by a ) as in (hostname). Strictly confidential and proprietary runcmd(1) -NH -p n This option tells runcmd and runscript not to display a header.runcmd(1) Property of BladeLogic. -v -V -s -? EXAMPLE Some simple examples. Output a brief explanation of the available options. if you are going to make assumptions about the output produced by each instance. Inc. In other words. but be advised that since things are running in parallel. If an error occurs or if a command or script exits with a non zero status. then these programs will exit with a non-zero status. host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /etc -e ls -l \| wc -c host% runscript -h //rome/bin //athens/bin -e scriptname -script_option host% runcmd -h rome athens paris london -p 2 -e ifconfig ppp down host% runcmd -h rome athens -d /tmp -e sh -c ’echo $NSH_RUNCMD_HOST $NSH_RUNCM ==> rome <== rome //rome/tmp ==> athens <== athens //athens/tmp EXIT STATUS If a command or script is successfully executed on all named hosts. you may not want to do things in parallel. ORIGIN runcmd and runscript were written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . This can significantly speed things up. Run up to n commands/scripts in parallel.

Scriptutil also supports the concept of a script library that in turn supports the concept of OS abstraction. one still wants to have a single point of access for all platforms for that task.. Can specify multiple hosts and can also be used in conjunction with the -f file option. the output (stdout) of the script is sent to stdout on the local machine.[ALL] Audit non-unique GIDs in /etc/group .. no OS name extension). then the script library will be searched with the OS type extension filter applied. -s script Specify the name of the script one want to run on the given remote servers.e. -l [name] Show the list of scripts in the library and exit.[AIX] Audit that UUCP is disabled NSH 1 .. scriptutil proceeds as follows for a given script to run on a particular server: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine remote OS type Look for script name with OS name extension in library directory If not found look for script in library directory as is (no OS name extension) Copy script to remote server Execute script on remote server capturing (and passing through) stdout and stderr Remove script from remote server OPTIONS The following options are supported. If the script refers to an existing file then that file will be the one copied and executed. when looking to run a script. As such. file contains a list of servers one wants to run the scripts on (one entry per line). grp_uniq_gid grp_uniq_grpname net_disabled_uucp. The script library is found in <install_directory>/share/sensors.AIX . With this option one can override the staging directory. EXAMPLE Show all scripts host% scriptutil -l .[ALL] Audit non-unique group names in /etc/group . then it will show all scripts (for all OSes) of that name. If a name is given.] [-l] [-o file] -s scan [-x arg] DESCRIPTION The idea behind scriptutil is to execute a given script on a remote server without the need to have the script on the given server before the script is executed (if the script already exists on the remote server one can execute the script directly by using nexec). Strictly confidential and proprietary scriptutil(1) NAME scriptutil − Copy and execute scripts on remote servers SYNOPSIS scriptutil [-d dir] [-f file] -h host1 [host2 .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. With this option one can specify a file to which the output is sent. See also -h -h host [host . .] Add host to the list of hosts one wants to run the script on. Inc. -o file By default. Scripts in the library with an OS name extension (output of uname command) are treated as overrides for the particular platform (i. As a particular task may have different implementations on various UNIX type servers.. -d dir -f file The default staging directory for the script is /tmp. If it does not refer to an existing file.

[HP-UX] Audit that UUCP is disabled Example of using a script in the script library host% scriptutil -h rome -s net_disabled_uucp Example of using an existing script host% cd //athens/tmp athens% cat rr pwd athens% scriptutil -h rome -s rr -d /tmp/nsh /tmp/nsh ORIGIN scriptutil was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO runscript (NSH). scriptutil(1) . NSH 2 . .HP-UX .scriptutil(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary net_disabled_uucp. Inc. nexec (NSH).

The default is 130 characters. All lines in the change must match regexp for the change to be ignored. if any. Skip identical lines. See EDITOR and VISUAL. prompting at each set of differences.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) NAME sdiff − side-by-side diff SYNOPSIS sdiff [ −abdilstW] [ −I regexp] [ −o outfile] [ −w width] file1 file2 DESCRIPTION sdiff displays two files side by side. −I regexp Ignore line changes matching regexp. In this mode. sdiff can also be used to interactively merge two files. r | 2 Choose right set of diffs. The commands are as follows: l | 1 Choose left set of diffs. 2008 1 . Start editing file with right set of diffs. is invoked. for details of which editor. Start editing file with left set of diffs. The options are: −l Only print the left column for identical lines. Start editing file with both sets of diffs. −w width Print a maximum of width characters on each line. which will be merged into outfile upon exiting the editor. Minimize diff size. −o outfile Interactively merge file1 and file2 into outfile. Options passed to diff(1) are: −a −b −d Treat file1 and file2 as text files. See the −o option for an explanation. Ignore trailing blank spaces. and changed lines are marked with ‘|’. deleted lines are marked with ‘<’. below. Quit sdiff. −i Do a case-insensitive comparison. s v e e l e r e b q −s Silent mode – identical lines are not printed. BSD March 28. the user is prompted for each set of differences. Verbose mode – identical lines are printed. with any differences between the two highlighted as follows: new lines are marked with ‘>’. Start editing an empty file.

SEE ALSO cmp(1). vi(1). TMPDIR Specifies a directory for temporary files to be created. depending on the current column. If neither EDITOR nor VISUAL are set. re_format(7) AUTHORS sdiff was written from scratch for the public domain by Ray Lai 〈ray@cyth. ENVIRONMENT EDITOR. The default is /tmp. If both EDITOR and VISUAL are set. VISUAL takes precedence. Terminals that treat tabs as eight characters wide will look best. 2008 2 .net〉. BSD March 28. Ignore all spaces (the −w flag is passed to diff(1)). the default is vi(1). diff3(1). though some require GNU diff. BUGS sdiff may not work with binary data.SDIFF (1) System General Commands Manual SDIFF (1) −t −W Expand tabs to spaces. Tabs are treated as anywhere from one to eight characters wide. sdiff supports most long options supported by GNU sdiff. CAVEATS Although undocumented. diff(1). VISUAL Specifies an editor to use with the −o option.

the client searches from top to bottom through entries in its secure file until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the server. If you are creating entries for individual hostnames as well as an rscd or default entry. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) NAME secadmin − Utility to define encryption and authentication security SYNOPSIS secadmin -up | -down | -top | -bottom hostname secadmin -c <config_file> .k. When configuring communication parameters for a specific host (client or server). Secadmin also lets you edit the securecert file. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURE FILE When using secadmin to create a secure file. CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE When using secadmin to edit a securecert file. a resolvable host name. It is also necessary when using secure communication to deploy assets via repeaters (that is. you can create entries for an Application Server and entries for repeaters. or a subnet designation that defines a range of addresses (see SUBNET DESIGNATIONS below). or hostname. BladeLogic clients and servers use a communication protoccol called protocol 5 that is based on a TLS transportation mechanism (a.a. certificate-based communication between an Application Server and agents and repeaters. See CREATING ENTRIES IN THE SECURECERT FILE. If the agent does not find a match. it uses the default entry. When entering a value for hostname. On the agent side. for BladeLogic clients and RSCD servers running on the local host.509 certificates. you do not have to create an entry for each remote host needing access to those agents. when the agent detects that a host is attempting to make a connection. default. which stores encrypted password information needed to access the private key for X. use the special hostname rscd. When configuring default communication parameters for servers. place the rscd or default entry at the end of the list. Accessing passwords non-interactively is essential for setting up secure. it uses the rscd entry. you can specify communication parameters by creating three types of entries: rscd. BladeLogic can access those passwords without any user interaction. Thus. If an entry does not exist for a particular remote host. create an entry that stores the password for the owner of the process that NSH 1 . through an indirect deployment). Protocol 5 auto-negotiates the most secure connection between a client and server. For an Application Server. The order of entries in the secure file matters. then the software looks for a default entry.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. create a hostname entry in the secure file. use the special hostname default. NOTE: Hostnames are matched to secure file entries by matching the IP addresses (including ranges) of their respective resolved names and not by comparing the hostnames entered in secure file entries. you can provide a host’s IP address. including encryption and authentication parameters. By default. By storing passwords in the securecert file. secadmin -c <config_file> -i secadmin -d [hostname] secadmin -P [-C] secadmin -W hostname size secadmin -a|m [hostname] [-w size] [-r [port [hostname]]] [-p 5] [-e tls] secadmin [-appserver_host [hostname]] [-appserver_port [port]] [-appserver_protocol [ clear | srp ]] secadmin [-cu [username]] [-cp [password]] DESCRIPTION Secadmin is a utility that can be used to define communications parameters. When a client attempts to establish a connection with a server. If the client does not find a match. When configuring default communication parameters for BladeLogic clients. the agent searches its secure file from top to bottom until it finds the first entry that resolves to an IP address matching the IP address of the client attempting to make a connection. SSL).. Inc. if you are using the same communication parameters for all your RSCD Agents..

in a regular secure file. The encrypted file must be installed on a system using the -i option. -P Print the output of the current configuration in a formatted table. This primarily happens when you are working with subnet definitions (see below) and you have individual host overrides in that subnet. then the file secure. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu bladmin -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu SYSTEM -cp password For a repeater. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) communicates securely with repeaters and servers. create an entry that stores the password for the administrative user that communicates with servers. passwords (keys) are encrypted using a key that is unique to the host for which the key is generated. that user is BladeLogicRSCD. that user is typically root. As mentioned above. If hostname is not provided. -d hostname Delete the entry for entry hostname. -down hostname Move the entry down one. On UNIX-style systems. you are prompted to enter the hostname. On Windows. When issuing a secadmin command. you can delete or modify an existing entry in the secure file as well as add new entries to the file. To accomplish this. See below for details. that user is SYSTEM. Since this alternate secure file is encrypted. you are prompted to enter the hostname. On UNIX-style systems. Inc. To accomplish this. If no value is entered for file. If hostname is not provided. If hostname is not provided. With the -c option you can create and install (-c and -i) a portable secure file.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. -m hostname Modify the entry for host hostname. At times it may be necessary to re-arrange the order of the entries in the secure file. Use the following options to change the order of an entry: -up hostname Move the entry up one. NSH 2 . -a hostname Create a new entry for host hostname. the passwords are not revealed. enter one of the following commands: # secadmin -m default -cu root -cp password # secadmin -m default -cu BladeLogicRSCD -cp password OPTIONS With the secadmin utility. you must append one of the following options immediately after the command: -c file Use file as an alternate secure file. it impedes the ability to pre-configure the secure file for use in automated or non-interactive installations on multiple systems. (NOTE: The alternate secure file is encrypted). If this option is followed by the -C option then the output will be in a CSV format. that user is bladmin. On Windows.cfg is used. you are prompted to enter the hostname. The primary use for this option is to create and install pre-configured secure files. While this is an important security measure.

the IP address is locked until the RSCD Agent is restarted. A bad connection can happen if encryption is not set up properly or a particular host is not granted access. Set the network write buffer size to be size bytes with the default size being 4480 bytes.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic. -p protocolnum Specify which protocol to use. Note that better compression is more CPU intensive. Each of the following options may require additional arguments. The software searches for certificates in $HOME/BladeLogic/id. These failures are limited to encryption misconfigurations and host authorization errors. with a higher number indicating better compression. -u n -T mode Specify one of the following TLS features: encryption_only Use the TLS protocol to auto-negotiate an encryption type (that is. -bottom hostname Move the entry to the bottom of the list. this option determines the maximum number of times a bad connection is allowed from a source address before the address is locked. This option must be used with the -c option. you can enter the following options to define the communication parameters for a given hostname. The default protocol is protocol 5. The default value for -u is 1 minute. This option is used in conjunction with the -l option. If -u is a negative number. which allows you to lock out IP addresses that repeatedly fail to connect to an agent. See the nshopt command for details about the network write buffer size. supported since release 5. -W hostname size Only update the network write buffer size for host hostname to be size bytes. To compress data. the secadmin utility prompts you for all information required to create or modify an entry. NSH 3 . This option requires a certificate. If you omit these additional arguments from the command line. you can specify how many minutes the IP address should be locked before allowing connection attempts to resume. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -top hostname Move the entry to the top of the list. With the -u option. Inc.pem. No authorizations or certificates are required. Please see the EXAMPLES section below for an example. encryption_and_auth Use TLS for encryption and authorization. By default data is not compressed.2. The address is locked for a period of time as defined by the -u field (see below). set value to a number between 1 and 9. a cipher) and then use that cipher to communicate. -l n When set to a non-zero positive value. -i Install an encrypted secure file created with the -c option. -w size -z value Set compression level. If you are adding or modifying an entry.

Use SRP authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. -appserver_protocol Specify the authentication protocol used when communicating with a Network Shell Proxy Server.509 certificate. all clients must be configured to use that alternate port number when accessing a server. that functions as an intermediary when Network Shell is communicating with RSCD agents. A subnet with a subnet mask of 255. Currently the rscd daemon cannot listen to multiple ports for connections. Consequently. -appserver_host Specify the Application Server. Set the protocol to one of the following: clear srp Do not use authentication when communicating with the Network Shell Proxy Server. SUBNET DESIGNATIONS When defining a hostname or address for a specific permission. Inc. A subnet designation has the following format: @<IP Address or Hostname>/mask The @ symbol indicates that a subnet is being defined. configured as a Network Shell Proxy Server.0 might look something like: @192. which let you add entries to the securecert file: -cu -cp The user for whom you are storing a password to the private key for an X. The password to the private key for a user’s X. Setting hostname to . If no hostname is given.is the same as giving no redirection host. Strictly confidential and proprietary secadmin(1) -r [port [hostname]] Specify port redirection parameters.255. then data is sent to the alternate port number on the hostname specified by the -m or -a options.509 certificate. This field is related to the -appserver_host setting.10. data should be sent to the specified port number on the host hostname.secadmin(1) Property of BladeLogic.255. This value is useful because otherwise the secadmin utility will prompt you for a redirection host.0/24 Here are some sample subnet mask definitions: NSH 4 . you can choose to specify a subnet address that defines a range of addresses for that entry.168. This value is related to the -appserver_host setting. -e tls Specify the encryption method to be used to encrypt data between BladeLogic clients and the RSCD Agent (daemon). The secadmin utility also provides the following options. -appserver_port Specify the port used to connect to a Network Shell Proxy Server. BladeLogic now only supports the tls encryption type. if you want to use an alternate port number for a server. It should be followed by an IP address or hostnames within the subnet followed by a / and then the number of bits in the subnet mask. When accessing the host specified in either the -m or -a option.

secadmin(1) 255.255.168.100. enter # secadmin -d foo To create a standard entry for host foo so it communicates using protocol 5 (the default communication protocol).255.255.100. # secadmin -a <server_host> -r 999 -e tls SEE ALSO nshopt (1).168.255.255.193/26 @192.224 255.249/29 secadmin(1) EXAMPLES The following examples illustrate actions you can take to modify the secure file.255.240 255.168.129/25 @192.255.255.100.100. NSH 5 .225/27 @192.241/28 @192.168.255. enter the following command.100.000 255.255.255.128 255.0/24 @192. enter # secadmin -a foo -p 5 -e tls To specify use of port 999 rather than the default port of 4750.255.248 Property of BladeLogic.100.192 255.168. To delete the entry for host foo. enter the following command on the server host: # secadmin -a rscd -p 5 -r 999 -e tls On each client host that is communicating with the server host. Inc.168. Strictly confidential and proprietary @192.

each line of input is echoed to the standard output after all of the commands have been applied to it. (unless there is something left after a ‘D’ function). The form of a sed command is as follows: BSD December 30. The editing commands should each be listed on a separate line. not including its terminating newline character.] sed [ −an] [ −e command] [ −f command_file] [file . . only that line is selected. −f command_file Append the editing commands found in the file command_file to the list of commands. A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space. −e command Append the editing commands specified by the command argument to the list of commands. The −a option causes sed to delay opening each file until a command containing the related ‘w’ function is applied to a line of input. or a context address (which consists of a regular expression preceded and followed by a delimiter). . but if specified must be a number (that counts input lines cumulatively across input files). A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range from the first pattern space that matches the first address through the next pattern space that matches the second.] DESCRIPTION The sed utility reads the specified files. Normally. . A single command may be specified as the first argument to sed. SED ADDRESSES An address is not required. by default. a dollar character ( ‘$’ ) that addresses the last line of input. A command line with one address selects all of the pattern spaces that match the address. sed cyclically copies a line of input. The options are as follows: −a The files listed as parameters for the ‘w’ functions are created (or truncated) before any processing begins. applies all of the commands with addresses that select that pattern space. 1993 1 . All commands are applied to the input in the order they are specified regardless of their origin. and deletes the pattern space. −n By default.address]]function[arguments] Whitespace may be inserted before the first address and the function portions of the command. (If the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number first selected. [address[. appending a newline. modifying the input as specified by a list of commands. The input is then written to the standard output. into a pattern space. or the standard input if no files are specified.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc.) Starting at the first line following the selected range. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) NAME sed − stream editor SYNOPSIS sed [ −an] command [file . Some of the functions use a hold space to save all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval. . The −n option suppresses this behavior. Multiple commands may be specified by using the −e or −f options. sed starts looking again for the first address. copies the pattern space to the standard output.

use a literal newline character in an address or in the substitute command. [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output immediately before each attempt to read a line of input. or two addresses.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. one.e. In addition. and at run-time. If the label is not specified. The following synopses indicate which arguments have to be separated from the function letters by whitespace characters. 1993 2 . sed has the following two additions to BREs: 1. The escape sequence \n matches a newline character embedded in the pattern space. or [2addr]. For example. The ‘b’. The argument text consists of one or more lines. ‘!’. SED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS The sed regular expressions are basic regular expressions ( BREs ) .. i. [2addr]b[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function with the specified label. ‘r’. 2. putting a backslash character before the delimiting character causes the character to be treated literally. ‘w’. Inc. precede it with a backslash. The terminating ‘}’ must be preceded by a newline or optional whitespace. function } The ‘{’ can be preceded or followed by whitespace. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) Editing commands can be applied to non-selected pattern spaces by use of the exclamation character ( ‘!’ ) function. ‘y’. One special feature of sed regular expressions is that they can default to the last regular expression used. The ‘r’ and ‘w’ functions take an optional file parameter. ‘t’. If a regular expression is empty. The function can be preceded by whitespace as well. in the context address \xabc\xdefx. The last regular expression is defined as the last regular expression used as part of an address or substitute command. This is a list of sed functions separated by newlines. as follows: { function function . [1addr]. Two of the functions take a function-list. representing zero. the command “/abc/s//XXX/” will substitute “XXX” for the pattern “abc”.. however. SED FUNCTIONS In the following list of commands. whether by executing the ‘N’ function or by beginning a new cycle. just the delimiter characters are specified. For example. In a context address. the RE delimiter is an ‘x’ and the second ‘x’ stands for itself. BSD December 30. Each file given as an argument to sed is created (or its contents truncated) before any input processing begins.. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. and ‘:’ functions all accept additional arguments. ‘s’. You can’t. Also. the last regular expression encountered is used instead. branch to the end of the script. any character other than a backslash ( ‘\’ ) or newline character may be used to delimit the regular expression. not compile-time. Other backslashes in text are deleted and the following character taken literally. To embed a newline in the text. so that the regular expression is “abcxdef”. which should be separated from the function letter by whitespace. the maximum number of permissible addresses for each command is indicated by [0addr]. [2addr] function-list Execute function-list only when the pattern space is selected.

Append the next line of input to the pattern space. If file cannot be read for any reason. Write the pattern space to standard output. using an embedded newline character to separate the appended material from the original contents.) Write the pattern space to the standard output in a visually unambiguous form. Non-printable characters are written as three-digit octal numbers (with a preceding backslash) for each byte in the character (most significant byte first). [2addr]s/re/replacement/flags Substitute the replacement string for the first instance of the regular expression in the pattern space. up to the first newline character to the standard output. With 0 or 1 address or at the end of a 2-address range. This form is as follows: backslash alert form-feed newline carriage-return tab vertical tab \ \a \f \n \r \t \v Delete the pattern space and start the next cycle. Strictly confidential and proprietary SED (1) [2addr]c\ text Delete the pattern space. Long lines are folded. [2addr]n [2addr]N Write the pattern space to the standard output if the default output has not been suppressed. and replace the pattern space with the next line of input. Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new cycle. Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through the first newline character and start the next cycle. Note that the current line number changes. [2addr]d [2addr]D [2addr]g [2addr]G [2addr]h [2addr]H [1addr]i\ text Write text to the standard output. it is silently ignored and no error condition is set. Inc. 1993 3 . with the point of folding indicated by displaying a backslash followed by a newline.SED (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Replace the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pattern space. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the hold space to the pattern space. Any character other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit [2addr]p [2addr]P [1addr]q [1addr]r file BSD December 30. text is written to the standard output. Append a newline character followed by the contents of the pattern space to the hold space. Copy the contents of file to the standard output immediately before the next attempt to read a line of input. Write the pattern space. [2addr]l (The letter ell. The end of each line is marked with a ‘$’. Replace the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the hold space.

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

the RE and the replacement. Within the RE and the replacement, the RE delimiter itself can be used as a literal character if it is preceded by a backslash. An ampersand ( ‘&’ ) appearing in the replacement is replaced by the string matching the RE. The special meaning of ‘&’ in this context can be suppressed by preceding it by a backslash. The string ‘\#’, where ‘#’ is a digit, is replaced by the text matched by the corresponding backreference expression (see re_format(7)). A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it. To specify a newline character in the replacement string, precede it with a backslash. The value of flags in the substitute function is zero or more of the following: 0 ... 9 g p Make the substitution only for the N’th occurrence of the regular expression in the pattern space. Make the substitution for all non-overlapping matches of the regular expression, not just the first one. Write the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement. Append the pattern space to file if a replacement was made. If the replacement string is identical to that which it replaces, it is still considered to have been a replacement.

w file

[2addr]t[label] Branch to the ‘:’ function bearing the label if any substitutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input line or execution of a ‘t’ function. If no label is specified, branch to the end of the script. [2addr]w file Append the pattern space to the file. [2addr]x Swap the contents of the pattern and hold spaces. [2addr]y/string1/string2/ Replace all occurrences of characters in string1 in the pattern space with the corresponding characters from string2. Any character other than a backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to delimit the strings. Within string1 and string2, a backslash followed by any character other than a newline is that literal character, and a backslash followed by an ‘n’ is replaced by a newline character. [2addr]!function, [2addr]!function-list Apply the function or function-list only to the lines that are not selected by the address(es). [0addr]:label This function does nothing; it bears a label to which the ‘b’ and ‘t’ commands may branch. [1addr]= [0addr] [0addr]# Write the line number to the standard output followed by a newline character. Empty lines are ignored. The ‘#’ and the remainder of the line are ignored (treated as a comment), with the single exception that if the first two characters in the file are ‘#n’, the default output is suppressed. This is the same as specifying the −n option on the command line.

The sed utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

BSD

December 30, 1993

4

SED (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

SED (1)

SEE ALSO awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), regex(3), re_format(7) "SED — A Non-interactive Text Editor", /usr/share/doc/usd/15.sed/. STANDARDS The sed function is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification. HISTORY A sed command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

December 30, 1993

5

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

NAME

sort - sort or merge text files
SYNOPSIS

sort [-cmubdfinr] [-t char] [-T char] [-k field1[,field2]] ... [-o output] [file] ...
DESCRIPTION

The sort utility sorts text files by lines. Comparisons are based on one or more sort keys extracted from each line of input, and are performed lexicographically. By default, if keys are not given, sort regards each input line as a single field. The following options are available: -c -m Check that the single input file is sorted. If the file is not sorted, sort produces the appropriate error messages and exits with code 1; otherwise, sort returns 0. Sort -c produces no output. Merge only; the input files are assumed to be pre-sorted.

-o output The argument given is the name of an output file to be used instead of the standard output. This file can be the same as one of the input files. -u Unique: suppress all but one in each set of lines having equal keys. If used with the -c option, check that there are no lines with duplicate keys.

The following options override the default ordering rules. When ordering options appear independent of key field specifications, the requested field ordering rules are applied globally to all sort keys. When attached to a specific key (see -k), the ordering options override all global ordering options for that key. -d -f -i -n Only blank space and alphanumeric characters are used in making comparisons. Considers all lowercase characters that have uppercase equivalents to be the same for purposes of comparison. Ignore all non-printable characters. An initial numeric string, consisting of optional blank space, optional minus sign, and zero or more digits (including decimal point) is sorted by arithmetic value. (The -n option no longer implies the -b option.) Reverse the sense of comparisons. Ignores leading blank space when determining the start and end of a restricted sort key. A -b option specified before the first -k option applies globally to all -k options. Otherwise, the -b option can be attached independently to each field argument of the -k option (see below). Note that the -b option has no effect unless key fields are specified. Char is used as the field separator character. The initial char is not considered to be part of a field when determining key offsets (see below). Each occurrence of char is significant (for example, ‘‘charchar’’ delimits an empty field). If -t is not specified, blank space characters are used as default field separators. Char is used as the record separator character. This should be used with discretion; -T <alphanumeric> usually produces undesirable results. The default line separator is newline.

-r -b

The treatment of field separators can be altered using the options:

-t char

-T char

-k field1[,field2] Designates the starting position, field1, and optional ending position, field2, of a key field. The -k option replaces the obsolescent options +pos1 and -pos2. The following operands are available: file The pathname of a file to be sorted, merged, or checked. If no file operands are specified, or if a file operand is -, the standard input is used. A field is defined as a minimal sequence of characters followed by a field separator or a newline character. By default, the first blank space of a sequence of blank spaces acts as the field separator. All blank spaces

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

sort ( 1 )

in a sequence of blank spaces are considered as part of the next field; for example, all blank spaces at the beginning of a line are considered to be part of the first field. Fields are specified by the -k field1[,field2] argument. A missing field2 argument defaults to the end of a line. The arguments field1 and field2 have the form m.n followed by one or more of the options -b, -d, -f, -i, -n, -r. A field1 position specified by m.n (m,n > 0) is interpreted as the nth character in the mth field. A missing .n in field1 means indicating the first character of the ‘’, field; If the -b option is in effect, n is counted from the first non-blank character in the mth field; m.1b refers to the first non-blank character in the mth field. A field2 position specified by m.n is interpreted as the nth character (including separators) of the mth field. A missing .n indicates the last character of the mth field; m = 0 designates the end of a line. Thus the option -k v.x,w.y is synonymous with the obsolescent option +v-1.x-1 -w-1.y; when y is omitted, -k v.x,w is synonymous with +v-1.x-1 -w+1.0. The obsolescent +pos1 -pos2 option is still supported, except for -w.0b, which has no -k equivalent.
FILES

/tmp/sort.∗ Default temporary directories. output#PID if output already exists.
SEE ALSO

Temporary name for output

sort(1), comm(1), uniq(1), join(1)
RETURN VALUES

Sort exits with one of the following values: 0: with the -c option 2: an error occurred.
BUGS

normal behavior. 1:

on disorder (or non-uniqueness)

Lines longer than 65522 characters are discarded and processing continues. To sort files larger than 60Mb, use sort -H; files larger than 704Mb must be sorted in smaller pieces, then merged. To protect data sort -o calls link and unlink, and thus fails in protected directories.
ORIGIN

Sort includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.
NOTES

The current sort command uses lexicographic radix sorting, which requires that sort keys be kept in memory (as opposed to previous versions which used quick and merge sorts and did not.) Thus performance depends highly on efficient choice of sort keys, and the -b option and the field2 argument of the -k option should be used whenever possible. Similarly, sort -k1f is equivalent to sort -f and may take twice as long.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

2

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

split ( 1 )

NAME

split - split a file into pieces
SYNOPSIS

split [-b byte_count[km]] [-l line_count] [file [name]]
DESCRIPTION

The split utility reads the given file (or standard input if no file is specified) and breaks it up into files of 1000 lines each.
OPTIONS

The options are as follows: -b Create smaller files byte_count bytes in length. If ‘‘k’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count kilobyte pieces. If ‘‘m’’ is appended to the number, the file is split into byte_count megabyte pieces. Create smaller files n lines in length.

-l

If additional arguments are specified, the first is used as the name of the input file which is to be split. If a second additional argument is specified, it is used as a prefix for the names of the files into which the file is split. In this case, each file into which the file is split is named by the prefix followed by a lexically ordered suffix in the range of ‘‘aa-zz’’. If the name argument is not specified, the file is split into lexically ordered files named in the range of ‘‘xaa-zzz’’.
BUGS

For historical reasons, if you specify name, split can only create 676 separate files. The default naming convention allows 2028 separate files.
ORIGIN

Split includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

strings(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

strings(1)

NAME
strings - find printable strings in a file

SYNOPSIS
strings [-afo] [-n number] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Strings displays the sequences of printable characters in each of the specified files, or in the standard input, by default. By default, a sequence must be at least four characters in length before being displayed. The options are as follows: -a -f -n -o By default, strings only searches the text and data segments of object files. The -a option causes strings to search the entire object file. Each string is preceded by the name of the file in which it was found. Specifies the minimum number of characters in a sequence to be number, instead of four. Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file.

Strings is useful for identifying random binaries, among other things.

SEE ALSO
hexdump(1)

BUGS
The algorithm for identifying strings is extremely primitive. In particular, machine code instructions on certain architectures can resemble sequences of ASCII bytes, which will fool the algorithm.

NOTES
Since strings works in a multi platform environment, it can not recognize all types of executable files. Consequently the -a option is always assumed to be turned on. This may be fixed in the future. Strings includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements.

NSH

1

User Commands

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

su ( 1 )

NAME

su – substitute user identity
SYNOPSIS

su [-flm] [login [args ... ]]
DESCRIPTION

Su requests the password for login (or for root, if no login is provided), and switches to that user and group ID and then executes the Network Shell nsh. If su is executed by root, no password is requested and the Network Shell with the appropriate user ID is executed By default, the environment is unmodified with the exception of USER, HOME, and SHELL. HOME and SHELL are set to the target login’s default values. USER is set to the target login, unless the target login has a user ID of 0, in which case it is unmodified. The invoked shell is the target login’s. This is the traditional behavior of su. The options are as follows: -f -l or This flag is used in confunction with the csh which of course we are not running. This option is accepted for compatability reasons and is ignored. Simulate a full login. The environment is discarded except for HOME, SHELL, PATH, TERM, and USER. HOME and SHELL are modified as above. USER is set to the target login. PATH is set to /usr/sbin/usr/bin on Solaris hosts, /usr/sbin:/usr/bin on HPUX hosts, /usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin on Sun OS hosts, and TERM is imported from your current environment. The invoked shell is the Network Shell nsh, and su will change directory to the target login’s home directory. Leave the environment unmodified. The Network Shell is started and no directory or environment variable changes are made.

-m

The -l and -m options are mutually exclusive; the last one specified overrides any previous ones. By default (unless the prompt is reset by a startup file) the super-user prompt is set to ‘‘#’’ to remind one of its awesome power.
SEE ALSO

nsh(1), login(1)
ENVIRONMENT

Environment variables used by su: HOME PATH TERM USER Default home directory of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Default search path of real user ID unless modified as specified above. Provides terminal type which may be retained for the substituted user ID. The user ID is always the effective ID (the target user ID) after an su unless the user ID is 0 (root).

SunOS 5.8

Last change: NSH

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

NAME tail − display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS tail [ −f | −r] [ −b number | −c number | −n number | −number] [file . . .] DESCRIPTION The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ( ‘+’ ) sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, -c +2 starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ( ‘-’ ) sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, -n 2 displays the last two lines of the input. The default starting location is -n 10, or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: −b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. −c number The location is number bytes. −n number | −number The location is number lines. −f Do not stop when end-of-file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes), tail will reopen the file and continue. If the file is truncated, tail will reset its position to the beginning. This makes tail more useful for watching log files that may get rotated. The −f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. The −r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the −b, −c, and −n options. When the −r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the −r option is to display all of the input.

−r

If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string “==> XXX <==” where “XXX” is the name of the file. The tail utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. EXAMPLES To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO cat(1), head(1), sed(1)

BSD

June 6, 1993

1

TAIL (1)

PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

TAIL (1)

STANDARDS The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) specification. In particular, the −b and −r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the −b, −c and −n options modify the −r option, i.e., -r -c 4 displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax -4cr) would ignore the −c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY A tail command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD

June 6, 1993

2

tee(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

tee(1)

NAME
tee − Pipe fitting

SYNOPSIS
tee [-ai?] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
The tee utility copies the standard input to standard output, making copies of the input to the optionally named files.

OPTIONS
The following options may modify the behavior of tee. -a -i Append the output to the files rather than overwriting them. This option causes tee to ignore the SIGINT signal.

EXAMPLE
The first example takes the output from the program someprog and appends it to the file messages creating the file if it does not already exist. The second example copies the file /etc/motd to the hosts ottawa and washington. $ someprog | tee -a messages $ cat /etc/motd | tee //ottawa/etc/motd //washington/etc/motd

DIAGNOSTICS
tee: Unable to access file filename Error creating or trying to append to one of the name files. tee: Write error to file filename An error occurred updating (writing) to one of the files.

EXIT CODES
0 1 2 255 No errors detected An unknown option was given Was not able to create or able to write to one the files. Unable to get a license to use the software.

ORIGIN
Tee includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgments.

SEE ALSO
tee(1)

NSH

1

test(1)

Property of BladeLogic, Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary

test(1)

NAME
test − Test value of expression

SYNOPSIS
test expression

DESCRIPTION
The test command tests the value of the given expression and exits with an appropriate exit code to indicate if the expression was TRUE or FALSE. In the sh(1) family of command interpreters, an exit code of 0 indicates a value of TRUE, while a non zero exit code indicates a value of FALSE.

OPTIONS
You can build an expression from any combination of the following primitives. -b file -c file -d file -f file. -f file -g file -h file -k file -l string -n string -p file -r file -s file -t fd -u file -w file -x file -z string s1 = s2 s1 != s2 n1 -eq n2 n1 -ne n2 n1 -gt n2 n1 -ge n2 n1 -lt n2 n1 -le n2 ! -a -o (expr) TRUE if file is a block special device. TRUE if file is a character special device. TRUE if file is a directory. TRUE if file is not a directory (P_BSD). TRUE if file is a regular file (P_ATT). TRUE if file has its set-GID bit set. TRUE if file is a symbolic link. TRUE if file has its sticky bit set. The length of string. TRUE if length of strings is not zero. TRUE if file is a named pipe (FIFO). TRUE if file is readable. TRUE if file is greater than 0 bytes large. TRUE if file descriptor is associated with a tty. TRUE if file has its set-UID bit set. TRUE if file is writable. TRUE if file is executable. TRUE if length of strings is zero. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are equal. TRUE if strings s1 and s2 are not equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are equal. TRUE if integers n1 and n2 are not equal. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is greater than or equal to integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than integer n2. TRUE if integer n1 is less than or equal to integer n2. Unary negation operator. Binary ’and’ operator. Binary ’or’ operator. Parentheses for grouping.

NSH

1

EXAMPLE The first example would return TRUE if both the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group exist on host bonn. Strictly confidential and proprietary -? test(1) Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without doing any testing. The -a (binary AND) operator has a higher precedence than the -o (binary OR) operator. Consequently you must escape or quote them. $ test -f //bonn/etc/passwd -a -f //bonn/etc/group $ test -f \( /etc/passwd -o -f /etc/group \) -a -d /etc/security DIAGNOSTICS test: argument expected This message is output if a primitive of the expression is missing an operand. Inc. You can use parentheses to group operators so that they are evaluated in the order you want. ORIGIN test was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 2 . Consequently the primitive -f <character_special_file> will produce different values in the two universes. The difference is that a special file such as a character special file is neither a directory nor a regular file. the -f primitive checks if the file is not a directory. UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR With the P_BSD variable set (Berkeley behavior). With the P_ATT variable set. Unable to get a license to use the software. also have special meaning to the sh(1). the -f primitive check that the file is a regular file. The sh(1) counterpart test(1) is a built in function to the shell and a separate executable program for it does not exist. An operand of a primitive was missing. so as not to have them interpreted by sh(1). which can be used for grouping primitives. CAVEATS Parentheses.test(1) Property of BladeLogic. Value of the expression is FALSE. The second example would return TRUE if either one of the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group exists. which in turn has a higher precedence than the ! (negation) operator. and the directory /etc/security exists. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 Value of the expression is TRUE. test is an executable program.

When no −r or −t option is specified. a “CC” value of 20 is used. The month of the year. the first argument is interpreted as a time specification of the form “MMDDhhmm[YY]”. If the “YY” letter pair is in the range 69 to 99. the values default to the current year. from 0 to 59. the year is set in the 21st century. The argument should be in the form “[[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. The access time of the file is not changed unless the −a flag is also specified. The second of the minute. The minute of the hour. from 0 to 23. is supported. The touch utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.] DESCRIPTION The touch utility sets the modification and access times of files to the current time of day. If “YY” is specified. it is created with default permissions. The hour of the day. The second two digits of the year. where a time format is specified as the first argument. Otherwise. The day of the month. Do not create the file if it does not exist. even if the file permissions do not currently permit it. Attempt to force the update.SS]] file [ . The “MM”. 1995 1 .SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following: CC YY MM DD hh mm SS The first two digits of the year (the century). . from 1 to 31. but “CC” is not. The touch utility does not treat this as an error. If the file doesn’t exist. the year is set from 1969 to 1999. Change the access and modification times to the specified time.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Inc. a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. the value defaults to 0. BSD April 28. otherwise. The options are as follows: −a −c −f −m −r −t Change the access time of the file. Change the modification time of the file. . from 0 to 61. there are at least two arguments. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified. SEE ALSO utimes(2) STANDARDS The obsolescent form of touch. Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) NAME touch − change file access and modification times SYNOPSIS touch [ −acfm] [ −r file] [ −t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[. “DD”. from 1 to 12. No error messages are displayed and the exit value is not affected. and the first argument is a string of digits either eight or ten characters in length. “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are treated as their counterparts specified to the −t option. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified. The modification time of the file is not changed unless the −m flag is also specified. Use the access and modification times from the specified file instead of the current time of day.

Strictly confidential and proprietary TOUCH (1) The touch utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX. BSD April 28. HISTORY A touch utility appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. 1995 2 . Inc.TOUCH (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.2”) specification.

1991 1 . The –d option causes characters to be deleted from the input. In the second synopsis form. In the third synopsis form. \a \b \f \n \r \t \v <alert character> <backspace> <form-feed> <newline> <carriage return> <tab> <vertical tab> \character A backslash followed by any other character maps to that character. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. the last character found in string2 is duplicated until string1 is exhausted. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) NAME tr – Translate Characters. In the first synopsis form. the characters in string1 are compressed as described for the –s option. If string1 is longer than string2. This occurs after all deletion and translation is completed. In the fourth synopsis form. the characters in string1 are translated into the characters in string2 where the first character in string1 is translated into the first character in string2 and so on. the characters in string1 are deleted from the input. 2 or 3 octal digits represents a character with that encoded value. that is ‘‘-c ab’’ includes every character except for ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’. left zero-pad the octal sequence to the full 3 octal digits. Shpink October 27. The –s option squeezes multiple occurrences of the characters listed in the last operand (either string1 or string2) in the input into a single instance of the character. and the characters in string2 are compressed as described for the –s option. A backslash followed by 1. SYNOPSIS tr [ –cs] string1 string2 tr [ –c] –d string1 tr [ –c] –s string1 tr [ –c] –ds string1 string2 DESCRIPTION The tr utility copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution or deletion of selected characters. To follow an octal sequence with a digit as a character. Inc. The following conventions can be used in string1 and string2 to specify sets of characters: character \octal Any character not described by one of the following conventions represents itself. The following options are available: –c –d –s Complements the set of characters in string1. A backslash followed by certain special characters maps to special values.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic.

inclusively. EXAMPLES The following examples are shown as given to the shell: Create a list of the words in file1. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) c-c [:class:] Represents the range of characters between the range endpoints. otherwise. they are ordered after their encoded values.e. In the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes. Inc. Represents n repeated occurrences of the character represented by #. it is be interpreted as large enough to extend string2 sequence to the length of string1. If n is omitted or is zero. tr -cs [:alpha:]" "\n" < file1" Translate the contents of file1 to upper-case. If n has a leading zero. characters are entered in ascending order. English has no equivalence classes. it is interpreted as an octal value. [#∗n] The tr utility exits 0 on success. see ctype(3) and related manual pages. System V shell scripts should work under this implementation as long as the range is intended to map in another range. For specific information as to which ASCII characters are included in these classes. one per line. and >0 if an error occurs. tr [:lower:]" "[:upper:]" < file1" Strip out non-printable characters from file1. the characters are ordered in ascending sequence. Otherwise. An example of an equivalence class might be ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘ch’’ in Spanish. tr -cd [:print:]" < file1" COMPATIBILITY System V has historically implemented character ranges using the syntax ‘‘[c-c]’’ instead of the ‘‘c-c’’ used by historic BSD implementations and standardized by POSIX. characters in the classes are in unspecified order. If there is a secondary ordering within the equivalence class. This expression is only valid when it occurs in string2. the command ‘‘tr [a-z] [A- Shpink October 27. it’s interpreted as a decimal value. [=equiv=] Represents all characters or collating (sorting) elements belonging to the same equivalence class as equiv. 1991 2 . i. Represents all characters belonging to the defined character class. Class names are: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit <alphanumeric characters> <alphabetic characters> <control characters> <numeric characters> <graphic characters> <lower-case alphabetic characters> <printable characters> <punctuation characters> <space characters> <upper-case characters> <hexadecimal characters> With the exception of the ‘‘upper’’ and ‘‘lower’’ classes.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. where a word is taken to be a maximal string of letters.

‘‘-’’ and ‘‘z’’ will have to be rewritten as ‘‘a\-z’’. the –c and –s options were ignored unless two strings were specified. for example. additionally. The tr utility has historically been extremely forgiving of syntax errors. This implementation will not permit illegal syntax. Shpink October 27. STANDARDS The tr utility is expected to be IEEE Std1003. It should be noted that the feature wherein the last character of string2 is duplicated if string2 has less characters than string1 is permitted by POSIX but is not required. the characters ‘‘[’’ and ‘‘]’’ will be included in the deletion or compression list which would not have happened under an historic System V implementation. stripped NUL’s from its input stream. Strictly confidential and proprietary TR ( 1 ) Z]’’ will work as it will map the ‘‘[’’ character in string1 to the ‘‘[’’ character in string2.TR ( 1 ) Property of Reference Manual BSD BladeLogic. However. Shell scripts attempting to be portable to other POSIX systems should use the ‘‘[#∗]’’ convention instead of relying on this behavior.2 (‘‘POSIX’’) compatible. Additionally. if the shell script is deleting or squeezing characters as in the command ‘‘tr -d [a-z]’’. Inc. This implementation has removed this behavior as a bug. any scripts that depended on the sequence ‘‘a-z’’ to represent the three characters ‘‘a’’. The tr utility has historically not permitted the manipulation of NUL bytes in its input and. 1991 3 .

Print the nodename (the nodename may be a name that the system is known by to a communications network). If no options are specified. BSD January 26. uname(3) STANDARDS The uname utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003. Print the processor type in more detail. Print the operating system name. machine(1). Print the operating system release. SEE ALSO hostname(1). The options are as follows: −a −m −n −p −r −s −l −v Behave as though all of the options −mnrsv were specified. Print the machine hardware name. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNAME (1) NAME uname − print operating system name SYNOPSIS uname [ −amnprsv] DESCRIPTION The uname utility writes symbols representing one or more system characteristics to the standard output. Print the patch level.2”). Inc. uname prints the operating system name as if the −s option had been specified. 1994 1 .4 BSD.UNAME (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. HISTORY The uname command appeared in 4.2-1992 (“POSIX. Print the operating system version.

just delete the files. -v -s suf ORIGIN uncp was written by Thomas Kraus. The default suffix is ˜ (foo -> foo˜). dsync(1). When uncp finds files with the specified suffix. The backup is done by renaming the target file with a suffix. Do not actually make any changes. OPTIONS -d -n Instead of restoring the files to their previous names.. Set the suffix to suf. It does not rename any files. it renames them (removes the suffix). The uncp command is a mechanism to restore the saved files to their previous state by renaming them back to their original name (foo˜ -> foo). This option automatically turns on the verbose flag -v and just lists the renames it would perform if you had not turned on the -n option. By default. uncp looks for the suffix ˜. Inc. NSH 1 . This option tells it to look for a different suffix. Strictly confidential and proprietary uncp(1) NAME uncp − Uncopy files backed up during a cp or dsync SYNOPSIS uncp [-dnv] [-s suf] file1 . Output a message for each file being renamed. uncp does not rename directories as it will automatically recursively travel through the directories passed to it as arguments. SEE ALSO cp(1).. This is a useful option when you want to remove any files that the dsync or cp commands previously backed up.uncp(1) Property of BladeLogic. DESCRIPTION The cp and dsync commands have an option (-b or -B) that lets you back up the target file (if it exists) before the new source file is copied into its place.

so it may be necessary to sort the files first. Repeated lines in the input will not be detected if they are not adjacent. SEE ALSO sort(1) STANDARDS The historic +number and −number options have been deprecated but are still supported in this implementation. the first chars characters after the first fields fields will be ignored. −s chars Ignore the first chars characters in each input line when doing comparisons. If specified in conjunction with the −f option..e. The uniq utility exits 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred. BSD December 8.UNIQ (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. The second and succeeding copies of identical adjacent input lines are not written. The uniq utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003. 2002 1 . −u Only output lines which are unique. the first such argument is used as the name of an input file. The options are as follows: −c −d Precede each output line with the count of the number of times the line occurred in the input. i. the first field is field one. Character numbers are one based.2 (“POSIX. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNIQ (1) NAME uniq − report or filter out repeated lines in a file SYNOPSIS uniq [ −c | −d | −u] [ −f fields] [ −s chars] [input_file [output_file]] DESCRIPTION The uniq utility reads the standard input comparing adjacent lines and writes a copy of each unique input line to the standard output. A file name of ‘-’ denotes the standard input or the standard output ( depending on its position on the command line ) . the second is used as the name of an output file. i.e. Only output lines which have duplicates. the first character is character one.. If additional arguments are specified on the command line.2”) compatible. followed by a single space. −f fields Ignore the first fields in each input line when doing comparisons. A field is a string of non-blank characters separated from adjacent fields by blanks. Field numbers are one based. Inc.

old files in the directory /u1/data on host amsterdam.. NSH 1 . you should use it only in exceptional cases. EXIT CODES 0 255 Besides license problems. CAVEATS Since unlink does not perform any error checking. Unable to get a license to use the software. File to be unlinked EXAMPLE The first example unlinks the file foo. except that it does exactly what it is told to do. change the ownership of the unlink file to root and the mode to 500. any user can run the unlink command. NOTES By default. $ unlink foo. you should use the rm command. unlink always exits with 0. DESCRIPTION The unlink command is similar to the rm command. Normally. Inc.unlink(1) Property of BladeLogic. In other words. Strictly confidential and proprietary unlink(1) NAME unlink − Unlink a file and/or directory SYNOPSIS unlink [-?] file . ORIGIN unlink was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO rm(1).bar $ unlink //amsterdam/u1/data/*.old DIAGNOSTICS Since unlink errors are ignored. To restrict its use to the super user.bar The second example removes all . OPTIONS -? file Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without unlinking any files. there are no diagnostic messages to be output except for network and licensing messages. We strongly suggest that you use the commands rm and rmdir instead of the unlink command. because improper use may adversely affect the consistency of the file systems.. it unlinks the named files (which is the mechanism to remove files) regardless of the state of the files. without doing any type of error checking.

as with any other ZIP archive. In particular. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive.42) 1 . (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead. test. separated by spaces.) If no matches are found. z i p is appended. the suffix . all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.Misc. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). but in many cases the program options or default behaviors differ. the path itself cannot. or between the file(s) and the –x option. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories. [ c h ] . If the file specification is a wildcard. or extract files from a ZIP archive. Inc. . it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the normal options). [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. ARGUMENTS file[.) Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory). be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS unzip [–Z] [–cflptuvz[abjnoqsCLMVX$/]] file[. Again. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). By default.x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. . Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). ‘‘u n z i p f o o ∗. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. a hyphen. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. but none in any subdirectories. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly. . all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. creates ZIP archives. Without the –x option.] [–x xfile(s) . zip(1L). (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. For example. see above. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. and if that also fails. and an ending character. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. just specify the . ranges are specified by a beginning character.zip] [file(s) . Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) NAME unzip – list. A companion program. particularly under Unix and VMS. See –v in OPTIONS below. Only the filename can be a wildcard. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. . but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. commonly found on MS-DOS systems. This option need not appear at the end of the command line.] [–d exdir] DESCRIPTION unzip will list. . [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. . both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS. immediately after the zipfile specification.

. but the –o option may be used to suppress the queries. [OS/2. The names. and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on disk. and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate. the target operating system for which it was compiled. ‘‘unzip –T \∗.e. compression ratio and 32-bit CRC. compressed size. If the first option on the command line is –Z. be verbose or print diagnostic version info. If a file was archived from a single-case file system (for example. As a modifier it works in conjunction with other –f –l –p –t –T –u –v Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) OPTIONS Note that. i. the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the –L option was given. update existing files and create new ones if needed. unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites. any special compilation options that might affect the program’s operation (see also DECRYPTION below). The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two. an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s stored CRC value. If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined. the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options. extract files to stdout/screen (‘‘CRT’’). In addition. As an option it has two purposes: when a zipfile is specified with no other options. This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen. and the files are always extracted in binary format. Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout. uncompressed file sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files are printed. In addition to the normal header with release date and version.42) 2 . the zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed. freshen existing files. list archive files (short format).Misc. extract files to pipe (stdout). The exhaustive list follows: –Z –A –c zipinfo(1L) mode. This option performs the same function as the –f option.zip’’) and is much faster. extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies. This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier. –v lists archive files verbosely. the –l option also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs). [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one. the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (∧ ).. in order to support obsolescent hardware. Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming interface (API). and any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below). When no zipfile is specified (that is. This corresponds to zip’s –go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e. and the compilation date. as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled. the complete command is simply ‘‘unzip –v’’). See –f above for information on setting the timezone properly. unzip’s usage screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags. extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name on disk. adding to the basic –l info the compression method. the compiler and version used. the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for –f and –u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set automatically). See the appropriate manual page for a description of these options. test archive files. A typical TZ value is ‘‘PST8PDT’’ (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer time’’). This option is similar to the –p option except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Inc. Note that under many operating systems. the –a option is allowed. By default unzip queries before overwriting. a diagnostic screen is printed. just as they are stored (no conversions).g. along with totals for all files specified. This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check.

the current one). Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files.. In addition.g. The –aa option forces all files to be extracted as text.Misc. the –C option may be used to force all filename matches to be case-insensitive. (On Tandem. –a –b –b –b –B –C –E –F –F –i –j –J –J Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. all three files would then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or ‘‘make∗’’. see above). the most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry’s header is used. unzip’s default behavior is to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively. and NT supports Unicode. [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see –a above) to fixed-length. OS/2 HPFS. junk paths. [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames. or similar). The file’s BeOS file attributes are not restored. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. see the relevant options below). This is a shortcut for – – –a. Since this does not correspond to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example. The –C option affects files in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist). [BeOS only] junk file attributes. The –a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’ label in zipinfo listings. This is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations. which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it). and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF. rather than ‘b’) to be automatically extracted as such. [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields. not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for wildcard specifications).) [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.g. IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set. end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) options (e. Instead. [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 (’C’) when extracting Zip entries marked as "text".. –z MODIFIERS display only the archive comment. unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what you ask for’’ (this is also responsible for the –L/–U change. converting line endings.) Note that zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect. In the example above. Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms. [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions). 512-byte record format. convert text files. specifying ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in the archive. –t) to produce more verbose or debugging output. this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases. regardless of the supposed file type. (For example.42) 3 . and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted files. [Unix only. –a is enabled by default. and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwritten file with a tilde appended (e. it is replaced by the info from the extra field. some ‘‘text’’ files may actually be binary and vice versa. just the file’s data. Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker. Doubling the option (–bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format. That is. [Unix only. the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’). Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files). All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Inc. all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default. (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension. unzip therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the –a option. [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation. match filenames case-insensitively. Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs. The archive’s directory structure is not recreated.

Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames. files archived under single-case file systems (VMS. and possibly a summary when finished with each archive.42) 4 . use the non-echoing. this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix. which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release. in the format file. retain (VMS) file version numbers. interactive prompt to enter passwords. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the –U option. Whenever possible. however. the extraction methods. By default unzip queries before extracting any file that already exists. ‘‘EA DATA. pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unixmore(1) command. (It is often used with –f. Ordinarily unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or testing. so use it with care. never overwrite existing files. SF’’). but this option allows them to be retained. etc. (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. The –q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages.) –q perform operations quietly (–qq = even quieter).) Depending on the archiver. use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities. skip extraction of all existing files. THIS IS INSECURE! Many multiuser operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user. skip the extraction of that file without prompting. overwrite all files. [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes. By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they’re stored (excepting truncation. etc. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –L convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file system. the Enter/Return key. unzip by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e. Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse. even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking. conversion of unsupported characters. NT. to be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS. or rename the current file. [OS/2. Inc. Unlike Unix more(1).##. unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and.) –M –n –N –o –P password use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any). which stores filenotes as comments. any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive. Also. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. VMS.). Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases. and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2.g. unzip pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. the user may choose to overwrite only the current file. See –L above. regardless of the originating file system. (obsolete. (And where security is truly important.) may be stored as all-uppercase names. The –LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. overwrite existing files without prompting. this option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase. This is a dangerous option. since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames. the version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option. (This was unzip’s default behavior in releases prior to 5.11. At the end of a screenful of output.ext. By default the ‘‘. VMS files can be stored with a version number. skip extraction of the current file..) –s –U –V Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. however. If a file already exists. etc. File comments are created with the –c option of zip(1L). MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores. unzip doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. old MS-DOS FAT.##’’ version numbers are stripped. or with the –N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L). on some systems. This can be awkward. in which case unzip assumes the height is 24 lines.Misc. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability.

–C. acting on the q option. one may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it. and UNZIP for all other operating systems. –q. –o. as long as the user IDs match his or her own. For example. Unix. or –n modifiers: make unzip auto-convert text files by default. If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined. filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file. but under Unix. use the command unzip ––q[other options] zipfile The first hyphen is the normal switch character. For instance. the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable).Misc. OS/2. make it match names case-insensitively. for example. or security ACLs under Windows NT. [NT’s access control lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2’s. or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them.42) 5 . make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase. UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). volume labels are ignored. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1). only reporting errors. one would use one of the following commands: UNZIP=–qq. two (or more) minuses may be used: unzip –t––q zipfile unzip –––qt zipfile (the two are equivalent). NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable (e. make it quieter. a diskette). or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix. but it is reasonably intuitive: just ignore the first hyphen and go from there. however. To cancel both quiet flags. unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. OS/2. to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above. Doubling the option (–$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well. NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS. to make unzip act as quietly as possible. considered to be just like any other command-line options. During extraction. UNZIP takes precedence. To override an environment option. and the second is a minus sign. By default..0. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.0 to 5. Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness. so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges. –L. or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3. Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to optional. but it is probably most useful with the –a. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) –X [VMS.0). As suggested by the examples above.g. In most cases this will require special system privileges. extra ownership info available on some operating systems. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzip’s default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable. This may seem awkward or confusing. and doubling the option (–XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction. –$ –/ extensions [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment variable. For compatibility with zip(1L).] [MS-DOS. except that they are effectively the first options on the command line. in effect. It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway. Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1. export UNZIP setenv UNZIP –qq set UNZIP=–qq define UNZIP_OPTS "–qq" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) Environment options are. Inc. This can be done with any option. a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any of those groups.

This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding methods for such characters. so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password works. Windows PKZIP 2. assuming the timezone is correctly set in the Control Panel. If a password is not known. UnZip 5. The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally. However.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere else.. To check a version for crypt support. Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption. unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed. see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US. (Since there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding. The correct password will always check out against the header. This may result in ‘‘false positives’’ and extraction errors. de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary. Under Windows 95/NT unzip should know the correct timezone even if TZ is unset. or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the –v option above) for ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation options. either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extraction because the ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream. OEM code page) to test passwords. Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS. as noted above. In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled. and Nico Mak’s WinZip 6. This variable may also be necessary in order for timestamps on extracted files to be set correctly. If the first password fails the header check on some file. the –P option may be used to supply a password on the command line. As noted above.04g uses the OEM code page.. printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: unzip -tq letters Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. either attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and so on until all files are extracted. On EBCDIC systems. but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well. Inc. including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850.zip into the current directory and subdirectories below it. DOS PKZIP 2. if a zipfile member is encrypted. followed by the alternate one (e. (In fact.g. but at a cost in security. just a carriage return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting.Misc.) In the case that an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway. by testing a 12-byte header on each file. OS/2 and Win3. EXAMPLES To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip. that’s not quite true. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. See the description of –f above for details.42) 6 . EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems.zip into the current directory only: unzip -j letters To test letters. DECRYPTION Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software. creating any subdirectories as necessary: unzip letters To extract all members of letters. if both of these fail. since spring 2000. Latin-1). Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted.3 attempts to use the default character set first (e.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all. unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be valid. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the –f and –u to operate correctly.) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example. but due to United States export restrictions.g. US export restrictions have been liberated. older versions of zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords. EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort. entering a null password (that is. (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format. unzip will prompt for another password.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP). it helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only the header.) ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported. and our source archives do now include full crypt code.

zip whose names end in . double quotes could have been used instead. be older): unzip –fo sources To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous example): unzip –uo sources To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in environment variables. To extract all FORTRAN and C source files. whether decryption support was compiled in. printing only the summaries: unzip -tq \∗.zip "∗. regardless of case (e. as in the source examples below. Inc.Misc.zip TIPS (extra minuses don’t hurt) The current maintainer.1 or later contain no timezone information. and a ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory. as in Unix. something that is worth making a habit of doing. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.) To do a standard listing: unzip ––ql file.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program: unzip –p articles paper1. ∗. One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an archive. assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.g.c. ∗.tex.h. the compiler with which unzip was compiled.dvi | dvips To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--∗. To do a singly quiet listing: unzip –l file.42) 7 . auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1): unzip –ca letters \∗. etc.zip "∗. being a lazy sort.C.) To extract to standard output all members of letters. and any makefile.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked ‘‘binary’’): unzip –aaCL source. Makefile.c and ∗.zip "∗.. With luck unzip will report ‘‘No errors Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.zip’’ is generally not necessary. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) To test all zipfiles in the current directory.tex | more To extract the binary file paper1. and Makefile--into the /tmp directory: unzip source.zip (Note that the ‘‘.zip or unzip –l–q file. finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases: tt for ‘‘unzip –tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip –Z’’ (or ‘‘zipinfo’’). both ∗.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on).: unzip –v In the last five examples. MAKEFILE or similar): unzip –C source.f.zip To do a doubly quiet listing: unzip –ql file. without querying (NOTE: be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2. in fact.zip or unzip –l––q file.zip (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards.

some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. Processing probably failed immediately. Processing may have completed successfully anyway. unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the decryption password(s). unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk. however. 9-11 and 80-82. one or more warning errors were encountered. 0x7fff0001 for warning errors. This includes zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an unknown password.zip. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit. the disk is (or was) full during extraction. except with funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be extracted).) This will definitely be corrected in the next major release. invalid options were specified on the command line. (If even one file is successfully processed. the exit status is 1. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors. and then ‘‘zip –F’’ must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ‘‘fix’’ it.42) 8 . 51). except under VMS: 0 1 normal. so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes. (All parts must be concatenated together in order. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. In addition. The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ‘‘–aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘–C’’ as well. where the ‘?’ is 2 (error) for unzip values 2. Archives read from standard input are not yet supported.Misc. 50.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 50 51 80 81 82 VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8. His ZIPINFO variable is set to ‘‘–z’’. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. scarier-looking things. Inc. the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar) testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression methods or unsupported decryption. there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior: defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) detected in compressed data of zipfile. except in conjunction with zip. no errors or warnings detected. [currently not used] the specified zipfiles were not found. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression. no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief. no matching files were found. but processing completed successfully anyway. unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. BUGS Multi-part archives are not yet supported.

and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK). zipcloak(1L). Fail?’’ message. [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if the –o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given. Jean-loup Gailly (compression). Windows DLLs). the old version is not overwritten or deleted. passwords with accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers. Onno van der Linden (Zip).foo] syntax is accepted for the –d option. NT). Under DEC Ultrix. unzip should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed. unzip’s query only allows skipping. Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2). [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette.g. This problem appears to be fixed. In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required: first unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files). older versions of unzip may hang the system. zipinfo(1L). [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes). unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk. [VMS] When extracting to another directory. the ‘‘overwrite’’ choice does create a new version.info-zip. Paul Kienitz (Amiga.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. not always reproducible). Retry. if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from DOS’s ‘‘Abort. Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS). as noted above. Inc. The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s was based is Samuel H. Amiga). AUTHORS The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip). Atari). Steve Salisbury (Windows 95. Harald Denker (Atari. unzip’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. Mark Adler (decompression.g. Windows 95). requiring a reboot. Dates. Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS). block devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile. VMS. MS-DOS.. only the [. zip(1L).org/pub/infozip/ . times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. QNX. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. nor are hard-linked files relinked.. zipnote(1L). because directories only have a creation time associated with them. In fact.Misc. Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1). Hunter Goatley (VMS). MVS). This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?). unzip should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20. fUnZip). In addition. zipgrep(1L). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. SEE ALSO funzip(1L). shared code. Windows 95. this may not be an issue anymore. then overwrite just the directory entries (e.42) 9 . Johnny Lee (MS-DOS. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC. Christian Spieler (UnZip maintance coordination. The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large. Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI). Carl Mascott did the first Unix port. please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version.dir syntax). directories and symbolic (soft) links. NT). and David P. NT.info-zip. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. This is a limitation of the operating system. overwriting or renaming. Chris Herborth (BeOS. the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo. See the discussion in DECRYPTION above. ‘‘unzip -o foo ∗/’’). Mike White (Windows GUI. John Bush (Solaris. but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e. [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists. Smith. there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file. Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files. Windows 95. general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization).

maintainer) Info-ZIP Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. consolidator) Info-ZIP (GRR. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIP ( 1L ) VERSIONS v1. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.42) 10 . GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.32 v5. SPC) Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.0 v2.12 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.3 v5. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup. Inc.0 v4.1 v5.4 v5. Smith Samuel H. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.2 v2. GRR) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.01 v5.1 v4.Misc. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.42 15 Mar 89 9 Sep 89 fall 1989 1 May 90 15 Aug 90 1 Dec 90 12 May 91 20 Mar 92 21 Aug 92 15 Jan 93 7 Feb 94 2 Aug 94 28 Aug 94 30 Apr 96 22 Apr 97 31 May 97 3 Nov 97 28 Nov 98 16 Apr 00 14 Jan 01 Samuel H.41 v5. consolidator) Info-ZIP (DPK.2 v5.11 v5.0 v3.x v3. SPC) Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup.1 v4. Smith many Usenet contributors Info-ZIP (DPK.0 v5.31 v5.

. Note that self-extracting archives made with unzipsfx are no more (or less) portable across different operating systems than is the unzip executable itself. all C source files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted. and PKUNZIP may be unable to test or extract it. Inc. ranges are specified by a beginning character.Misc. [ c h ] . Without the –x option. Regular unzip may still be used to extract the embedded archive as with any normal zipfile. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. although it will generate a harmless warning about extra bytes at the beginning of the zipfile. unzipsfx seeks itself under the name by which it was invoked and tests or extracts the contents of the appended archive. Instead of taking its first non-flag argument to be the zipfile(s) to be extracted. The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them. In general a self-extracting archive made on a particular Unix system. and an ending character. the internal directory structure is not updated to reflect the extra bytes prepended to the original zipfile. the ability to decompress older compression formats (the ‘‘reduce.) [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. . This limitation is due to the simplistic manner in which the archive is created. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is. particularly under Unix and VMS. (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. a hyphen. If unzipsfx is compiled with SFX_EXDIR defined. for example. a number of the less-vital capabilities in regular unzip have been removed. Since wildcard characters match directory separators (‘/’). . and the ability to extract to a directory other than the current one. For example. ‘‘–d ˜ ’’ (tilde) is expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user’s home directory. will only self-extract under the same flavor of Unix.’’ ‘‘shrink’’ and ‘‘implode’’ methods). In particular. the self-extracting archive is technically not a valid ZIP archive. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. but none in any subdirectories. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) NAME unzipsfx – self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives SYNOPSIS <name of unzipsfx+archive combo> [–cfptuz[ajnoqsCLV$]] [file(s) .x ∗/ ∗’’ would extract all C source files in the main directory. Despite this.]] DESCRIPTION unzipsfx is a modified version of unzip(1L) designed to be prepended to existing ZIP archives in order to form self-extracting archives. These wildcards may contain: ∗ ? [. If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket.42) 1 . By default. the –d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory).] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. but ‘‘–d˜ ’’ is treated as a literal subdirectory ‘‘˜’’ of the current directory. Regular expressions (wildcards) similar to those in Unix egrep(1) may be used to match multiple members. . Because the executable stub adds bulk to the archive (the whole purpose of which is to be as small as possible). [–x xfile(s) . ARGUMENTS [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. . ‘‘f o o s f x ∗. but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed. all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current directory. . Among these are the usage (or help) screen. Decryption is supported as a compile-time option but should be avoided unless the attached archive contains encrypted files. the listing and diagnostic functions (–l and –v). however. the following option is also enabled: [–d exdir] An optional directory to which to extract files. this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories.

–L (convert uppercase-OS names to lowercase). since it is simple enough for the archive’s creator to ensure that text files have the appropriate format for the local OS.zip letters.) Under AmigaDOS: MakeSFX letters letters.exe. The third line assumes that Zip is already installed as a foreign command. Once again. Amiga]). that only adds to the size of the archive. –o (overwrite without prompting). Alternatively. plus the following operating-system specific options: –X (restore VMS owner/protection info). –f and –u (freshen and update existing files upon extraction).exe zip -A letters. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. –s (convert spaces in filenames to underscores [DOS. ‘‘zip -A’’ doesn’t work on Amiga self-extracting archives. –t (test archive) and –z (print archive comment).exe Under VMS: copy unzipsfx. note that if the archive has no encrypted files there is no reason to use a version of unzipsfx with decryption support. NT.) To test (or list) the newly created self-extracting archive: Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. See unzip(1L) for details. NT]) and –$ (restore volume label [DOS. The second command installs the new program as a ‘‘foreign command’’ capable of taking arguments. OS/2. –v and –Z) have been removed. (Support for regular ASCII text-conversion may be removed in future versions.zip UnZipSFX (MakeSFX is included with the UnZip source distribution and with Amiga binary distributions. ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS unzipsfx uses the same environment variables as unzip(1L) does. All normal listing options (–l. –j (junk paths) and –V (retain version numbers).exe (The VMS append command may also be used. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) OPTIONS unzipsfx supports the following unzip(1L) options: –c and –p (extract to standard output/screen).zip and change the new archive’s permissions to be world-executable under Unix: cat unzipsfx letters. –C (match names case-insenstively). but the testing option (–t) may be used as a ‘‘poor man’s’’ listing. –n (never overwrite). EXAMPLES To create a self-extracting archive letters from a regular zipfile letters. MODIFIERS unzipsfx currently supports all unzip(1L) modifiers: –a (convert text files).zip letters. See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these options.42) 2 . EBCDIC conversion will of course continue to be supported since the zipfile format implies ASCII storage of text files.Misc.exe" zip -A letters. those creating self-extracting archives may wish to include a short listing in the zipfile comment. that is. OS/2. interactively with a non-echoing prompt for the password(s). Inc.exe+letters.exe letters == "$currentdisk:[currentdir]letters.letters. –q (operate quietly).) See unzip(1L) for a more complete description of these modifiers. OS/2 or NT (note the use of the /b [binary] option to the copy command): copy /b unzipsfx.zip > letters chmod 755 letters zip -A letters To create the same archive under MS-DOS. although this is likely to be an issue only for the person creating and testing the self-extracting archive. DECRYPTION Decryption is supported exactly as in unzip(1L). See unzip(1L) for details.

so the archive may be invoked from anywhere in the user’s path. and therefore neither are the resulting archives. Under OS/2 and NT there are operating-system calls available that provide the full path name. are also known to prepend junk. But PKWARE’s archiver suite may not be able to deal with the modified archive unless its offsets have been adjusted. listing functions and extraction to other directories. unzipsfx will print a warning to the effect. simple concatenation does not work. The situation is not known for AmigaDOS.txt files: letters -x ∗.Misc. a number of the normal unzip(1L) functions have been removed in order to make unzipsfx smaller: usage and diagnostic info. notably MacBinary. in order to create working selfextracting archives. (For technically oriented users. VMS users must know how to set up self-extracting archives as foreign commands in order to use any of unzipsfx’s options. between some flavors of Intel-based Unix). ‘‘can’t find myself.g. e. MakeSFX. Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) letters –t To test letters quietly. ‘‘run letters’’ (to continue the examples given above). Another problem with the current implementation is that any archive with ‘‘junk’’ prepended to the beginning technically is no longer a zipfile (unless zip(1) is used to adjust the zipfile offsets appropriately. as noted above). Inc. MacOS. recreating all files and subdirectories as necessary: letters To extract all ∗. The latter limitation is mainly relevant to those who create SFX archives. see the corresponding man page.42) 3 . DIAGNOSTICS unzipsfx’s exit status (error level) is identical to that of unzip(1L). printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not: letters –tqq To extract the complete contents into the current directory. depending on the compiler used (Microsoft C fully qualifies the program name. or else a full or relative path must be given. Atari TOS. however.txt files (in Unix quote the ‘∗’): letters ∗. If a user attempts to extract the archive from a directory in the PATH other than the current one..g. All current bugs in unzip(1L) exist in unzipsfx as well.’’) There may be compatibility problems between the ROM levels of older Amigas and newer ones. unzipsfx on the Amiga requires the use of a special program. the attached archive is defined as a ‘‘debug hunk.txt To extract only the README file to standard output (the screen): letters -c README To print only the zipfile comment: letters –z LIMITATIONS The principle and fundamental limitation of unzipsfx is that it is not portable across architectures or operating systems. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Also.. only stored and deflated files are supported. This is not necessary for simple extraction.txt To extract everything except the ∗. so in general an archive must either be in the current directory when it is invoked. but the command to do so then becomes.’’ This is always true under Unix and may be true in some cases under MS-DOS. etc. but other compilers may not). As noted above. For some architectures there is limited portability. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5. unzip(1) takes note of the prepended bytes and ignores them since some file-transfer protocols. however (e. unzipsfx has no knowledge of the user’s PATH.

or the file CONTRIBS in the UnZip source distribution for the full list of Info-ZIP contributors. unzip(1L).info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ . AUTHORS Greg Roelofs was responsible for the basic modifications to UnZip necessary to create UnZipSFX. zipinfo(1L). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www. zip(1L). zipgrep(1L).org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v5.Misc. See unzip(1L) for the current list of Zip-Bugs authors. zipnote(1L). Inc.info-zip. zipcloak(1L). Strictly confidential and proprietary UNZIPSFX ( 1L ) SEE ALSO funzip(1L).42) 4 . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.

followed by a newline. this fact can be determined by the value of the count on the last line. tar cf . These consist of a character count. The header line is distinguished by having the first 6 characters ‘‘begin ’’ (note the trailing space). and a string which names the remote file. The last line may be shorter than the normal 45 bytes.tar. and a trailer line. Groups of 3 bytes are stored in 4 characters. uudecode . NSH 1 . Please see the intro section for complete acknowledgements. the standard input) into the original form. The body consists of a number of lines.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic. Lines preceding a header must not. Uudecode ignores any leading and trailing lines. The body is terminated by a line with a count of zero. A space separates the three items in the header line. uuencodes it and mails it to a user. of course.encode/decode a binary file SYNOPSIS uuencode [file] name uudecode [file . 6 bits per character. The word begin is followed by a mode (in octal).. All are offset by a space to make the characters printing. Extra garbage will be included to make the character count a multiple of 4. CAVEATS The encoded form of the file is expanded by 35% (3 bytes become 4 plus control information). EXAMPLES The following example packages up a source tree.] DESCRIPTION Uuencode and uudecode are used to transmit binary files over transmission mediums that do not support other than simple ASCII data. If the size is not a multiple of 3.. Inc. followed by a number of body lines. look like a header. OPTIONS There are no options for any of these commands. The character count is a single printing character. compresses it. followed by encoded characters. Uuencode reads file (or by default the standard input) and writes an encoded version to the standard output.Z’’ will be created which may then be uncompressed and extracted into the original tree. ORIGIN Uuencode and uudecode include software developed by the University of California. The encoding uses only printing ASCII characters and includes the mode of the file and the operand name for use by uudecode. Uudecode transforms uuencoded files (or by default.Z | mail jsmith FILE FORMAT Files output by uuencode(1) consist of a header line. the number of bytes the rest of the line represents. The resulting file is named name and will have the mode of the original file except that setuid and execute bits are not retained. The trailer line consists of ‘‘end’’ on a line by itself. Such integers are always in the range from 0 to 63 and can be determined by subtracting the character space (octal 40) from the character. When uudecode is run on the target system. Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) NAME uuencode. the file ‘‘src_tree.tar. and represents an integer. The uudecode(1) command will ignore any lines preceding the header or following the trailer. This line consists of one ASCII space. each at most 62 characters long (including the trailing newline). Berkeley and its contributors.src_tree | compress | uuencode src_tree.

Strictly confidential and proprietary uuencode(1) SEE ALSO uuencode(1). uudecode (1). compress(1) NSH 2 . Inc.uuencode(1) Property of BladeLogic.

494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . BladeLogic Network Shell 4.0.5. NSH 1 . ORIGIN version was written by Thomas Kraus. Strictly confidential and proprietary version(1) NAME version − Output version information about BladeLogic software SYNOPSIS version DESCRIPTION The version command outputs release information about the BladeLogic software that it detects as being installed on the local server.version(1) Property of BladeLogic. Sample output is: BladeLogic RSCD Agent 4.494 [Oct 20 2002 16:41:59] Copyright (C) 1996 . SEE ALSO agentinfo(1).0.2002 BladeLogic Inc. Inc.5.2002 BladeLogic Inc.

This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the ex/vi text editors. applicable only to ex edit sessions. however. read the section after the options description. Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard input. entitled FAST STARTUP. In the vi interface. nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution ( 4BSD ) ex and vi programs. Inc. as if the command name was vi. and no startup files or environment variables are read. . Prompts. It’s probably enough to get you going. ex will read commands from it regardless. BSD October 10. Don’t copy the entire file when first starting to edit.] DESCRIPTION ex is a line-oriented text editor. The following options are available: −c cmd Execute cmd on the first file loaded. although cmd is not limited to positioning commands. as if the command name were ex.] view [ −eFrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program. and you absolutely have to get work done immediately. or. . In the ex interface. or the readonly option was set. 1996 1 . . Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor before this manual page. nex/nvi is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it from the historic implementations of ex/vi. Start editing in ex mode. This is the POSIX 1003. This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi. exactly as if the −s option had been specified. Start editing at the specified tag (see ctags(1)).2 interface for the historic “-” argument. Start editing in vi mode. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) NAME ex. If you’re in an unfamiliar environment. . if no files are specified. it is an error if standard input is not a terminal. if standard input is not a terminal.] vi [ −eFRrS] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . as if the command name was view. −e −F −R −r −S −s −t tag −v −w size Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines. . list the files that could be recovered.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the session will be a batch mode session. Run with the secure edit option set. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. disallowing all access to external programs. informative messages and other user oriented messages are turned off. This is the POSIX 1003. For the rest of this manual page. If no recoverable files by the specified name exist. Enter batch mode.2 interface for the historic “+cmd” syntax. vi is a screen-oriented text editor. vi. and it is possible to switch back and forth during an edit session. nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax. Particularly useful for initial positioning in the file. view − text editor SYNOPSIS ex [ −FRrSsv] [ −c cmd] [ −t tag] [ −w size] [file . See the SEE ALSO section below for a list of additional materials. view is the equivalent of using the −R ( read-only ) option of vi. (The default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file during your edit session. Recover the specified files. Batch mode is useful when running ex scripts. the file is edited as if the −r option had not been specified.) Start editing in read-only mode. .

vi will beep at you if you try and do something that’s not allowed. Open a new line above the line the cursor is on. Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs. Once you’ve entered input mode using one of the a. Append new text. The last line of the screen is used for you to give commands to vi. and move the cursor to its first character. i. too. Move the cursor right one character. enter the following command: $ vi file The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is: :set verbose showmode This will make the editor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the bottom of the screen. i. The commands to move around the file are: h j k l Move the cursor left one character. Open a new line below the line the cursor is on.g. before the cursor. There is only one key that takes you out of input mode. vi is a screen editor. you are either entering text or you are executing commands. or greater than 0 if an error occurs. use 〈escape〉 to quit entering text and return to command mode. If you’ve never used any screen editor before.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 〈escape〉 means the “escape” key. and for vi to give information to you. In that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them walk you through this section. FAST STARTUP This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do simple editing tasks using vi. Insert new text. The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful editor. It will also display error messages. after the cursor. Inc. you’re likely to have problems even with this simple introduction. You will be in command mode when you first start editing a file. /text a i O o 〈escape〉 Search for the string “text” in the file. usually labeled “Esc” on your terminal’s keyboard. This means that it takes up almost the entire screen. The commands to enter new text are: The commands to copy text are: BSD October 10. Generally. e. Move the cursor down one line. and that is the 〈escape〉 key. except for the last line of the screen.e. and start entering text. 〈cursor-arrows〉 The cursor arrow keys should work. displaying part of the file on each screen line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ex/vi exits 0 on success. If you’re ever confused as to which mode you’re in. To start editing a file. There are commands that switch you into input mode. and start entering text. Move the cursor up one line. and you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other. keep entering the 〈escape〉 key until vi beeps at you. O or o commands. 1996 2 .

Inc. In each entry below. [count] 〈control-H〉 [count] h Move the cursor back count characters in the current line. If count is not given. vi will refuse to quit). The commands to delete text are: The commands to write the file are: :w file_name Write the file back to the file with the name file_name. [count] 〈control-D〉 Scroll forward count lines. i. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. [count] 〈control-B〉 Page backwards count screens.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 〈control-G〉 Display the file information. The above commands work on “physical” characters and lines. [count] 〈control-J〉 BSD October 10. if possible. 1996 3 . they affect the entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it takes up. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command character. 〈control-A〉 Search forward for the current word. Delete the character the cursor is on. VI COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the command mode of the vi editor.e. and long lines can take up more than a single screen line. Write the file back to the file with the name that you originally used as an argument on the vi command line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) p yy dd x :w Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on. but not saved your changes. [count] 〈control-E〉 Scroll forward count lines. Quit. [count] 〈control-F〉 Page forward count screens. discarding any modifications that you may have made. The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are: :q :q! Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file. Delete the line the cursor is on. leaving the current line and column as is. One final caution: Unusual characters can take up more than one column on the screen. Copy the line the cursor is on.

without changing the current column. If count is not given. 〈escape〉 Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands. 〈control-ˆ〉 Switch to the most recently edited file. BSD October 10. scroll forward half the number of lines in the current screen. leaving the current line and column as is. [count] 〈space〉 [count] l Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the current line. Inc. 〈control-T〉 Return to the most recent tag context. If the trailing character is a ‘#’ or ‘+’. % Move to the matching character. or to the first screen if there are no lower screens in the window. 〈control-Z〉 Suspend the current editor session. the number is incremented. [count] 〈control-P〉 [count] k Move the cursor up count lines. if possible. 〈control-]〉 Push a tag reference onto the tag stack. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [count] 〈control-N〉 [count] j Move the cursor down count lines without changing the current column.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [count] # #|+|Increment or decrement the number under the cursor. 1996 4 . [count] ! motion shell-argument(s) 〈carriage-return〉 Replace text with results from a shell command. [count] 〈control-M〉 [count] + Move the cursor down count lines to the first non-blank character of that line. 〈control-W〉 Switch to the next lower screen in the window. [count] $ Move the cursor to the end of a line. [count] 〈control-U〉 Scroll backwards count lines. If the trailing character is a ‘-’. the number is decremented. [count] 〈control-Y〉 Scroll backwards count lines. 〈control-L〉 〈control-R〉 Repaint the screen.

If offset is specified. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. count times. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. The second form returns to the first character of the context marked by character. Repeat the last vi command that modified text. If buffer is specified. [count] A Enter input mode. n and N repeat the last search in the same or opposite directions. If a count argument is given. [count] ( Back up count sentences. BSD October 10. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. Repeat the last character find count times. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end-of-line. Reverse find character count times.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. the cursor is placed offset lines before or after the matched regular expression. [count] <motion [count] >motion Shift lines left or right. Execute an ex command. ’〈character〉 ‘〈character〉 Return to a context marked by the character character. [count] Move to the first non-blank of the previous line. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. 1996 5 . The first form returns to the beginning of the line marked by character. [count] . /RE 〈carriage-return〉 /RE/ [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE 〈carriage-return〉 ?RE? [offset] 〈carriage-return〉 N n Search forward ( ‘/’ ) or backward ( ‘?’ ) for a regular expression. [count] . [count] . appending the text after the end of the line. 0 : Move to the first character in the current line. respectively. Inc.

[count] J Join lines. or the last line of the file if count is not specified.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If a count argument is given. through the current line for the character after the specified character. [count] G Move to line count. [count] L Move to the screen line count − 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. If buffer is specified. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. [count] I Enter input mode. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. appending text in a new line above the current line. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. or the default buffer if none is specified. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. [count] O Enter input mode. inserting the text at the beginning of the line. [count] T 〈character〉 Search backwards. replacing the characters in the current line. If a count argument is given. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. [count] R Enter input mode. Q Exit vi ( or visual ) mode and switch to ex mode. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or “yank”) count lines into the specified buffer. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. If buffer is specified. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. 1996 6 . [count] H Move to the screen line count − 1 lines below the top of the screen. Inc. count times. [count] F 〈character〉 Search count times backward through the current line for character. “yank” the deleted text into buffer. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line. If buffer is specified. BSD October 10. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. If a count argument is given.

[count] i Enter input mode. appending text in a new line under the current line. 1996 7 . [count] ]] Move forward count section boundaries. ˆ Move to the first non-blank character on the current line. the characters input are repeated count − 1 number of times. [count] b Move backwards count words. [count] w Move forward count words. Inc. If a count argument is given. through the rest of the current line for 〈character〉. [count] o Enter input mode. [count] _ Move down count − 1 lines. inserting the text before the cursor. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] f 〈character〉 Search forward. u Undo the last change made to the file. count times. to the first non-blank character. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. count times. the characters input are repeated count −1 number of times. [count] a Enter input mode. [count] t 〈character〉 Search forward. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ZZ Write the file and exit vi. [count] r 〈character〉 Replace count characters. BSD October 10. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. [count] [[ Back up count section boundaries. If a count argument is given. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. appending the text after the cursor. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. m 〈character〉 Save the current context ( line and column ) as 〈character〉. through the current line for the character immediately before 〈character〉. If a count argument is given.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

Otherwise. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. Place the line count1 at the bottom of the screen. ˆ〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. BSD October 10. 〈nul〉 Replay the previous input. [count] ˜ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. 〈control-T〉 Insert sufficient 〈tab〉 and 〈space〉 characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column boundary. display the screen before the screen before count1 ( i.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. If column is omitted. optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. ˆ Place the line count1 in the center of the screen. [count] ˜ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt the current operation. [count1] z [count2] type Redraw. 0〈control-D〉 Erase all of the autoindent characters. Inc. limit the screen size to count2 lines. The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. 2 screens before ) . 〈control-D〉 Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. The following type characters may be used: + If count1 is specified. [column] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. move to the start of the current line. . and reset the autoindent level. If count2 is specified. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or “yank”) a text region specified by count and motion into a buffer. place the line count1 at the top of the screen. display the screen before the current screen. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. Only in effect if the tildeop option is set. display the screen after the current screen. 1996 8 . 〈carriage-return〉 Place the line count1 at the top of the screen. Otherwise.e. If count1 is given.

Inc. . The 〈interrupt〉 character is usually 〈control-C〉. " A comment. the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. The 〈literal next〉 character is usually 〈control-V〉. . In each entry below.] [count] [flags] Shift lines right. ! argument(s) [range] ! argument(s) Execute a shell command. [range] >[> . 1996 9 .VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. 〈control-W〉 〈word erase〉 Erase the last word. and return to command mode. If line is not specified. 〈end-of-file〉 Scroll the screen. . 〈control-X〉[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines. display the line number of the last line in the file.] [count] [flags] Shift lines left. BSD October 10. 〈line erase〉 Erase the current line. 〈interrupt〉 Interrupt text input mode. [range] <[< . Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) 〈erase〉 〈control-H〉 Erase the last character. 〈literal next〉 Escape the next character from any special meaning. or filter lines through a shell command. each preceded with its line number. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. @ buffer ∗ buffer Execute a buffer. returning to command mode. [line] = [flags] Display the line number of line. . 〈escape〉 Resolve all text input into the file.

he[lp] Display a help message. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. [range] co[py] line [flags] [range] t line [flags] Copy the specified lines after the destination line. 1996 10 . Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation list. chd[ir][!] [directory] cd[!] [directory] Change the current working directory. screens or tags. ar[gs] bg Display the argument list. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching ( ‘global’ ) or not matching ( ‘v’ ) a pattern. [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file] [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. [Ff]g [name] vi mode only. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) ab[breviate] lhs rhs vi only. Foreground the specified screen. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. vi only. Cscope connections. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. Inc. Background the current screen. BSD October 10. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line.

res[ize] [+|-]size vi mode only. . pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex −r option. [line] ma[rk] 〈character〉 [line] k 〈character〉 Mark the line with the mark 〈character〉. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only).] [nooption . . Grow or shrink the current screen. . [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. sh[ell] Run a shell program. 1996 11 . Inc.. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines..] Edit the next file from the argument list. rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. se[t] [option[=[value]] . editor options and maps to the specified file. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ˜ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. su[spend][!] BSD October 10. .] [option? . so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. q[uit][!] End the editing session. . mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations.] [all] Display or set editor options. . [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. [Pp]rev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. [Nn][ext][!] [file . rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list. [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic.

This section describes the options. The 〈suspend〉 character is usually 〈control-Z〉. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) st[op][!] 〈suspend〉 Suspend the edit session. Inc. writing the file if it has been modified. [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set ( or unset ) to change the editor’s behavior. [range] x[it][!] [file] Exit the editor. BSD October 10. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. clearing the stack. [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] vi mode only. 1996 12 . Edit a new file. [Tt]agp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. [Tt]agn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. u[ndo] Undo the last change made to the file. Enter vi. Delete an abbreviation. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. their abbreviations and their default values. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] ex mode only. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. una[bbreviate] lhs vi only. [range] w[rite][!] [>> ] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>> ] [file] [range] wq[!] [>> ] [file] Write the file. tagt[op][!] Pop to the least recent tag on the tags stack.

escapetime [1] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete an 〈escape〉 key mapping. followed by any equivalent abbreviations. instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. dir [environment variable TMPDIR. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) In each entry below. Display the current line automatically. ap [on] ex only. unless otherwise specified. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. errorbells. beautify. or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. aw [off ] Write modified files automatically when changing files. eb [off ] ex only. extended [off ] Use extended regular expressions ( EREs ) rather than basic regular expressions ( BREs ) . autoprint. they are either on or off. Announce error messages with a bell. autoindent. Inc. Skip leading comments in shell. 1996 13 . the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option. Most of the options are boolean. or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. directory. altwerase [off ] vi only. autowrite. comment [off ] vi only. exrc. i. ed [off ] Remember the values of the ‘c’ and ‘g’ suffixes to the substitute commands. bf [off ] Discard control characters. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. BSD October 10. and do not have an associated value. Options apply to both ex and vi modes. C and C++ language files. edcompatible. Select an alternate word erase algorithm. cedit [no default ] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. filec [no default ] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. columns. ai [off ] Automatically indent new lines.e. co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. ex [off ] Read the startup files in the local directory. See re_format(7) for more information on regular expressions. backup [""] Back up files before they are overwritten.

This option will never be implemented. modelines. iclower [off ] Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive. list [off ] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. number. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. Inc. matchtime [7] vi only. Set the number of lines in the screen. ignorecase. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. read or written. modeline [off ] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. Do left-right scrolling.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. mesgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/ ] Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and informational messages in a specified language. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited. 1996 14 . hardtabs. This option currently has no effect. lisp [off ] vi only. lines. nu [off ] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. li [24] vi only. octal [off ] Display unknown characters as octal numbers. ic [off ] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. keytime [6] The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. BSD October 10. ht [0] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. This option is not yet implemented. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. leftright [off ] vi only. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. The 10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. instead of the default hexadecimal.

remap [on] Remap keys until resolved. ruler [off ] vi only. sw [8] Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width. scr [($LINES − 1) / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. scroll. shell. Display a command prompt. shellmeta [˜{[∗?$‘’"\ ] Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expansion is necessary. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. readonly. Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]] commands. If this option is not set. para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] vi only. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] vi only. ro [off ] Mark the file and session as read-only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) open [on] ex only. the open and visual commands are disallowed. shiftwidth. This option is not yet implemented. recdir [/var/tmp/vi. Note matching ‘{’ and (‘’ for ‘}’ and ‘)’ characters. sections. sm [off ] vi only. prompt [on] ex only. optimize. Optimize text throughput to dumb terminals. Inc. 1996 15 . Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. secure [off ] Turns off all access to external programs. redraw. or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. sh [environment variable SHELL. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. path [""] Define additional directories to search for files being edited. This option is not yet implemented paragraphs. showmatch.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. opt [on] vi only. re [off ] vi only. searchincr [off ] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. BSD October 10. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks.

tty [environment variable TERM] Set the terminal type. terse [off ] This option has historically made editor messages less verbose. tags. window. Select an alternate erase algorithm. w9600 [no default ] vi only. tag [tags ] Set the list of tags files. ts [8] This option sets tab widths for the editor display. Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than 1200 baud. w. This option causes a warning message to be printed on the terminal if the file has been modified since it was last written. slow [off ] Delay display updating during text input. timeout.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. Display the current editor mode and a “modified” flag. to [on] Time out on keys which may be mapped. smd [off ] vi only. taglength. warn [on] ex only. Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200 baud. ttytype. tl [0] Set the number of significant characters in tag names. term. BSD October 10. tildeop [off ] Modify the ˜ command to take an associated motion. Display an error message for every error. It has no effect in this implementation. This option is not yet implemented. w1200 [no default ] vi only. wi [environment variable LINES − 1] Set the window size for the screen. sidescroll [16] vi only. Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift. verbose [off ] vi only. Inc. w300 [no default ] vi only. 1996 16 . tabstop. Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200 baud. windowname [off ] Change the icon/window name to the current file name even if it can’t be restored on editor exit. before a ! command. This option will never be implemented. sourceany [off ] Read startup files not owned by the current user. ttywerase [off ] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) showmode. slowopen.

VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. the wrapmargin value is used. SIGHUP SIGTERM If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in its entirety. or the term option is explicitly reset by the user. the wrapmargin value is used. or the lines option is explicitly reset by the user. Break lines automatically. This value is also used as the default directory for the vi cd command. The number of rows on the screen. If interrupted during text input. See the vi/ex reference manual section Sizing the Screen for more information. Inc. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. See the vi/ex reference manual section Recovery for more information. the current operation is halted and the editor returns to the command level. SIGINT SIGWINCH The screen is resized. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. the specified number of columns from the right-hand margin. 1996 17 . The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option). ENVIRONMENT COLUMNS The number of columns on the screen. If the LINES environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. ws [on] Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file. If both the wraplen and wrapmargin edit options are set. wl [0] vi only. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) wraplen. used as the initial directory path for the startup $HOME/. the text already input is resolved into the file as if the text input had been normally terminated.exrc files. Break lines automatically. writeany. When an interrupt occurs. wrapmargin. ex/vi enters the value into the environment. If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs. The user’s terminal type. NEXINIT A list of ex startup commands. the editor attempts to save the modified file so it can be later recovered. FILES BSD October 10. The user’s home directory. wrapscan. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. SHELL TERM TMPDIR ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS SIGALRM vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifications and to display “busy” messages when operations are likely to take a long time. This value overrides any system or terminal specific values. the specified number of columns from the left-hand margin. The location used to stored temporary files (see also the directory edit option). wm [0] vi only. or the columns option is explicitly reset by the user.nexrc and $HOME/. The default is the type “unknown”. EXINIT HOME LINES A list of ex startup commands. read if the variable NEXINIT is not set. wa [off ] Turn off file-overwriting checks.

input. The "Vi Quick Reference" card.ex/. Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with nex/nvi in the vi/docs/USD. Second choice for local directory startup file. First choice for local directory startup file. "An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi". BSD October 10.edit/. /usr/share/doc/usd/12.nexrc .doc directory of the nex/nvi source code. Strictly confidential and proprietary VI (1) /bin/sh /etc/vi.2”).vi/.exrc /tmp /var/tmp/vi.VI (1) PropertyGeneral Commands Manual System of BladeLogic. /usr/share/doc/usd/11. /usr/share/doc/usd/13.vi/vi. "Ex Reference Manual". /usr/share/doc/usd/12. This document is the final reference for the nex/nvi text editors.nexrc $HOME/.4 BSD. This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the ex editor. there are changes to be made on both sides. re_format(7) The default user shell. System-wide vi startup file. Temporary file directory. Inc. Second choice for user’s home directory startup file. "Ex: A Tutorial". HISTORY The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4. quoting. The files autowrite. /usr/share/doc/usd/13.2 (“POSIX. "Vi/Ex Reference Manual".exrc SEE ALSO ctags(1).exrc .viref/. First choice for user’s home directory startup file.recover $HOME/. The default recovery file directory.summary. That document differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places. 1996 18 . This document is the closest thing available to an introduction to the vi screen editor. STANDARDS nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std 1003. and structures found in the vi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code. This document is the final reference for the ex editor.

. Example: logout=30 Name of log file where you want to store the vsh session I/O.conf file comes pre-configured with a default entry. it passes any arguments you give it to the backend shell specified in vsh. vsh will automatically terminate the session. Example: level=stdin:stdout DEFAULT ENTRY If the username of the given entry has the special name of default.vsh log level This defines what you want to log. the vsh log file viewer. If there is no input or output activity for the specified number of minutes. If you have more than one session logged into a particular log file. Strictly confidential and proprietary vsh(1) NAME vsh − Virtual shell (keyboard capture tool) SYNOPSIS vsh DESCRIPTION vsh is a keyboard (actually input and output) capture tool. Inc. an autologout of NSH 1 . The vsh.] The accepted fields are: shell The application (shell) to start when you invoke vsh. vsh itself does not take any arguments. You should create one log file per session.<field=val[:val]>. The available values are: stdin stdout stderr all Log all user keyboard input. All of the above..vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic.. meaning that you can specify a log file on a remote server with the //hostname/path format. This file is located in share/vsh.]>[. vsh dynamically creates directories for the log files as needed. You can use NSH format to name the log files. Instead. Log all terminal error output (same as stdout).conf file controls the behavior of vsh. vshview. may not properly understand the result.. You can specify multiple log files.conf file to specify which shell vsh should start. If you do not specify a shell. You can configure the vsh.conf VSH.conf file. You can capture any combination of I/O streams by defining multiple levels as colon (’:’) separated values.conf in the NSH installation directory. Example: Example: logout shell=/bin/ksh shell=<nsh> Set an optional auto logout time in minutes. The format of this file is: username <field=val[:val. vsh will use /bin/sh by default. Log all terminal output.CONF The vsh. You can use macros (defined below) in your log file names to dynamically create unique names for each log file. It is called vsh (Virtual Shell) because once you start it. Example: log=/var/log/vshlog-%u. it will start a shell (or other tty application) session and capture input and output. which is a shell of /bin/sh. then vsh will try to launch NSH instead. then this entry will be used for all users that do not have a specific entry in the vsh. If you specify <nsh>.

Inc. %d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31). Sunday being 0. %b The abbreviated month name. %C The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer. %M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59). %B The full month name. %% A literal ‘%’ character. range 0 to 6. To do this. %u Current user name. %w The day of the week as a decimal. %h Current host name. and a log file in the format: /var/log/vsh/<hostname>/<username>/<start timestamp>. The following macros are supported. log file names should be unique for each vsh session. NSH 2 . %j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366). %S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61).vsh(1) Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary 60 minutes. %I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12). %a The abbreviated weekday name. ORIGIN vsh was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vshview (1). %y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99). which are expanded at run time. %Y The year as a decimal number including the century. you must dynamically create log file names by using macros. %H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23).vsh vsh(1) MACROS As previously mentioned. %m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12). %A The full weekday name.

Output only those entries that happened on or after this date. There are two basic modes to vshview. The second mode (turned on with the -l option). Do not output any keyboard input or screen output. shell. The first mode is to show selected input and output (default mode). The expression should be a single argument surrounded by single quotes. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator. (Note that when using this option. login. Therefore.. Output only those entries that relate to user. Instead. Precede each line of output with the name of the user it relates to. Do not show any blank lines. logintime. Precede each line of output with the most recent available timestamp. vshview scans the given log files and produces the appropriate output. In either case. Output only those entries that happened before this date. Define a search expression (see below). you need to use the vshview utility. Output only those entries that happened on host.) -s sort -o date EXPRESSIONS You can use the -e option to define an expression that filters the output data. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. Show error (stderr) output (same as -1). Inc. vsh creates a time stamp every 60 seconds. vshview will automatically recursively scan all files in the given directory. Can be used with -1 and -2. The date has the format ’month/day/year’ with the year being optional. just output a summary of vsh sessions. or pid. only one minute granularity is available. logouttime. shows a summary of login and logout activity. host. To view the these log files. Strictly confidential and proprietary vshview(1) NAME vshview − vsh log file viewer SYNOPSIS vshview − [-012lbvHTU] [-e expr] [-h host] [-i date] [-s sort] [-o date] [-u user] file1 [file2 . Use the following format: expr = ( expr ) | operand operator operand | operand operand = number | string | field name number = value | value% | octal value | hex value NSH 1 .) You can specify the following options to sort your display: user. Show the name of the log file being displayed as it is reached.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic.] DESCRIPTION The keyboard (I/O) capture tool vsh does not create plain text log files. If a given file is a directory. logout. This is the default output if you do not select any other output type.. (Note that when using this option. Show terminal (stdout) output. OPTIONS -0 -1 -2 -b -v -e -l -H -U -T -h host -u user -i date Show keyboard (stdin) input. Precede each line of output with the name of the host it relates to. Can be used with -0 and -2. you do not have to escape the forward slash date separator.

The first type are the control characters (ASCII 0-31).} { > >= < <= = != } & | Some sample expressions: user = "tmk" user = "tmk" & host = "linuxdev" user != "tmk" | logindate > Feb\/12 (logintime > 10:00 ) | (user = "tmk" & logintime > 8:00) EXAMPLES $ vshview -T -b /var/log/vsh Feb 22/03 12:59:48: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls Feb 22/03 13:14:53: ls -la Feb 22/03 13:19:08: echo $0 Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ˆ[k Feb 22/03 13:19:08: ls Feb 22/03 13:19:08: stty -a Feb 22/03 13:19:08: exit $ vshview -u tmk -l /var/log/vsh HOSTNAME USER LOGIN TIME LOGOUT TIME PID SHELL linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 12:59:48 Feb 22/03 12:59:54 26958 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:14:50 Feb 22/03 13:14:56 27070 /bin/nsh linuxdev tmk Feb 22/03 13:19:07 Feb 22/03 13:19:52 27204 /bin/bash NOTE vshview deals with two types of non-printable characters. These are are displayed as (for example) ’207’. The second type are 8 bit characters. Operators of the same precedence are grouped together by { }: operator = + | . Strictly confidential and proprietary value = <integer value> | <floating point value> | <long long value> string = "<value>" field name = <user> | <host> | logindate | logoutdate | \ logintime | logouttime | <shell> | <pid> logindate = month/day/year logoutdate = month/day/year logintime = HH:MM logouttime = HH:MM vshview(1) Here is the operator precedence. NSH 2 . ORIGIN vshview was written by Thomas Kraus SEE ALSO vsh (1). These are are displayed as (for example) ’ˆD’.vshview(1) Property of BladeLogic.| / | * | % | & | \| | > | >= | < | <= | = | != \ { * / % } { + . Inc.

Inc. Show the current version. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) NAME vtree − show the directory structure of a file system SYNOPSIS vtree [ -d ] [ -h # ] [ -i ] [ -s ] [ -q ] [ -v ] [ -V ] <target-dir> DESCRIPTION The vtree command shows the directory structure of a file system or part of a file system. Provide a visual display.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops −> lesskey ---+-> . Adding two more Vs displays the options that are set when you run this command. Include subdirectories that were excluded due to the -h option. Place totals at the end. vtree lists the file system of the ’less’ directory. OPTIONS -d -h # -i -s -t -q -v -V Count duplicate nodes. vtree recursively descends into it. If any of the given file names is a directory (the usual case). Provide a quick display with no counts. Count nodes. For example: johnk% vtree -VVV VTREE 1.vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic.svn ------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | +-> wcprops | −> tmp -------+-> text-base | +-> prop-base | +-> props | −> wcprops +-> .0 4/26/88 Tree height: 9999 <target-dir> The directory whose structure you want to display. It also shows the amount of space taken up by files in each subdirectory. EXAMPLE In this example. Height of tree to examine.svn ------+-> text-base +-> prop-base NSH 1 . and the output line reflects the accumulated totals for all files in the directory. /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less /space/home/parag/maserati_nsh/om/src/commands/less mands/less +-> lessQef ---+-> .

NSH 2 .vtree(1) Property of BladeLogic. Hayes at the Army Artificial Intelligence Center at the Pentagon. Inc." written by David S. Strictly confidential and proprietary vtree(1) +-> props +-> wcprops −> tmp -------+-> text-base +-> prop-base +-> props −> wcprops Total space used: 0 Total inodes: 0 ORIGIN vtree vtree is based upon "agef.

an extra SPACE is output between columns to ensure that they never touch. and characters. it is possible that columns will touch for very large numbers.c 347 945 6227 file1. If you specify more than one file. EXAMPLE The first example counts the number of lines in the file /etc/passwd on the host lisbon. Strictly confidential and proprietary wc(1) NAME wc − Count the number of lines. $ wc -l //lisbon/etc/passwd 14 //lisbon/etc/passwd $ wc src/*. wc will also output a total for all files. wc counts lines. You specified an unknown option. you can use the following options to tell wc which things you want it to count. wc uses the standard input.. EXIT CODES 0 1 2 255 No errors detected. Output a brief summary of available options and then exit with a zero status without counting any files. and characters in a file and then outputs its findings.c 449 1334 8491 file2. Both behaviors output a column in at least seven spaces. Inc. OPTIONS By default. ORIGIN wc was written by Thomas Kraus NSH 1 . words and/or characters in a file SYNOPSIS wc [-clw?] [file . UNIVERSE BEHAVIOR There is a small difference in the way wc formats the output depending on the current universe. Count the number of words in the file. The second example counts lines.c 339 917 6051 file3.wc(1) Property of BladeLogic. Unable to get a license to use the software.c 1135 3196 20769 total DIAGNOSTICS wc: Cannot open file filename This message is output if wc is unable to access the file filename. If you do not specify any files. One of the files to be counted was not accessible. and characters of several source files.] DESCRIPTION wc counts the number of lines. If you do not want counts for all of these things. With the P_ATT variable set.. -c -l -w -? Count the number of characters in the file. words. however when the P_BSD variable is set (Berkeley behavior). the number of words. and (if available) the name of the file it is counting. words. the number of characters. Count the number of lines in the file. wc outputs four columns containing the number of lines. words.

unpacks zip archives. If the file list is specified as –@. It is analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz’s ZIP for MSDOS systems). The zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive. An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single command. A companion program (unzip(1L)). Atari and Macintosh. For example.3 is compatible with PKZIP 2.  d d o f =/ d e v / n r s t 0 o b s =1 6 k would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of backing up the current directory. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.04 or zip 2. For a brief help on zip and unzip. zip version 2.r . . foo. protection. Amiga and Acorn RISC OS. Note that PKUNZIP 1. VMS. The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP. . zipcloak.. run each without specifying any parameters on the command line. zipsplit – package and compress (archive) files SYNOPSIS zip [–aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [–tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 . . Under UNIX. For example: z i p . Windows NT. [ c h ] " . and check information to verify file integrity). zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed. foo/file2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) NAME zip. this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.zip contains foo/file1.]] [–xi list] zipcloak [–dhL] [–b path] zipfile zipnote [–hwL] [–b path] zipfile zipsplit [–hiLpst] [–n size] [–b path] zipfile DESCRIPTION [–b path] [–n suffixes] [–t mmddyyyy] zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without compression. in which case it will write the zip file to standard output. zip will replace identically named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names. path.@ (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it). time of last modification. OS/2. When given the name of an existing zip archive. and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip. with foo/file2 unchanged from before.3.Misc. [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list of input files from standard input. zipnote. and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3.04g or unzip 5. date.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2. zip automatically chooses the better of the two for each file to be compressed.3) 1 .r f oo f oo will replace foo/file1 in foo. and foo/file3.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.  z i p ba c kup - Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. Inc. After this. then: z i p . to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories: f i n d . MSDOS. for archiving files.n a me " ∗. The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution.zip.. and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories. For example. allowing zip to take input from another program.04. You must use PKUNZIP 2.p r i n t  z i p s o u r c e . along with information about the files (name.zip and add foo/file3 to foo. For example: t a r c f . allowing the output to be piped to another program. zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2. Minix. if foo. Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files. in which case it will read the file from standard input.

If the name already contains an extension other than . tar cf . the extension . and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file. If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension. Adjust self-extracting executable archive. and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.Misc.zip the existing extension is kept unchanged. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. For example. For example: dd if=/dev/nrst0 ibs=16k  funzip  tar xvf When changing an existing zip archive. all of the files that start with foo/harry/. only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. For example: zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\∗ \∗. This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option. and all of the files that end with . This option is only useful when updating an existing archive. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made. | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k is equivalent to tar cf . The backup can be restored using the command unzip -p backup | tar xf When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal. Inc. enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of –b path Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. copying over stuff. updating) are done first. and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has been completed without error. zip acts as a filter. At present. Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case. zip will write a temporary file with the new contents. [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as bit 0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe) bit 2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe) bit 3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe) bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files zip -b /tmp stuff ∗ will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp. Enter the comment followed by return. | zip .zip to the current directory when done.zip is added. Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.. –B –Bn [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).. A self-extracting executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. For example: –d Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. –c Add one-line comments for each file.o (in any path). Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes. File operations (adding. The –A option tells zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data. compressing standard input to standard output. or just return for no comment.o will remove the entry foo/tom/junk. so that zip can see the asterisks. OPTIONS –a –A [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.3) 2 .| dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package. or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package. because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments). Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive. Resource-forks will be ignored at all. Under MSDOS. -u and -o options to work correctly. since paths stored in zip archives are always relative. Directory entries are created by default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive. unlike the update option (–u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive. For example: zip -f foo This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip command was run. the –t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC. Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories. zip will exit with an error). so try this option first. –df –D [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive. This option can be used if some portions of the archive are missing. If this operation fails. When doubled as in –FF the compressed sizes given inside the damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members.Misc. Such files cannot be recovered. This option is ignored when there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) the contents of the current directory. so you MUST make a backup of the original archive first. Inc. If the restoration fails. (Note Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. –F Fix the zip archive. For example under Unix with sh: ZIPOPT="-D". –d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive. the archive might become corrupted. Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. –g Grow (append to) the specified zip archive. After the repair. A typical TZ value is ‘‘MET-1MEST’’ (Middle European time with automatic adjustment for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time).c which will include only the files that end in . It is not guaranteed to work. -i \∗. –e Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed. if standard error is not a tty. The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the two.LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename. for example if it has only been truncated. as in: zip -r foo . Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f . The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors. zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. Good for exporting files to foreign operating-systems. instead of creating a new one. [OS/2] Use the . The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. –E –f –h –i files Include only the specified files. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.c in the current directory and its subdirectories. you can remove them from the archive using the –d option of zip. This requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system. The single –F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged.) The option –D is a shorthand for –x "∗/" but the latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable. export ZIPOPT (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except –i and –x and can include several options.3) 3 .

if you have SparkFS loaded. If the input files already contain CR LF. This is useful for conserving disk space. Display the zip license. This option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. and do not store directory names. The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons. but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in combination with –T to test the archive before removing all input files. -i@include. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. This option should not be used on binary files.Z:. Also possible: zip -r foo . When used. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store them as single files. the directory is also removed.c PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the current one. Move the specified files into the zip archive. Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS. Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip file.snd foo foo will copy everything from foo into foo.) The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. zip will not consider Image files (eg. –I [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files. store only the MSDOS attribute (just the user write attribute from UNIX).gif:. and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not). By default. If a directory becomes empty after removal of the files. –l –ll –L –m –n suffixes Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes. this deletes the target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. .tiff:. This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix. so that zip doesn’t waste its time trying to compress them.gif. or . zip does not compress files with extensions in the list Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the ’I’ option will result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive. to undo the effect of zip -l.snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their own specialized compression methods).Z. this option adds an extra CR. [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). –j –jj –J –k Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path). a SFX stub) from the archive.g. zip will store the full path (relative to the current path). For example: zip -rn . Inc. This option should not be used on binary files. but will store any files that end in .lst which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories that match the patterns in the file include.lst. Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. Obviously this second case will also be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded.zip. . The complete path including volume will be stored. By default the relative path will be stored. for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.zip:. actually.Misc.zip. For example. By default. This ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file. Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF. . Strip any prepended data (e.tiff. No deletions are done until zip has created the archive without error.3) 4 .

zip. If -c is used also.zoo:. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. where mm is the month (0-12). if desired. Archives.3) 5 .gif:. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. For example: zip -o foo will change the last modified time of foo. where mm is the month (0-12). For example: zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.Misc. zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i. and yyyy is the year.zip:. –tt mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date." which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended). WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files. since that matches ". OS/2.zip. In this case. MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments. By default. to the zip archive infamy. all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo. If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories. This can be used without any other operations.zip. use the –i option to specify the pattern of files to be included. For example: zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991. Such files are stored directly in the output archive. The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive. Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is pkzip -rP foo ∗. which are ignored otherwise.Z:. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) .". you are prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes. –R Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory. [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files. –o –t mmddyyyy Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date. On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). and yyyy is the year. including files with names starting with ".c in the tree starting at the current directory are stored into a zip archive named foo.c –S [MSDOS.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo. The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted. You should not use –r with the name ". –N [Amiga.c’ In this case. Inc.arj.∗". For example under Unix with csh: setenv ZIPOPT "-n . The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.zip.zip" To attempt compression on all files. dd is the day of the month (1-31). CFS files and PackDir files). since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name substitution mechanism. for example: zip -R foo ’∗. use: zip -n : foo The maximum compression option –9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of extension.e.lzh:.arc:.. dd is the day of the month (1-31). all the files matching ∗.

ignores the suffix list).lst which will include the contents of foo in foo. it shows information about the target environment (compiler type and version. OS version. and update any files which have been modified since the zip archive stuff. to the zip archive infamy. Inc. a diagnostic screen is printed. so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels. and stdout is not redirected to a file. –x files Explicitly exclude the specified files.o. uid/gid and file times on Unix). Normally. –X –y –z Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2. [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name. Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified more recently than the version already in the zip archive.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to pack stuff. For example: zip -u stuff ∗ will add any new files in the current directory. When –v is the only command line argument. Also possible: zip -r foo foo -x@exclude. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. If the check fails.Misc. The comment is ended by a line containing just a period.lst. zip archives created with this option will generally not be usable on other systems. Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive. –T –u Test the integrity of the new zip file. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before the 30 November 1995. where –0 indicates no compression (store all files).zip.3) 6 .o which will include the contents of foo in foo. instead of compressing and storing the file referred to by the link (UNIX only). this option enables the display of a progress indicator during compression and requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities. when applied to real operations.zip while excluding all the files that match the patterns in the file exclude. some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are given. compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable. including multiple versions of files. the old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed. –V –w [VMS] Save VMS file attributes. The comment can be taken from a file: zip -z foo < foowhat –# Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #. –1 indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and –9 indicates the slowest compression method (optimal compression. version. ∧ on MSDOS. and D Z VAX/VMS). or an end of file condition (∧ on UNIX. as in: zip -r foo foo -x \∗. Then. and release date. OS/2. (default: use only the most recent version of a specified file). In addition to the help screen header with program name.zip while excluding all the files that end in . Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.zip into itself when you do this). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. Note that the –u option with no arguments acts like the –f (freshen) option. The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution. The default compression level is –6. –v Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory. you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive. files starting with ". and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched. If you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive. To zip up an entire directory. the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern.∗ ∗ Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. without recording the directory name.3) 7 . The special characters are: ? ∗ [] match any single character match any number of characters (including none) match any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a–f]. this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes). as in: zip -$ foo a: c:bar EXAMPLES The simplest example: zip stuff ∗ creates the archive stuff. use the drive name as first file name.zip suffix is added automatically. You can use the –j option to leave off the paths. and harry. [0–9]). you can create the archive in steps using the –m option. Because of the way the shell does filename substitution. Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation. and the next two add to it.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the current directory in it. as in: zip -j foo foo/∗ If you are short on disk space.zip. In this case. If foo contains the subdirectories tom. PATTERN MATCHING This section applies only to UNIX. to include these as well: zip stuff . The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command arguments. Only one filename per line. in compressed form (the . making room for the next zip command to function. You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2.zip. dick. Inc. [MSDOS. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) –! –@ –$ [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security. Take the list of input files from standard input. OS/2." are not included.Misc. At the completion of each zip command. the last created archive is deleted. WIN32] Include the volume label for the the drive holding the first file to be compressed. the command: zip -r foo foo creates the archive foo. When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes). you can: zip -rm foo foo/tom zip -rm foo foo/dick zip -rm foo foo/harry where the first command creates foo. foo. unless that archive name given contains a dot already.

gzip(1L) DIAGNOSTICS The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the following values. and so patterns like \∗. it will add that name to the list of files to be processed. unless this name matches one given with the –x option. ENVIRONMENT ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip ZIP [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Options [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT Zip$Exts [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped. For each match. and sometimes after the –x (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add. or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes (""). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or. In general.3) 8 . Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic.o match names that end in ". unzip(1L). ?∗[]). it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified (if it exists). in the case of the –x (exclude) or –i (include) options. Processing may have completed successfully anyway.o". –f. it then adds it to the list of files to do. except under VMS: 0 2 3 normal.Misc. –u. entry too large to be split with zipsplit invalid comment format zip -T failed or out of memory the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar) zip encountered an error while using a temp file read or seek error zip has nothing to do missing or empty zip file 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. shar(1L). In general. no matter what the path prefix is. zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initialization. if present. use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the –f (freshen) and –d (delete) options. If it does not find it. Inc. or –d). If it finds it.e. or does not match any name given with the –i option. Processing probably failed immediately. tar(1). some broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple workarounds. by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion. when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do. zip ZIP_OPTS [VMS] see ZIPOPT SEE ALSO compress(1). it first looks for the name in the file system. unexpected end of zip file. a generic error in the zipfile format was detected. Note that the backslash must precede every special character (i. using the pattern matching characters described above. a severe error in the zipfile format was detected. no errors or warnings detected. The pattern matching includes the path. on the list of files to be operated on.

LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT’S FREE. or redistribute this software so long as all of the original files are included. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. not all of the odd file formats are treated properly. For bug reports.3 and 2.Misc. Under VMS. you do not have to care about this problem. Under OS/2. Use zip 1. ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) 14 15 16 18 error writing to a file zip was unable to create a file to write to bad command line parameters zip could not open a specified file to read VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other. Under VMS. please include the version of zip (see zip–h ). Wales. Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip. BUGS zip 2. Igor Mandrichenko. AUTHORS Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. type "set file type block" on the Vax.3 must not be updated by zip 1. However. On OS/2. zip hangs for file specification that uses DECnet syntax foo::∗. When transfering from MSDOS to Vax. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR. that it is not sold for profit.∗. so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size. type "set file type fixed" on the Vax. Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use. In both cases. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to R. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format. which inspired this project.1 or PKZIP 1. Jean-loup Gailly. the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). 9. zip cannot match some names. The current mapping is as follows: 1 (success) for normal exit.Pas program. P. even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1. to Steve Burg for Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. 6. if they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally. 18. the machine and operating system in use. 16. When using Kermit to transfer zip files from Vax to MSDOS. the make options used to compile it see zip–v ). and for accepting minor changes to the file format. to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format. and . such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.wku. it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. zip stores the 32-bit format for portability. where the ‘?’ is 0 (warning) for zip value 12. Onno van der Linden. 13. 7. copy. and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones. 2 (error) for the zip values 3.10. Kai Uwe Rommel. Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug. and (0x7fff000? + 16∗normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors. so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.3) 9 . Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi’s BILF program.3 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1. type "set file type binary" on MSDOS. This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names. Byrne for his Shrink.3. John Bush and Paul Kienitz. If you do not use encryption and use regular disk files. Otherwise OS/2 1.10. The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm). Richard B. Please send bug reports and comments by email to: zip–bugs@lists. and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file. and that this copyright notice is retained. Inc. compression format. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE. and as much additional information as possible. scarier-looking things. the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different.ZIP filename extension.10. zip files produced by zip 2.edu.

for getting us into this mess in the first place. to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression algorithm.3) 10 . Rodgers. Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use. and most importantly. David Kirschbaum.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIP ( 1L ) clarifications on the deflate format. Rich Wales. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 August 1999 (v2. to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip. to Keith Petersen. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. P.Misc. C. The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator.

zipgrep is a shell script and requires egrep(1) and unzip(1L) to function. zip(1L).] DESCRIPTION zipgrep will search files within a ZIP archive for lines matching the given string or pattern.z i p. SEE ALSO egrep(1). zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at h t t p : / / www. AUTHORS or zipgrep was written by Jean-loup Gailly. . Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPGREP ( 1L ) NAME zipgrep – search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern SYNOPSIS zipgrep [egrep_options] pattern file[. zipnote(1L). zipcloak(1L). .z i p .] [–x xfile(s) . Inc. . i n f o . Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 1 . ARGUMENTS All options prior to the ZIP archive filename are passed to egrep(1). Its output is identical to that of egrep(1). zipinfo(1L). unzip(1L). Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. o r g / p u b / i n f o z i p / f t p: / / f t p. funzip(1L).Misc.zip] [file(s) . i nf o. . or g/ pub/ i nf oz i p/ .

the suffix . [file(s)] An optional list of archive members to be processed. list zipfile info in short Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format.zip] [file(s) . Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members. The default behavior (with no options) is to list single-line entries for each file in the archive. list zipfile info in long Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format.zip] Path of the ZIP archive(s). see above. as well. Note that selfextracting ZIP files are supported. The format is a cross between Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ and ‘‘u n z i p –v’’ output.) If no matches are found. The archive name. particularly under Unix and VMS.32) 1 . . This is the default behavior. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. Identical to the –s output.] matches a sequence of 0 or more characters matches exactly 1 character matches any single character found inside the brackets. list zipfile info in medium Unix ‘‘l s –l ’’ format. e x e suffix (if any) explicitly.Misc. list header line. Note that zipinfo is the same program as unzip (under Unix. zipinfo support may have been omitted when unzip was compiled. . . and if that also fails. type of compression. and the like. multi-page format. . list filenames only. If the file specification is a wildcard. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. encryption status. .] [–x xfile(s) .] unzip –Z [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. . . a link to it). the path itself cannot. This option excludes all others. See DETAILED DESCRIPTION below.] [–x xfile(s) . It is intended for use in Unix shell scripts. This option may be useful in cases where the stored filenames are particularly long. As with –m except that the compressed size (in bytes) is printed instead of the compression ratio. see below. just specify the . trailers and zipfile comments are never printed.] DESCRIPTION zipinfo lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive. be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system. z i p is appended. version and operating system or file system of compressing program.zip] [file(s) . actual size (in bytes) and total number of files is printed. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) NAME zipinfo – list detailed information about a ZIP archive SYNOPSIS zipinfo [–12smlvhMtTz] file[. one per line. with header and trailer lines providing summary information for the entire archive. Such information includes file access permissions. . (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operating system. Wildcard expressions are similar to Unix egrep(1) (regular) expressions and may contain: ∗ ? [. Inc. Only the filename can be a wildcard. ranges are specified by a beginning character. anything except the characters inside the brackets is considered a match). except that the compression factor. the specification is assumed to be a literal filename. but allow headers (–h). OPTIONS –1 –2 –s –m –l –v –h list filenames only. however. each matching file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system). If an exclamation point or a caret (‘!’ or ‘∧ follows the left bracket. and an ending character. trailers (–t) and zipfile comments (–z). most commonly found on MS-DOS systems. a hyphen. headers. one per line. Again. is also listed. list zipfile information in verbose. . expressed as a percentage. ARGUMENTS file[. on some systems. . [–x xfile(s)] An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing. then the range of characters within the brackets is comple’) mented (that is.

their uncompressed and compressed total sizes. and if both exist.cmd and . If neither exists. if only the totals line is being printed. . SF 17357 bx i8:2 4-May-92 04:02 unzip.0 mac 5358 Tl i4:3 4-Dec-91 11:33 longfilename. The example below. zipinfo can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and.Misc.. or.com. The default behavior is to list files in the following format: -rw-rws--1. indicating that zip believes the file to be text or binary. thus files that come from MS-DOS PKZIP are always capitalized.hhmmss). The uncompressed file-size (2802 in this example) is the fourth field.R. on the other hand. and their overall compression factor is printed. Also. The default date format is a more standard. (3) is writable. effectively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed. but basically analogous to pragmas in ANSI C--i.2660 The last three fields are the modification date and time of the file. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. if there is an extended local header but no extra field.i4:2 14-Jul-91 12:58 EA DATA.TXT. MS-DOS.btm files are assumed to be so). OS/2 or NT with File Allocation Table (FAT) file system. zipinfo doesn’t notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen. if the reverse. where the seven subfields indicate whether the file: (1) is a directory. Inc. that is also displayed as part of the filename. and has neither an extra field nor an extended local header associated with it. Note that the total compressed (data) size will never match the actual zipfile size.e. the values for the entire archive are given. human-readable version with abbreviated month names (see examples below). These are denoted as follows: -rw-a--r--ahs --w------1. the character will be a hyphen (‘–’). in which case zipinfo assumes the height is 24 lines. ‘x’. and its name. the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar. the file permissions at the beginning of the line are printed in Unix format. Some other possibilities for the host operating system (which is actually a misnomer--host file system is more correct) include OS/2 or NT with High Performance File System (HPFS). (5) has its archive Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. Note that the file attributes are listed in VMS format. The second character may also take on four values. The fifth field consists of two characters. there is no forwardsearching or editing capability. ‘l’. is not encrypted. (2) is readable (always true).0644 Extra fields are used for various purposes (see discussion of the –v option below) including the storage of VMS file attributes. The number of files listed.defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. If the file was zipped with a stored directory name. (4) is executable (guessed on the basis of the extension--. zipinfo pauses with a ‘‘– –More– –’’ prompt. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) –M pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command. The second and third fields indicate that the file was zipped under Unix with version 1. respectively. and its behavior can be rather difficult to fathom if one isn’t familiar with Unix ls(1) (or even if one is).0 hpf 1. and Macintosh. –t –T –z DETAILED DESCRIPTION zipinfo has a number of modes. they provide a standard way to include non-standard information in the archive). At the end of a screenful of output. . the Enter/Return key. depending on whether there is an extended local header and/or an ‘‘extra field’’ associated with the file (fully explained in PKWare’s APPNOTE. Thus the file in this example is (probably) a text file.32) 2 . which is presumably the case here.R 0.1 fat 1. print the file dates and times in a sortable decimal format (yymmdd. Unlike Unix more(1).bat.exe.9 unx 2802 t. Since it comes from Unix. ‘X’. The case of the filename is respected.9 vms 168 Bx shrk 9-Aug-91 19:15 perms. is an encrypted binary file with an extra field: RWD. since the latter includes all of the internal zipfile headers in addition to the compressed data.hpfs 4096 b. either of which may take on several values.9 of zip. On some systems the number of available lines on the screen is not detected. The first character may be either ‘t’ or ‘b’. list totals for files listed or for all files. on some systems.macr File attributes in the first two cases are indicated in a Unix-like format. zipinfo notes this fact by capitalizing the character (‘T’ or ‘B’). . but if the file is encrypted. include the archive comment (if any) in the listing.

def compressed: 63. the compressed data are only 19% of the original size. since –h or –t (or both) in the absence of other options implies that ONLY the header or trailer line (or both) is listed. and defX. and (7) is a system file. and four levels of deflating (superfast. if any. four types of imploding (4K or 8K sliding dictionary.81% defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. Currently known types of extra fields include PKWARE’s authentication (‘‘AV’’) info.134804 perms. the trailer gives the number of files listed. both PKWARE and Info-ZIP versions. (Note that in the case of OS/2 extended attributes--perhaps the most common use of zipfile extra fields--the size of the stored EAs as reported by zipinfo may not match the number given by OS/2’s dir command: OS/2 always reports the number of bytes required in 16-bit format. In brief. there is some underlying logic..0 hpf 730 b.rw. and the type and number of bytes in any stored extra fields. The medium format lists the file’s compression factor as a percentage indicating the amount of space that has been ‘‘removed’’: -rw-rws--1.. (Try not to laugh. shrinking. which can override or add to the defaults. See the EXAMPLES section below for a semi-intelligible translation of this nonsense. (6) is hidden. VMS filesystem info.5 unx 2802 t. and so on.) ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS Modifying zipinfo’s default behavior via options placed in an environment variable can be a bit complicated to explain. maximum compression).32) 3 . 4951 bytes 23:40 Contents 23:33 makefile. re:2.2660 Adding the –T option changes the file date and time to decimal format: -rw-rws--1. the sixth field indicates the compression method and possible sub-method used.Misc. fast.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 910811. 13386 bytes uncompressed.def 17:51 zipinfo. normal.rw.i4:3 26-Jun-92 .0 hpf 98 b. and explicit options given by the user. reducing.0 hpf 95 b. It also lists file comments and the zipfile comment. tokn.0 hpf 3710 b. manner.rw. 1..2660 Note that because of limitations in the MS-DOS format used to store file times. 1.zip 5453 bytes 5 files . the file has been compressed by more than a factor of five.rw. Interpretation of Macintosh file attributes is unreliable because some Macintosh archivers don’t store any attributes in the archive. In addition to individual file information. it may be overridden by specifying the –h and –t options explicitly. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. shrk. and 2 or 3 Shannon-Fano trees). due to zipinfo’s attempts to handle various defaults in an intuitive.. one or more file(s) are provided. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. 1. tokenizing (never publicly released). yet Unix-like.rw. Acorn/Archimedes SparkFS info. instead: -rw-rws--1. zipinfo represents these methods and their sub-methods as follows: stor. and their total compressed size (not including any of zip’s internal overhead). OS/2 extended attributes. etc. Inc. The long format gives the compressed file’s size in bytes..) Nevertheless. whereas zipinfo always reports the 32-bit storage. 1.i8:3 26-Jun-92 . The verbose listing is mostly self-explanatory. there are four levels of reducing (1 through 4). i8:3. which can override or add to either of the above. however. the header and trailer lines are not listed.stor 21-Aug-91 5 files. Macintosh resource forks.. a default zipfile listing also includes header and trailer lines: Archive: OS2. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) bit set.stor 21-Aug-91 .i4:3 26-Jun-92 . defF. The medium and long listings are almost identical to the short format except that they add information on the file’s compression.5 unx 2802 t538 defX 11-Aug-91 13:48 perms. there are three ‘‘priority levels’’ of options: the default options. etc. and deflating. and the total number of files.. environment options. re:1. For Unix files this is expected to change in the next major releases of zip(1L) and unzip. 1. and defS. their total uncompressed size. the seconds field is always rounded to the nearest even second. In addition. There are six methods known at present: storing (no compression).2660 In this example.c 15:34 unzip. i4:2. defN. This behavior is also similar to that of Unix’s ‘‘ls –l’’. imploding.0% The header line gives the name of the archive. Finally.0 hpf 8753 b. its total size. If. In such a case the listing format must also be specified explicitly.os2 15:29 os2unzip.

given that the environment variable is set as in the previous example. export ZIPINFO setenv ZIPINFO –l set ZIPINFO=–l define ZIPINFO_OPTS "–l" Unix Bourne shell Unix C shell OS/2 or MS-DOS VMS (quotes for lowercase) If. with both header and totals lines. the contents of all zipfiles are then summarized with a single command. The dual use of hyphens may seem a little awkward. Since the environment variable specified no footers and that has a higher precedence than the default behavior of –s. As suggested above.zip. This behavior is useful when zipinfo is used with a wildcard zipfile specification. A user who prefers the long-listing format (–l) can make use of the zipinfo’s environment variable to change this default: ZIPINFO=–l. ‘‘–l–t’’ or ‘‘––tl’’. For compatibility with zip(1L). when used by themselves or with each other. If both ZIPINFO and ZIPINFOOPT are defined. either negate the –h and –t options or else specify the contents explicitly: zipinfo ––h–t storage zipinfo storage \∗ (where the backslash is required only if the shell would otherwise expand the ‘∗’ wildcard. as noted above. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) The default listing format. only the header and/or footer are printed. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic..Misc. It is also consistent with the behavior of the Unix command nice(1). includes headers and footers by default. however. but it’s reasonably intuitive nonetheless: simply ignore the first hyphen and go from there. Inc. override any default listing of member files. The first hyphen is the regular switch character. the user dislikes the trailer line. ZIPINFO takes precedence. Nothing was indicated about the header. corresponds roughly to the "zipinfo –hst" command (except when individual zipfile members are specified). as in Unix when globbing is turned on--double quotes around the asterisk would have worked as well). long-format listing (not verbose). but the one before the ‘t’ is a minus sign. unless otherwise specified. To turn off the totals line by default. and ZIPINFO for all other operating systems. so the –s option was sufficient. it is necessary to specify the –s option explicitly. short-format listing of the first example again. in this example. use –l: zipinfo –l storage To list the complete contents of the archive without header and totals lines. short-format listing of the complete contents of a ZIP archive storage. since the –t option by itself implies that ONLY the footer line is to be printed: setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo –t storage zipinfo –st storage [only totals line] [full listing] The –s option. the default variable names are ZIPINFO_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install zipinfo as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable). an explicit –t option was necessary to produce the full listing. Note that both the –h and –t options. zipinfo’s concept of ‘‘negative options’’ may be used to override the default inclusion of the line. use the environment variable (C shell is assumed here): setenv ZIPINFO ––t zipinfo storage To get the full.32) 4 . unzip’s diagnostic option (–v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables. however. ZIPINFOOPT is also accepted (don’t ask). use only the archive name as an argument to zipinfo: zipinfo storage To produce a basic. in addition. like –m and –l.g. including header and totals lines. This is accomplished by preceding the undesired option with one or more minuses: e. Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. EXAMPLES To get a basic.

AUTHOR Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs.c The specification of any member file. (This is not to say that it will be.e.[ch]" Mak\∗ To get maximal information about the ZIP archive. copy/rename the executable. TIPS The author finds it convenient to define an alias ii for zipinfo on systems that allow aliases (or. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZIPINFO ( 1L ) To list information on a single file within the archive. In addition. BUGS As with unzip. on other systems. For multiple files. zipnote(1L). as noted above. zipsplit(1L) URL The Info-ZIP home page is currently at http://www.) SEE ALSO ls(1). This assumes the default short-listing format. zip(1L). unzip(1L). Info-ZIP Last change: 14 January 2001 (v2. if –m or –l is used. the proper sort(1) option would be +7. create a link or create a command file with the name ii). use the –T option in conjunction with an external sorting utility such as Unix sort(1) (and tail(1) as well.org/pub/infozip/ . zipinfo’s –M (‘‘more’’) option is overly simplistic in its handling of screen output. Inc. funzip(1L). Please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a more complete list. zipinfo should detect and treat each occurrence of line-wrap as one additional line printed.. specify the filename explicitly: zipinfo –m storage unshrink. unzipsfx(1L). the seventh field). It is usually wise to pipe the output into a filter such as Unix more(1) if the operating system allows it: zipinfo –v storage | more Finally. in such cases –t may be specified explicitly: zipinfo –mt storage "∗. The ii usage parallels the common ll alias for long listings in Unix. use the verbose option. Future releases of zipinfo may incorporate date/time and filename sorting as built-in options. it fails to detect the wrapping of long lines and may thereby cause lines at the top of the screen to be scrolled off before being read. This requires knowledge of the screen’s width as well as its height. will override the default header and totals lines. it is often useful to know the total compressed and uncompressed size. as in this example. zipinfo’s listing-format behavior is unnecessarily complex and should be simplified. in medium format.32) 5 .info-zip.info-zip. zipinfo should detect the true screen geometry on all systems. ZipInfo contains pattern-matching code by Mark Adler and fixes/improvements by many others.Misc. only the single line of information about the requested file will be printed. This is intuitively what one would expect when requesting information about a single file. to see the most recently modified files in the archive.org/pub/infozip/ or ftp://ftp. zipcloak(1L). and the +6 option tells it to sort on the sixth field after the first one (i. Reference Manual Pages Property of BladeLogic. and the similarity between the outputs of the two commands was intentional. The tail(1) command filters out all but the last 15 lines of the listing. in this example): zipinfo –T storage | sort -n +6 | tail -15 The –n option to sort(1) tells it to sort numerically rather than in ASCII order.

The development is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.org>.elte.cs.gov. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) NAME zshall – the Z shell meta–man page SYNOPSIS Because zsh contains many features. Of the standard shells. a history mechanism.de/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.org>. These mirror sites are kept frequently up to date.org>.dgac. The coordinator can be contacted at <coordinator@zsh. but matters relating to the code should generally go to the mailing list.de/pub/unix/shell/zsh/ Hungary ftp://ftp.au/pub/packages/zsh/ (H) Denmark ftp://sunsite. builtin spelling correction.cenatls.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.cs. Zsh is now maintained by the members of the zsh–workers mailing list <zsh–workers@sunsite.zsh.fi/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ France ftp://ftp.uni–trier.hu/pub/zsh/ zsh 4. 2001 1 . Zsh has command line editing.ips.zsh.fu–berlin. The sites marked with (H) may be mirroring ftp.dk>.funet.org/pub/zsh/ http://www. Inc.gmd.zsh.hu instead of the primary site. and a host of other features.org/pub/zsh/ Australia ftp://ftp. This manual page includes all the separate manual pages in the following order: zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built–in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built–in FTP client DESCRIPTION Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor. Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites. shell functions (with autoloading).elte. the zsh manual has been split into a number of sections. AVAILABILITY Primary site ftp://ftp. AUTHOR Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.de/packages/zsh/ ftp://ftp.zsh. programmable command completion.elte.hu/pub/zsh/ http://www.org/pub/zsh/ http://www.dk/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Finland ftp://ftp.0.fr/shells/zsh/ Germany ftp://ftp.4 Last change: October 26. zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements.cena.cs.

uit.nisiq.ne.se/pub/unix/zsh/ UK ftp://ftp. <zsh–workers@sunsite.org/pub/zsh/ http://foad.icm.lut.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.dk> <zsh–workers–unsubscribe@sunsite.siol.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.org.jp/pub/shell/zsh/ Norway ftp://ftp.zsh.0.technion.technion. All submissions to zsh–announce are automatically forwarded to zsh–users. bug reports and patches.kappa.math.hu/pub/packages/zsh/ Israel ftp://ftp.org/pub/zsh/ ftp://ftp.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.no/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Poland ftp://sunsite.com/pub/shells/zsh/ ftp://foad.zsh. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) ftp://ftp.ac.dk> <zsh–users–subscribe@sunsite. send mail to the associated administrative address for the mailing list.math.dk> <zsh–workers–subscribe@sunsite.lysator. (moderated) <zsh–users@sunsite.dk> Announcements about releases.dk> Hacking.dk> YOU ONLY NEED TO JOIN ONE OF THE MAILING LISTS AS THEY ARE NESTED. <zsh–announce–subscribe@sunsite.org/zsh/ MAILING LISTS Zsh has 3 mailing lists: <zsh–announce@sunsite.rge.uk/packages/zsh/ USA ftp://uiarchive.il/pub/zsh/ Italy ftp://ftp. To subscribe or unsubscribe.roedu.net/mirrors/zsh/ Sweden ftp://ftp. development. Inc.org/pub/zsh/ Slovenia ftp://ftp. 2001 2 .dk> User discussions.unina.kfki. major changes in the shell and the monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.dk> <zsh–users–unsubscribe@sunsite.edu/pub/packages/shells/zsh/ ftp://ftp.ac.edu. zsh 4.il/pub/zsh/ http://www.win. All submissions to zsh–users are automatically forwarded to zsh–workers.net/pub/shells/zsh/ (H) ftp://ftp.it/pub/Unix/pkgs/shell/zsh/ Japan ftp://ftp.pl/pub/unix/shells/zsh/ Romania ftp://ftp.net.liu.uk/zsh/ ftp://sunsite.dk> <zsh–announce–unsubscribe@sunsite.4 Last change: October 26.ac.uiuc.

2001 3 . options can be turned off by replacing the initial ‘–’ with a ‘+’. or at http://www. Options may also be specified by name in GNU long option style. the first argument is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute. If the –s flag is not present and an argument is given. Force shell to read commands from the standard input. It can be viewed in its current state at http://zsh.unix. Unlike other option syntaxes. hierographic. maintained by Geoff Wing <gcw@zsh. At the time of writing. –o acts like a single–letter option.org>. maintained by Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh. zsh 4. the first one is assigned to $0. for example. with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be cabbalistic. The contact address for web–related matters is <webmaster@zsh. This is maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@zsh. THE ZSH WEB PAGE THE ZSH USERGUIDE A userguide is currently in preparation. Options may be specified by name using the –o option.org>.dk>. thus ‘+–sh–word–split’ is equivalent to ‘– –no–sh–word–split’. which are common to invocation and the set builtin. setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter ‘–x’ and the SH_WORD_SPLIT option by name. The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP sites.org/. chapters dealing with startup files and their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete. It is intended to complement the manual. so for example ‘–x–shwordsplit’ is an error. rather than being treated like ‘–x – –shwordsplit’.zsh.auc. ‘– –option–name’. zsh –x –o shwordsplit scr runs the script scr. The contact address for FAQ–related matters is <faqmaster@zsh.0. so for example ‘–xo shwordsplit’ or ‘–xoshwordsplit’ is equivalent to ‘–x –o shwordsplit’. THE ZSH FAQ Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). of SunSITE Denmark. Zsh has a web page which is located at http://www. There is also a hypertext archive. rather than being used as a positional parameter. –i –s After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above.dk/Guide/. INVOCATION OPTIONS The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked to determine where the shell will read commands from: –c Take the first argument as a command to execute.zsh.zsh. the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters. the archives can be accessed via the administrative addresses listed above. Force shell to be interactive. It is regularly posted to the newsgroup comp. ‘–’ characters in the option name are permitted: they are translated into ‘_’. send mail to <listmaster@zsh.sunsite. When this is done.4 Last change: October 26. see zshoptions(1).shell and the zsh–announce mailing list.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.org>. the word ‘hierographic’ does not exist). –o can be stacked up with preceding single–letter options. available at http://www. GNU–style long options cannot be stacked with any other options.org>. but takes a following string as the option name.org/mla/. ‘zsh – –sh–word–split’ invokes zsh with the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on. Inc. The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.org/FAQ/. The mailing lists are archived. rather than reading commands from a script or standard input. Like other option syntaxes. If any further arguments are given. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists. and thus ignored.org>.org>. For example. So. Options may be turned off by name by using +o instead of –o. or downright mystifying (for example. For further options.

0. psvar. LOCAL_OPTIONS. NO_BG_NICE. PROMPT_SUBST and SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh. MANPATH. cdpath. 2001 4 . PROMPT2. NO_EQUALS. SH_FILE_EXPANSION. LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH. If the ENV environment variable is set on invocation. the shell becomes restricted. Inc. more precisely. GID. NO_FUNCTION_ARGZERO. Also. NO_NOTIFY. The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN. ‘– –help’ is also handled. the option ‘–b’ (or ‘+b’) ends option processing. KSH_ARRAYS. it sends to standard output the shell’s version information. Furthermore. NO_MULTIOS. path. which may be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so ‘–x–’ is equivalent to ‘–x – –’). status. SH_WORD_SPLIT. NO_HUP. mailpath. PROMPT4. then exits successfully. MODULE_PATH. and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. GLOB_SUBST. HISTCHARS. it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking the shell. LD_LIBRARY_PATH. ‘–b’ is like ‘– –’. $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts. manpath. the KSH_OPTION_PRINT. HISTFILE. SH_GLOB. In sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC. UID. RESTRICTED SHELL When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter ‘r’ or the ‘–r’ command line option is supplied at invocation. a lone ‘–’ (or ‘+’) as an argument by itself ends option processing. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS. in two ways. and if that is ‘s’ or ‘k’ it will emulate sh or ksh. Except when the sh/ksh emulation single–letter options are in effect. EGID. PROMPT. NO_PROMPT_PERCENT. POSIX_BUILTINS. Login shells source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/. Secondly. USERNAME. watch. The following are disabled in restricted mode: • • changing directories with the cd builtin changing or unsetting the PATH. prompt. command substitution. where ‘– –shwordsplit’ is permitted and does not end option processing. The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed. module_path. Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter ‘r’ from the invocation name. but note the GNU–style option form discussed above. it looks at the first letter of the name by which it was invoked. path. if invoked as su (which happens on certain systems when the shell is executed by the su command). allowing following arguments that start with ‘–’ or ‘+’ to be treated as normal arguments. excluding any initial ‘r’ (assumed to stand for ‘restricted’).4 Last change: October 26. argv. LD_PRELOAD and LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters specifying command names containing / specifying command pathnames using hash redirecting output to files using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command using jobs –Z to overwrite the shell process’ argument and environment space • • • • • zsh 4. RM_STAR_SILENT. Firstly. NO_BANG_HIST. SHELL. PROMPT3. COMPATIBILITY Zsh tries to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively. PROMPT_BANG. Note that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution of startup files. a special option ‘– –’ (or ‘+–’). Options are not permitted to be stacked after ‘– –’ (so ‘–x–f’ is an error). SH_OPTION_LETTERS. fignore.profile. then exits successfully. NO_NOMATCH. except that further single–letter options can be stacked after the ‘–b’ and will take effect as normal. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. HISTSIZE. Option processing may be finished. NO_GLOBAL_EXPORT. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) The special GNU–style option ‘– –version’ is handled. EUID. fpath. the shell will try to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform emulation based on that. Additionally the BSD_ECHO and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.

Finally. It is also possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re–enable GLOBAL_RCS. 2001 5 . Note also that the RCS option affects the saving of history files. Any of these files may be pre–compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zshbuiltins(1)). commands are read from /etc/zshrc and then $ZDOTDIR/. Both RCS and GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.0. This immediately enables all the restrictions described above even if the shell still has not processed all startup files. Commands are then read from $ZDOTDIR/. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHALL ( 1 ) • • using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup files. HOME is used instead. This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or logout commands. /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/. if the shell terminates due to exec’ing another process. commands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/. no history file will be saved. These are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.. The startup files should set up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely invoked in the restricted environment. the compiled file will be used instead. STARTUP/SHUTDOWN FILES Commands are first read from /etc/zshenv. If the shell is a login shell. depending on the installation. Restricted mode can also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option.zshrc. In particular. it is a good idea to put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form ‘if [[ –o rcs ]]. the files $ZDOTDIR/. or an implicit exit by reading end–of–file from the terminal.zprofile. if the shell is a login shell. Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options. it is important that it be kept as small as possible.. If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the . Then. zsh 4.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. if the shell is interactive. If one of the options is unset at any point. As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh. if RCS is unset when the shell exits. However.zwc extension) and it is newer than the original file.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are read. this cannot be overridden.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. then .’ so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the ‘–f’ option. They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.zshenv.e. the former affects all startup files. the logout files are not read. any subsequent startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read.zlogin are read. When a login shell exits. Those files listed above as being in /etc may be in another directory. while the second only affects those in the /etc directory. i. If ZDOTDIR is unset.

or a sequence of two or more simple commands where each command is separated from the next by ‘’ or ‘&’. the parameter assignments modify the environment of the command when it is executed.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) NAME zshmisc – everything and then some SIMPLE COMMANDS & PIPELINES A simple command is a sequence of optional parameter assignments followed by blank–separated words. The value of a simple command is its exit status. The value of a pipeline is the value of the last command. the second just a simple command which will be executed if and only if the grep command returns a zero value. if any. ‘&’. it is executed as a coprocess. the commands in a shell function form a special sort of list. unless the pipeline is preceded by ‘!’ in which case the value is the logical inverse of the value of the last command. where the output (‘foo’ plus a newline) of the first command will be passed to the input of the second. More generally. Where commands are separated by ‘’. For example. When a sublist is terminated by ‘. The first word is the command to be executed. echo foo  sed ’s/foo/bar/’ is a pipeline. in which each sublist is terminated by ‘. A pipeline cannot be preceded by both ‘coproc’ and ‘!’. For example.. dmesg  grep panic && print yes is a sublist consisting of two pipelines. the second is executed only if the first fails (returns a nonzero value). or a sequence of two or more pipelines separated by ‘&&’ or ‘’. the value of the sublist is that return value. PRECOMMAND MODIFIERS A simple command may be preceded by a precommand modifier. ‘&’..’. Inc. zsh 4. If two pipelines are separated by ‘&&’. 2001 1 . which will alter how the command is interpreted. Both operators have equal precedence and are left associative. This terminator may optionally be omitted from the last sublist in the list when the list appears as a complex command inside ‘(. If a sublist is terminated by a ‘&’.4 Last change: October 26. If it does not. The value of the sublist is the value of the last pipeline executed. A sublist is either a single pipeline. If job control is active. else it is the value returned by the print (almost certainly zero). If a pipeline is preceded by ‘coproc’. and does not wait for it to finish (note the difference from other shells which execute the whole sublist in the background). including the complex commands below. For example. ‘&!’. the shell waits for it to finish before executing the next sublist.’ or newline. If a command name is given. These modifiers are shell builtin commands with the exception of nocorrect which is a reserved word. or 128 plus the signal number if terminated by a signal. the shell executes the last pipeline in it in the background. ‘&’. or a newline. For example. ‘&’ is shorthand for ‘2>&1 ’. A pipeline is either a simple command. the standard output of the first command is connected to the standard input of the next. A list is a sequence of zero or more sublists. or ‘&!’. a list can be seen as a set of any shell commands whatsoever.. the coprocess can be treated in other than input and output as an ordinary background job. this is implied wherever the word ‘list’ appears in later descriptions.}’.)’ or ‘{.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and the remaining words. If two pipelines are separated by ‘’.0. the second pipeline is executed only if the first succeeds (returns a zero value). which connects both the standard output and the standard error of the command to the standard input of the next. The shell can read from or write to the coprocess by means of the ‘>&p’ and ‘<&p’ redirection operators or with ‘print –p’ and ‘read –p’. a two–way pipe is established between it and the parent shell. echo foo is a simple command with arguments. with optional redirections interspersed. are arguments to the command. A backgrounded pipeline returns a status of zero.

[expr3] )) do list done The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’). Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) – The command is executed with a ‘–’ prepended to its argv[0] string.. term ] do list done where term is one or more newline or . If each elif list returns nonzero. builtin The command word is taken to be the name of a builtin command. esac Execute the list associated with the first pattern that matches word. the then list is executed.... This continues until either a list is terminated with . the elif list is executed and if its value is zero. executing list each time. use the positional parameters instead of the words. the value of the parameter name is set to null.. and set the parameter name to each of them in turn. command The command word is taken to be the name of an external command. as it is interpreted immediately. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. until list do list done Execute the do list as long as until list returns a nonzero exit status. for (( [expr1] . to terminate the words... or the esac is reached.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. Expand the list of words. zsh 4. case word in [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . rather than a shell function or builtin. the else list is executed.& rather than . noglob Filename generation (globbing) is not performed on any of the words. list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. If any expression is omitted. [expr2] .. then the parameter name is set to the word corresponding to this number. Inc. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the parameter REPLY. Otherwise. The form of the patterns is the same as that used for filename generation. 2001 2 . nocorrect Spelling correction is not done on any of the words.. the following list is also executed.&) ] .. It has no effect in non–interactive shells. or else standard input. The PROMPT3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the line editor if the shell is interactive and that is active. COMPLEX COMMANDS A complex command in zsh is one of the following: if list then list [ elif list then list ] . the then list is executed. the selection list is printed again. ) list (. If the in word is omitted. while list do list done Execute the do list as long as the while list returns a zero exit status. [ else list ] fi The if list is executed.. rather than a shell function or external command. each preceded by a number.. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words. repeat word do list done word is expanded and treated as an arithmetic expression. before any parsing is done. If this line is empty.. term ] do list done where term is at least one newline or .. list is executed for each selection until a break or end–of–file is encountered. If the list that is executed is terminated with . list is then executed n times. select name [ in word . Print the set of words. use the positional parameters.4 Last change: October 26. for name [ in word .. and if it returns a zero exit status. then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1. If the in word is omitted. which must evaluate to a number n. The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non–zero. if any.. Otherwise. exec The command is executed in the parent shell without forking. This must appear before any other precommand modifier.

If the option SH_GLOB is set for compatibility with other shells. for (( [expr1] . Inc. the parentheses will be treated as forming a globbing pattern in that case... [expr2] . only one word is provided.. The short versions below only work if sublist is of the form ‘{ list }’ or if the SHORT_LOOPS option is set. multiple words are usually only useful for setting traps. () [ term ] command where term is one or more newline or . () [ term ] { list } word . These particular versions of complex commands should be considered deprecated and may be removed in the future. The body of the function is the list between the { and }. then whitespace may appear between between the left and right parentheses when there is a single word.. [ () ] [ term ] { list } word .. for name [ in word .. ) sublist A short form of for.. case and select commands no such special form for the arguments is necessary. Execute list. Define a function which is referenced by any one of word.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. For the for. Another short form of for. The versions in the previous section should be preferred instead.. [ else { list } ] An alternate form of if. [[ exp ]] Evaluates the conditional expression exp and return a zero exit status if it is true. for name ( word . else the end of the test will not be recognized. See the section ‘Conditional Expressions’ for a description of exp. ALTERNATE FORMS FOR COMPLEX COMMANDS Many of zsh’s complex commands have alternate forms.. but if true { # Does not work! print yes } does not. The rules mean that if [[ –o ignorebraces ]] { print yes } works. since the test is not suitably delimited. term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or .. Traps set by the trap builtin are reset to their default values while executing list. ))’. The same limitations on the form of list apply as for the previous form. but the other condition (the special form of sublist or use of the SHORT_LOOPS option) still applies. If pipeline is omitted. ]]’ or ‘(( . function word . if list { list } [ elif list { list } ] . repeat.. See the section ‘Functions’.. Normally. while and until commands. zsh 4. [expr3] )) sublist A short form of the arithmetic for command... 2001 3 .4 Last change: October 26.. and timing statistics are reported on the standard error in the form specified by the TIMEFMT parameter. otherwise.0. such as by ‘[[ . time [ pipeline ] The pipeline is executed. print statistics about the shell process and its children. in both these cases the test part of the loop must also be suitably delimited. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) ( list ) { list } Execute list in a subshell. For the if.... if list sublist A short form of the alternate ‘if’.

ALIASING Every token in the shell input is checked to see if there is an alias defined for it.. global aliases may be defined using the –g option to that builtin. and the resulting string is considered to be entirely quoted.4 Last change: October 26. if an alias is defined for the word foo. \foo. ) list end Another form of for. If the text ends with a space. repeat word sublist This is a short form of repeat. An alias is defined using the alias builtin. Inside double quotes (" " ). ‘}’ is recognized in any position if the IGNORE_BRACES option is not set... print ’’’’ outputs nothing apart from a newline if RC_QUOTES is not set. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) that is not preceded by a ‘$’ are quoted. but one single quote if it is set. Therefore.. in which case a pair of single quotes are turned into a single quote. the next word in the shell input is treated as though it were in command position for purposes of alias expansion. while list { list } An alternative form of while. e. case word { [ [(] pattern [  pattern ] . A single quote cannot appear within single quotes unless the option RC_QUOTES is set. A short form of select. RESERVED WORDS The following words are recognized as reserved words when used as the first word of a command unless quoted or disabled using disable –r: do done esac then elif else fi for case if while function repeat time until select coproc nocorrect foreach end ! [[ { } Additionally. parameter and command substitution occur. Alias expansion is done on the shell input before any other expansion except history expansion. and ‘\’ quotes the characters ‘\’. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. ) list (. QUOTING A character may be quoted (that is. } An alternative form of case. Note the limitations on the form of list mentioned above. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) foreach name ( word . If so. made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a ‘\’. ‘‘’. For example. and ‘$’.. or if the alias is global.. select name [ in word term ] sublist where term is at least one newline or . zsh 4.g.0. it is replaced by the text of the alias if it is in command position (if it could be the first word of a simple command).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ‘\’ followed by a newline is ignored. COMMENTS In noninteractive shells.&) ] .. alias expansion may be avoided by quoting part of the word. Inc. a word beginning with the third character of the histchars parameter (‘#’ by default) causes that word and all the following characters up to a newline to be ignored. 2001 4 .. A literal ‘’’ character can be included in the string by using the ‘\’’ escape.. But there is nothing to prevent an alias being defined for \foo as well. A string enclosed between ‘$’’ and ‘’’ is processed the same way as the string arguments of the print builtin. ‘" ’. until list { list } An alternative form of until. or in interactive shells with the INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option set.

The resulting document. it is truncated to zero length. If <<– is used. command substitution or filename generation is performed on word. The following may appear anywhere in a simple command or may precede or follow a complex command. 2001 5 . otherwise. this causes an error. and ‘\’ must be used to quote the characters ‘\’.4 Last change: October 26. except that the file is truncated to zero length if it exists. then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null.) Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) REDIRECTION If a command is followed by & and job control is not active. << < word Perform shell expansion on word and pass the result to standard input. otherwise. Expansion occurs before word or digit is used except as noted below. zsh 4. >> word Open file word for writing in append mode as standard output. or to an end–of–file. >& word &> word (Except where ‘>& word’ matches one of the above syntaxes. This is known as a here–string. If the file does not exist then it is created. and the CLOBBER option is unset. redirection occurs for each separate filename in turn. ‘\’ followed by a newline is removed. If the file exists. the file is created. called a here–document. <> word Open file word for reading and writing as standard input. no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document. Otherwise. ‘$’. If any character of word is quoted with single or double quotes or a ‘\’. this causes an error. <& – >& – <& p >& p Close the standard input/output. ‘‘’ and the first character of word. even if CLOBBER is unset. the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications. <<[–] word The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word. Otherwise. No parameter expansion. Note that this does not have the same effect as ‘> word 2>&1’ in the presence of multios (see the section below). If the result of substitution on word produces more than one filename.0. > word >! word Same as >. < word Open file word for reading as standard input. becomes the standard input. parameter and command substitution occurs. If the file does not exist. >> word >>! word Same as >>. except that the file is created if it does not exist. and the CLOBBER option is unset. The input/output from/to the coprocess is moved to the standard input/output. Inc. ‘&>’ can always be used to avoid this ambiguity. even if CLOBBER is unset. <& number >& number The standard input/output is duplicated from file descriptor number (see dup2(2)). then all leading tabs are stripped from word and from the document.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. > word Open file word for writing as standard output. If the file does not exist then it is created.

ubar} is equivalent to ‘cat foo fubar  sort’. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. then the file descriptor referred to is that specified by the digit instead of the default 0 or 1. the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies all the specified inputs to its output in the order specified. If the MULTIOS option is set. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor. Note that a pipe is an implicit redirection. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) >& word >&! word &> word &>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘> word’. Thus sort <foo <fubar or even sort <f{oo. >>& word &>> word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. assuming there’s at least one. it would create an empty file called ‘∗ Similarly.4 Last change: October 26. provided the MULTIOS option is set. If one of the above is preceded by a digit. similar to cat.. provided the MULTIOS option is set. Thus :>∗ will truncate all files in the current directory. 2001 6 . the word after a redirection operator is also subjected to filename generation (globbing). MULTIOS If the user tries to open a file descriptor for writing more than once. If the order of redirections were reversed. fname).) echo exit 0 >> ∗ ∗.. 1>fname 2>&1 first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname. thus zsh 4. similar to tee. as it is by default. >>& word >>&! word &>> word &>>! word Redirects both standard output and standard error (file descriptor 2) in the manner of ‘>> word’. and also pipes it to cat. named ‘foo’ and ‘bar’.0. For example: . the shell opens the file descriptor as a pipe to a process that copies its input to all the specified outputs. file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname. file) association at the time of evaluation. Thus: date >foo >bar writes the date to two files. you can do ∗’. (Without the MULTIOS option. thus date >foo  cat writes the date to the file ‘foo’.sh If the user tries to open a file descriptor for reading more than once. Inc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The order in which redirections are specified is significant. It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (that is.

If there exists a shell builtin by that name. but no command name. Otherwise. so echo foo > bar > baz when MULTIOS is unset will truncate bar. If the program is a file beginning with ‘#!’. /bin/sh is spawned to execute it.0. If the MULTIOS option is unset. If both NULLCMD and READNULLCMD are set. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed after the function completes in the environment of the caller. If the option SH_NULLCMD is set. Functions can be undefined with the unfunction builtin. If there exists a shell function by that name. a typical sequence is: zsh 4. If the parameter NULLCMD is not set or the option CSH_NULLCMD is set. it is assumed to be a shell script. each redirection replaces the previous redirection for that file descriptor. This is the csh behavior and CSH_NULLCMD is set by default when emulating csh. If the search is unsuccessful. all files redirected to are actually opened. NULLCMD and READNULLCMD may refer to shell functions. If execution fails because the file is not in executable format. COMMAND EXECUTION If a command name contains no slashes. the shell attempts to locate it. When the function is first executed. the shell prints an error message and returns a nonzero exit status. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) cat bar  sort <foo is equivalent to ‘cat bar foo  sort’ (note the order of the inputs). Function identifiers can be listed with the functions builtin. However. the shell searches each element of $path for a directory containing an executable file by that name. the function is invoked as described in the section ‘Functions’. This is the default when emulating sh or ksh. The default for NULLCMD is ‘cat’ and for READNULLCMD is ‘more’. The shell will execute the specified interpreter on operating systems that do not handle this executable format in the kernel. Thus to define functions for autoloading. AUTOLOADING FUNCTIONS A function can be marked as undefined using the autoload builtin (or ‘functions –u’ or ‘typeset –fu’). Such a function has no body. with paging if that is a terminal. the shell searches for its definition using the elements of the fpath variable. an error is caused. The return builtin is used to return from function calls. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. and write ‘foo’ into baz. the remainder of the first line specifies an interpreter for the program. and the file is not a directory. FUNCTIONS Shell functions are defined with the function reserved word or the special syntax ‘funcname ()’. Otherwise. the builtin is invoked. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. the builtin ‘:’ is inserted as a command with the given redirections.4 Last change: October 26. Shell functions are read in and stored internally.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.) Functions execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. Thus < file shows the contents of file on standard output. its value will be used as a command with the given redirections. REDIRECTIONS WITH NO COMMAND When a simple command consists of one or more redirection operators and zero or more parameter assignments. if the parameter NULLCMD is set. (See the section ‘Command Execution’. then the value of the latter will be used instead of that of the former when the redirection is an input. Inc. 2001 7 . zsh can behave in several ways.

It may include other function definitions as well. second. which is expected to contain the definitions for all functions in the directory named element. Without KSH_AUTOLOAD set. If the KSH_AUTOLOAD option is set. If element already includes a . a file found in this way is searched only for the definition of function. } print func is initialized then ‘func. the function body (with no surrounding ‘funcname() {. If processing of the file results in the function being re–defined. the shell looks for three possible files. the search for a definition proceeds with the other two possibilities described below. element is searched for the definition of the function without comparing its age to that of other files. zsh 4. It is an error if the function is not defined by loading the file.e. with the disadvantage that functions included must be explicitly recompiled by hand before the shell notices any changes. element/function. This will normally define the function in question. if more than one of these contains a definition for the function that is sought. For each element in fpath. but may also perform initialization. but only the message ‘This is func’ on the second and subsequent calls. the order of searching is. To force the shell to perform initialization and then call the function defined. first. the function itself is not re–executed. it will produce the initialization message on the first call. Otherwise.4 Last change: October 26. and third. taken to be the definition for function. The file is treated in the same manner as a directory containing files for functions and is searched for the definition of the function. and may therefore define local parameters.0.. 2001 8 .. and a call to the shell function. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) fpath=(˜/myfuncs $fpath) autoload myfunc1 myfunc2 .}’) is taken to be the complete contents of the file. the file’s contents will be executed. the newer of either a compiled function or an ordinary function definition is used. Thus including an element such as ‘/usr/local/funcs. the leftmost in the fpath is chosen. Inc.zwc A file created with the zcompile builtin command. but those are neither loaded nor executed. This form allows the file to be used directly as an executable shell script. within a directory. including any arguments.zwc file is created. func’ with KSH_AUTOLOAD set will produce both messages on the first call. the newest of which is used to load the definition for the function: element. Note that for functions precompiled with the zcompile builtin command the flag –U must be provided when the . If the definition is not found.zwc extension (i. element/function A file of zsh command text.zwc A file created with zcompile. which is expected to contain the definition for function. This is recommended for the use of functions supplied with the zsh distribution. In summary. which is executed in the context of the function execution. The usual alias expansion during reading will be suppressed if the autoload builtin or its equivalent is given the option –U.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in fact. the extension was explicitly given by the user). the file should contain initialization code (which will be executed then discarded) in addition to a complete function definition (which will be retained for subsequent calls to the function). as the corresponding information is compiled into the latter. at the end. suppose the autoload file func contains func() { print This is func. there does not need to be any directory named element without the suffix. For example.zwc’ in fpath will speed up the search for functions... and the other message on the second and subsequent calls. or the file contains only a simple definition of the function. in the parents of directories in fpath for the newer of either a compiled directory or a directory in fpath.

Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) It is also possible to create a function that is not marked as autoloaded.4 Last change: October 26. just before a prompt. zsh 4. For example.. precmd Executed before each prompt. or when the current function exits if defined inside a function. by using ‘autoload –X’ within a shell function. size–limited version of the command (with things like function bodies elided). otherwise it is an empty string. and unfunction myfunc # if myfunc was defined autoload myfunc myfunc args. To load the definition of an autoloaded function myfunc without executing myfunc. The actual command that will be executed (including expanded aliases) is passed in two different forms: the second argument is a single–line. where NAL is a signal name as specified for the kill builtin. because all comments are discarded from defined functions.. have special meaning to the shell: chpwd Executed whenever the current working directory is changed. The signal number will be passed as the first parameter to the function.0. the following are equivalent: myfunc() { autoload –X } myfunc args. the shell and processes spawned by it will ignore SIGNAL.. but which loads its own definition by searching fpath. 2001 9 . TRAPDEBUG Executed after each command. TRAPZERR Executed whenever a command has a non–zero exit status. the function is not executed if the command occurred in a sublist followed by ‘&&’ or ‘’. This is done so that eval " $(functions)" produces a reasonable result. the third argument contains the full text what what is being executed. the string that the user typed is passed as the first argument. A true autoloaded function can be identified by the presence of the comment ‘# undefined’ in the body. However.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. TRAPNAL If defined and non–null. this function will be executed whenever the shell catches a signal SIGNAL. use: autoload +X myfunc SPECIAL FUNCTIONS The following functions. preexec Executed just after a command has been read and is about to be executed. the functions command outputs ‘builtin autoload –X’ as the body of an autoloaded function. this function is executed every $PERIOD seconds. If a function of this form is defined and null. In fact. periodic If the parameter PERIOD is set. if defined. only the final command in a sublist of this type causes the trap to be executed. TRAPEXIT Executed when the shell exits. If the history mechanism is active (and the line was not discarded from the history buffer)..

Apart from the difference in calling procedure and the fact that the function form appears in lists of functions. and is not subject to the job control features described here. zsh restores tty modes that were in effect when it was suspended. %% Current job. an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. and print another prompt. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been ‘suspended’. If the NOTIFY option is not set. %+ Equivalent to ‘%%’. it does not have a place in the job table. 2001 10 . The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. then that job is immediately disowned. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. rather than in their own function environment. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. whose process ID was 1234. When a command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins. printed by the jobs command. When a job is started asynchronously with ‘&’. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ∧ (control–Z) which sends a Z TSTP signal to the current job: this key may be redefined by the susp option of the external stty command. If you set this tty option. zsh 4. but this can be disabled by giving the command ‘stty tostop’. it waits until just before it prints a prompt before it informs you. then background jobs will suspend when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. as they are then run in the environment of the calling process. the forms TRAPNAL() { # code } and trap ’ # code are equivalent. putting it in the background with the bg command.0. or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. the shell prints a line which looks like: [1] 1234 indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top–level) process. Inc. A job being run in the background will suspend if it tries to read from the terminal. and assigns them small integer numbers. You can then manipulate the state of this job. %– Previous job.4 Last change: October 26. If a job is started with ‘&’ or ‘&!’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. nor when it is continued with bg. %string Any job whose command line begins with string. %?string Any job whose command line contains string. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible. A job can be referred to by the process ID of any process of the job or by one of the following: %number The job with the given number. A ∧ takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are Z discarded when it is typed. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output. It keeps a table of current jobs. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) The functions beginning ‘TRAP’ may alternatively be defined with the trap builtin: this may be preferable for some uses. JOBS If the MONITOR option is set. After startup.

More precisely.4 Last change: October 26. Integers may also be of the form ‘base#n’. each is evaluated separately. in which case base 10 is used. if the HUP option is set. an alternative form is provided: for any command which begins with a ‘((’. either use the nohup command (see nohup(1)) or the disown builtin. zsh 4. ‘16#ff’ is 255 in hexadecimal). and the running jobs will be sent a SIGHUP signal. This is used when outputting arithmetical substitutions or when assigning to scalar parameters. either using the builtin let. This can be tested. When an output base is specified using the ‘[#base]’ syntax. The base# may also be omitted. so that the value output is valid syntax for input. require quoting. where base is a decimal number between two and thirty–six representing the arithmetic base and n is a number in that base (for example.)).. Floating point arithmetic is always double precision. or via a substitution of the form $((. You may use the jobs command to see what they are. If you do this or immediately try to exit again.. each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD. signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see the TRAPNAL special functions in the section ‘Functions’). ARITHMETIC EVALUATION The shell can perform integer and floating point arithmetic. by giving the command ‘print – $(( 12345678901 ))’.. but an explicitly defined integer or floating point parameter will not be affected. the shell will not warn you a second time. otherwise precision is 4 bytes. For integers. the following statement (( val = 2 + 1 )) is equivalent to let " val = 2 + 1" both assigning the value 3 to the shell variable var and returning a zero status. while x (assuming it does not already exist) is implicitly typed by the arithmetic evaluation... if the number appears unchanged." ’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Otherwise. For clarity it is recommended that it appear at the beginning of an expression. the rightmost value in the given output base. It is also possible to specify a base to be used for output in the form ‘[#base]’.0. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) When the monitor mode is on.))’ is equivalent to ‘let " . When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or suspended. you will be warned that ‘You have suspended (running) jobs’. an appropriate base prefix will be output if necessary. 2001 11 . The expression has no precedence and if it occurs more than once in a mathematical expression. If the # is doubled. A leading ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ denotes hexadecimal. any base specified in this way will be set as the variable’s output arithmetic base as if the option ‘–i base’ to the typeset builtin had been used. If an integer variable is implicitly defined by an arithmetic expression. the precision is at least 8 bytes. y = 32 )) print $x $y outputs first ‘8#40’. where it acquires the output base 8. Inc. the last encountered is used. Integers can be in bases other than 10. as well as spaces. To avoid having the shell terminate the running jobs. Since many of the arithmetic operators. all the characters until a matching ‘))’ are treated as a quoted expression and arithmetic expansion performed as for an argument of let. For example. the shell is usually compiled to use 8–byte precision where this is available. for example ‘[##16]’. and then ‘8#40 16#20’. then no base prefix is output. For backwards compatibility the form ‘[base]n’ is also accepted. for example. SIGNALS The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by ‘&’ and the MONITOR option is not active. ‘((. for example ‘[#16]’. The let builtin command takes arithmetic expressions as arguments.. because y has been explicitly declared to have output base 16. As an example: typeset –i 16 y print $(( [#8] x = 32. the suspended jobs will be terminated.

User Commands Property of BladeLogic. floating point numbers can be declared with the float builtin. Note the precedence of the bitwise AND. a standard parameter substitution which gives the length of the parameter foo. Inc. ‘<<’. ‘’. In addition. and ‘=’ are short–circuiting. ‘>>’ and their equivalents with assignment) is given a ’. The following operators are supported (listed in decreasing order of precedence): + – ! ˜ ++ – – unary plus/minus. logical NOT. ‘’.post}{in. Promotion of integer to floating point values is performed where necessary. OR. i.e. but its use is deprecated. precedence. differing only in their output format. ‘&’. floating point argument. Likewise. it will be silently rounded down to the next integer. zsh 4. complement. {pre. and only one of the latter two expressions in a ternary operator is evaluated. but ‘$((float))’ uses a generic floating point format. as described for the typeset builtin. ‘∧ or ‘\M–\C–x’ gives the A’. but the module zsh/mathfunc may be loaded with the zmodload builtin to provide standard floating point mathematical functions. as it will be taken for a parameter name. there are two types. An expression of the form ‘##x’ where x is any character sequence such as ‘a’. Note that this is different from the expression ‘$#foo’. and associativity of expressions in C.0. An internal integer representation of a named parameter can be specified with the integer builtin. An arithmetic expression uses nearly the same syntax. For example. Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a named parameter declared integer in this manner. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Floating point constants are recognized by the presence of a decimal point or an exponent. Mathematical functions can be called with the syntax ‘func(args)’.4 Last change: October 26. XOR  ∧ ?: ternary operator = += –= ∗ /= %= &= ∧ = <<= >>= &&= = ∧ = ∗ ∗= ∗= = ∧ ∗∗ assignment . The shell currently defines no mathematical functions by default. Named parameters and subscripted arrays can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. and XOR operators. but the exponent character e or E may not. Assigning a floating point number to an integer results in rounding down to the next integer. if any operator which requires an integer (‘˜’.de}crement << >> bitwise shift left. ((val2 = val1 ∗ 2)) assigns twice the value of $val1 to the parameter named val2. ‘${float}’ uses the defined format. division. ‘&&=’. 2001 12 . The output format can be bypassed by using arithmetic substitution instead of the parameter substitution. ‘∧ ‘%’. ASCII value of this character and an expression of the form ‘#foo’ gives the ASCII value of the first character of the value of the parameter foo. subtraction < > <= >= comparison == != equality and inequality && logical AND ∧ logical OR. comma operator The operators ‘&&’. ‘#\’ is accepted instead of ‘##’. The decimal point may be the first character of the constant. right & bitwise AND ∧ bitwise XOR bitwise OR  ∗∗ ∗∗ exponentiation ∗ / % multiplication. where the function decides if the args is used as a string or a comma–separated list of arithmetic expressions. modulus (remainder) +– addition.

For example. zsh 4. This can have unforeseen consequences. (See the section ‘Specifying Options’. true if file exists and has its setgid bit set.4 Last change: October 26.1’ will always cause the result to be truncated to zero. –O file true if file exists and is owned by the effective user ID of this process. the first assignment will cause it to be created as an integer. then the current process has permission to search in the directory. true if file exists and is a regular file. (note: fd is not optional) true if file exists and has its setuid bit set. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) Scalar variables can hold integer or floating point values at different times. f < 1. do # use $f done if f has not already been declared. –w file true if file exists and is writable by current process.0. –o option true if option named option is on. it will be implicitly typed as integer or float and retain that type either until the type is explicitly changed or until the end of the scope. –L file true if file exists and is a symbolic link. there is no memory of the numeric type in this case. –G file true if file exists and its group matches the effective group ID of this process. true if file exists and is readable by current process. If a variable is first assigned in a numeric context without previously being declared. option may be a single character. true if file exists and is a block special file. true if file exists and is executable by current process. It is therefore best to declare numeric variables with explicit types. A simple fix would be to turn the initialization into ‘f = 0. true if file exists and has its sticky bit set. true if file descriptor number fd is open and associated with a terminal device. f += 0. 2001 13 . in the loop for (( f = 0. and consequently the operation ‘f += 0.) –p file –r file –s file –t fd –u file –x file –z string true if length of string is zero.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. in which case it is a single letter option name. true if file exists and has size greater than zero. true if file exists and is a directory.0’. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings.1 )). If file exists and is a directory. true if file exists and is a character special file. Inc. –n string true if length of string is non–zero. true if file exists and is a symbolic link. true if file exists and is a FIFO special file (named pipe). Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions: –a file –b file –c file –d file –e file –f file –g file –h file –k file true if file exists. true if file exists. so that the loop will fail.

( exp ) ! exp true if exp is true. but there is no special behaviour of ‘/’ nor initial dots.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. However. string1 < string2 true if string1 comes before string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. exp1 && exp2 true if exp1 and exp2 are both true. In each of the above expressions. file1 –nt file2 true if file1 exists and is newer than file2. file1 –ot file2 true if file1 exists and is older than file2. and no glob qualifiers are allowed. exp1 –lt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than exp2. similar to the effect of double quotes. exp1  exp2 true if either exp1 or exp2 is true. true if exp is false. string = pattern string == pattern true if string matches pattern. even if the underlying system does not support the /dev/fd directory.4 Last change: October 26. exp1 –ne exp2 true if exp1 is numerically not equal to exp2. the patterns are the same as those used for filename generation. pattern metacharacters are active for the pattern arguments. exp1 –le exp2 true if exp1 is numerically less than or equal to exp2. file1 –ef file2 true if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file. exp1 –gt exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than exp2. then the test applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n. 2001 14 . where n is an integer. string != pattern true if string does not match pattern. string1 > string2 true if string1 comes after string2 based on ASCII value of their characters. if file is of the form ‘/dev/fd/n’. zsh 4. The ‘=’ form is for backward compatibility and should be considered obsolete. –N file true if file exists and its access time is not newer than its modification time. see zshexpn(1). exp1 –ge exp2 true if exp1 is numerically greater than or equal to exp2. Normal shell expansion is performed on the file. The ‘==’ form is the preferred one. exp1 –eq exp2 true if exp1 is numerically equal to exp2. but the result of each expansion is constrained to be a single word. string and pattern arguments.0. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) –S file true if file exists and is a socket.

%–1d specifies the first component. A ‘)’. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’.. which should appear between the ‘%’ and the next character of the sequence. If the PROMPT_PERCENT option is set. zsh 4.’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) In the forms which do numeric comparison. command substitution and arithmetic expansion. Current history event number. If it starts with $HOME.e. am/pm format. The following escape sequences are recognized: %% %) %d %/ A ‘%’. Certain escape sequences may be recognised in the prompt string. the expressions exp undergo arithmetic expansion as if they were enclosed in $((. Current time of day. but if $PWD has a named directory as its prefix. and if so. a ‘!’ in the prompt is replaced by the current history event number. The hostname up to the first ‘. For example. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. in 12–hour. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode. if the complete condition is true. that part is replaced by a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. trailing components of the hostname are shown. ∗ tests if either file foo or file bar exists. If an integer follows the ‘%’. in 24–hour format. A negative integer specifies leading components. Inc. The current value of $SHLVL.0. if the value of the parameter report begins with ‘y’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.4 Last change: October 26. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify how many components of the hostname are desired. the message ‘File exists. As %d and %/. The full machine hostname. PROMPT EXPANSION Prompt sequences undergo a special form of expansion. certain escape sequences that start with ‘%’ are expanded. with seconds. the prompt string is first subjected to parameter expansion. This type of expansion is also available using the –P option to the print builtin. Present working directory ($PWD). If the PROMPT_BANG option is set. If the PROMPT_SUBST option is set. %˜ %h %! %L %M %m %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. %t %@ %T %∗ ∗ %n Current time of day. zero means the whole path. it specifies a number of trailing components of $PWD to show..)).’ is printed. the following: [[ ( –f foo  –f bar ) && $report = y∗ ]] && print File exists. 2001 15 . See zshexpn(1). i. Current time of day in 24–hour format. Some escapes take an optional integer argument. With a negative integer. $USERNAME. A literal ‘!’ may then be represented as ‘!!’.

If there is none. i. This separator may not appear in the true–text. The definition of ‘privileged’. or shell function that zsh is currently executing. The test character x may be any of the following: c . The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix. Inc. zsh 4.e. This is most useful for debugging as part of $PS4. A ‘#’ if the shell is running with privileges. is that either the effective user ID is zero. The status of the parser. with prefix replacement. or.false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. except as part of a %–escape sequence.%} Include a string as a literal escape sequence. The date in day–dd format. 2001 16 . that at least one capability is raised in either the Effective or Inheritable capability vectors. whichever was started most recently.%%)’. true–text and false–text may both contain arbitrarily–nested escape sequences. this is equivalent to the parameter $0. Following the ‘%’ with an integer gives that element of the array. Three additional codes are available: %f prints the day of the month. like %e but without any preceding space if the day is a single digit. Negative integers count from the end of the array. sourced file. for these purposes. The date in yy–mm–dd format. if POSIX. Equivalent to ‘%(!. sourced file. The line number currently being executed in the script. True if the time in minutes is equal to n. It does not treat /dev/tty∗ specially.4 Last change: October 26.0. If name starts with /dev/tty this is stripped.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. %E %# %v %{. %i %w %W %D %D{string} string is formatted using the strftime function. the same character is used to separate the text for the ‘true’ result from that for the ‘false’ result. in the latter case it will also work non–interactively. and %K/%L correspond to %k/%l for the hour of the day (24/12 hour clock) in the same way. Clears to end of line. See strftime(3) for more details.1e capabilities are supported.true–text. This is most useful in prompts PS2 for continuation lines and PS4 for debugging with the XTRACE option. The string within the braces should not change the cursor position. The left parenthesis may be preceded or followed by a positive integer n. A ‘)’ may appear in the false–text as ‘%)’..#. a ‘%’ if not. zero or negative or no integer means print as many as there are. Brace pairs can nest. A negative integer will be multiplied by –1. The value of the first element of the psvar array parameter. If given an integer number that many strings will be printed. %l %y %? %_ The line (tty) the user is logged in on without /dev/ prefix.. An integer may follow the ‘%’ to specify a number of trailing path components to show. True if the current absolute path has at least n elements. zero means the full path. has at least n elements. %(x. A negative integer specifies leading components. The character following the x is arbitrary. the shell constructs (like ‘if’ and ‘for’) that have been started on the command line. which defaults to zero. The date in mm/dd/yy format. or shell function given by %N. including further ternary expressions. ˜ / C t True if the current path. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) %N The name of the script. ∗ The return code of the last command executed just before the prompt.

g. True if the month is equal to n (January = 0). The numeric argument. True if the effective gid of the current process is n. specifies the maximum permitted length of the various strings that can be displayed in the prompt. 2001 17 . An integer may follow the ‘%’ to get more than one component. %c %.<%˜%<<%# ’ will print a truncated representation of the current directory.e. True if the effective uid of the current process is n. that this must be doubled as the string is also subject to standard print processing. the prompt ‘%8<. however. True if the day of the week is equal to n (Sunday = 0). For example. True if the SHLVL parameter is at least n. zsh 4. True if the SECONDS parameter is at least n. which in the third form may appear immediately after the ‘[’. i. a truncation with argument zero (e. True if the shell is running with privileges. %<string< %>string> %[xstring] Specifies truncation behaviour for the remainder of the prompt string. note when using print –P. In this string. respectively.e. The string will be displayed in place of the truncated portion of any string. In particular. If the string is longer than the specified truncation length. followed by a space. which ever comes first. The third. while explicit positive integers have the same effect as for the latter two sequences. The forms with ‘<’ truncate at the left of the string. Unless ‘%C’ is used. it will appear in full. the terminating character (‘<’. Inc. True if at least n characters have already been printed on the current line." ’. True if the array psvar has at least n elements. or in fact any character.. For example.<%/’ will expand to ‘. deprecated. True if the exit status of the last command was n. in addition to any backslashes removed by a double quoted string: the worst case is therefore ‘print –P " %<\\<<.4 Last change: October 26... Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHMISC ( 1 ) T d D w ? # g l L S v _ ! True if the time in hours is equal to n. x may be ‘<’ or ‘>’. tilde contraction is performed first. followed by a ‘%’ or ‘#’. or to the end of the next enclosing group of the ‘%(’ construct.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. form is equivalent to ‘%xstringx’. if the current directory is ‘/home/pike’. those two characters would be included in the string to be truncated. may be quoted by a preceding ‘\’. note this does not undergo prompt expansion. completely replacing the truncated string. the prompt ’%10<.e/pike’. and the forms with ‘>’ truncate at the right of the string. truncations inside a ‘%(’ are separate). The part of the prompt string to be truncated runs to the end of the string. ‘%<<’) marks the end of the range of the string to be truncated while turning off truncation from there on. Without the ‘%<<’.. True if at least n shell constructs were started.0. ‘>’ or ‘]’). or to the next truncation encountered at the same grouping level (i.. These are deprecated as %c and %C are equivalent to %1˜ and %1/. True if the day of the month is equal to n.. %C Trailing component of $PWD.

Each saved command in the history list is called a history event and is assigned a number. Double quotes will not work for this. The one most recent command is always retained in any case. a history reference with no event designator refers to the same event as any preceding history reference on that command line. all unquoted occurrences of the characters ‘\’. history expansions do not nest. Inc. and ‘!!$’ always refers to the last word of the previous command. Immediately before execution. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ function in the same manner as ‘!!:1’ and ‘!!$’. ‘!’ is the event designator for the previous command. However. Process Substitution Parameter Expansion Command Substitution Arithmetic Expansion Brace Expansion These five are performed in one step in left–to–right fashion. but before any other expansions take place and before the command is executed. it refers to the previous command. then every history reference with no event specification always refers to the previous command. Filename Generation This expansion. The history number that you may see in your prompt (see Prompt Expansion in zshmisc(1)) is the number that is to be assigned to the next command. The ‘!’ can be escaped with ‘\’ or can be enclosed between a pair of single quotes (’’) to suppress its special meaning. the order of expansion is modified for compatibility with sh and ksh. if the option CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is set. then ‘!:1’ and ‘!$’ refer to the first and last zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) NAME zshexpn – zsh expansion and substitution DESCRIPTION The following types of expansions are performed in the indicated order in five steps: History Expansion This is performed only in interactive shells.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the size of which is controlled by the HISTSIZE parameter. no history expansion occurs. and may occur anywhere on the command line. ‘’’ and ‘" ’ are removed. This simplifies spelling corrections and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. each command is saved in the history list. The following sections explain the types of expansion in detail. Following this history character is an optional event designator (see the section ‘Event Designators’) and then an optional word designator (the section ‘Word Designators’).0. It is this expanded form that is recorded as the history event for later references. if CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY is unset. respectively. With CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY set. if it is the only history reference in a command. preceding the set of five expansions mentioned above. is always done last. 2001 1 . so ‘!!:1’ always refers to the first word of the previous command. if neither of these designators is present. Conversely. For example. In that case filename expansion is performed immediately after alias expansion. Overview A history expansion begins with the first character of the histchars parameter. Input lines containing history expansions are echoed after being expanded. HISTORY EXPANSION History expansion allows you to use words from previous command lines in the command line you are typing. beginning with 1 (one) when the shell starts up. commonly referred to as globbing. After these expansions. Alias Expansion Aliases are expanded immediately before the command line is parsed as explained under Aliasing in zshmisc(1).4 Last change: October 26. which is ‘!’ by default. Filename Expansion If the SH_FILE_EXPANSION option is set. By default.

the history mechanism is temporarily disabled until the current list (see zshmisc(1)) is fully parsed. Word Designators A word designator indicates which word or words of a given command line are to be included in a history reference. Refer to the current command–line minus n. A ‘:’ usually separates the event specification from the word designator. ∗’. ‘∗ ‘–’ or ‘%’.0. It may be omitted only if the word designator begins with a ‘∧ ‘$’. The character sequence ‘∧ bar’ (where ‘∧ is actually the second character of the histchars parameter) foo∧ ’ repeats the last command. In the list below. The ‘!" ’ is removed from the input. Refer to the previous command. The line is treated as if it were complete up to and including the word before the one with the ‘!#’ reference. x defaults to 0. zsh 4. ‘=’ or ‘(’. replacing the string foo with bar. Insulate a history reference from adjacent characters (if necessary). each preceded by a ‘:’. remember that the initial ‘!’ in each item may be changed to another character by setting the histchars parameter. If followed immediately by a word designator (see the section ‘Word Designators’). ‘∧ ’. 2001 2 . except when followed by a blank. !# !{. The first argument. 1. although the error may not be the most obvious one. A range of words.} Refer to the current command line typed in so far. and any subsequent ‘!’ characters have no special significance.. Event Designators An event designator is a reference to a command–line entry in the history list. Modifiers After the optional word designator. 0 n ∧ $ % x–y ∗ x∗ ∗ x– The first input word (command). If the shell encounters the character sequence ‘!" ’ in the input. More precisely.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. The trailing ‘?’ is necessary if this reference is to be followed by a modifier or followed by any text that is not to be considered part of str. All the arguments. ‘!:%’ or ‘!?str?:%’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) words.. A less convenient but more comprehensible form of command history support is provided by the fc builtin. Refer to command–line n. this expansion repeats the previous command. The nth argument. Abbreviates ‘x–$’. The last argument. ∗’ Note that a ‘%’ word designator works only when used in one of ‘!%’. this forms a history reference with no event designator (see the section ‘Overview’). Inc. or to the previous command if there is no preceding reference. newline. Like ‘x∗ but omitting word $. By itself. The word matched by (the most recent) ?str search. Anything else results in an error. or a null value if there are none. of the same event referenced by the nearest other history reference preceding them on the current command line. you can add a sequence of one or more of the following modifiers. ! Start a history expansion. That is. These modifiers also work on the result of filename generation and parameter expansion. except where noted. the sequence ‘∧ bar∧ is foo∧ ’ synonymous with ‘!!:s∧ bar∧ hence other modifiers (see the section ‘Modifiers’) may follow the final foo∧ ’. Word designators include: ’. respectively. !! !n !–n !str !?str[?] Refer to the most recent command containing str.4 Last change: October 26. and only when used after a !? expansion (possibly in an earlier command). Refer to the most recent command starting with str.

Like q. Remove one level of quotes from the substituted words. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of ‘/’. Inc. opening parentheses are handled specially. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. but repeats only n times if the expression expr evaluates to n. the substitution is done only for the first string that matches l. this applies to each word of the expanded text. the shell runs process list asynchronously. paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2)  tee >(process1) >(process2) >/dev/null zsh 4. Works with history expansion and parameter expansion. in the right–hand–side r. In parameter expansion the & must appear inside braces. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) h r e t p q Remove a trailing pathname component. see above. Print the new command but do not execute it. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. Does not work with parameter expansion. then the file passed as an argument will be connected to the output of the list process. but character strings. the rightmost ‘?’ in a context scan can similarly be omitted. with no colon between. but break into words at whitespace. A null l uses the previous string either from the previous l or from the contextual scan string s from ‘!?s’. If the form with > is selected then writing on this special file will provide input for list.0. Note the same record of the last l and r is maintained across all forms of expansion. the closing delimiter should be ’)’. leaving the head.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If < is used. The character ‘&’. They are listed here to provide a single point of reference for all modifiers. Quote the substituted words. Any character can be used instead of the ‘:’. leaving the root name. For example. Convert the words to all uppercase. For arrays and for filename generation. PROCESS SUBSTITUTION Each command argument of the form ‘<(list)’. The left–hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions. In the case of the < or > forms. If the system supports the /dev/fd mechanism. the command argument will be a named pipe. ‘[’. f Repeats the immediately (without a colon) following modifier until the resulting word doesn’t change any more. This works like ‘basename’.xxx’. Remove all but the extension. F. or ‘}’. the command argument is the name of the device file corresponding to a file descriptor. is replaced by the text from the left–hand–side l. w Makes the immediately following modifier work on each word in the string. ‘]’. if the system supports named pipes (FIFOs). 2001 3 . Repeat the previous s substitution. Like s. Remove all leading pathname components. Q x l u s/l/r[/] & The s/l/r/ substitution works as follows. w and W modifiers work only with parameter expansion and filename generation. Unless preceded immediately by a g. W:sep: Like w but words are considered to be the parts of the string that are separated by sep. Convert the words to all lowercase. You can omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately follows r. though for parameters it is only useful if the resulting text is to be re–evaluated such as by eval. ‘>(list)’ or ‘=(list)’ is subject to process substitution. if ‘(’. Substitute r for l as described below. respectively. Remove a filename extension of the form ‘. otherwise. leaving the tail. or ‘{’ is used as the opening delimiter.4 Last change: October 26. This works like ‘dirname’. may be preceded immediately by a g. The following f. The ‘&’ can be quoted with a backslash. and in filename generation it must be quoted with a backslash. escaping further substitutions. Only works with history expansion. F:expr: Like f.

the name. if the programme does not actually open the file. and arithmetic expansion. ${name:?word} zsh 4. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively. or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of name. No field splitting is done on the result unless the SH_WORD_SPLIT option is set. some programmes may automatically close the file descriptor in question before examining the file on the command line. if name is unset or is null then set it to word. so that programmes that expect to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the file will not work. the value of the parameter is then substituted. The braces are required if the expansion is to be followed by a letter. see the section ‘Filename Generation’. including arrays. unconditionally set name to word. of the parameter name is substituted. In both forms. are a single subscript or any colon modifiers appearing after the name. If name is an array parameter. ${name:=word} ${name::=word} In the first form. otherwise substitute word. digit. and subscript notation to access individual array elements. associative arrays. In the former case. the shell actually supplies the information using a pipe. In addition. Both the /dev/fd and the named pipe implementation have drawbacks. If = is used. different operating systems may have different behaviour) block for ever and have to be killed explicitly. the colon modifiers described in the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’ can be applied: for example. In the second case. with KSH_ARRAYS. If name is missing. ‘˜’. the expansion results in one word only. ‘#’ or ‘+’ appearing before ’. In both cases.4 Last change: October 26. exceptions. ${name} The value. the subshell attempting to read from or write to the pipe will (in a typical implementation. particularly if this is necessary for security reasons such as when the programme is running setuid. Note that these patterns. ${+name} If name is the name of a set parameter ‘1’ is substituted. Otherwise. in the second form. one element per word. command substitution. Inc. and the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set. ${i:s/foo/bar/} performs string substitution on the expansion of parameter $i. substitute word. then the file passed as an argument will be the name of a temporary file containing the output of the list process.0. In addition to the following operations. This may be used instead of the < form for a program that expects to lseek (see lseek(2)) on the input file. if any. In the expansions discussed below that require a pattern. along with the replacement text of any substitutions. more complicated forms of substitution usually require the braces to be present. are themselves subject to parameter expansion. PARAMETER EXPANSION The character ‘$’ is used to introduce parameter expansions. 2001 4 . pastes the results together. and sends it to the processes process1 and process2. all of which work with or without braces. or any of the characters ‘∧ ‘=’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the form of the pattern is the same as that used for filename generation. Also note that the previous example can be more compactly and efficiently written (provided the MULTIOS option is set) as: paste <(cut –f1 file1) <(cut –f3 file2) \ > >(process1) > >(process2) The shell uses pipes instead of FIFOs to implement the latter two process substitutions in the above example. then the value of each element of name is substituted. ${name:–word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. this is the first element of an array. See zshparam(1) for a description of parameters. otherwise ‘0’ is substituted. which only apply if the option KSH_ARRAYS is not set.

the smallest matching pattern is preferred. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If name is set and is non–null then substitute its value. the second form all occurrences. otherwise. the longest match for t∗ is substituted and the result is ‘spy star’. in which case it must match at the end of the string. however. but note the usual rule that pattern characters in $opat are not treated specially unless either the option GLOB_SUBST is set. otherwise. Interactive shells instead return to the prompt. In the first case. R. the largest matching pattern is preferred. matching and replacement is performed on each array element separately. the smallest matching pattern is preferred. Inc. this is not necessary if the ‘/’ occurs inside a substituted parameter. or if the ‘(@)’ flag or the name[@] syntax is used. the shortest matches are taken and the result is ‘spy spy lispy star’. in the second form.4 Last change: October 26. For example.e. The first ‘/’ may be preceded by a ‘:’. ${name:#pattern} If the pattern matches the value of name. The repl may be an empty string. ${#spec} zsh 4. ${name:+word} If name is set and is non–null then substitute word. Both pattern and repl are subject to double–quoted substitution. the ‘˜’ ensures that the text of $sub is treated as a pattern rather than a plain string. The pattern may begin with a ‘#’. just substitute the value of name. 2001 5 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ${name/pattern/repl} ${name//pattern/repl} Replace the longest possible match of pattern in the expansion of parameter name by string repl. In the following expressions. the largest matching pattern is preferred. even at the start. If word is omitted. foo=" twinkle twinkle little star" sub=" t∗ rep=" spy" ∗e" print ${foo//${˜sub}/$rep} print ${(S)foo//${˜sub}/$rep} Here. B. otherwise substitute nothing. or $opat is instead substituted as ${˜opat}. ${name%pattern} ${name%%pattern} If the pattern matches the end of the value of name. not whether its value is null. or ‘%’.0. If name is an array the matching array elements are removed (use the ‘(M)’ flag to remove the non–matched elements). To quote the final ‘/’ in other cases it should be preceded by two backslashes (i. print word and exit from the shell. Note also that the ‘#’ and ‘%’ are not active if they occur inside a substituted parameter. Note also the effect of the I and S parameter expansion flags below. in the second form. then a standard message is printed. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. in which case the pattern must match at the start of the string. in which case the final ‘/’ may also be omitted. E and N are not useful. so that expressions like ${name/$opat/$npat} will work. then substitute the empty string. If the colon is omitted from one of the above expressions containing a colon.. the flags M. while in the second ∗e case. just substitute the value of name. otherwise. in which case the match will only succeed if it matches the entire word. when name is an array and the substitution is not quoted. a quoted backslash). just substitute the value of name. In the first form. then the shell only checks whether name is set. In the first form. ${name#pattern} ${name##pattern} If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of name. then substitute the value of name with the matched portion deleted. The first form replaces just the first occurrence. otherwise.

In cases where repeating a flag is meaningful. full prompt expansion is done on the resulting words. The following flags are supported: % Expand all % escapes in the resulting words in the same way as in in prompts (see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’).::=. where the parameter xx is set to (a b c)..4 Last change: October 26.. substitute the length in characters of the result instead of the result itself. and is processed as described in the section ‘Brace Expansion’ below. turn it ’ off. create an associative array parameter. Each name or nested ${. substitute the number of elements of the result.. one surrounding the whole expression. ${∧ var} becomes {$var[1].. If word splitting is also in effect the $var[N] may themselves be split into different list elements. When this option is set. This affects the result of array assignments with the A flag. in which case only the part inside is treated as quoted. Inc. If this flag is repeated (as in ‘AA’). ‘(q%q%q)’ means the same thing as the more readable ‘(%%qqq)’.}’.. Note that splitting is applied to word in the assignment forms of spec before the assignment to name is performed. see the examples below. the word part must be converted to an @ A zsh 4... if the ‘∧ is doubled. such as in filename expansion and filename generation and pattern–matching contexts like the right hand side of the ‘=’ and ‘!=’ operators in conditions.) is often useful in combination with the flags described next. E.. Note that ‘∧ ‘=’. ‘" ${(@)foo}" ’ is equivalent to ‘" ${foo[@]}" ’ and ‘" ${(@)foo[1. The name part may be a subscripted range for ordinary arrays. array expansions of the form foo${xx}bar.. If spec is an array expression. in " ${(@f)" $(foo)" }" . are substituted with ‘fooabar foobbar foocbar’ instead of the default ‘fooa b cbar’. 2001 6 . for example. Create an array parameter with ‘${..} in a parameter expansion may also be followed by a subscript expression as described in Array Parameters in zshparam(1).. but regardless of whether the parameter appears in double quotes.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ${˜spec} Turn on the GLOB_SUBST option for the evaluation of spec. Thus it is possible to perform nested operations: ${${foo#head}%tail} substitutes the value of $foo with both ‘head’ and ‘tail’ deleted.}.. depending on the setting of the PROMPT_PERCENT... each such expansion is converted into the equivalent list for brace expansion.) type command substitution is used in place of name above. which still applies within each array element.. there are two sets of quotes.. If this flag is given twice. Parameter Expansion Flags If the opening brace is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. If a ${.. array elements are put into separate words. turn it off.}’ or ‘${. Internally. This is distinct from field splitting by the the f. the string resulting from the expansion will be interpreted as a pattern anywhere that is possible.. the other (redundant) surrounding the $(foo) as before. ${∧ spec} Turn on the RC_EXPAND_PARAM option for the evaluation of spec. below.$var[2]. E. PROMPT_SUBST and PROMPT_BANG options... Note that double quotes may appear around nested expressions. if the ‘˜’ is doubled.:=. but the flag ‘(f)’ (see below) is applied using the rules for unquoted expansions. for example... Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) If spec is one of the above substitutions. Assignment is made before sorting or padding. ‘${. ’. The form with $(. This is done by default in most other shells. and ‘˜’. for example.g. if the ‘=’ is doubled.g. This forces parameter expansions to be split into separate words before substitution. Note further that quotes are themselves nested in this context..0. ${=spec} Perform word splitting using the rules for SH_WORD_SPLIT during the evaluation of spec.2]}" ’ is the same as ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" ’. ${(f)" $(foo)" } quotes the result of $(foo).} type parameter expression or a $(.=. the string up to the matching closing parenthesis will be taken as a list of flags...}’. In double quotes. must appear to the left of ‘#’ when these forms are combined. it is expanded first and the result is used as if it were the value of name. the repetitions need not be consecutive. When this option is set. s or z flags. turn it off. using IFS as a delimiter.

}’ to activate field splitting. it can be one of ‘scalar’. force indices or keys to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to values. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) array. Join the words of arrays together using newline as a separator. Sort the resulting words in ascending order. substitute the keys (element names) rather than the values of the elements. Such expansions can be nested but too deep recursion may have unpredictable effects. the words are quoted in double quotes. if you have ‘foo=bar’ and ‘bar=baz’. c C e f F i k With ${#name}. Used with subscripts (including ordinary arrays). Use a string describing the type of the parameter where the value of the parameter would usually appear. not to words that result from field splitting. Perform parameter expansion. and ${(P)$(echo bar)} will be expanded to ‘baz’. If it is given four times. This is a shorthand for ‘ps:\n:’. ‘float’ or ‘association’. If used with a nested parameter or command substitution. ${(P)${foo}}. This string consists of keywords separated by hyphens (‘–’). If this flag is given twice. ‘integer’. For example. The other keywords describe the type in more detail: local left for local parameters for left justified parameters L o O P q Q t right_blanks for right justified parameters with leading blanks right_zeros for right justified parameters with leading zeros lower upper for parameters whose value is converted to all lower case when it is expanded for parameters whose value is converted to all upper case when it is expanded readonly for readonly parameters tag for tagged parameters export for exported parameters unique for arrays which keep only the first occurrence of duplicated values zsh 4. sort case–independently. Convert all letters in the result to lower case. the strings ${(P)foo}. However. The first keyword in the string describes the main type. Quote the resulting words with backslashes. the result of that will be taken as a parameter name in the same way. whose value will be used where appropriate. this flag may not be combined with subscript ranges.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. Sort the resulting words in descending order. Split the result of the expansion to lines. Inc. command substitution and arithmetic expansion on the result. This forces the value of the parameter name to be interpreted as a further parameter name. With o or O. This is a shorthand for ‘pj:\n:’. count the total number of characters in an array. the words are quoted in single quotes preceded by a $. ‘array’. the resulting words are quoted in single quotes and if it is given three times.. Capitalize the resulting words. as if the elements were concatenated with spaces between them. 2001 7 . when creating an associative array. If name refers to an associative array. for example by using ‘${(AA)=name=. ‘Words’ in this case refers to sequences of alphanumeric characters separated by non–alphanumerics.0.4 Last change: October 26. Remove one level of quotes from the resulting words.

Without the flag they are silently ignored./. Split the result of the expansion into words using shell parsing to find the words.. or the matching pairs ‘(.. Each word will be truncated if required and placed in a field expr characters wide.. The following flags are meaningful with the ${. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) hide U v for parameters with the ‘hide’ flag special for special parameters defined by the shell Convert all letters in the result to upper case...)’. that the shortest instead of the longest match should be replaced. force values to be substituted even if the subscript form refers to indices or keys./.} (only the exprth match is substituted) or ${. ‘[. a matched pair of delimiters must surround each argument.#. The following flags (except p) are followed by one or more arguments as shown. or ‘<. The exprth match is counted such that there is either one or zero matches from each starting position in the string.%%.... The S and I flags may also be used with the ${.} and ${.. the s flag may be used to set a word delimiter. Inc. but pad the words on the right and insert string2 on the right.. Similar to w with the difference that empty words between repeated delimiters are also counted.} forms.. this string is inserted once directly to the left of each word. Note that this occurs before field splitting by the SH_WORD_SPLIT option. So to access single words in the result. may be used in place of a colon as delimiters.]’. Used with k. Note that this is done very late.... although for global substitution matches overlapping previous replacements are ignored.} forms.... before padding. 2001 8 . With this flag parsing errors occurring with the Q and e flags or the pattern matching forms such as ‘${name#pattern}’ are reported. as for the ‘(s)’ flag. This only applies when searching for substrings.. i..%. substitute (as two consecutive words) both the key and the value of each associative array element. the starting position for the match moves zsh 4. this differs from the treatment of two or more characters in the IFS parameter...4 Last change: October 26. one has to use nested expansions as in ‘${${(z)foo}[2]}’. i. With the ${.. l:expr::string1::string2: Pad the resulting words on the left.. With ${#name}. with # start from the beginning and with % start from the end of the string. s:string: Force field splitting (see the option SH_WORD_SPLIT) at the separator string. Make any special characters in the resulting words visible... S Search substrings as well as beginnings or ends.} or ${. or with ${. Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in string arguments to any of the flags described below. to remove the quotes in the resulting words one would do: ‘${(Q)${(z)foo}}’..//.//.. ‘{. specifies non–greedy matching. V w W X z I:expr: Search the exprth match (where expr evaluates to a number). either with the S flag. Likewise. If both string1 and string2 are given... The space to the left will be filled with string1 (concatenated as often as needed) or spaces if string1 is not given.. The default is to take the first match.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.e.} (all matches from the exprth on are substituted).e...}. Used with subscripts.../.. but note that when a flag takes more than one argument.>’.%...}’. count words in arrays or strings..} or ${. taking into account any quoting in the value... r:expr::string1::string2: As l. Any character..0. With substitution via ${. p j:string: Join the words of arrays together using string as a separator....} forms. Note that a string of two or more characters means all must all match in sequence.

5. 3. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) backwards from the end as the index increases. Nested Substitution If multiple nested ${. the nested substitution will return either a scalar or an array as determined by the flags. 2001 9 . by default a space. Thus if var is an array.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. which treats the value so far as a parameter name and replaces it with the corresponding value. ‘witch’ and ‘wich’. whether the whole substitution is in double quotes. this assumes that braces are present around the substitution. 1. Note that the Zsh Development Group accepts no responsibility for any brain damage which may occur during the reading of the following rules. Here is a summary of the rules for substitution.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns a scalar because of the quotes). possibly adjusted for quoting. Hence with the string which switch is the right switch for Ipswich? substitutions of the form ${(SI:N:)string#w∗ ∗ch} as N increases from 1 will match and remove ‘which’. the form using ‘##’ will match and remove ‘which switch is the right switch for Ipswich’. but not to " ${${foo[2. Include the matched portion in the result. Include the index of the end of the match in the result. At each level.. but in reverse order. the words of the value are joined with the first character of the parameter $IFS. 2. subsequent subscripts apply to the scalar or array value yielded by the previous subscript. The flags are not propagated up to enclosing substitutions.. Some particular examples are given below. that is used for joining instead of $IFS. All the following steps take place where applicable at all levels of substitution. Note that ${foo[2. but ${var[2. ‘witch’. unless the ‘(P)’ flag is present. of a nested substitution) are evaluated at this point.4]}[2]}" (the nested substitution returns an array in both cases). and what flags are supplied to the current level of substitution. based on whether the value is an array or a scalar. ${.. Nested Subscripting Any remaining subscripts (i. Note that. such as ${var[3]}. If the (j) flag is present. the substitution takes account of whether the current value is a scalar or an array. zsh 4. The form using ‘%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘#’.} forms are present.e. multiple subscripts can appear. while with the other forms it moves forward from the start. the flags and any subscripts apply directly to the value of the nested substitution. and no (@) flag is present at the current level. B E M N R Rules Include the index of the beginning of the match in the result. between each word (single word arrays are not modified). and the substitution appears in double quotes. and the form using ‘%%’ will remove the same matches as for ‘##’ in reverse order. Inc.4][2]} is the entire third word (the second word of the range of words two through four of the original array). ${var[1][2]} is the second character of the first word. Double–Quoted Joining If the value after this process is an array. 4.. for example. Subscripts are evaluated left to right. Parameter Name Replacement The effect of any (P) flag. just as if the nested substitution were the outermost.}. the expansion ${${foo}} behaves exactly the same as ${foo}. Include the length of the match in the result.4]}[2]} and also to " ${${(@)foo[2. Parameter Subscripting If the value is a raw parameter reference with a subscript. ‘witch is the right switch for Ipswich’. As with 2. ‘witch for Ipswich’ and ‘wich’.0. Include the unmatched portion in the result (the Rest).e.4 Last change: October 26. Any number of subscripts may appear. i.4][2]} is thus equivalent to ${${foo[2.. substitution is performed from the inside outwards. is applied. the effect of subscripting is applied directly to the parameter.

which has no array (@) flag. Note this step. ‘/’ (possibly doubled) or by a set of modifiers of the form :. 7. which divides the file up by words.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.. or (for = with neither of the two flags present) any of the characters in $IFS.. but the word is not quoted and the option SH_WORD_SPLIT is set. Compare this with the effect of $(<file) alone. which makes the entire content of the file a single string. ‘b’ and ‘1’. ‘1’. So in ‘${(P)${(f)lines}}’ the value of ${lines} is split at newlines. or no ‘(j)’ flag is present but the string is to be split as given by rules 8. For example. all words are rejoined with the first character of IFS between. Note that the ‘(F)’ flag implicitly supplies a string for joining in this manner. suppose $foo contains the array ‘(ax1 bx1)’. Forced Splitting If one of the ‘(s)’.. Semantic Joining In contexts where expansion semantics requires a single word to result. Shell Word Splitting If no ‘(s)’. 10. so that (despite the ‘(@)’ flag) the subscript picks the first character. or the same inside double quotes. If a single word is not required. As an example of the rules for word splitting and joining. or 9. The following illustrates the rules for nested parameter expansions.fill. " ${${(@)foo}[1]}" This produces the result ‘bar’.. Suppose that $foo contains the array (bar baz): " ${(@)${foo}[1]}" This produces the result b. ‘(f)’ or ‘=’ was given.[1]}" detects that this is an array and picks the first word. too. Modifiers Any modifiers. the word is split on occurrences of any of the characters in $IFS. produces a single word result " bar baz" . forcing it to be re–examined for new parameter substitutions. takes place at all levels of a nested substitution.. First.)’ or ‘(r. Re–Evaluation Any ‘(e)’ flag is applied to the value. The outer substitution " ${. are applied to the words of the value at this level. 12. ‘(f)’ or ‘(z)’ flags are present. and joining did not take place at step 4.. as specified by a trailing ‘#’.fill. 9. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) 6.)’ flags is applied. 2001 10 . 8. Forced Joining If the ‘(j)’ flag is present. or the ‘=’ specifier was present (e. zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26. the inner substitution " ${(@)foo}" produces the array ‘(bar baz)’. the inner substitution " ${foo}" . but also for command and arithmetic substitutions.0. ‘%’. Examples The flag f is useful to split a double–quoted substitution line by line. Padding Any padding of the value by the ‘(l. The outer substitution " ${(@).g. Then ${(s/x/)foo} produces the words ‘a’. ${=var}).[1]}" detects that this is a scalar. ‘1 b’ and ‘1’. any words in the value are joined together using the given string or the first character of $IFS if none. but then must be joined again before the P flag can be applied. ${(f)" $(<file)" } substitutes the contents of file divided so that each line is an element of the resulting array.. (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’).. 11. this rule is skipped. In this case. ${(j/x/s/x/)foo} produces ‘a’. This is similar to the simple case " ${foo[1]}" . the word is split on occurrences of the specified string.

‘’.)’. unless the BRACE_CCL option is set.bar} is split into two separate words ∗ ∗/foo and ∗ ∗/bar before filename generation takes place. A ‘˜’ followed by a ‘+’ or a ‘–’ is replaced by the value of $PWD or $OLDPWD. the output is broken into words using the IFS parameter. Note that brace expansion is not part of filename generation (globbing). with any trailing newlines deleted. all the resulting numbers will be padded with leading zeroes to that minimum width. this is to be contrasted with ∗ ∗/(foobar). or the end of the word if there is no ‘/’. and replaced by the value of that named directory if found.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. An expression of the form ‘{n1. It is also possible to define directory names using the –d option to the hash builtin. where n1 and n2 are integers. Named directories are typically home directories for users on the system. or quoted with grave accents. The final empty string will then be elided. is expanded to every number between n1 and n2 inclusive. COMMAND SUBSTITUTION A command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign. BRACE EXPANSION A string of the form ‘foo{xx. If either number begins with a zero. See the section ‘Arithmetic Evaluation’. the output is eligible for filename generation. This construct may be nested. 2001 11 . If the numbers are in decreasing order the resulting sequence will also be in decreasing order. it is left unchanged. command substitution and arithmetic expansion before it is evaluated. like ‘‘. in the manner of a search set. In that case.0.4 Last change: October 26. and ‘˜+1’ is the top of the stack. as it is not in double quotes.. like ‘$(.. The PUSHD_MINUS option exchanges the effects of ‘˜+’ and ‘˜–’ where they are followed by a number.yy. As substitution occurs before either joining or splitting. ‘˜–’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory that many positions from the bottom of the stack. an expression such as ∗ ∗/{foo. Left–to–right order is preserved. note that this is liable to produce a ‘no match’ error if either of the two expressions does not match. and then split to give ‘a’. but ‘∧ or ‘!’ as the first character is ’ treated normally. then the ‘˜’ and the checked portion are replaced with the appropriate substitute value.n2}’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) ${(s/x/)foo%%1∗ ∗} produces ‘a’ and ‘ b’ (note the extra space). the operation first generates the modified array (ax bx). If it does. zsh 4.zz}bar’ is expanded to the individual words ‘fooxxbar’. which is joined to give " ax bx" .. ‘˜0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. it is expanded to a sorted list of the individual characters between the braces. exp is subjected to parameter expansion. ARITHMETIC EXPANSION A string of the form ‘$[exp]’ or ‘$((exp))’ is substituted with the value of the arithmetic expression exp. A ‘˜’ followed by anything not already covered is looked up as a named directory. A ‘˜’ by itself is replaced by the value of $HOME. respectively. which is treated as a single pattern but otherwise has similar effects. If so. ‘˜+’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. FILENAME EXPANSION Each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ‘˜’. ‘fooyybar’ and ‘foozzbar’. if the option GLOB_SUBST is set. then the word up to a ‘/’. is replaced with its standard output. is checked to see if it can be substituted in one of the ways described here. In either case. ‘˜+0’ is equivalent to ‘˜+’. A ‘˜’ followed by a number is replaced by the directory at that position in the directory stack. They may also be defined if the text after the ‘˜’ is the name of a string shell parameter whose value begins with a ‘/’. The substitution ‘$(cat foo)’ may be replaced by the equivalent but faster ‘$(<foo)’. If the substitution is not enclosed in double quotes. ‘ b’ and ‘’. If a brace expression matches none of the above forms. Inc.. ‘˜–0’ is the bottom of the stack. ‘–’ is treated specially as in a search set. In particular. and ‘˜1’ is the top of the stack. Commas may be quoted in order to include them literally in a word..

Glob Operators ∗ ? Matches any string. All such behaviour can be disabled by quoting the ‘˜’. otherwise they are not treated specially by the shell. The parameters $PWD and $OLDPWD are never abbreviated in this fashion.]. ‘[:alpha:]’ alphabetic. it is regarded as ∗’. ‘[:xdigit:]’ hexadecimal digit. for instance). These use the macros provided by the operating system to test for the given character combinations. inclusive..] form is more efficient.g. Either of the numbers may be omitted to make the range open–ended. the word is replaced by the full pathname of the command. There are also several named classes of characters. or the whole expression (but not simply the colon).. the ‘=’.] [!.. when the shell prints a path. any unquoted shell argument in the form ‘identifier=expression’ becomes eligible for file expansion as described in the previous paragraph. ‘[:digit:]’ decimal digit. a ‘. ‘[:cntrl:]’ control character... The shortest way of referring to the directory is used. ‘[:lower:]’ lowercase letter. in the form ‘[:name:]’ with the following meanings: ‘[:alnum:]’ alphanumeric.’ must be matched explicitly at the beginning of a pattern or after a ‘/’. If a command exists by that name. Matches any character.. so to test for a single alphanumeric character you need ‘[[:alnum:]]’. or unless the NOMATCH option is unset. ‘[:space:]’ whitespace character. the ‘/’ and ‘.’ are not treated specially. Matches any of the enclosed characters. If an alias exists by that name. so that a ‘˜’ or an ‘=’ following a ‘:’ is eligible for expansion. ‘[:print:]’ printable character. except that it matches any character which is not in the given set.] <[x]–[y]> Matches any number in the range x to y. 2001 12 . e. [. including the null string. Filename expansion is performed on the right hand side of a parameter assignment. ‘[’. hence ‘<–>’ matches any number. in which case the word is left unchanged. ‘[:upper:]’ uppercase letter. zsh 4. If so.. To match individual digits. or ‘?’.] [∧ .’. A ‘–’ or ‘]’ may be matched by including it as the first character in the list. with ties broken in favour of using a named directory. ’ The word is replaced with a list of sorted filenames that match the pattern. Named character sets can be used alongside other types. Like [.. except when the directory is / itself. the character ‘/’ must be matched explicitly. Note that the square brackets are additional to those enclosing the whole set of characters. the shell gives an error message.. including any modifications due to local language settings: see ctype(3).. ‘[:punct:]’ printable character neither alphanumeric nor whitespace. ‘’. unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set. ‘[[:alpha:]0–9]’. also. If the option MAGIC_EQUAL_SUBST is set. the EQUALS option is also respected. unless the NULL_GLOB option is set.’ or ‘. including those appearing after commands of the typeset family. ‘[:graph:]’ printable character except whitespace. If the EXTENDED_GLOB option is set.0. Ranges of characters can be specified by separating two characters by a ‘–’. a pattern for filename generation. FILENAME GENERATION If a word contains an unquoted instance of one of the characters ‘∗ ‘(’. If no matching pattern is found. then the prefix portion is replaced with a ‘˜’ followed by the name of the directory. ‘<’. the path is checked to see if it has a named directory as its prefix.4 Last change: October 26. If a word begins with an unquoted ‘=’ and the EQUALS option is set. In this case. In other instances of pattern matching. Inc. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) In certain circumstances (in prompts. the word is replaced with the text of the alias. the remainder of the word is taken as the name of a command or alias.. the [. unless the GLOB option is unset. in which case the word is deleted. the right hand side will be treated as a colon–separated list in the manner of the PATH parameter. ‘[:blank:]’ space or tab. Quoting the first ‘=’ also inhibits this.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the ‘∧ and ‘#’ characters also denote a pattern. No filename generation pattern matches the files ‘. In filename generation.

a ‘/’ is not special. This is used for grouping. a ‘/’ used as a directory separator may not appear inside parentheses. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. (Like ‘(. though the KSH_GLOB option is still available. The ‘’ character must be within parentheses. in patterns used in other contexts than filename generation (for example. @(. simply treated from left to right as part of a string. (Like ‘(∧ (. This is a trap for the unwary.)#’. Expressions such as ‘<0–9>[∧ [:digit:]]∗ can be used instead.) Matches anything except the pattern x.. foo/any/anyother/bar.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. and ‘/’ is also not special after a ‘˜’ appearing outside parentheses in a filename pattern. ‘∗ ‘+’. It is an error for an unquoted ‘#’ to follow something which cannot be repeated. ‘12#’ is equivalent to ‘1(2#)’. so ‘∗ ∗˜foo/bar’ will search ∗/∗ for all files in all directories in ‘. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set.... x˜y x# x## ksh–like Glob Operators If the KSH_GLOB option is set. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set. in case statements and tests within ‘[[.>’. (Like ‘(. or a parenthesised expression). ∗’ (....) Match the pattern in the parentheses.) ?(. ‘∗ ‘+’.) Match any number of occurrences. but is in fact an inevit∗’ able consequence of the rule that the longest possible match always succeeds. to avoid interpretation as a pipeline. since the ‘<0–9>’ will match the first digit.) Match anything that matches the pattern x but does not match y. ‘/’ and ‘.) Matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern x. <0–9>∗ will ∗ actually match any number whatsoever at the start of the string. then a ‘@’... but the ‘(’ must be. for example.’ are not treated specially the way they usually are in globbing.) Match at least one occurrence. xy ∧ x Matches either x or y.) Match zero or one occurrence.. ‘?’ ∗’.))’.. Multiple patterns can be excluded by ‘foo˜bar˜baz’..)’..’ and then exclude ‘foo/bar’ if there was such a match. If the KSH_GLOB option is set.. zsh 4. (Like ‘(. There is one exception: a group of the form (pat/)# appearing as a complete path segment can match a sequence of directories.) Match anything but the expression in parentheses. ‘?’. while a ‘’ must do so. (Like ‘(. Note that grouping cannot extend over multiple directories: it is an error to have a ‘/’ within a group (this only applies for patterns used in filename generation). For example.]’..]]’).’ except ‘.) Precedence The precedence of the operators given above is (highest) ‘∧ ‘/’. ‘’ (lowest).. as detailed below. ‘12##’ is equivalent to ‘1(2##)’. foo/any/bar. ‘!(foo)#’ is invalid and must be replaced by ‘∗ ∗(!(foo))’). ‘[.. rather than ‘(12)##’.e. This character need not be unquoted to have special effects.. In the exclusion pattern (y). foo/(a∗ ∗/)#bar matches foo/bar. the effects of parentheses can be modified by a preceding ‘@’.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Be careful when using other wildcards adjacent to patterns of this form. This operator has high precedence.. ‘˜’. This has a higher precedence than ‘/’.. the remaining operators are ’. option SH_GLOB prevents bare parentheses from being used in this way. rather than ‘(12)#’.) ∗ ∗(.. (Requires EXTENDED_GLOB to be set... The ∗’.) +(.. a pattern already followed by ‘##’. This operator has lower precedence than any other.)’. this includes an empty string. This operator has high precedence. No more than two active ‘#’ characters may appear together. This has lower precedence than any operator except ‘’. As mentioned above. 2001 13 . ‘?’ or ‘!’ immediately preceding the ‘(’ is treated specially..) !(.) Matches the enclosed pattern.) Matches one or more occurrences of the pattern x.)##’.. ‘<. so ‘∧ foo/bar’ will search directories in ‘..4 Last change: October 26. and so on. or ‘!’.0. with ‘#’ and ‘##’ applying to the shortest possible preceding unit (i. or parentheses when part of a KSH_GLOB pattern (for example. a character. and the ‘∗ will match any others./foo’ for a file named ‘bar’.

Activate backreferences for parenthesised groups in the pattern. B m Deactivate backreferences. and so on. Backreferences work with all forms of pattern matching other than filename generation. When a pattern with a set of active parentheses is matched. this is similar to backreferencing and does not work in filename generation.e. only the data for the last match remains available. Pattern matching with backreferences is slightly slower than without.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. upper case characters in the pattern still only match upper case characters. using the value of $match[1] rather than $match[2]. If some of the backreferences fail to match – – – which happens if they are in an alternate branch which fails to match. such as ${array#pattern}. this does not work in filename generation. only the final ‘b’ is stored in match[1]. in ‘[[ abab = (#b)([ab])# ]]’. There are special rules for parentheses followed by ‘#’ or ‘##’. such as ${param//pat/repl}. Lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. Inc. so that elements of $mend and $mbegin may be used in subscripts. If the match fails none of the parameters is altered. then ∗)’ ∗ print ${foo[$mbegin[1]. The indices use the same convention as does parameter substitution. only the first nine active parentheses can be referenced. Set references to the match data for the entire string matched. the strings matched by the groups are stored in the array $match. negating the effect of the b flag from that point on. respectively. Sets of globbing flags are not considered parenthesised groups. Thus extra parentheses may be necessary to match the complete segment: for example.$mend[1]]} fi prints ‘string with a’. These arrays are not otherwise special to the shell. they require the EXTENDED_GLOB option. The numbering of backreferences strictly follows the order of the opening parentheses from left to right in the pattern string. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) Globbing Flags There are various flags which affect any text to their right up to the end of the enclosing group or to the end of the pattern. zsh 4. foo=" a string with a message" if [[ $foo = (aan)’ ’(#b)(∗ ’∗ ]]. the KSH_ARRAYS option is respected. as otherwise the string matched is obvious. not local to a group. although sets of parentheses may be nested. The flag must be in effect at the end of the pattern.4 Last change: October 26. The parameters $MATCH. 2001 14 . See the example for the m flag below. and the indices of the end in the array $mend. use ‘X((abcd)#)Y’ to match a whole string of either ‘ab’ or ‘cd’ between ‘X’ and ‘Y’.0. $MBEGIN and $MEND will be set to the string matched and to the indices of the beginning and end of the string. Note that the first parenthesis is before the (#b) and does not create a backreference. In the case of global replacements this may still be useful. or if they are followed by # and matched zero times – – – then the matched string is set to the empty string. Case sensitive: locally negates the effect of i or l from that point on. or a global substitution. so in some cases it may be necessary to initialise them beforehand. This is most useful in parameter substitutions. i. All take the form (#X) where X may have one of the following forms: i l I b Case insensitive: upper or lower case characters in the pattern match upper or lower case characters. the indices of the beginning of the matched parentheses in the array $mbegin. and the start and end indices are set to –1. but note that when performing matches on an entire array. with the first element of each array corresponding to the first parenthesised group. For example. Only the last match of the parenthesis is remembered: for example.

. the pattern (#a3)abcd matches dcba. There are other ways of performing many operations of this type. there is no speed penalty for using match references. so that a/bc is two errors from ab/c (the slash cannot be transposed with another character). Unlike backreferences. the test string fooxx can be matched by the pattern (#i)FOOXX. in/test/middle. Different characters. e Deactivate the m flag.0. the shell keeps a count of the errors found. When using the ksh syntax for grouping both KSH_GLOB and EXTENDED_GLOB must be set and the left parenthesis should be preceded by @. Other characters which must match exactly are initial dots in filenames (unless the GLOB_DOTS option is set).e. all vowels) into uppercase. for example ‘${array/(#s)A∗ ∗Z(#e)}’ will remove only elements of an array which match the complete pattern ‘A∗ ∗Z’.. They are useful for matching path segments in patterns other than those in filename generation (where path segments are in any case treated separately).e. Transposition of characters. Finally. (#i)FOO(#I)XX or ((#i)FOOX)X. Four types of error are recognised: 1. but not strings of length two. 3. Note also that the flags do not affect letters inside [. arr=(veldt jynx grimps waqf zho buck) print ${arr//(#m)[aeiou]/${(U)MATCH}} forces all the matches (i. For example. by applying rule 4 to an empty part of the pattern. so that (abcd)ef is two errors from aebf. printing ‘vEldt jynx grImps wAqf zhO bUck’. A character missing in the target string. Thus. errors are counted separately for non–contiguous strings in the pattern. hence no references to match data will be created. Approximate matching: num errors are allowed in the string matched by the pattern.. The string (#ia2)readme specifies case–insensitive matching of readme with up to two errors. 2001 15 . Inc. as with stove and strove. as with the pattern road and target string rod. these have only a local effect. Non–literal parts of the pattern must match exactly. ‘∗ ∗((#s)/)test((#e)/)∗ matches a path segment ‘test’ in any of the following strings: test. 4. with the errors occurring by using the first rule twice and the second once. they correspond to ‘∧ and ‘$’ in standard reg’ ular expressions. Unlike the other flags.. Note that assertions of the form ‘(∧ (#s))’ also work. other than the extra substitutions required for the replacement strings in cases such as the example shown. An extra character appearing in the target string. at/end/test. you need to use ‘(" " ˜(#s))’ to match a zero–length portion of the string not at the start. including characters in character ranges: hence (#a1)??? matches strings of length four. so that a pattern of the form (#i)/foo/bar/. grouping the string as [d][cb][a] and [a][bc][d]. The ‘(#s)’ flag succeeds only at the start of the test string. is potentially slow. in other words (#i)[a–z] still matches only lowercase letters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. i. but not by (#l)FOOXX. and the ‘(#e)’ flag succeeds only at the end of the test string. note that when examining whole paths case–insensitively every directory must be searched for all files which match. and all slashes in filenames. The rules for this are described in the next subsection. as in fooxbar and fooybar. Another use is in parameter substitution. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. and each must appear on its own: ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ are the only valid forms. since all the ? must match. although this actually means ‘anything except a zero–length portion at the start of the string’.] groups. as in banana and abnana.4 Last change: October 26. 2. however the combination of the substitution operations ‘/’ and ‘//’ with the ‘(#s)’ and ‘(#e)’ flags provides a single simple and memorable method. which cannot exceed the number specified in the (#anum) flags. Similarly. M anum s. Approximate Matching When matching approximately. For example. zsh 4. ∗’ test/at/start. match anywhere except at the start of the string.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) When using exclusion via the ˜ operator. Thus: ls (∗ ∗/)#bar or ls ∗ ∗/bar ∗∗ does a recursive directory search for files named ‘bar’ (potentially including the file ‘bar’ in the current directory). If the option BARE_GLOB_QUAL is set. ‘∗ ∗/’ is equivalent to ‘(∗ ∗∗ ∗/)#’. A glob subexpression that would normally be taken as glob qualifiers. ∗’ Glob Qualifiers Patterns used for filename generation may end in a list of qualifiers enclosed in parentheses. (#a1)cat((#a0)dog)fox allows one error in total. the alternative form ‘∗ ∗∗ does. @ = p ∗ % %b %c r directories plain files symbolic links sockets named pipes (FIFOs) executable plain files (0100) device files (character or block special) block special files character special files owner–readable files (0400) zsh 4. in that case. Note that the point at which an error is first found is the crucial one for establishing whether to use approximation. However. Thus. Neither of these can be combined with other forms of globbing within the same path segment. and this can be delimited by grouping. for example. there is only one overall error count. the maximum errors allowed may be altered locally. so that ‘(#a1)/foo/d/is/available/at/the/bar’ allows one error in any path segment. however. This form does not follow symbolic links. for example ‘(∧ can be forced to be treated as part of the glob pattern by doux)’. but is otherwise ∗∗ ∗/’ identical. where approximation is turned off. Recursive Globbing A pathname component of the form ‘(foo/)#’ matches a path consisting of zero or more directories matching the pattern foo. (#a1)abc(#a0)xyz will not match abcdxyz. For example. This is much less efficient than without the (#a1). bling the parentheses. A qualifier may be any one of the following: / . (#a1)README˜(#a1)READ_ME does not match any pattern of the form READ?ME as all such forms are now excluded. then a trailing set of parentheses containing no ‘’ or ‘(’ characters (or ‘˜’ if it is special) is taken as a set of glob qualifiers. The qualifiers specify which filenames that otherwise match the given pattern will be inserted in the argument list.4 Last change: October 26. 2001 16 . note that this therefore matches files in the current directory as well as subdirectories.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Entire path segments may be matched approximately. in this case producing ‘((∧ x))’. As a shorthand. since every directory in the path must be scanned for a possible approximate match. It is best to place the (#a1) after any path segments which are known to be correct. and the pattern (#a1)cat(#a0)dog(#a1)fox is equivalent. as the trailing READ_ME is matched without approximation. approximate matching is treated entirely separately for the excluded part and must be activated separately. however. the ‘∗ operators revert to their usual effect. Apart from exclusions. (#a1)README˜READ_ME matches READ. which may not occur in the dog section. because the error occurs at the ‘x’. Inc.ME but not READ_ME.

Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) w x A I E R W X s S t fspec owner–writable files (0200) owner–executable files (0100) group–readable files (0040) group–writable files (0020) group–executable files (0010) world–readable files (0004) world–writable files (0002) world–executable files (0001) setuid files (04000) setgid files (02000) files with the sticky bit (01000) files with access rights matching spec. those for the owner of the file are used. followed by a ‘=’. the behavior is the same as for ‘=’. In addition.0. and for which other group members have no rights. If a ‘u’ is given. If none of these characters is given. and ‘–’ again says how the modes are to be checked and have the same meaning as described for the first form above. while any other character matches itself. any other character matches itself) is taken as a list of comma–separated sub–specs. If set to an array. those of the group are checked. independent of the permissions for other users. ‘w’ for write access. ‘s’ for the setuid and setgid bits.4 Last change: October 26. or a ‘–’. followed by a list of any of the characters ‘r’. The first list of characters specify which access rights are to be checked. 2001 17 . The pattern ‘∗ ∗(f–100)’ gives all files for which the owner does not have execute permission. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. respectively. zsh 4. This spec may be a octal number optionally preceded by a ‘=’. or a ‘–’. Each sub–spec may be either a octal number as described above or a list of any of the characters ‘u’. ‘g’. at least the bits in the given number must be set in the file–modes. and with a ‘–’. ‘∗ ∗(f70?)’ gives the files for which the owner has read. if combined with a ‘=’. estring The string will be executed as shell code. ‘}’. the latter is inserted into the command line word by word. and ‘∗ ∗(f:gu+w. a ‘+’. a ‘+’. and ‘a’. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. and ‘>’ respectively. ‘x’ for the right to execute the file (or to search a directory). The second list of characters finally says which access rights are to be expected: ‘r’ for read access. or a octal digit. ‘o’. and the ‘a’ says to test all three groups. if a ‘g’ is given. which overrides the value of REPLY. ‘s’. Thus. ‘{’. the bits in the number must not be set. this is only useful in combination with ‘=’. If the qualifier ‘f’ is followed by any other character anything up to the next matching character (‘[’. and ‘>’. ‘+’.o–rx:)’ gives the files for which the owner and the other members of the group have at least write permission. ‘x’. Giving a ‘?’ instead of a octal digit anywhere in the number ensures that the corresponding bits in the file–modes are not checked. and ‘t’. the value given must match the file–modes exactly. Inc. The first character after the ‘e’ will be used as a separator and anything up to the next matching separator will be taken as the string. a ‘o’ means to test those of other users. the parameter may be altered to a string to be inserted into the list instead of the original filename. the parameter reply may be set to an array or a string. and execute permission. The ‘=’. The octal number describes the mode bits to be expected. with a ‘+’. write.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and for which other users don’t have read or execute permission. ‘{’. and ‘t’ for the sticky bit. Note that expansions must be quoted in the string to prevent them from being expanded before globbing is done. ‘w’. ‘[’. During the execution of string the filename currently being tested is available in the parameter REPLY. ‘}’. The filename will be included in the list if and only if the code returns a zero status (usually the status of the last command).

Oc zsh 4. and ‘<’ match ‘]’. or ‘p’ (‘P’) (e.e. ‘w’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) For example. or c they are sorted by the time of the last access. for the current pattern (overrides M) sets the NULL_GLOB option for the current pattern sets the GLOB_DOTS option for the current pattern sets the NUMERIC_GLOB_SORT option for the current pattern specifies how the names of the files should be sorted. Also note that the modifiers ∧and – are used. but sorts in descending order. if it is L they are sorted depending on the size (length) of the files.g. For instance. and c compare the age against the current time. ‘Lk–50’) the check is performed with kilobytes. ‘m’ (‘M’). than the character after the ‘u’ will be used as a separator and the string between it and the next matching separator (‘[’. and ‘>’ respectively. weeks. c[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. If this flag is directly followed by a ‘k’ (‘K’). or blocks (of 512 bytes) instead. if l they are sorted by the number of links. hours. Files accessed within the last n days are selected using a negative value for n (–n). greater than ct (+). m. Note the quotation marks. so ‘∗ –oL)’ gives a list of all files sorted by file size in descending order. modification. analogous to the LIST_TYPES option.2})’:)’ will cause the words ‘lonely1 lonely2’ to be inserted into the command line. 2001 18 . except that it uses the file inode change time.0. ‘echo ∗ ∗(ah–5)’ would echo files accessed within the last five hours. suppose a directory contains a single file ‘lonely’. hence the first name in the list is the youngest file. ‘}’. if d. ‘{’. if a. files in subdirectories appear before those in the current directory at each level of the search – – – this is best combined with other criteria. following ∗(∧ any symbolic links.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. respectively. for example ‘odon’ to sort on names for files within the same directory. any other character matches itself) will be taken as a user name. ‘m’ or ‘s’ (e.4 Last change: October 26. ‘∗ oc)’ is the same as ‘∗ ∗(∧ ∗(Oc)’ and ‘∗ Oc)’ is the same ∗(∧ as ‘∗ ∗(oc)’. like ‘o’. Note that a. minutes or seconds instead of days. or exactly n bytes in length. ‘Od’ puts files in the current directory before those in subdirectories at each level of the search. ∧ – M T N D n oc negates all qualifiers following it toggles between making the qualifiers work on symbolic links (the default) and the files they point to sets the MARK_DIRS option for the current pattern appends a trailing qualifier mark to the filenames.g. Optional unit specifiers ‘M’. If c is n they are sorted by name (the default). ‘h’. and the user ID of this user will be taken (e. Files accessed more than n days ago are selected by a positive n value (+n). or equal to ct gid a[Mwhms][–+]n files accessed exactly n days ago. except that it uses the file modification time.g. megabytes. ‘ah5’) cause the check to be performed with months (of 30 days). Inc. Then the expression ‘∗ ∗(e:’reply=(${REPLY}{1. L[+–]n files less than n bytes (–). ‘u:foo:’ or ‘u[foo]’ for user ‘foo’) like uid but with group IDs or names l[–+]ct files having a link count less than ct (–). m. ddev U G uid files on the device dev files owned by the effective user ID files owned by the effective group ID files owned by user ID id if it is a number. or inode change respectively. if not. i. m[Mwhms][–+]n like the file access qualifier. more than n bytes (+).

and ls ∗ ∗(W.∗ D∧ lists all files having a link count of one whose names contain a dot (but not those starting with a dot.)’ even if no actual filename generation is performed. parse.. ‘o’. however.h.h. and ls ∗ ∗(%W) lists all world–writable device files in the current directory. ignoring symlinks.. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHEXPN ( 1 ) [beg[. ‘D’. and echo /tmp/foo∗ ∗(u0∧ @:t) outputs the basename of all root–owned files beginning with the string ‘foo’ in /tmp. Note that each modifier must be introduced by a separate ‘:’. E. These are the qualifiers ‘M’. beg and the optional end may be mathematical expressions. zsh 4. 2001 19 . the remainder of the expression in parenthesis is interpreted as a modifier (see the section ‘Modifiers’ in the section ‘History Expansion’). affect all matches generated. independent of the sublist in which they are given.4 Last change: October 26. ‘T’.0.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.[ch](∧ l1) ∗. If a ‘:’ appears in a qualifier list. ‘n’.c. lex. ‘O’ and the subscripts given in brackets (‘[.c and parse. The whole list matches if at least one of the sublists matches (they are ‘or’ed.]’).3])’ gives a list of the names of the three largest files.X) lists all files in the current directory that are world–writable or world–executable. More than one of these lists can be combined. since GLOB_DOTS is explicitly switched off) except for lex.end]] specifies which of the matched filenames should be included in the returned list. Thus: ls ∗ ∗(–/) lists all directories and symbolic links that point to directories. The syntax is the same as for array subscripts. As in parameter subscripting they may be negative to make them count from the last match backward. Some qualifiers. ‘N’.g. and ls ∗ ∗˜(lexparse).: ‘∗ ∗(–OL[1. Inc. separated by commas.. the qualifiers in the sublists are ‘and’ed). Note also that the result after modification does not have to be an existing file. The name of any existing file can be followed by a modifier of the form ‘(:.

The value of a scalar or integer parameter may also be assigned by writing: name=value If the integer attribute. or an associative array (an unordered set of name–value pairs. it is replaced by a new array.. 2001 1 .))’. To refer to the value of a parameter. To declare the type of a parameter..) If no parameter name exists.. name=(value . A name may be any sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores. In the parameter lists that follow. See the section ‘Array Parameters’ for additional forms of assignment. value may be a scalar (a string). is set for name. Ordinary array parameters may also be explicitly declared with: typeset –a name Associative arrays must be declared before assignment. ‘$’. where exp is an arithmetic expression which will be subject to arithmetic expansion as if it were surrounded by ‘$((. The elements are numbered beginning with 1. ‘#’. use the typeset builtin. To create an empty array (including associative arrays).) Every key must have a value in this case. ‘<Z>’ indicates that the parameter does not exist when the shell initializes in sh or ksh emulation mode. an ordinary array parameter is created. The same subscripting syntax is used for associative arrays. Note that this assigns to the entire array. However. as bracketed expressions otherwise are not treated as subscripts. the parsing rules for arithmetic expressions still apply. Special parameters cannot have their type changed.4 Last change: October 26. indexed by name)... ARRAY PARAMETERS To assign an array value. an array (indexed numerically).User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NAME zshparam – zsh parameters DESCRIPTION A parameter has a name. See Parameter Expansion in zshexpn(1) for complete details. deleting any elements that do not appear in the list.. –i. and they stay special even if unset. the braced form is the only one that works. write ‘$name’ or ‘${name}’. which affects the way that certain zsh 4. except that no arithmetic expansion is applied to exp. If the parameter name exists and is a scalar. If the KSH_ARRAYS option is set. the list in an assignment is interpreted as alternating keys and values: set –A name key value . The ∗’.. A subscript of the form ‘[exp]’ selects the single element exp. Inc. a value. or to assign a scalar or integer value to a parameter..0. use one of: set –A name name=() Array Subscripts Individual elements of an array may be selected using a subscript. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case they are numbered from zero. ‘–’. and a number of attributes. ‘?’. write one of: set –A name value .. by using: typeset –A name When name refers to an associative array.. or ‘!’. name=(key value . the mark ‘<S>’ indicates that the parameter is special. the value is subject to arithmetic evaluation. thus ‘${foo[2]}’ is equivalent to ‘$foo[2]’. Subscripts may be used inside braces used to delimit a parameter name. an integer. or the single characters ‘∗ ‘@’.

(Associative arrays are unordered. the exp is taken as a pattern and the result is the first matching array element.–1]’ is the same as ‘$foo[∗ ∗]’. assign ‘()’ to that element.. this means the value of the key ‘0’.(r)f∗ are possible. use the unset command: unset " name[exp]" Subscript Flags If the opening bracket.3]’ and ‘$foo[(r)??. Subscripting may also be performed on non–array values. substring or word (if the parameter is an array. A subscript of the form ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluates to all elements of an array. and ‘$foo[1. Reverse subscripting: if this flag is given. Array Element Assignment A subscript may be used on the left side of an assignment like so: name[exp]=value In this form of assignment the element or range specified by exp is replaced by the expression on the right side. Thus ‘$foo[–3]’ is the third element from the end of the array foo.) If one of the subscripts evaluates to a negative number.exp2]’ selects all elements in the range exp1 to exp2. only single–element assignments may be made with typeset. only the value part of each pair is compared to the pattern. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) special characters must be protected from interpretation. then ‘echo $FOO[2. ∗]" whereas ‘" $foo[@]" ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1]" " $foo[2]" . so assigning a parenthesized list of values to an element or range changes the number of elements in the array. unless the KSH_ARRAYS option is set in which case it evaluates to ‘${name[0]}’ (for an associative array. zsh 4. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on words instead of characters. To delete an element of an ordinary array. if it is a scalar. the string up to the matching closing one is considered to be a list of flags. Note that quotes are necessary in this case to prevent the brackets from being interpreted as filename generation operators.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. A subscript of the form ‘[exp1. which may not exist even if there are values for other keys). This is a shorthand for ‘pws:\n:’. ‘" $foo[∗ ’ evaluates to ‘" $foo[1] $foo[2] . or the comma in a range. there is no difference between ∗]’ the two except when they appear within double quotes. The default word separator is whitespace. in any subscript expression is directly followed by an opening parenthesis. The noglob precommand modifier could be used instead. The flags currently understood are: w s:string: This gives the string that separates words (for use with the w flag). as in ‘name[(flags)exp]’. respectively). if FOO is set to ‘foobar’. An array (but not an associative array) may be created by assignment to a range or element. 2001 2 . inclusive. ‘[∗ or ‘[@]’ evaluate ∗]’ to all the values (not the keys..’. then the nth element from the end of the array is used. but see Subscript Flags below). shifting the other elements to accommodate the new values. p f r Recognize the same escape sequences as the print builtin in the string argument of a subsequent ‘s’ flag. For example. See Subscript Parsing below for details. in which case the subscripts specify a substring to be extracted. say –n..e.4 Last change: October 26. in no particular order. Inc.. Arrays do not nest." ’. and so do not support ranges. If the parameter subscripted is a scalar than this flag makes subscripting work on lines instead of characters. or if it is a scalar and the ‘w’ flag is given.5]’ prints ‘ooba’. (This is not supported for associative arrays.0. To delete an element of an associative array. The subscript used is the number of the matching element. When an array parameter is referenced as ‘$name’ (with no subscript) it evaluates to ‘$name[∗ ∗]’. For associative arrays. so that pairs of subscripts such as ‘$foo[(r)??. If ∗]’ the parameter is an associative array. i. with elements separated by newlines.) This syntax also works as an argument to the typeset command: typeset " name[exp]" =value The value may not be a parenthesized list in this case.

or character (if expr evaluates to n). ‘i’ or ‘I’. behaves like ‘r’. Like ‘i’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) and the result is that value. See Parameter Expansion Flags (zshexpn(1)) for additional ways to manipulate the results of array subscripting. However. etc. makes them give the nth or nth last match (if expr evaluates to n). If used on another type of parameter. ‘R’. any double–quotes that appear must occur in balanced pairs unless preceded by a backslash. Inc. subscript expressions may appear inside double–quoted strings or inside other subscript expressions (or both!). zsh 4. and subscript flags are introduced by balanced parenthesis. ‘R’. but gives the index of the last match. Reverse subscripts may be used for assigning to ordinary array elements. I k K n:expr: If combined with ‘r’. within a subscript expression (and unlike true double–quoting) the sequence ‘\[’ becomes ‘[’. for example. and therefore that the two characters ‘###BOT_TEXT###quot; ’ remain as two characters in the subscript (in true double–quoting. this flag can be used to force ∗ or @ to be interpreted as a single key rather than as a reference to all values. the pattern ‘[∧ (to match any character other []’ than an open bracket) should be written ‘[∧ in a reverse–subscript pattern.4 Last change: October 26. The basic rule to remember when writing a subscript expression is that all text between the opening ‘[’ and the closing ‘]’ is interpreted as if it were in double quotes (see zshmisc(1)). On other types of parameters this has the same effect as ‘R’. and backslashes that protect parentheses or braces are removed during parsing. note that ‘\[∧ \[]’ \[\]’ and even ‘\[∧ mean the same thing. This is because parameter expansions may be surrounded balanced braces. If used in a subscript on an associative array. ‘R’. b:expr: If combined with ‘r’. but gives the last match. and similarly ‘\]’ becomes ‘]’. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. For associative arrays. this may not be combined with a second argument. and the first matching key found is the result. flags). This makes it more difficult to write a subscript expression that contains an odd number of double–quote characters. 2001 3 . word. makes them begin at the nth or nth last element. so the rules have two important differences. This flag may be used on the left side of an assignment. because backslashes are always stripped when they appear before []’ brackets! The same rule applies to parentheses (‘(’ and ‘)’) and braces (‘{’ and ‘}’): they must appear either in balanced pairs or preceded by a backslash. This applies even in cases where a backslash is not normally required. because of the standard shell quoting rules. However. one can still write ‘###BOT_TEXT###quot; ’ (rather than ‘\###BOT_TEXT###quot; ’) for ‘" ’. this behaves like ‘r’. but not for assigning to associative arrays. ‘i’. On the left side of an assignment. Like ‘r’. However. This flag is ignored when the array is associative. For associative arrays. The first difference is that brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’) must appear as balanced pairs in a subscript expression unless they are preceded by a backslash (‘\’).0. and returns the value for the first key found where exp is matched by the key. ‘###BOT_TEXT###quot; ’ becomes ‘" ’). ‘i’ or ‘I’. Therefore. but it may also affect parameter substitutions that appear as part of an arithmetic expression in an ordinary subscript. or all possible matching keys in an associative array. but the reason for this difference is so that when a subscript expression appears inside true double–quotes. but gives the index of the match instead. gives all possible matches. e This flag has no effect and for ordinary arrays is retained for backward compatibility only. For associative arrays. R i Like ‘r’. this flag causes the keys to be interpreted as patterns. On an associative array this is like ‘k’ but returns all values where exp is matched by the keys. The second difference is that a double–quote (‘" ’) may appear as part of a subscript expression without being preceded by a backslash. the key part of each pair is compared to the pattern. Subscript Parsing This discussion applies mainly to associative array key strings and to patterns used for reverse subscripting (the ‘r’. unlike double quotes which normally cannot nest. This flag does not work on the left side of an assignment to an associative array element.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.

. the subscript is a plain string in that case. it is often easiest to assign the desired pattern to a parameter and then refer to that parameter in the subscript. a subscript expression. an array assignment of the form ‘n=(value . and also the section ‘Functions’.0. is equivalent to simply ‘$n’. brackets. as each expansion is encountered left to right in the outer expression. Note that the ‘k’ and ‘K’ flags are reverse subscripting for an ordinary array. The parameter n. Parameters appearing in the subscript expression are first expanded and then the complete expression is interpreted as a pattern. etc. from the innermost subscript outwards. (Parameters are dynamically scoped. they are removed only once. Inc. the sequences ‘\∗ and ‘\@’ remain as two characters when they appear in ∗’. and its alternative forms declare. A further complication arises from a way in which subscript parsing is not different from double quote parsing. or by direct assignment of the form ‘n=value’ where n is the number of the positional parameter to be changed. Positional parameters may be changed after the shell or function starts by using the set builtin. second. use the typeset builtin and an enclosing pair of double quotes. That is. parentheses. shell script. the ‘e’ flag must be used: ∗’ typeset –A aa aa[(e)∗ ∗]=star print $aa[(e)∗ ∗] A last detail must be considered when reverse subscripting is performed. not directly related to subscripting: the numeric names of positional parameters (described below) are parsed specially. it’s necessary to use four backslashes to cause a single backslash to match literally in the pattern. As in true double–quoting. zsh 4. use ‘${(q)name}’ (see zshexpn(1)) to quote the expanded value.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. but are not reverse subscripting for an associative array! (For an associative array. and has the effect of shifting all the values at positions greater than n by as many positions as necessary to accommodate the new values. see the section ‘Invocation’. are seen only when the complete expression is converted to a pattern. the expansion must be surrounded by braces. it is not necessary to use additional backslashes within the inner subscript expression. or the shell itself. To match the value of a parameter literally in a reverse subscript. Note that. positional parameters. This has two effects: first. etc. because then the backslashes. for example. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) To use an odd number of double quotes as a key in an assignment. backslashes are interpreted twice. In a reverse subscript. to use subscript syntax to extract a substring from a positional parameter. Therefore. because the positional parameters form an array. For complex patterns.) The typeset builtin.)’ is allowed. ‘${2[3. the keys in the array itself are interpreted as patterns by those flags. again use double quotes: typeset –A aa typeset " aa[one###BOT_TEXT###quot; two###BOT_TEXT###quot; three###BOT_TEXT###quot; quotes]" =QQQ print " $aa[one###BOT_TEXT###quot; two###BOT_TEXT###quot; three###BOT_TEXT###quot; quotes]" It is important to note that the quoting rules do not change when a parameter expansion with a subscript is nested inside another subscript expression.. local and readonly (but not export). thus ‘$argv[n]’.5]’ is the entire second parameter concatenated with the filename generation pattern ‘[3. to refer to the value of that key. parameters behave as if GLOB_SUBST were on (and it cannot be turned off). is the nth positional parameter. To use a literal ‘∗ or ‘@’ as an associative array key. POSITIONAL PARAMETERS The positional parameters provide access to the command–line arguments of a shell function.5]’. can be used to declare a parameter as being local to the innermost scope. by assigning to the argv array. integer.. This also creates (with empty values) any of the positions from 1 to n that do not already have values..) One final note. once when parsing the array subscript and again when parsing the pattern. LOCAL PARAMETERS Shell function executions delimit scopes for shell parameters.4 Last change: October 26. where n is a number. so for example ‘$2foo’ is equivalent to ‘${2}foo’. The parameters ∗ @ and argv are arrays containing all the ∗. Parameters are also expanded from the innermost subscript first.5]}’ evaluates to the third through fifth characters of the second positional parameter. rather than as a pattern. 2001 4 . but ‘$2[3.

status <S> <Z> Same as ?. $ <S> – <S> ∗ <S> The process ID of this shell. 2001 5 .) However. argv <S> <Z> Same as ∗ Assigning to argv changes the local positional parameters. as determined at run time. ? <S> 0 <S> The exit value returned by the last command. Special parameters may also be made local. This may have unexpected effects: there is no default value. causes it to be created in the outermost scope. An array containing the positional parameters. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) When a parameter is read or assigned to. they retain their special attributes unless either the existing or the newly–created parameter has the –h (hide) attribute.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. assigning to a non–existent parameter. this parameter is set in the environment of every command executed to the full pathname of the command. unset can be used to delete a parameter while it is still in scope. If you have sufficient privileges. CPUTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). the sequence ‘$#–. The following: typeset PATH=/new/directory:$PATH is valid for temporarily allowing the shell or programmes called from it to find the programs in /new/directory inside a function. In particular. Inc. ARGC <S> <Z> Same as #. Deleting argv with unset in any function deletes it everywhere. @ <S> Same as argv[@]. but argv is not itself a local ∗. The name used to invoke the current shell. Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set or setopt commands.0. Use ${#} to resolve ambiguities. parameter. Note that some confusion may occur with the syntax $#param which substitutes the length of param.v. it will be set to an empty value (or zero in the case of integers). Also. PARAMETERS SET BY THE SHELL The following parameters are automatically set by the shell: ! <S> # <S> The process ID of the last background command invoked. The number of positional parameters in decimal. pipestatus <S> <Z> An array containing the exit values returned by all commands in the last pipeline. (That is. although only the innermost positional parameter array is deleted (so ∗ and @ in other scopes are not affected).. the local parameter hides any less–local parameter. Local parameters disappear when their scope ends. so if there is no assignment at the point the variable is made local. q. any outer parameter of the same name remains hidden.4 Last change: October 26.’ in an arithmetic expression is interpreted as the length of the parameter –. and within a sourced script to the name of the script. even when argv is not set. Note that the restriction in older versions of zsh that local parameters were never exported has been removed. this is set temporarily within a shell function to the name of the function.. you may change the zsh 4. EGID <S> The effective group ID of the shell process. If the FUNCTION_ARGZERO option is set. _ <S> The last argument of the previous command. the innermost existing parameter of that name is used. or declaring a new parameter with export.

2001 6 . LOGNAME If the corresponding variable is not set in the environment of the shell. you may start a single command with a different effective group ID by ‘(EGID=gid. PPID <S> The process ID of the parent of the shell. not necessarily as displayed by the functions builtin. as determined at compile time. If you have sufficient privileges. PWD The present working directory. MACHTYPE The machine type (microprocessor class or machine model). sourced file. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) effective group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. you may start a single command with a different effective user ID by ‘(EUID=uid. OPTIND <S> The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. OLDPWD The previous working directory. whichever was started most recently. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). OSTYPE The operating system. then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment. This value is system dependent and is intended for debugging purposes. zsh 4. The random number generator can be seeded by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM. Note that in the case of shell functions the line number refers to the function as it appeared in the original definition.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. LINENO <S> The line number of the current line within the current script. RANDOM <S> A random integer from 0 to 32767. command)’ ERRNO <S> The value of errno (see errno(3)) as set by the most recently failed system call.0. command)’ EUID <S> The effective user ID of the shell process. If you have sufficient privileges. command)’ HOST The current hostname. SECONDS <S> The number of seconds since shell invocation. you may start a single command under a different group ID by ‘(GID=gid. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). or shell function being executed. newly generated each time this parameter is referenced. If this parameter is assigned a value. as determined at compile time. This is set when the shell initializes and whenever the directory changes. OPTARG <S> The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts command. GID <S> The real group ID of the shell process. you may change the group ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. you may change the effective user ID of the shell process by assigning to this parameter. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). This parameter is exported by default but this can be disabled using the typeset builtin. it is initialized to the login name corresponding to the current login session.4 Last change: October 26.

TTY The name of the tty associated with the shell. DIRSTACKSIZE The maximum size of the directory stack. The compensation mechanism can be turned off by setting the variable to zero. if any. its value is used as the argv[0] of external commands. Usually used in constructs like ‘ARGV0=emacs nethack’. Note that unsetting either of the pair will unset the other. for slow modems dialing into a communications server which is connected to a host via a fast link. Also (assuming sufficient privileges). COLUMNS <S> The number of columns for this terminal session. ZSH_NAME Expands to the basename of the command used to invoke this instance of zsh. the lowercase form is an array and the uppercase form is a scalar with the elements of the array joined together by colons. and recreating one of the pair will recreate the other. If you have sufficient privileges. it will be truncated zsh 4.4 Last change: October 26. Inc. command)’ USERNAME <S> The username corresponding to the real user ID of the shell process. BAUD The baud rate of the current connection. This may be profitably set to a lower value in some circumstances. The normal use for the colon–separated form is for exporting to the environment. These are similar to tied parameters created via ‘typeset –T’. Also (assuming sufficient privileges).g.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. you may start a single command under a different user ID by ‘(UID=uid. this variable would be set by default to the speed of the fast link. e. Used by the line editor update mechanism to compensate for a slow terminal by delaying updates until necessary. they retain their special properties when recreated. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. 2001 7 . such as path and PATH. UID <S> The real user ID of the shell process. If the stack gets larger than this. you may change the username (and also the user ID and group ID) of the shell by assigning to this parameter. cdpath <S> <Z> (CDPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories specifying the search path for the cd command. TTYIDLE <S> The idle time of the tty associated with the shell in seconds or –1 if there is no such tty. If you have sufficient privileges.0. ARGV0 If exported. and not the modem. In cases where there are two parameters with an upper– and lowercase form of the same name. signals An array containing the names of the signals. you may change the user ID of the shell by assigning to this parameter. you may start a single command under a different username (and user ID and group ID) by ‘(USERNAME=username. command)’ VENDOR The vendor. ZSH_VERSION The version number of this zsh. in this case. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) SHLVL <S> Incremented by one each time a new shell is started. This parameter should be set to the baud rate of the slowest part of the link for best performance. as determined at compile time. while the array form is easier to manipulate within the shell. PARAMETERS USED BY THE SHELL The following parameters are used by the shell.

HISTSIZE <S> The maximum number of events stored in the internal history list. HISTCHARS <S> <Z> Same as histchars. IFS <S> Internal field separators (by default space. setting this value larger than the SAVEHIST size will give you the difference as a cushion for saving duplicated history events. LANG <S> This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected via a variable starting with ‘LC_’. that are used to separate words which result from command or parameter expansion and words read by the read builtin. The first character signals the start of a history expansion (default ‘!’). 2001 8 . HOME <S> The default argument for the cd command. If an IFS white space character appears twice consecutively in the IFS. then it is read and executed in the current environment. fpath <S> <Z> (FPATH <S>) An array (colon separated list) of directories specifying the search path for function definitions. the history is not saved. Any characters from the set space.4 Last change: October 26. histchars <S> Three characters used by the shell’s history and lexical analysis mechanism. (Deprecated. However. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) automatically. newline and NUL). than these files are completed anyway. in hundredths of seconds. LC_MESSAGES <S> zsh 4. LC_ALL <S> This variable overrides the value of the ‘LANG’ variable and the value of any of the other variables starting with ‘LC_’. fignore <S> <Z> (FIGNORE <S>) An array (colon separated list) containing the suffixes of files to be ignored during filename completion. FCEDIT The default editor for the fc builtin. tab and newline that appear in the IFS are called IFS white space. LC_COLLATE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character collation information within ranges in glob brackets and for sorting.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. If you use the HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST option. If an executable file is found. LC_CTYPE <S> This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. The second character signals the start of a quick history substitution (default ‘∧ The third character is the comment character (default ‘#’). this character is treated as if it were not an IFS white space character. for another key to be pressed when reading bound multi–character sequences. ’). Inc. One or more IFS white space characters or one non–IFS white space character together with any adjacent IFS white space character delimit a field.) HISTFILE The file to save the history in when an interactive shell exits. If unset. This path is searched when a function with the –u attribute is referenced. KEYTIMEOUT The time the shell waits. This is useful with the AUTO_PUSHD option.0. tab. if the completion generates only files which would match if this variable would be ignored.

manpath <S> <Z> (MANPATH <S> <Z>) An array (colon–separated list) whose value is not used by the shell. Inc. Defaults to cat. These parameters only exist if the installation supports dynamic module loading. For sh/ksh behavior. NULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a redirection is specified with no command.4 Last change: October 26. If the value is negative. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) This variable determines the language in which messages should be written. MAILCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for new mail. Note that zsh ignores this setting when parsing floating point mathematical expressions. (The ‘/usr/local/lib’ part varies from installation to installation. the shell will print an error message if null commands are entered. the list will be shown if it spans at most as many lines as given by the absolute value. If set to zero. command substitution and arithmetic expansion with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. LISTMAX In the line editor. It usually contains termcap strings to reset the terminal. Each filename can be followed by a ‘?’ and a message that will be printed. If an element is a directory instead of a file the shell will recursively check every file in every subdirectory of the element. LINES <S> The number of lines for this terminal session. LC_TIME <S> This variable determines the locale category for date and time formatting in prompt escape sequences. mailpath <S> <Z> (MAILPATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of filenames to check for new mail. Note that zsh does not use message catalogs. the number of matches to list without asking first. 2001 9 . each directory is scanned and all files found are put in a hash table. the shell asks only if the top of the listing would scroll off the screen. LOGCHECK The interval in seconds between checks for login/logout activity using the watch parameter. Used for printing select lists and for the line editor. module_path <S> <Z> (MODULE_PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories that zmodload searches for dynamically loadable modules. The message will undergo parameter expansion. This is initialized to a standard pathname. The default message is ‘You have new mail’. and vice versa. For csh–like behavior. PROMPT <S> <Z> zsh 4.0. the shell looks for mail in the specified file. any value set in the environment when the shell is started will be ignored. unset this parameter.) For security reasons. POSTEDIT <S> This string is output whenever the line editor exits.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. LC_NUMERIC <S> This variable affects the decimal point character and thousands separator character for the formatted input/output functions and string conversion functions. The manpath array can be useful. MAIL If this parameter is set and mailpath is not set. however. change this to :. When this parameter is set. path <S> <Z> (PATH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of directories to search for commands. since setting it also sets MANPATH. usually ‘/usr/local/lib/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION’.

All other prompt escapes are also allowed. and filename generation both sets and examines its value when evaluating certain expressions. Some modules also employ REPLY for similar purposes. the default is ‘%m%# ’. REPORTTIME If nonnegative. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. It undergoes a special form of expansion before being displayed. Inc. PS1 <S> The primary prompt string. Default is ‘+%N:%i> ’. This does not work if the SINGLELINEZLE option is set. In sh or ksh emulation. PS2 <S> The secondary prompt. STTY If this parameter is set in a command’s environment. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. prompt <S> <Z> Same as PS1. and vice versa. The sequence ‘%R’ expands to the string which presumably needs spelling correction. Defaults to more. the default is ‘+ ’. It is expanded in the same way as PS1. PS4 <S> The execution trace prompt. The read builtin and the select complex command may set REPLY. The default is ‘?# ’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) PROMPT2 <S> <Z> PROMPT3 <S> <Z> PROMPT4 <S> <Z> Same as PS1.0. SPROMPT <S> The prompt used for spelling correction. Setting psvar also sets PSVAR.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. RPROMPT <S> RPS1 <S> This prompt is displayed on the right–hand side of the screen when the primary prompt is being displayed on the left. printed before a command is read. psvar <S> <Z> (PSVAR <S>) An array (colon–separated list) whose first nine values can be used in PROMPT strings. printed when the shell needs more information to complete a command. and ‘%r’ expands to the proposed correction. the shell runs the stty command with the value of this parameter as arguments in order to set up the terminal before executing the command. zsh 4. but for array values rather than strings. reply As REPLY. PS2. which displays the name of the current shell structure and the line number within it. PS3 and PS4. commands whose combined user and system execution times (measured in seconds) are greater than this value have timing statistics printed for them. REPLY This parameter is reserved by convention to pass string values between shell scripts and shell builtins in situations where a function call or redirection are impossible or undesirable. PS3 <S> Selection prompt used within a select loop. see the section ‘Prompt Expansion’.4 Last change: October 26. which displays any shell constructs or quotation marks which are currently being processed. READNULLCMD <S> The command name to assume if a single input redirection is specified with no command. The default is ‘%_> ’. respectively. 2001 10 . SAVEHIST The maximum number of history events to save in the history file.

This cause the time to be printed in ‘hh:mm:ss. 2001 11 . watch <S> <Z> (WATCH <S>) An array (colon–separated list) of login/logout events to report. STTY is ignored if the command is run in the background. It is necessary to make such an assignment upon any change to the terminal definition database or terminal type in order for the new settings to take effect. The default is ‘/tmp/zsh’. The CPU percentage. "logged on" or "logged off". Recognizes the following escape sequences: %% %U %S %E %P %J A ‘%’. If no trap is set. If there is a trap on SIGALRM. Recognizes the following escape sequences: %n %a %l %M %m The name of the user that logged in/out. even if the value does not change (e. and the idle time of the terminal is not less than the value of the TMOUT parameter. Note that this should include an initial part for the file name as well as any directory names. Default is ‘%n has %a %l from %m’. This is used when looking up termcap sequences.g. Inc. the shell will receive an ALRM signal if a command is not entered within the specified number of seconds after issuing a prompt. TMPPREFIX A pathname prefix which the shell will use for all temporary files. The hostname up to the first ‘. If it contains the single word ‘notme’. A star may be inserted between the percent sign and flags printing time. Otherwise a new alarm is scheduled to TMOUT seconds after the last keypress. the whole name is printed. then all events are reported as with ‘all’ except $USERNAME.e. and a ‘%’ followed by a line (tty). it will be executed and a new alarm is scheduled using the value of the TMOUT parameter after executing the trap. The default is ‘%E real %U user %S system %P %J’.’. If only the IP address is available or the utmp field contains the name of an X–windows display. zsh terminates.4 Last change: October 26. as if it were not suspended. if a login/logout event matches all of them. TMOUT If this parameter is nonzero. Also note that STTY should not be used for window size specifications. An entry in this list may consist of a username. computed as (%U+%S)/%E. An assignment to TERM causes zsh to re–initialize the terminal.. If the command is suspended and continued later with the fg or wait builtins it will see the modes specified by STTY.ttt’ format (hours and minutes are only printed if they are not zero). The full hostname of the remote host. This (intentionally) does not apply if the command is continued via ‘kill –CONT’. an ‘@’ followed by a remote hostname. Elapsed time in seconds. The name of this job. WATCHFMT The format of login/logout reports if the watch parameter is set. If it contains the single word ‘all’. Any or all of these components may be present in an entry. or if it is in the environment of the shell but not explicitly assigned to in the input line. i. ‘TERM=$TERM’). TERM <S> The type of terminal in use. it is reported. CPU seconds spent in user mode. these will not be local to the command. and are reset when it finishes or is suspended.User Commands Property of BladeLogic.0. CPU seconds spent in kernel mode. TIMEFMT The format of process time reports with the time keyword. zsh 4. This avoids running stty at every external command by accidentally exporting it. The observed action. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) The modes apply only to the command. then all login/logout events are reported. The line (tty) the user is logged in on.

ZDOTDIR The directory to search for shell startup files (. for example. this gives a string of characters.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the entire expression is omitted in this case. that will be output to the terminal instead of beeping. ‘n’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHPARAM ( 1 ) NOTE: The ‘%m’ and ‘%M’ escapes will work only if there is a host name field in the utmp on your machine. which can use all the same codes as the bindkey command as described in the zsh/zle module entry in zshmodules(1). The date in ‘yy–mm–dd’ format. the string ‘\e[?5h\e[?5l’ on a vt100 or xterm will have the effect of flashing reverse video on and off (if you usually use reverse video. Both the separator and the right parenthesis may be escaped with a backslash. The date in ‘mm/dd/yy’ format. If the result is ‘true’.zshrc. which indicates a ‘true’ result if the watched user has logged in. in 12–hour. ‘m’ or ‘M’. The character following the x is arbitrary. %U (%u) Start (stop) underline mode. 2001 12 .0. the same character is used to separate the text for the "true" result from that for the "false" result. Ternary expressions may be nested. you should use the string ‘\e[?5l\e[?5h’ instead). the true–text is skipped and the false–text is formatted and printed. %S (%s) Start (stop) standout mode. etc). If ‘false’. ZBEEP If set. am/pm format. or ‘false’ if he has logged out. WORDCHARS <S> A list of non–alphanumeric characters considered part of a word by the line editor. if not $HOME. This takes precedence over the NOBEEP option. The test character x may be any one of ‘l’. and the false–text is skipped. %t %@ %T %w %W %D The time. Inc. This may have a visible instead of an audible effect. then the true–text is formatted according to the rules above and printed. zsh 4. Either or both of the branches may be empty. which indicate a ‘true’ result if the corresponding escape sequence would return a non–empty value. or it may be ‘a’. The date in ‘day–dd’ format. but both separators must be present in any case. Other characters evaluate to neither true nor false. The time. %(x:true–text:false–text) Specifies a ternary expression. Otherwise they are treated as ordinary strings. in 24–hour format.4 Last change: October 26. %B (%b) Start (stop) boldface mode.

<S>. ALWAYS_TO_END If a completion is performed with the cursor within a word. Thus. The sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with ‘no’. rather than overwrite it.4 Last change: October 26. but the string ‘–f i’ is an error. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE. for example by pressing the tab key repeatedly. sh. <Z> as appropriate. For example. zsh 4. <K>. ALIASES <D> Expand aliases. ‘allexport’ is equivalent to ‘A__lleXP_ort’. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) NAME zshoptions – zsh options SPECIFYING OPTIONS Options are primarily referred to by name. setopt and unsetopt builtins. trailing whitespace will be ignored. those set by default only in csh. key functions that list completions try to return to the last prompt if given a numeric argument. Similarly. AUTO_LIST (–9) <D> Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion. These names are case insensitive and underscores are ignored. in which case the inversion of that name refers to the option being on. and another used to emulate sh/ksh (used when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set). The single letter options can be used on the shell command line. the cursor is moved to the end of the word if either a single match is inserted or menu completion is performed. and a full completion is inserted. Some of the single letter option names refer to an option being off. and ‘–n’ is the short name of its inversion. In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell at startup. ‘tify’ is not a synonym for ‘nonotify’ (the inversion of ‘notify’). ‘set –o’ or ‘set +o’). ‘setopt’ shows all options whose settings are changed from the default. ‘unsetopt’. in the order they are killed. The sense of the single letter options may be inverted by using ‘+’ instead of ‘–’. That is. ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT <D> If unset. This inversion can only be done once. If set these functions try to return to the last prompt if given no numeric argument. There are two sets of single letter options: one used by default. ‘+n’ is the short name of ‘exec’. ksh. as normal Unix options preceded by ‘–’. the cursor is moved to the end of the word. multiple parallel zsh sessions will all have their history lists added to the history file. This is because many systems which implement the ‘#!’ mechanism for calling scripts do not strip trailing whitespace. Inc. AUTO_MENU <D> Automatically use menu completion after the second consecutive request for completion. perform the cd command to that directory. For example. or with the set. Hence (unless KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set).0. for example the string ‘–f ’ will be treated just as ‘–f’. options set by default in all emulations are marked <D>. Some options also have one or more single letter names. so ‘setopt No_Beep’ is equivalent to ‘unsetopt beep’. those turned on by default appear in the list prefixed with ‘no’. ‘noexec’. AUTO_CD (–J) If a command is issued that can’t be executed as a normal command. so ‘nonobeep’ is not a synonym for ‘beep’. 2001 1 . and the command is the name of a directory. zsh sessions will append their history list to the history file. ksh: –a) All parameters subsequently defined are automatically exported. When listing options (by ‘setopt’. APPEND_HISTORY <D> If this is set. or zsh emulations are marked <C>.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. ALL_EXPORT (–a. DESCRIPTION OF OPTIONS In the following list.

BARE_GLOB_QUAL <Z> In a glob pattern. AUTO_PARAM_SLASH <D> If a parameter is completed whose content is the name of a directory. AUTO_PUSHD (–N) Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.4 Last change: October 26. print an error message. BG_NICE (–6) <C> <Z> Run all background jobs at a lower priority.’. csh–style. This takes precedence over AUTO_LIST.) AUTO_PARAM_KEYS <D> If a parameter name was completed and a following character (normally a space) automatically inserted. since repeated completion calls immediately cycle through the list in that case. BSD_ECHO <S> Make the echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command. BEEP (+B) <D> Beep on error in ZLE. See the section ‘Brace Expansion’. and the next character typed is one of those that have to come directly after the name (like ‘}’. Completion in a brace expansion is affected similarly: the added character is a ‘. the pattern will be left unchanged. (Otherwise.) BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z> Perform textual history expansion. If AUTO_MENU is set. that will be used by the ‘%˜’ and related prompt sequences. automatically list choices when the completion function is called twice in succession.0. This disables backslashed escape sequences in echo strings unless the –e option is specified. BASH_AUTO_LIST On an ambiguous completion. which will be removed if ‘}’ is typed next. BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z> If a pattern for filename generation is badly formed. See the section ‘Filename Generation’. treat a trailing set of parentheses as a qualifier list. the automatically added character is deleted. remove the slash. (If this option is unset. the menu behaviour will then start with the third press. the parameter must be used in the form ‘˜param’ first. C_BASES zsh 4. and will be available when completion is performed on a word starting with ‘˜’. ‘:’. 2001 2 .User Commands Property of BladeLogic. Inc. ‘(’ or (if special) ‘˜’ characters. so that the character typed comes immediately after the parameter name. AUTO_REMOVE_SLASH <D> When the last character resulting from a completion is a slash and the next character typed is a word delimiter. Note that this will not work with MENU_COMPLETE. AUTO_RESUME (–W) Treat single word simple commands without redirection as candidates for resumption of an existing job. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) AUTO_NAME_DIRS Any parameter that is set to the absolute name of a directory immediately becomes a name for that directory. then add a trailing slash instead of a space. a slash. if it contains no ‘’.). The setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is respected. etc. or a character that ends a command (such as a semicolon or an ampersand). treating the character ‘!’ specially. This option is set by default. BRACE_CCL Expand expressions in braces which would not otherwise undergo brace expansion to a lexically ordered list of all the characters.

. COMPLETE_IN_WORD If unset. Note that these formats will be understood on input irrespective of the setting of C_BASES. The check is omitted if the commands run from the previous command line included a ‘jobs’ command. nor on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and octal. For example. a ‘.4 Last change: October 26. CORRECT_ALL (–O) Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line..User Commands Property of BladeLogic. with it set. CLOBBER (+C. Inc. This option is overridden by CHASE_LINKS. suppose /foo/bar is a link to the directory /alt/rod. for example ‘0xFF’ instead of the usual ‘16#FF’.’ would be removed from the path. If the option OCTAL_ZEROES is also set (it is not by default).’ is the first part of the path.e. try to expand the expression as if it were preceded by a ‘˜’ (see the section ‘Filename Expansion’). octal numbers will be treated similarly and hence appear as ‘077’ instead of ‘8#77’. CSH_JUNKIE_HISTORY <C> A history reference without an event specifier will always refer to the previous command. it changes to /alt. instead resolve the path to the physical directory.. This option has no effect on the choice of the output base.. Without this option set. CSH_JUNKIE_LOOPS <C> Allow loop bodies to take the form ‘list.0. This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS. CHASE_DOTS When changing to a directory containing a path segment ‘. CSH_JUNKIE_QUOTES <C> zsh 4. i. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format. ‘foo/. The same applies if the current directory is /foo/bar and ‘cd . defaulting to the previous command. CORRECT (–0) Try to correct the spelling of commands. and ‘>>!’ or ‘>>’ to create a file. ksh: +C) <D> Allows ‘>’ redirection to truncate existing files.’ is used. Note that all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved. Without this option.’ changes to /foo. the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion is started. ‘cd /foo/bar/. NO_CHECK_JOBS is best used only in combination with NO_HUP. even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link. or if ‘. a second attempt to exit the shell will succeed. COMPLETE_ALIASES Prevents aliases on the command line from being internally substituted before completion is attempted. end’ instead of ‘do list. CHASE_LINKS (–w) Resolve symbolic links to their true values when changing directory. the last part of $PWD would be deleted). Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from both ends. CHECK_JOBS <Z> Report the status of background and suspended jobs before exiting a shell with job control. since it is assumed the user is aware that there are background or suspended jobs. done’.. and does not begin with a slash. Otherwise ‘>!’ or ‘>’ must be used to truncate a file. such a history reference refers to the same event as the previous history reference.’ path segment will be treated as referring to the physical parent.’ which would otherwise be treated as canceling the previous segment in the path (in other words. and ‘>>’ to create files. CDABLE_VARS (–T) If the argument to a cd command (or an implied cd with the AUTO_CD option set) is not a directory. A ‘jobs’ command run from the precmd function is not counted for this purpose.. 2001 3 . The effect is to make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes. else such jobs will be killed automatically.

) GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>) If this option is set. and cannot be nested. this is the most portable way to achieve this behaviour. Overrides NOMATCH. if set. ksh: –e) If a command has a non–zero exit status. commands are read and checked for syntax errors. GLOB (+F. (An initial ’ unquoted ‘˜’ always produces named directory expansion. ‘˜’ and ‘∧ characters as part of patterns for filename generation. output flow control via start/stop characters (usually assigned to ∧ Q) is S/∧ disabled in the shell’s editor. and hence its effect extends beyond the scope of the enclosing function. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) Changes the rules for single– and double–quoted text to match that of csh. Note that the builtin export always sets both the –x and –g flags. This is disabled while running initialization scripts. CSH_NULL_GLOB <C> If a pattern for filename generation has no matches. FUNCTION_ARGZERO <C> <Z> When executing a shell function or sourcing a script. CSH_NULLCMD <C> Do not use the values of NULLCMD and READNULLCMD when running redirections with no command. 2001 4 . ‘‘’ or ‘" ’ (and ‘\’ itself no longer needs escaping). exported parameters will be made local in just the same way as any other parameter. do not report an error unless all the patterns in a command have no matches. and exit. but not executed. (See the section ‘Filename Generation’. float. This make such redirections fail (see the section ‘Redirection’). These require that embedded newlines be preceded by a backslash. Without this option. delete the pattern from the argument list. zsh 4. ksh: +n) <D> Do execute commands. Command substitutions are only expanded once.0. unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly. etc. The format of this prefixed data is: ‘:< beginning time> :< elapsed seconds> :< command> ’. EXTENDED_GLOB Treat the ‘#’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. except when ‘–n’ is supplied to the shell at startup. execute the ZERR trap. This option is set by default for backward compatibility. ksh: +f) <D> Perform filename generation (globbing). it is not recommended that its behaviour be relied upon. Inc. hence parameters exported to the environment will not be made local to the enclosing function. This option cannot be turned off in an interactive shell. passing the –x flag to the builtins declare. (See the section ‘Filename Expansion’. unescaped newlines will cause an error message. integer. set $0 temporarily to the name of the function/script. EQUALS <Z> Perform = filename expansion. FLOW_CONTROL <D> If this option is unset. EXEC (+n. it is made impossible to escape ‘$’.4 Last change: October 26. In double–quoted strings. readonly and typeset (but not local) will also set the –g flag.) EXTENDED_HISTORY <C> Save each command’s beginning timestamp (in seconds since the epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history file. DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty keyboard as a basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and CORRECT_ALL options and the spell–word editor command.) ERR_EXIT (–e. If the option is unset.

as well as all directories that occur earlier in the path.4 Last change: October 26. otherwise this option will behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills up with unique events. etc.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. This allows history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is unset. Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.’ in a filename to be matched explicitly. even if the duplicates are not contiguous.). Subsequent invocations of the same command will use the saved location. when CORRECT is set. not globbing. ‘foo=∗ If the result has more than one ∗’).g. no path hashing is done at all. zsh 4. /etc/zlogin and /etc/zlogout will not be run. ‘foo=(∗ and this form is recommended for clarity. including inside local startup files (. hash the directory containing it. word the parameter will become an array with those words as arguments. and any characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible for filename generation. If this option is unset. make sure the entire command path is hashed first. GLOB_COMPLETE When the current word has a glob pattern. user names. commands whose names do not appear in the functions or aliases hash tables are hashed in order to avoid reporting them as spelling errors. The matches are generated as if a ‘∗ was added to the end of the word. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) GLOBAL_RCS (–d) <D> If this option is unset. This makes the first completion slower. Inc.zshrc. It can be disabled and re–enabled at any time. HASH_DIRS <D> Whenever a command name is hashed. so it works not only for files but for any completion. HASH_LIST_ALL <D> Whenever a command completion is attempted. setting this option will cause the oldest history event that has a duplicate to be lost before losing a unique event from the list. it is not possible to predict whether the result will be an array or a scalar. GLOB_DOTS (–4) Do not require a leading ‘. etc. or inserted at the cursor when ∗’ COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set. HIST_BEEP <D> Beep when an attempt is made to access a history entry which isn’t there. filename generation (globbing) is performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments of the form ‘name=pattern (e. This option is provided for backwards compatibility only: globbing is always performed on the right hand side of array assignments of the form ‘name=(value)’ (e. HIST_EXPIRE_DUPS_FIRST If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add the current command line. do not display duplicates of a line previously found. /etc/zshrc. This actually uses pattern matching. You should be sure to set the value of HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to give you some room for the duplicated events. GLOB_ASSIGN <C> If this option is set. the startup files /etc/zprofile. ∗)’) with this option set. do not insert all the words resulting from the expansion but generate matches as for completion and cycle through them like MENU_COMPLETE. However. Braces (and commas in between) do not become eligible for expansion.g. 2001 5 . such as options. avoiding a path search. GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S> Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being eligible for file expansion and filename generation. HIST_FIND_NO_DUPS When searching for history entries in the line editor. HIST_ALLOW_CLOBBER Add ‘’ to output redirections in the history. HASH_CMDS <D> Note the location of each command the first time it is executed.0.

INTERACTIVE (–i. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. if this option is set and the Zsh Line Editor is used. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. Require the use of exit or logout instead. HIST_IGNORE_SPACE (–g) Remove command lines from the history list when the first character on the line is a space. However. ksh: –i) This is an interactive shell. but can exceed this value between trimmings. HIST_VERIFY Whenever the user enters a line with history expansion. HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS Remove function definitions from the history list. The value of this option cannot be changed anywhere other than the command line. instead. This option is set upon initialisation if the standard input is a tty and commands are being read from standard input. This works only for normal widgets. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line. or when one of the expanded aliases contains a leading space. allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the definition. (See the discussion of SHIN_STDIN. HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added to the history list. type a space and press return. ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to exit anyway. widgets implemented by shell functions can be bound to EOF (normally Control–D) without printing the normal warning message.4 Last change: October 26. not for completion widgets. 2001 6 .) This heuristic may be overridden by specifying a state for this option on the command line. Inc. Note that the command lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. Also. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates an older one. rather than waiting until the shell is killed. IGNORE_EOF (–7) Do not exit on end–of–file. perform history expansion and reload the line into the editing buffer. HUP <Z> Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits. HIST_SAVE_NO_DUPS When writing out the history file. don’t execute the line directly. The file is periodically trimmed to the number of lines specified by $SAVEHIST. HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (–h) Do not enter command lines into the history list if they are duplicates of the previous event. IGNORE_BRACES (–I) <S> Do not perform brace expansion.0. older commands that duplicate newer ones are omitted. Note that the function lingers in the internal history until the next command is entered before it vanishes. INC_APPEND_HISTORY This options works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as they are entered). HIST_NO_STORE Remove the history (fc –l) command from the history list when invoked. INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS (–k) <K> <S> Allow comments even in interactive shells.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. the older command is removed from the list (even if it is not the previous event). If you want to make it vanish right away without entering another command. to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away. zsh 4.

the corresponding file is merely executed. ‘off’ otherwise.) KSH_GLOB <K> In pattern matching. with it. LOCAL_OPTIONS <K> If this option is set at the point of return from a shell function. array elements are numbered from zero. KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S> Emulate ksh function autoloading. export. More accurately. ‘!’. including declare. local and readonly. all options are shown. all the options (including this one) which were in force upon entry to the function are restored. Otherwise.4 Last change: October 26. integer. the second match is to the right of the first one. word splitting does not take place in those cases. LIST_BEEP <D> Beep on an ambiguous completion. Strictly confidential and proprietary ZSHOPTIONS ( 1 ) KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S> Emulate ksh array handling as closely as possible. in other words. LOCAL_TRAPS <K> zsh 4. are processed. auto–listing behaviour only takes place when nothing would be inserted.0. See the section ‘Filename Generation’.User Commands Property of BladeLogic. and braces are required to delimit a subscript (‘${path[2]}’ rather than just ‘$path[2]’). and must define the function itself. the interpretation of parentheses is affected by a preceding ‘@’. A shell function can also guarantee itself a known shell configuration with a formulation like ‘emulate –L zsh’. In the case of BASH_AUTO_LIST. this may be modified if completion is called from a user–defined widget. LIST_AMBIGUOUS <D> This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also set. this means that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function. KSH_OPTION_PRINT <K> Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate lists of set and unset options. not under it as usual. show the type of each file with a trailing identifying mark. the –L activates LOCAL_OPTIONS. Inc. that is done without a completion list being displayed. If this option is set. However. Without this option. ‘∗ ‘+’. float. an array parameter without subscript refers to the first element instead of the whole array. marked ‘on’ if they are in the non–default state. If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line. LIST_ROWS_FIRST Lay out the matches in completion lists sorted horizontally. KSH_TYPESET <K> Alters the way arguments to the typeset family of commands. (By default. only this option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored. the most common ksh–style case – of the file containing only a simple definition of the function – is always handled in the ksh–compatible manner. this forces the completion widgets to return status 1 on an ambiguous completion. LIST_PACKED Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying less lines) by printing the matches in columns with different widths. the function is defined to the contents of the file. which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is also set. 2001 7 . that is. LIST_TYPES (–X) <D> When listing files that are possible completions. ‘?’ or ∗’. This means that when a function is autoloaded. Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the other options in force at the point of return will remain so. zsh will perform normal word splitting after command and parameter expansion in arguments of an assignment.

4 Last change: October 26. NOTIFY (–5. Overrides NOMATCH. if both options are in effect. unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS. arguments looking like assignments will not undergo wordsplitting. ksh: –b) <Z> Report the status of background jobs immediately. This also applies to file expansion of an initial ‘˜’ or ‘=’. unset