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MANPOWER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

AR 570-4

FINANCE SCHOOL

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Terminal Learning Objective


Action: Identify the relationship between the manpower management process, the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES), and the personnel functions and responsibilities. Conditions: Given AR 570-4.

Standard: IAW AR 570-4 and instructional material presented.


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Manpower Management
Principles & Definitions Players Force Structure Total Army Analysis (TAA) Documentation Requirements Determination Civilian Manpower
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Manpower Management Definition


Evaluation of organizational structures to determine:
Manpower requirements Allocation of manpower resources Review of manpower utilization for both military and civilian

The ultimate goal of this process is to man, equip, train, and employ a land force in support of our national security mission
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Manpower Principles
Armys most valuable resource HQDA final decision and control over manpower policy, priorities, major programs, resources, and manpower issues that have Army-wide impact. Manpower issues have high priority at all levels of the decision making process. Combat units and their related support units that deploy early during mobilization have the highest priority for manpower allocations. Manpower will be limited to the amount necessary to perform an organizations mission in the most effective, efficient, and economical manner.
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Manpower Terms
Requirement
Minimum number of personnel required. Military and Civilian to successfully complete the mission.

Authorization
Portion of the Requirement, expressed as a percentage of Required Strength that can be supported by the resources available.
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Manpower Terms (cont.)


Allocation: Military and civilian manpower spaces by identity and category. Budget for and defined in HQDA program budget guidance (PBG). Program budget guidance
Published three times in the FY (OCT, JAN & MAY). Provides dollar and manpower program and budget guidance.
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Assistant Secretary of the Army Financial Management (ASA (FM&C))


Responsible for PPBES:
Budget Formulation, Justification, and Execution. Internal Review (Management Control Program).

Management Information Systems.


(Program Budget Accounting System (PBAS)). Cost and Economic Analysis. Methodology and Analysis. Compile and Disseminate the HQDA PBG.
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G3 (Deputy Chief of Staff Operations DCSOPS)


Responsible For: The Army Authorization Documents System (TAADS). HQDA Automated System Support the Development and Documentation of all Army Units. Approves all MTOEs, TDAs, Mobilization Table of Distribution and Allowances (MOBTDAs), and Augmentation Table of Distribution and Allowance (AUGTDAs).
Maintains the HQDA Master Force (M-Force) in the Structure and Manpower Allocation System (SAMAS). Manages the Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE) Development System.

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Commander, U.S. Army Force Management Support Agency


G3 Executive Agency. Develop manpower requirements based on Manpower Staffing Standards Systems (MS3). Ensure Army-wide compliance with manpower policies. Documentation review process to include approval of Section II of TOE, MTOEs, and TDAs.
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G1 (Deputy Chief of Staff Personnel DCSPER)


Responsible for Personnel Management Programming, allocating, and controlling all active Army military manpower within approved force structure and resources Develop policies for the maintenance of the Personnel Management Authorization Document (PMAD) Civilians managed by ASA (M&RA)
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Director of Resource Management (DRM)


Develops, manages, coordinates, and executes all aspects of the MACOM and installation manpower, equipment, and documentation program.

Reviews and analyzes program budget guidance with regard to the installations manpower programs. Develops distribution plans for the allocation/reallocation of manpower authorizations and civilian employment levels.
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Manpower Manager
To make critical decisions that have a positive impact in the future structure of the Army, the manpower manager must be able to accurately identify:
What is the total force? What organizations perform: What missions? Which people perform what work?
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Manpower Management/Force Structure Development Objectives


Define the processes by which:
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Unified Commanders

Determine future force structure

Define each force structure


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Force Structure Planning


Not a very precise activity. A very complex undertaking characterized by an interrelated series of analyses, performed by a myriad of agencies and activities to determine an affordable force in term of dollars and in acceptable levels of risks to that force.
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Force Development Approach


Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) lead agency. Participative approach using the Unified Commanders input process supported by the Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS).

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Force Structure Development Approach


Planning Procedures:
Identify the threat. Develop a military strategy to meet and defeat the threat. Structure the force to support the strategy. Provide resources for priority requirements. Plan deployment of those forces to meet contingencies.
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Joint Planning Environment Key Players


Congress. President. Secretary Of Defense.

Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff (CJCS). Unified Commanders.


Services.
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Role of Key Players


Congress
Final say-so in terms of dollars.

President
Commander-in-Chief. Sets national and foreign policy.

CJCS
Prepares strategic plans. Provides for strategic direction of the armed forces. Prepares the national military strategy document.

Unified Commanders
In charge of joint forces. Prepares and integrates operational plans and orders.

Services
Provide the troops to execute plans and orders to support the national military strategy.

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Systems to Support Force Development Process


Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS).
Focuses on future force structure to support national military strategy. JCS administrative framework to:
Advise the President and Secretary of Defense and provide strategic and operational guidance to Unified Commanders. Supports the development and publication of the National Military Strategy (NMS).
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Systems to Support Force Development Process


Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS/PPBES):
Primary financial management systems of DoD and DA. Translate military strategy into specific programs. Justify and allocate resources necessary for the execution of DoD and DA programs. DoD Future Year Defense Plan (FYDP) are summarized within PPBS. DA programs are summarized within PPBES. PPBS and PPBES are interrelated.
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Systems to Support Force Development Process


Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES):
Focuses on current force effective use against near term threats, not future requirements. Provides procedural foundation for an integrated and coordinated approach to:
Develop. Approve. Publish.

Unified Commanders operation and concept plans in concert with the CJCS.

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Force Development Stages


RECORDED SYSTEM

NMS FORCE ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

NMS ---------------- JSPS & PPBS

TAP ------------------ PPBES

POM & FYDP ------PPBES/PPBS PRESIDENTS ------- PPBS/PPBES BUDGET

JSCP ------------------ JSPS & JOPES INCREASED RISK/ DECREASED CAPABILITIES

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National Military Strategy Document (NMSD)


Initiates the planning phase of the DoD PPBS Provides supporting documentation to Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) to develop the DPG Provides CJCS evaluation of the threat Recommends military strategy and future force structure to meet the threat to the NCA This force structure is called National Military Strategy Force (NMS Force) also called Risk-Evaluation Force (REF)
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Illustrative Planning Scenarios (IPS)


Found in the national military strategy. Provides planning considerations:
Geographical areas of conflict. Compounding factors such as simultaneous conflicts. Threat forces, their size, and military objectives. Support from allied nations. Objectives of the United States and its allies. Tactical and strategic assumptions.
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Short-Hand Force Accounting


Used by the Unified Commanders and services to recommend the size of the force required to meet the NMS. Identify the forces needed in terms of:
Division Force Equivalents (DFEs). Theater Defense Brigades (TDBs). Special Operations Forces (SOFs). Notional forces.

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National Military Strategy (NMS) Force Characteristics


Reasonable assurance of success. Relatively unconstrained. Fully supported. Fully structured. Analysis nine years in the future. Responsive to JCS sizing and structuring scenarios. Developed by JCS with service participation benchmark for assessing program force risk.
ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE NMS FORCE

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Army Fiscally Constrained Force Characteristics


Armys senior leadership desired force in terms of force structure. Less than adequate assurance. Relatively unconstrained.
NMS FORCE ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

Reasonably attainable.
Reasonably structured and supported. Responsive to OSD sizing and structuring scenario. Starting point for program force.

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Program Objective Memorandum (POM) Force Characteristics


Based on objective force. Depict a delicate balance between resources available and actual force capabilities. Responsive to OSD sizing and structuring scenario. Responsive to Total Army Analysis (TAA). Resource constrained based on OSD projections. Higher degree of risk than REF. Not fully structured nor supported. Analysis six years into the future.
NMS FORCE ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

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Budget Force Characteristics


Force and its associated capabilities that would be achieved if the budget were fully executed. Drawn from the first two years of the six year defense program. Less capable than the program force.
NMS FORCE ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

Accordingly higher risk than the program force.

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Current Force Characteristics


Force and its associated capabilities that is in-being today. Reflects real-time readiness conditions. Represents latest adjustments to the budget force based on:
Congressional resource constraints. Command priorities and decisions. NMS FORCE ARMY FISCALLY CONSTRAINED FORCE POM FORCE BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

May be less capable than the budget force; thus, manifests a proportionally higher risk.

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Link to PPBES
PLANNING PROGRAMMING BUDGETING EXECUTION

DOD

NMS NMS FORCE

DA TAP AFCF

POM POM FORCE

APPROPRIATION BUDGET FORCE CURRENT FORCE

BES

TAA

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Total Army Analysis (TAA) Objectives


Introduction to TAA process. Define and discuss key TAA:
Terms. Documents. Committees. Procedures.

Discuss TAA phases. Discuss TAA relationship to POM development.


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TAA Definition
Computer assisted technique used by HQDA staff to define specific force structure known as the program force. This force becomes the basis for developing the force structure found in the POM.
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TAA Purpose
To determine the best mix of
forces needed to meet an

anticipated threat influenced by


guidance (DPG and TAP) and

Senior Army Leadership (ARB).


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TAA Concept
Develops the combat support (CS) and combat service and support (CSS) forces to sustain the programmed combat forces based on an Illustrative Planning Scenario (IPS). Separate combat scenarios that focus in different world regions.
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TAA Process
Biennial study initiated during evennumbered fiscal years and customarily takes 12 and 18 months. Divided into two phases:
Phase 1: Requirements
Force guidance. Quantitative analysis.

Phase 2: Resource
Qualitative analysis. POM development (leadership review).

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TAA Phase 1A: Develop Design Force Guidance


Primary sources of guidance:
The Army Plan (TAP) Defense Planning Guidance (DPG)

Secondary sources of guidance:


Army Force Planning Data and Assumptions (AFPDA)
Host nation support

Allocation rules Threat analysis

Review in the Force Structure Conference I and General Officers Steering Committee (GOSC) I
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TRANSMO (Transportation Model)

MATCH MODEL

TAA PHASE I B
PRODUCES TIME PHASED STRATEGIC DEPLOYMENT DATA FORCE REQUIREMENTS

CEM
(CONCEPTS EVALUATION MODEL)

FASTALS
(FORCE ANALYSIS SIMULATION OF THEATER ADMINISTRATIVE AND LOGISTICS SUPPORT)

GENERATES FORCE AND COMBAT INTENSITY LEVELS

RESULTS IN TIME PHASED FORCE REQUIREMENTS


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TAA Phase II A: Qualitative Analysis


TAA FORCE DESIGN
DCSOPS CSA/VCSA FPR LEADERSHIP REVIEW TAA BASE FORCE

FORCE
STRUCTURE CONF. II

GOSC II

FIA
FORCE INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

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TAA Phase II B: POM Development


TAA BASE FORCE
DCSOPS CSA/VCSA FPR LEADERSHIP REVIEW

MACOM
CMD PLAN DEVELOPMENT

BECOMES POM FORCE AFTER SA DECISION

SA DECISION
DCSOPS ARSTRUC MESSAGE

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Manpower Documentation
Each unit in the Army has its own:
Mission. Structure. Personnel. Equipment.

Both required and authorized quantities are established and documented in manpower documents.
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TOE Definition
Requirements document; blueprint for creating an actual combat, combat support or combat service and support unit. Prescribes:
Normal Mission of the Unit Organizational Structure Personnel Requirements (Rank, Military Skill)

Basis for an authorization document; facilitates standardization in organizing like TOE units.
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MTOE Definition
Authorizations document; modified version of a TOE; represent an actual combat, combat support or combat service and support unit. Prescribes the unit organization, personnel, and equipment needed to perform an assigned mission in a specific geographical or operational environment. Designates the Authorized Level of Organization (ALO). Provides data not reflected on the TOE document, such as unit designation and unit effective date.
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TDA Definition
Requirements and authorizations document prescribes the organizational structure for a unit having a support mission may include civilians and military. Developed based on the type and level of workload associated with the units mission. Types of TDAs:
MOBTDA. AUGTDA.
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Incremental TOE Documentation System


Given a valid need for new or modified organizations.
How do we document future changes to a type of unit?

Incremental TOE documentation system used by combat developers and manpower managers
Captures future additions or deletions of personnel and equipment of a type of unit.

In 1983, TRADOC created a documentation process


called the Living (L) TOE documentation system, later changed to Incremental (I) TOE system.

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How Does the ITOE Documentation System Work?


Documentation required to trigger the I TOE system:
An existing TOE document known as (Base TOE). HQDA approved Basis of Issue Plans (BOIPs).

BOIPs are planning documents which states:


The planned placement of new or improved equipment and personnel in a type of TOE at 100% of wartime requirements.
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I TOE Documentation System Components


Base TOE- it is the lowest common denominator of modernization Incremental Change Package (ICP):
Consist of a single or multiple BOIPs
When applied to the Base TOE or Intermediate TOE, will change them to reflect the new or improved equipment and personnel issued to a type of unit
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ITOE Documentation System


ICP3

M O D ICP2 E R N ICP1 I Z A T I O N

OBJECTIVE TOE

INTERMEDIATE TOE

INTERMEDIATE TOE

BASE TOE

1995

2000

2010

2015

TIME
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Manpower Requirements Determination Process Objectives


Discuss the Armys manpower requirements determination for TDAs and TOEs units. Discuss the different methods of determining manpower requirements

in TDAs and MTOEs.


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Manpower Requirements Determination Process


TOE manpower requirement determination:
TOE Developers use the need statement derived from the DOTMLPF process to modify or develop manpower requirements for:
Combat

Combat Support
Combat Service and Support

Processes to determine manpower requirements for TOE:


MARC (Primary for CS and CSS Functions) BOIPS QQPRI

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Manpower Requirements Criteria (MARC)


HQDA approved standards for determining minimum essential wartime position requirements for combat support and combat service support functions into units. Types of MARC:
Variable - Workload Measurable.
Standard - Dictated by Doctrine.
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Methods of Determining Manpower Requirements for TDA Units Manpower Survey Program
Manpower Staffing Standards System (MS3)

12 Step Process
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Manpower Survey Program


Determine manpower requirements for organizational or functional areas not covered by MS3. On-site interviews to assess and evaluate the manpower requirements of an organization. Manpower survey approaches:
Functional. Organizational. Positional. Statistical.
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Manpower Survey Steps


Preparation. On-site Interviews. Informal Exit Briefing. Formal Exit Briefing. Reclama. Decision. Documentation.
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Manpower Staffing Standards System (MS3)


An expression of the quantitative and qualitative manpower requirements for the performance of functionally homogeneous tasks. Expressed as an equation relating manhours and workload. In tabular for showing skills (Mil/Civ) and grades needed (Mil only). Developed at the work center-level of functional activity.
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Basic Premise of MS3


Commonality within functions:
Functional activities. Comparable equipment. Similar facilities.

Standard applicable at more than one

location.
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MS3 Study Development Concept


Lead team concept. Phased approach (standard development):
Define what the standard will cover. Measure the work and collect the essential data. Compute the standard from the results.

Study phases:
Preliminary. Measurement. Computation. Application and maintenance.
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MS3 Standard Classification


Type I:
Standard developed using collected data measured to a specific level of detail.

Type II:
Standard developed using existing statistical data.
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How to Determine Requirements


TOE Units
CA CS / CSS - Relay on Doctrine - MARC (Manpower Requirements Criteria) - Workload based - Doctrine

TDA Unit
- Manpower Surveys - MS3 - 12 Step
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Manpower Manager Must Know the Definition and Usage of:


Borrowed Military Manpower (BMM) and Troop Diversion (TD). Contract Services and Intra/Inter Service Support Agreements. Military and Civilian Requirements and Authorizations.

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Manpower Definitions
BMM - soldier borrowed from Modification Table of Organization and Equipment (MTOE) unit to work in a Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) activity filling a Major Command (MACOM) recognized requirement Example: A soldier assigned to a combat unit, but working in the gym.

TD - Other Borrowed soldiers, not meeting BMM definition could be TDA to TDA; MTOE to MTOE.
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Civilian Manpower Management System Objectives


Define key civilian manpower terms. Define and discuss the role of Civilian Pay Plan (CPP) and Civilian Employment Plan (CEP). Discuss Managing Civilian Budget (MCB) budget authority and position classification authority.
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Key Terms
Workyear Hirelag Overhire Overtime

Job Sharing
Job Splitting
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Type of Civilian Employees


Direct Hire U.S. (DHUS):
Full Time Permanent (FTP) Part Time Permanent (PTP) Temporary Full Time (TFT) Temporary Part Time (TPT) Seasonal/On-Call Term

Foreign Nation Direct Hire (FNDH) Foreign Nation Indirect Hire (FNIDH)
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Civilian Manpower Programs


END STRENGTH (PRIOR TO 1985) WORKYEARS (FY 93-?)

MANAGING CIVILIANS TO BUDGET (FY87 - ?) ANNUAL FINANCIAL TARGET (AFT) (FY85)

CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT LEVEL (FY 85-87)

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Managing Civilians to Budget (MCB)


Comprehensive. Business-oriented. Delegate authority:
Budget. Position classification. Responsibility. Accountability.

Baseline for modernization of civilian employment programs.


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Key MCB Terms


Civilian Pay Plan (CPP).
Civilian Employment Plan (CEP). Job Description.

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Responsibilities
Commander Program Budget Advisory Committee (PBAC)

Civilian Personnel Office (CPO)


Director Resource Management (DRM)

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)


Program Directors
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Terminal Learning Objective


Action: Identify the relationship between the manpower management process, the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES), and the personnel functions and responsibilities. Conditions: Given AR 570-4.

Standard: IAW AR 570-4 and instructional material presented.


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