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Computer Graphics(ecomputernotes.


Display Devices
Display Devices :- As we know that there are Several Display Devices those are used for displaying Results on Screen when Processing gets Completed: so for this Purpose we uses Monitors, Printers , Plotters , and Speakers for Displaying Results those are Processed after Processing. Among of them Monitors are Widely used for displaying Results. Monitors are based on Concept of Cathode Ray Tube. Generally there are two types of Monitors First Which are Similar to Televisions and Seconds are LCD or Liquid Crystal Display.

How Monitor Works :Every Monitor has a Electronic Gun which Creates or Emits a beam. A beam is also Called as Cathode Rays or Some signals. The Electronic Gun Always Fires Beam , after the Great Reflections this will conduct with the Phosphor which is Insulated at the Screen of Monitor . First When a Signal has Passes then Gun will Fires theses Signals Then after Many Reflections with this Tube this will Conduct to the Phosphor which is Coated with the Screen of Monitor . After the Conduction this will Emits Some Light on your Screen. Electron Gun in a CRT is Composed of a heated Metal Cathode and also with a Control Grid. Every Signal must be Passed from the Guns inner coil or Wire which is also Called as Filament and When a Signal has generated then this is the Control Grid which Specifies how much Reflection will be there and Accelerating Voltage Level. The Amount of Light or area for Display depends upon the Number of Strikes to the Phosphor System. There are two ways for Focusing either with Electronic Gun or With Magnetic Fields. Electronic Method is used in the Television and Monitors and For using the Magnetic Fields Some Special Lens are Focus outside the Devices and these are used for Small displays. There are two coils used by Electronic Beam those are Horizontal and Vertical in nature The One Pair is Placed opposite with Each other and Second Coil is Placed in Top and Bottom Places So Controlling the Deflection of Bean with Phosphor and For Controlling The Height and Width of Image. The Actual Size of Image Will Refers to the Number of Spots of Light on Screen. The Maximum Number of points that can be displayed without overlapping are Known as Resolutions. The Resolution can also be Measured as the Total Number of Points per Centimeters those are both Horizontally and Vertically in nature. The Resolution of CRT also depends upon 1) Type of Phosphor 2) Intensity or Amount to be Displayed by CRT 3) Focusing and Deflection of CRT Generally Resolution in high Quality is 1280 by 024 and The Resolution of Monitors also Depends upon the Size or Length of the Monitor , Now 12 inchdes to 27 inches Monitors are Available.

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Random Scan and Raster Scan Display In the Random Scan , the Beam is directed to that Portion of the Screen Where a Picture has to be drawn and in the Random Scan display only one Line of s Single Picture is drawn and due to this Reason this is also Called as the Vector Scan Display Random Scan display draw and Refresh the Picture after drawing and in this Refreshing of a Picture is depends upon the Number of Lines of a Picture. And For Displaying a Picture its Refresh display File is Maintained Which is also Called as display List and in this file it contains a set of Commands for that Picture that are to be Performed for drawing a Single Picture and The definition of a Single Picture is Stored in the Form of Commands because in the Random Scan Display Every Picture is drawn with the Help of the set of Lines and Always Remember that Random Scan display doesnt display a Picture which Contains a Shadow Scenes. Raster Scan Display Raster Scan display is based on the Television System in this, Picture is drawn in the Form of Rows. Means In the Raster Scan the beam directed to the Screen,one row at a Time and always from top to bottom and in this also a Refresh buffer is maintained which is also called as the Memory Area where all the definition of a Single Picture has Stored and Each Point of a Screen is also Called as Pixel or pel . The Raster Scan System is well suited for Drawing Pictures Which Contains Shadows and Colors. If there is a Picture which has only black and White display then only the Single bit is Required . In the Black and White Picture Intensity of Picture is Stored in the Form of Single Bit Means either a 1 which Indicates that beam is on and . Indicates that beam is off . But when we are talking about the Color Pictures then some extra bites are also required Color CRT Monitors CRT Monitors use Different Combination of Phosphors for displaying a Colorful Picture and A Colored Picture is always Generated by using the different Colored Lights those are Generated from various Colorful Phosphors. There are two Techniques are used for displaying a Color CRT Display :1)

Beam Penetration Method:- Generally Beam Penetration Method is used in the Random Scan Monitors which draw a Single Line at a Time and There are only two types of Phosphors Like Red and Green , these both Phosphors are coated onto the inside of the CRT Screen and display of a Picture is depends upon the, Amount of Speed in which beam directed with Phosphor. In this first the very high Speed beam is directed with the Red Layer which is also Called as the Outer Layer of the Screen and then after Reflection this will reflect with the Inner green Layer so that the Color Which is Generated from the Beam is depends upon the Voltage Level in which Beam is Directed with Outer Layer Because Inner Layer directed only with the Slow Speed Signals. Picture Quality of these Methods is very Lowe because there are only two Layers Red and Green and all the Colors are Generated from these Two Layers.

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Shadow Mask Method :- The Shadow Mask Method is used for Producing very high Quality Pictures in this wide Range of Colors are used and in this CRT has three Color Phosphors Like Red , Green and Blue. These are used for Generating a Single Point by using these three Points. These types of CRT Contains three different Electronic gun , or we can Say that Every Color is Generated from these three Colors and these types of CRT Contains Electronic gun of each color. When a Request of drawing Some Picture is Received then the dots from these guns are Produced after the Reflection on to the Screen We Can also turned off a Phosphor if we wants to display a Single Color Graphic Means if we wants to display a Green Color Picture then we will turned off both the Red and blue Color Graphics. So for displaying any Color we can also Generate the Image from two or More Phosphors. So that Color CRT Systems are also Called as RGB Monitors because they use Shadow Mask Method and these RGB System has a higher Resolution in Compare to black and White Monitors.

Direct view Storage Tubes

Direct view Storage tubes Removes the Problem of Refreshing As we know that Every Time This will Refresh the Picture after Producing a Single Line but the help of DVST there is no need of Refreshing and all the Picture definition is Stored inside the CRT. All the information about the Picture is Stored in the direct view Storage tube which is just behind the Phosphor . in this two guns are used . First which stores the Picture Pattern and second maintains the picture display. As we know that there are Some advantage of using the DVST Means we have need to Refresh the picture Each time and very high Resolution Pictures can be displayed with the help of these System but there are also Some Limitations of DVST , First tit doesnt Display any color Picture and Second by using these System we cant Choose or Erase Specific Area of a Single Picture.

Flat Panel Displays

Flat Panel displays refers to the Class of video devices which has Reduced Size and Volume , weight and power requirements as compare to the CRT Monitors. The Main Feature of Flat Panel CRT is that they are thinner from the ordinary CRT Systems and we cal also hang them on wall and now they are available in the Form of TV Monitors, Calculators and also for Pocket video Games and also in Airlines . Display of flat Panels is also Divided into two Categories those are as Follows :1) Emissive Display :- These are the devices which Converts the Electrical Signals into Light. Examples of these Display are Plasma Panels, thin-film electro luminescent or Shining and Light Emitting diodes. 2) Non-Emissive Display :- These are the display System which uses optical Lights and they Convert Sunlight or Light Which Comes from other Source into the other Graphics Patterns. Plasma Panels also Called as gas discharge display and they are constructed by using the two glass plates and the Gap or Region between them is filled with a

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mixture of gases but usually neon gas is used. When the Voltage has Passed then both the Horizontal and Vertical conductors are intersect and With the help of Refresh buffer which Contains the definition of Picture , Voltage fires to that Pixel Position at they intersect with Each other They are used for displaying both color and gray style displays. Thin-Film Electro Luminescent are also Similar with the Plasma Panel But the Difference between them is that in this Gap between the horizontal and vertical Plates is filled with a phosphor which could be Zinc Sulfide and This will requires more Power for displaying and this can display a Image in the Form of gray and Color graphics. Light Emitting diodes and Liquid Crystal Display LED: - This is also a Emissive Technology Which Contains a Matrix of diodes those are arranged on the Screen as the Pixel Position. And the Picture definition is Stored in the Refresh buffer and when information is Read from the refresh buffer and then it is Converted into the Voltage Levels and it is applied to diodes which produce the light Pattern in the Display. LCD: - Liquid Crystal Display, these are also called as Small System and these are used in Small things such as Calculators, and Laptop Computers They are nonemissive devices which produces a picture by passing Polarized Light or Packets of Light from a Source through a Liquid Crystal Material. Hard Copy Devices: - The Hard Copy Devices are used for drawing images in several formats and we can also send these image files to any Slides and to any Presentations. We can either print a Picture with the Help of printer and plotter The Quality of images is depends on the number of dots per inch or Number of Lines that a device can produce . As if a device contains a number of dots then quality of that device will be better . Generally there are two types of printers those are impact and Non-impact. Impact Printers are those which strikes characters against the Ribbon for Printing and there is some hammering Action in them for Example dot Matrix Printer, chain printer, band printers are Examples of Impact Printers Non-impact Printers are those which uses Spray Method for Printing or in those printers no hammering action is performed and Examples of Non-impact Printers are ink-jet , laser printer etc. 1) Character or Impact Printer :- the Impact Printers are also known as dot Matrix Printers and the Print head of that Printers contains a number of pins and Number of pins determines the quality of printers 2) Laser Printer :- Laser Printers are those printers which first heats a Paper , for heating a entire paper a drum is used which Rotates the Paper and heat that Paper and then Toner is applied i.e. Ink is sprayed on that Paper , Then the heated area is Printed 3) Ink-jet Printer:- The Ink Jet Printer is that which Produces the output by Squirting ink or Spraying ink in horizontal form . In this first a Paper is heated and then Ink will be Sprayed on that heated Printer. This will Print the Paper

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by using Small Pots of Inks and Quality of that Printers I very high hey contains a 360 dots per inch 4) Electrostatic Printers are those which works According to the Electric Voltage . Before Printing this printer first Charge that Printer by using the Negative Voltage and When this will Pass to the Printer , the Printer will charge it with the Positive So that where it finds the Negative Voltage this will Print a character at that Position and this is also based on heat Sensitive Paper Method. Printers are used for Producing Graphics on Small Pages or Printers are used where small Images or Small graphics are used but Plotters are used in that Situation when Large Objects or Graphics are to be Produced For Example Maps, Large Images etc. Plotters contains various Pens having different Colors and there are variety of styles those are to be Made Possible with Plotters. They are used for Generating High Quality Graphics. There is Cross bar in the Plotter which Move the sheet of paper and Plotter Moves the Paper o to the drum and Pen also Moves to that sheet and Sheet is Electrically Charged and Pen Draw the object in all possible colors.