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EMPLOYEE HEALTH AND SAFETY AT VERKA MILK PLANT Bathinda Submitted to:Mr.

Shyam Sunder Pal


(HOD)

Submitted by:Karamjeet Kaur


MBA 3rd SEM Uni. Roll No. 100842246266

Aklia Group of Institutions Aklia Kalan


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(BATHINDA)

STUDENT DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project report entitled, ''Employee Health And Safety at Verka Milk Plant, Bathinda submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Administration to Aklia engineering & Management technology Aklia kalan (bathinda) is my original work and not submitted for the award of other degree, diploma,fellowship, or any other similar title.

prize. Place:
Karamjeet kaur dhillon

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

If words are considered as a symbol of approval and token of appreciation then let the words play the heralding role of expressing my gratitude. I am greatly indebted to Shri.shyam sunder pal., General Manager for giving metheopportunity to undertake the training in Verka. Wo rds can never express my feelings towards, Mrs. Loveleen kaur for their help for directing and encouraging me throughout the training. I am greatly obliged to our HOD and all the lecturers of MBA department for their guidance which helped me a lot for completing my Project Report and those who directly and indirectly helped me to do my project work successfully. I would like incomplete without expressing whole hearted thanks to all my friends who have been the constant resource of encouragement and support throughout this project. Above all it is the grace of God which has led and blessed me all the way in my life to make this work a fruitful one.

Karamjeet kaur

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PREFACE

The main purpose of summer training is to supplement the theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge. This report is an endeavor to assimilate and put towards all the knowledge and experience that I have got during the training period in Verka milk plant India Limited (Bathinda factory).An employ spends about 8 hours at the place of work during any working day. He must be provided with such types of facilities which will maintain his health and keep him interested in his work. It is the responsibility of every management to ensure workers health and safety. Healthy working conditions and industrial safety are directly related to the efficiency of the worker that is why I have chosen this topic for the summer training. The research during the summer training is going to play a very important role in developing self-confidence for my future. The knowledge gained from the training done in Verka India Limited (Bathinda factory) is a lifetime experience that I will treasure forever. I have described the Health & Safety provisions in Verka Milk Plant Limited (Bathinda factory) in this summer training report. This training paves the way to know about the detailed overview of how importan t healthy & safe workng conditions are for a company as well as for the employees and the provisions of factory act (1948).

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Contents
Sr no.
1. 2.

chapter
Employees health

Page no.

3.

Introduction to Employees health & safety Data analysis & Interpretation

4. 5. 6. 7.

Research Methodology Finding & Conclusion Suggestions & reccomndation Bibliography books

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MISSION

The milk plant has become less and future is looking hard. The milk plant is still standing ahead and not loosing courage. To meet the global competition milkfed bathinda has taken steps in the field of advertisement of products and has set aside Rs, 1 crore for this purpose. 1. Providing improved technical input services to farmers. 2. Setting up big commercial farms. 3. More stress on clean milk production programme. 4. Rural women empowerment. 5. Massive women empowerment. 6. Strengthing market base with specific stress on consumer market. 7. Dynamic enhancement in Verka product mix.

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Verka milk plant Bathinda

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Milk Plant Bathinda was commissioned in September, 1974 with a total outlay of Rs. 1.6 Corers by The Pb. Dairy Dev. Corporation limited. It was one of the select co-operatives that were covered under the Operation Flood-1 Programmers. Subsequently on Ist March, 1980, it was handed over by the State Govt. to The Punjab State Co-operatives milk Producers federation Ltd. (MILKFED) which is an apex level organization of milk producers operative in the State. Further to this development, the Milk Plant was handed over to The Bathinda District Co-operative Milk Producers Union Ltd.( registered in the year 1978 under Punjab co-operative Act.) on 1st January 1988. Milk Plant set up with a twin objective of providing remunerative milk market to the milk

producers in this area and also supply good quality milk products to the consumers at reasonable rates and also marketing of milk producers at village level.

The Union has a processing capacity of 100TLPD and drying capacity of 6.2 MTD.It also owns four Milk Chilling Centres namely Rampura(15TLPD), Talwandi Sabo(10TLPD), Bhikhi (15TLPD) and sardulgarh (20TLPD). In addition the union has hired ice factory Bhagta with a capacity of 20TLPD. Milk and Milk products are prepared asper the norms by pasteurizing the milk and others required process to fulfill the target/norms as per the market demand. Milk plan also got ISO-9001:2000 with HACCP (as per IS: 15000: 98) and also approved by the Export Inspection Agency New Delhi for export the milk products. Milk products having standards norms of PFA/BIS/EGG MARK and our prescribed specification if

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International Standards for export of ghee and Milk Powder to Dubai and Middle East Countries. Products : - (BRAND-VERKA)

Milk Ghee Skimmed Milk Powder Whole Milk Powder Table Butter Paneer Khoa S.F.M. Milk Cake

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Chapter- 1
EMPLOYEES HEALTH
INTRODUCTION Various human resource development techniques may not help inachieving organizational development, unless the persons wor king in theorganization are healthy. Professional efficiency, good health andproductivity are interrelated. Good he alth can promote high labour morale andproductivity i.e. a healt hy worker can work full time and has a greater productivity pote ntial. Good health is also associated with better capabilityand leadership. Good health leads topositive attitudes. It is conductive to economic growth and modernization. The people with good health are generally enthusiastic and try to achieve higher and higher goals in life.

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MEANING OF HEALTH
Health is a stage of complete physical, mental and social well be ing and notmerely the absence of any disease. A person is considered healthy if he is well adjusted to the environment in which he works. According to the joint I.L.O/W.H.O committee on organizati onalHealth, industrial health is (i) the prevention and maintenance of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations (ii) prevention among workers of ill health caused by the working conditions (iii) protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors averseto health and (iv) Placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physical and psychological equipment. The World Health Organization (WHO) Defines health As a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease of disease or infirmity.

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OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL HEALTH


The basic objective of industrial health is the prevention of disease and injury rather than the cure of the disease. Claude veil has specified the following objectives of industrial health: 1.)The prevention and maintenance of the highest degree of the physical mental and social well being of workers. 2.)The prevention of factors which make for ill health in their working conditions. 3.) The protection of workers in their occupations from risks aris ingfrom factors which are adverse to the maintenance for the health. 4.) The placing and maintenance of worker in an occupationalen vironment which is adapted to his psychological and physicaleq uipment and the adaptation of work to man on his job.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF INDUSTRIAL HEALTH


According to Labour Bureau, Government of India one the one hand, efficiency in work is possible only when an employee is healthy: on the other the industry (in which he is employed) exposes him to certain hazards which he would not meet elsewhere and which may affect his health. It is with the intention of reducing these hazards and improving the workers health that the discipline of industrial health came into being as a branch of public health in its own right.The industrial health is significant because of the following reasons:(i) To maintain and improve productivity and quality of work. (ii) To minimize absenteeism and labour turnover. (iii) To reduce industrial unrest, indiscipline and accidents. (iv) To improve employee motivation and morale. (v) To reduce spoilage and cost of operations. (vi) To preserve the physical and mental health of employees.

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PRESENT STATE OF HEALTH IN INDIA


In India, the Royal commission on labour (1931), the labour investigation committee (1946), the health survey and development committee (1943), the labour welfare committee (1969) and national commission on labour (1969) all emphasized upon the creation and maintenance of as healthy an environment as possible, in the homes of thepeople as well as in all places where they congregate for work, amuse ment or recreation as essential.The government of India, since independence has taken several steps to protect the health of the workers. The government has enacted several labour legislations protecting the health of the industrial workers. Such legislations are the factories act 1948, the mines act 1952, the Indian dock laborers act 1934, the motor transport workers act 1961. The coal mines(conservation and safety act),1952 etc. Under these acts, several pr ovisions of the concerned acts.

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THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948


Section 11-20 of the act contains provisions to ensure that theconditions under which the workers have to work in fac tories do not have anadverse effect on their health. These provisions are as discussed below:1. cleanliness (sec.11). According to sec. 11, the factory shall be kept cleanand free from foul smell arising form any drain, toilet or any other nuisance.Dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or washing the floor, benches, stair sand passages. The floor of every work room shall be cleaned at least once a week by washing, using disinfectants where necessary or by some other effective method. Where a floor becomes wet during themanufacturing process, effective means of drainage shall be pr ovided for. Allinside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of the rooms and all walls, side sand tops of passages and staircases shall be kept white washed, colour washed or painted as the case may be from time to time as per provisions of the act. All doors and window frames and other wooden or metallic frame work and shutters and shall be kept painted or varnished and painting or varnishing shall be carried out a least once in ever five years.

Disposal of wastes and effluents.


According to sec 12, effective arrangement shall be made in every factor for the disposal of wastes arising dueto the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to make them h armless. The state government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be made in this regard.

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1. Ventilation and temperature.


According to sec 13, every factory must provide for in every work room adequate ventilation by the circulation of freshair. It will also ensure in the work room such a temperature as will secure toworkers therein reasonable conditions of co mfort and prevent injury to health.Thus the walls and roofs of the work rooms shall be of such material and design as are helpful to keep the temperature and make rules providing for the keepingof thermometer in supecified places and the adoption of meth od which willkeep the temperature low.

2. Dust and fume


. According to sec 14, effective arrangements must bemade in every factory for the prevention of the inhalation or accumula tion of may be injurious to the health of the workers. If any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose it shall be installed as near as possible to the point of the dust, fume or other impurity. No internal combustion engine which is stationary shall be operated unless its exhaust is conducted into the open air.

3. Artificial humidification
According to sec 15, in respect of all thefactories, in which the humidity of air is artificially increased, the stategovernment may rules regarding the permissible standards of humidity, tests for

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COMPANY PROFILE
Verka is Co-Operative Company and is former oriented autonomous or organization b a s e d o n C o O p e r a t i v e p a t t e r n . I t i s t h e k i n g o f P u n j a b R e g i o n a s f a r a s M i l k Procurement is concerned. Its daily Milk production is around 2.00 lacks liters per day on an average and that is why huge amount of Milk production has become its core competency. It produces many daily products."MILKFED" is a group of Milk Union established under operation flood program as the implementing agency by the government of bathinda and near places.

The first Verka milk plant established in Punjab


1.First Milk Plant, of the state was setup at Verka near Amritsar. 2.The brand name of milk and milk products was adopted as Verka. 3. The foundation stone of milk plant, Ludhiana was laid by Hon. S. Parkash Singh Badal, then the chief minister of Punjab in 1970. 4.Commissioning of the plant was done by Punjab D a i r y D e v e l o p m e n t Corporation in 1974. 5. Inauguration was done by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi then the Prime Minister of India. 6. Village level cooperative societies were also formed on Anand Pattern. The system was run by the farmers and for the farmers.

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HISTORY AND PRESENT POSITION OF VERKAA. HISTORY OF VERKA The company has been well known by its brand name "VERKA" especially In Punjab . bathinda Milk Plant was set up in year 19711972 to meet the milk initially. But it was not able to fulfill the growing requirements of Bathinda City. Due to this reason another plant set up in September 1980 at BATHINDA (Punjab), which his adjoining to city bathinda.

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MEDICAL FACILITIES AND DISPENSERY


The company covers the medical expenses of permane n t e m p l o y e e s . A l l t h e permanent employees are having health insurance for him and spouse the company will bear 60% charges. The company pays Rs 25000/- if the employee gets admitted in the hospital and pay Rs 11500/- if spouse or children get admitted. Apart from this Rs 25000/ are given for routine checkups. Apart from a l l t h i s e a c h a n d e v e r y permanent employees full body checkups and tests are done free of cost in CMC Hospital Bathinda. This checkup includes about 35 tests. These tests are done every year.

DISPENSERY
The verka provides medical facilities to the employees with ESI ( employee state insurance).The dispensery equipped to provide for the treatment of minor ailments and first aid in case of accident .The dispensary performs routine checkups .the health record of the employees is kept on the medical card and is kept with the dispensary including the blood group The main objective of the Verka Dispensary is to provide free first aid and health care facilities to the employees who are prone to many hazards while working .The Company provides medical and health care facilities to its employees in many ways. All the departments are equipped with first aid boxes. In case of any minor injury the employees can take the necessary medicines from the first aid box. The stock of dispensary is ordered for six months in advance and the monthly stock is received on the first day of every month .more .Than 50 types of medicines are received every month for the medical treatment of employees . The monthly closing

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SERVICES PROVIDED BY DISPENSARY


There are so many facilities which are provided to the employees by the dispensary services of the Verka Company.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

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60-60 First aid boxes are placed at different locations in each department for emergency cases after the working hours of the Company and for the holidays. These first aid boxes are filled with cotton, bandages, ointments and medicines daily by the authorized persons and almost all the employees are satisfied from the facility. There are about 80-100 trained first-aiders cum workers in every department who provide help in giving first aid to the required person in odd hours because the dispensary service is not available for the night shifts. Because of greenery and plants sometimes snake can come and bite any employee The Company provides free treatment for snake bite cases by specially bought snake bite kits for the welfare of the employees. The company provides medical scheme for hospitalization and covers about60 hospitals (inside and outside Bathinda district) under this scheme to provide benefits to the employees and reimburse the medical expenses. The dispensary is equipped with ambulance facility to carry the injuredemp loyee from different departments and also to take them to the nearby hospital if the case is out of control for them. There is a bed inside the dispensary where the injured person can be laid. There is provision of eye sight checking in the d i s p e n s a r y w h e r e t h e employees can check their eye sight.

8. During night shifts there is provision of ambulance to take the injured or sick employee to the hospital with in the area of 100 meter

RATIONALE OF GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS


Working conditions have attracted a great deal of attention of managements of business and other organizations in the recent years. There are two basic reasons for this .Firstly, the growth rate of trade union movement has compelled the managements to provide better working conditions to the employees, Secondly, en lighted managements realize the significance of better working conditions facilities to employees for achieving greater productivity and efficiency in the organization. An employ spends about 8 hours at the place of work during any working day. He must be provided with such types of facilities which will maintain his health and keep him interested in his work there are many repercussions of not providing good working facilities to the employees. Firstly, the employee will not be able to concentrate on his work .Secondly; he will not feel like he is putting his best if the working conditions are not good. Thirdly, bad working conditions will tell upon the health of an average employ .fourthly there will be higher rate of absenteeism. And labour turnover. Finally, there will be wastage of resources of the organization because of lower efficiency. The quality of work will also deteriorate. To avoid these types of bad effects the management should provide good working conditions to the workers. There are mainly three type of working conditions in which the workers have to work. These are:Page3

(1) Physical Environment (2) Mental Environment &

(3) Social Environment. All these means that surroundings in which the workers have to work .Physical environment includes physical factors prevalent within the factory. Mental environment means the stress regarding the work load. Favorable mental environment create satisfaction among the workers. And social environment means the relations of management with the employees. Thus the should be provided with healthy and safe working conditions to the workers.

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CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYEE HEALTH & SAFETY

PROJECT INTRODUCTION 2.1 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT WORKING CONDITIONS;OR HEALTHY

It is essential to ensure favorable working conditions so that the workers can perform their tasks without experiencing physical or mental strain. Some of the conditions surrounding a worker as he does his job and affecting his physical well being and thus his efficiency, are as under:

1) CLEANLINESS 2) LIGHTING 3)TEMPERATURE AND VENTILATION 4)FREEDOM FROM NOISE 5) DUST 6)WORKING SPACE AND SEATING ARRANGEMENT 1)CLEANLINESS:
It is essential for health. Dust should be removed daily from all rooms, passage and stair-cases. Sufficient spittoons should be provided at convenient places and should be kept hygienic, properly cleaned and disinfected.

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2) LIGHTING:
Good lighting can facilitate higher production. It is essential to the health, safety, and efficiency of workers. Without proper lighting, eye damage will occur, accident and spoilage of material will increase and production will slow down. The efficiency of workers directly depends on his ability to see the objects accurately and quickly. Thus, lighting must be adequate and free from defects.

3) TEMPERATURE AND VENTILATION:


The employees must be provided to livable temperature if they are to work efficiently. Their efficiency is bound to suffer if the temperature of the work place is either too high or too low. Steps should be taken to ensure flow of fresh air having right temperature and humidity. proper ventilation is necessary to ensure the circulation of fresh air and remove congestion in the plant.If the ventilation arrangement is not provided, the air will become stale and the employees will feel tired and sleepy. This will reduce their efficiency. Electric fans, circulate fresh air and exhaust fans expel the stale air.

4) FREEDOM FROM NOISE:


Noise may be defined as an unwanted sound in or outside the factory. It has an adverse effect on the minds of employees staff and tells upon their efficiency. It is source of distribution to the employees and does not allow them to work with concentration. Therefore, it is essential to keep noise under Control . There are two types of noise, namely, internal and external. Internal noise is caused by conversation, running of machines, movement of workers, clerks, peons and visitors through corridors. Noise is also created by incoming and outgoing telephone calls. Internal noise can be controlled more easily as compared to external noise. External noise comes from outside the factory premises. It enters through doors, windows, and ventilators. The external noise cannot be eliminated. But

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sound proof walls, double doors, and glass panes can be used to prevent the external noise from entering the premises.

5) DUST:
In certain areas or regions, the ratio of dust in the atmosphere is quite high. When dust enters the factory, it effects the health of the employees adversely. Dust also reduces the life of various machines and equipments. Therefore it is essential to check the entry of dust into the factory premises. It may be difficult to check entry of dust into the factory. Dust should be cleaned quite regularly because it not only pollutes the environment but also has an adverse impact on the intensity of light.

7) WORKING SPACE AND SEATING ARRANGEMENT


Adequate space should be provided for workers, materials, tools and equipments for their free and unhindered movement from one machine or process to another. There should also be enough seating arrangement for the workers.

ARTIFITIAL HUMIDATION (SEC.15)


In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the state government may make rules: a)prescribing standards of humidification; b)regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air; c)directing prescribed tests for determining the h u m i d i t y o f t h e a i r t o b e correctly carried out and

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recorded; prescribing method to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation ) and cooling of the air in the workrooms In Verka most of the factory places are air conditioned there is c e n t r a l A i r conditioner in the factory and proper exhaustion system is there in all the production area of the factory. 6. OVERCROWDING (SEC.16): 1. No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.2. Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in everyworkroom of a factory in the existence on the date of the commencement of this act at least three hundred fifty cubic feet of space for every worker employed therein, and for the purpose of this subsection, no account shall be taken of any space which is more than fourteen feet above the level of the floor of the room In Verka
all the production areas are quite special and there is not any sort of overcrowding in the production areas. There is also the proper seating

arrangement in the productions areas. Apart from this there are rest rooms where they can rest.

7. LIGHTING (SEC. 17):


1.In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.2.In every factory, effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of;a ) G l a r e , either directly from a source of light or by reflection from smooth or polished surface; b)The

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formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye strain or the risk of accident to any worker. In Verka the lighting system is very good. There is proper arrangement of lightdur ing day and night. Tube lights are fitted along with the reflectors witch increases the light very much. There is contract with the contractors who will time to time check the tube lights and replace the defected ones 8. DRINKING WATER (SEC.18): 1.In every factory, effective arrangements shall b e m a d e t o p r o v i d e a n d maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. 2.All such points shall be legibly marked drinking w a t e r i n a l a n g u a g e understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory, and no such point shall be situated within twenty feet of any washing place, urinal or latrine unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the chief inspector. 3.In every factory wherein more than two hundred a n d f i f t y w o r k e r s a r e ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof. In Verka there is proper provision of drinking water for the employees. In each and every production area pure drinking water tapes are there. In summer season there is provision of cold drinking water. Disposable glasses are used for drinking the water.
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9. LATRINES AND URINALS (SEC.19):

In every factory: a)Sufficient latrines and urinals accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times while they are at the factory; b)Separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers; c)Such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, d)All such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary conditional all times; e)Sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty w o u l d b e t o k e e p c l e a n latrines, urinals, and washing places. In Verka there is provision of Toilets in different areas of the factory. For female workers there three toilets in different areas one in main office and other two in the social blocks. These Toilets are kept neat and clean. There is weekly checking of cleanliness in the toilets. 10. SPITTOONS (SEC.20): In every factory, there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition. SAFETY Safety is very important part of any organization in this present era. So Bathinda also takes care of this very aspect to save its employees as well as to maintain the safety level in company premises. Safety Officer gives training related to safety precautions to the employees and also to the Trainees. Keeping in view the nature of the job and activities performed, safety of employees

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assumes a critica l role observance of safety rules and practices is theresponsib ility of all Verka employees. An unsafe act of one employee endangers other, as well as himself. Therefore, certain safety rules have been developed for all the plants. Every newcomer is required to acquaint them self with these norms. For certain operations, as per the safety norms, the employees are required to use appropriate Protective Equipment. E.g. Safety shoes, Gloves, Goggles, Safety Belts, Face Shields, Aprons etc. each employee must use this protective equipments for his own safety and for safety of other around. As entry is restric ted in certain dangerous and hazardous areas, the employee must acquaint himself with all such places. SAFETY DEPARTMENT In Verka India Limited Mohali Factory there is a separate Safety Departmenthaving four members. One H.O.D., two operators and one engineer. This SafetyDepartment performs all the functions regarding safe ty assurance. They give the safety education to the employees, check the guarding of the machinery, make regular inspection of the plant, provide proper clothing the employees and make the safety program. The Safety department work for the maintenance of the plant. If there some defect in the machines safety offices makes the inspection and change the worn out parts if there is some delay in the replacing they tell the workers to take more precautions. Safety department has placed hoardings in the various parts of the factory to give safety education to the workers.

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SAFETY IN INDUSTRY

It is the responsibility of every management to ensure workers safety while they areat work. Safety measures not only result in reduced industrial accidents but also raiseindustrial efficiency. Therefore, employers should lay emphasis on safety measures intheir plants. Industrial Safety measures include precautionary steps to be taken by themanagement of an enterprise in order to prevent accidents. Thus, accident preventionis the main objective of any safety program. Accidents in industry cause damage to property and life. (a) What is an Industrial Accident?

An industrial accident is an unexpected occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to one or more persons. Under the factories act, 1948, an industrial accident has been defined as, an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person who make him unfit to resume his duties in the next48 hours. In other words, it is an unexpected event and is always sudden. (b) CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS We may classify the causes of industrial accidents into four categories as follows: a)Inherent hazards b)Collision c)Slip or fall on floors and stair-casings d)Miscellaneous causes

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a) INHERENT HAZARDS:

There are many jobs in industries which are highly prone to accidents. Coal mining, marine transport, qu arry and construction areconsidered more dangerous industries as compared to communication, banking and tobacco industries.

b) COLLISION: This takes place when: 1. There are inadequate lighting arrangements, 2.Furniture and equipments are placed improperly, 3.Edges of equipment are not properly covered, and 4.Cabinet drawers are left open c) SLIP OR FALL ON FLOORS AND STAIR-CASINGS: This happens when: 1.The floor and staircases are wet with water, soap or oily substance, 2.The floor is highly polished and slippery, 3The floor is covered with carpets and the carpets are torn or loose, 4.The telephone cables trail on the floor, and 5.There is lack of proper lighting. d) MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES:
Sometimes, accidents occur due to: 1.Excessive noise, 2.Lack of cleanliness, 3.Leaking of electric cables, 4.Either very high or very low temperature, 5.Industrial fatigue, 6.Machines operating at a high speed,

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7.Poor health of the workers, and 8.Age and experience of the workers. EFFECTS OF ACCIDENTS:-

Accidents have disastrous effects on the organization, the employees and thesocietya t l a r g e . A c c i d e n t s p r o v e c o s t l y f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s w o r k e r s h a v e t o b e compensated and machinery has to be repaired. Besides, lost man days of the affected Workers and cost of training of new worker further burden the cost of production. Employees also suffer adversely from accidents. They face mental and psychological shock, more so when they or their colleagues become physically disabled. Accidents have demoralizing effect on the workers. Their morale is lowered. Moreover, the rates of absenteeism and labor turnover go up. Industrial accidents affect the health of the workers adversely. Sometimes they also affect the general public adversely. The Bhopal Gas Leak tragedy in 1985 is a case in point. Thousands of people were killed and several thousand became disabled in this accident. Thus, efforts should be avoid industrial accidents in the interest of workers, employers and the society at large.

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH &SAFETY POLICY:-

In line with the Corporate Verka policy on Occupational Health and Safety at work, we at Verka

the

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India Ltd. Bathinda, regard people as our most valuable asset and place the highest priority on protecting them. As an integral part of managing the business, all Verka Managers are accountable for managing workplace occupational health and safety with demonstrated leadership, motivation and

participation. Employees at all levels are responsible to work in a safe manner to prevent injury and ill- health to themselves and their coworkers.We drive our value-based occupational health and safety culture for continualimprovement in our OH&S performance by 1. Conducting risk assessments and take appropriate prev entive actions tominimize residual risk to human health and safety. 2. Promoting safe acts and correcting unsafe acts 4. Ensuring compliance with all relevant legal and other requirements pertaining to occupational health and safety. 5. A c t i v e l y e n g a g i n g o u r e m p l o y e e s a n d o t h e r s t a k e h o l d e r s t o d r i v e implementation of all elements of our Bathinda Occupational Health and safety Management System through consultation ,communication and participation at all levels E d u c a t i n g , t r a i n i n g a n d e q u i p p i n g s t a f f a t a l l l e v e l s t o e n s u r e t h e y a r e empowered to prevent unsafe situations/ behaviors and to respond promptly to unexpected events. 6. Setting targets and monitoring our management systems.
7.

Fostering communication with all stakeholders.W e u n d e r s t a n d o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h i r d p a r t i e s i n managing safety. We enforce our H&S policy on the third parties operating at our sites and encourage our suppliers and contractors to follow similar standard

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MEASURES FOR ENSURING INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

There should be a Safety Director in every industrial under taking to design andoperate the safety program. The basic objective of the safety program should be safety and security of the lives, health and welfare of the workers employed therein. The following precautionary steps may be adopted to prevent accidents in the industries:1 ) S a f e t y C o m m i t t e e 2)Safety Training 3)Materia l Handling Equipments 4)Guarding of machines 5)Maintenance of plant 6)Regular Inspection 7)Equipment Redesign 8)Proper Clothing 9)Clean Floors 10) Safety Campaign

SAFETY COMMITTEE :-

Safety committee may be constitu ted in every plant. It should consist of the representatives of both the management and the w o r k e r s . A l l t h e s a f e t y p r o g r a m s s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e s a f e t y committee. In Verka there is provision of the safety committee. Safety committee is constituted of 16 members. It has at least one person from one department these persons are the representatives of the particular department. The member of safety committee can consult with there is any problem regarding the safety. 2. SAFETY TRAINING:The supervisors should train the new employees in safety methods. The possible causes of accidents should be explained to the new employees and they should be taught habits and motions that will keep them out of danger. Training proformans should also be designed for the supervisors.

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In verka safety training is given to the employees during induction program. the employees are introduced with the common safety measures which include fire fighting instructions, accidental safety etc. Besides this when the worker is employed in particular and specific training is given to the employees. 3 MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS:Material handling equipments should be installed to carry bulky materials from one place to another no worker may be required to lift or carry heavy load which may cause injury. In verka there is proper provision of material handling equipment. Small cranes are there to carry the raw material to the production area tailing the finished products to the warehouse. There is also the provision of big cranes to carry the containers. There are of two types one is EQT which can lift other one is RMG which can lift 40 tones.

4. Guarding of machines:Safety guard should be designed constructed and used to protection prevent access to the danger zones during operations avoid inconvenience in operations and given protection against unforeseen contingencies. These are in the form of hard insulated covers provided to the moving or rotating parts of machines. In verka there is proper guarding of the machinery. Safety department considers HIRA(hazard identification & risk analysis) for the guarding of the machinery . the machines guarding is done in such a way that the machines may not causes any harm to the workers. 5 MAINTENANCE OF PLANT:The plant should be maintained in good condition. All objects likely to obetruct the passages meant for movement by workers should be removed. Passages should not be used to store goods or materials. Dry, clean and ventilated store

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rooms with suitable racks, shelves, etc. should be provided for keeping electrical and keeping other hazardous equipment. In Verka there is Continuous Development & Maintenance Program which isconsidered for the maintenance of the plant. Under this there is proper maintenance of the plant. 6) REGULAR INSPECTION: There should be regular inspection of machines and equipment and electricity cables to check any leakage. In Verka There is provision of regular inspection by the safety department. Safety department make regular inspection of different production departments. The time period is different for different machines. Some machines are inspected quarterly some are inspected half yearly and some are inspected once in a year. Overall we can say that all machines are inspected at least once in a year.

7) EQUIPMENT REDESIGN :Industria l engineers should be engaged toimprove the manmachine system. Equipment, machinery and work procedur esshould be redesigned to cut down accident rate. In Verka there is a separate Engineering Department which works for redesigning the old machines. The old machines are replaced with new ones when are not working p r o p e r l y . I n c a s e i f t h e m a c h i n e s a r e n o t g o i n g t o b e r e p l a c e d s o o n t h e s a f e t y precautions for the workers are increased.
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8) PROPER CLOTHING:

T h e w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d w i t h p r o p e r clothing and other protective things such as hand gloves, masks, helmets, safety footwear, etc. while at work. The clothing should serve a dual purpose of providing convenience as well as protection at work. The use of articles made of inflammable material must be prohibited while working on operations that involve risk of fire. Chemicals should be carefully handled. In Verka full sleeve uniforms are provided to the workers. For the workers working in laboratories aprons are provided. All the uniforms and aprons are made of pure cotton and are skin friendly.

9) CLEAN FLOORS :There should be no trailing of telephone cables on the floors. Floors, passages and stares must be kept clear of obstructions.

In Verka
Cleaning system is very good. If there is something dropped on the floor, the floor is immediately cleaned. So that workers may not slip or any harm is caused to them. 10) SAFETY CAMPAIGN :Safety program must be given a wide publicity through posters and hoardings. Work Safety and Safely Saves are illustrations of the slogans which may be displayed at critical points. Safety contests may also be held between the plants as a part of the safety campaign. Plant with lowest accident rate may be given some reward. In Verka safety program is given wild publicity. Hoardings are placed in every corner of the factory so that the workers may remain conscious about the safety. These hoardings contain instructions about the safety. Apart from this Safety Day and fire service day are celebrated to promote safety. th Safety day i s c e l e b r a t e d o n 4 March.On this day various competition s regarding safety are conducted like

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quiz competition, safety posters making, slogans etc. the workers can give their suggestions regarding the safety. Playsare conducted regarding safety; rounds are taken i n different departments handling mashall or flags in hands. Sometimes this celebration goes on for a week or even a month. Fire service day is celebrated on 14th April. This day is celebrated to give the information to the workers about how to handle the situation of fie. Like the safety day the completions are conducted but only regarding the fire. BBS(Behavior Based Safety) program are conducted. There is mock drill on the fire service day Thus the safety department properly takes care of the safety of the workers and p r o m o t e s t h e s a f e t y t h r o u g h t h e c a m p a i g n . I t g i v e t h e p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n t o t h e employees The department not only spend on safety education, but also provide necessary safety equipments and maintain them in good working order.

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SAFETY EDUCATION

A Safety education program, designed to spread safety con sciousness among allincluding executives, supervisors, and operative employees, is necessary and it must have complete support of top management. Safety education may be imparted via posters, bulletin boards, house organs, displays, cartoons, slogans, signs, and safety films. The employer must not only spend on safety education, but also provide necessary safety equipments and maintain them in good working order. Every new employee must be given safety training in the first week of his joining and the old employees must be provided with retraining. The safety office plays a vital role in promoting safety consciousness through safety education and training. T.O. Armstrong has outlined five elements of a safety training program whi ch are asfollows:1.A safe method of performing each job operation or sequence of operations is developed and described in simple but adequate detail.2.The various hazard points are brought to light and described together with the relationship

between these and the various steps in safety method.3.The teaching is systematic and thorough. In the somewhat idiomatic English of a successful teacher, it is: a) Tell him. b) Show him. c) Have him do it. d) Correct him until he has it. e) Supervise him to see that he keeps it.4. The reason for requiring the wearing of personal protective equipment needed, if
any, as goggles, safety shoes, hand protectors, and the like is explained and its proper use and care taught in full detail.5. Specific safeguards needed for the protection of the worker or h is fellows aresimilarly explained and their correct usage taught.

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SAFETY OF FACTORY WORKERS

The safety provisions are contained in section 21 to 41 of the Factories Act, 1948. The provisions are to be followed by every factory covered by this act. They are obligatory in their character. The requirements prescribed under the act are absolute and are in no way dependent upon previous notice or warning from the Inspector of Factories. The provisions dealing with the safety of the workers in different states are supplemented by rules framed by each State Government. So in relation to a factory in a particular State, the rules of the Government of the state must be referred to.The safety provisions as given under the Factories Act described as under:

1)Fencing of machinery (Sec.21) 2)Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec.22) 3)Employment of young persons on Dangerous Machines (Sec.23) 4)Striking Gear and Devices for Cutting of Power (Sec.24)

5)Self acting Machine (Sec.25) 6)Casing of New Machinery (Sec.26) 7)Prohibition of Employment of Women and Children near Cotton-openers(Sec.27) 8)Hoists and Lifts (Sec.28) 9)Lifting Machines, Chains, Ropes and Lifting Tackles (Sec.29) 10) Revolving Machinery (Sec.30)
11) Pressure plant (Sec.31) 12) Floors, stairs and Means of Access (Sec.32) 13) Pits, Sumps, Opening in Floors, etc. (Sec.33) 14) Excessive Weights (Sec.34) 15) Protection of Eyes (Sec.35) 16) Precautions against Dangerous Fumes (Sec.36) 17) Precautions regarding the use of Portable Light (Sec.36A) 18) Explosive or Inflammable Dust, Gas, etc. (Sec.37)

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19) Precautions in case of Fire (Sec.38) 20) Power to require Specification of Defective Part or Tests of Stability (Sec.39) 21) Safety of Buildings and Machinery (Sec.40) 22) Maintenance of Buildings (Sec.40A) 23) Safety Officers (Sec.40B) 24) Power to Make Rules (Sec.41) 1) FENCING OF MACHINERY (SEC.21) I n e v e r y f a c t o r y , e v e r y dangerous part of any machineryevery moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to prime-mover, the head-race and tail-race of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter,every part of transmission machinery- must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction. The State Government is empowered to frame rules in this regard. 2) WORK ON OR NEAR MACHINERY IN MOTION (SEC.22):With a view to secure the safety of the workers, it is necessary to examine any part of t h e m a c h i n e r y w h i l e i t i s i n m o t i o n . T h e e x a m i n a t i o n a n d l u b r i c a t i o n o f t h e machinery, should be carried out only be a specially trained adult worker wearing tight-fitting clothing. Such a worker is not allowed to handle a belt at a moving pulley unless the belt is less than fifteen cm. in width and the belt-joint is either laced or flush with belt. women and young children are not allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part

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of a prime-mover or of transmission machinery while it is in motion, if it is likely to expose her or him to risk to injury from any moving part. 3) EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS ON D A N G E R O U S MACHINES (SEC.23):No young person shall work at any machine unless he has been fully instructed as to be dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and: a)Has received sufficient training in work at machine, or b)Is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine. 4) STRIKINGGEAR AND DEVICES FOR CUTTI N G O F F POWER (SEC.24):In every factory:

a)Suitable striking gear or other efficient mec h a n i c a l a p p l i a n c e s s h a l l b e provided and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery, and such gear or appliancess h a l l b e c o n s t r u c t e d , p l a c e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d a s t o p r e v e n t t h e b e l t f r o m creeping back on to the fast pulley; b)Driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shaft in motion.

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5) SELF-ACTING MACHINES (SEC.25):-

No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of eighteen inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine. 6) CASING OF NEW MACHINERY (SEC.26):In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory: a)Every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger; b)All spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as it would be if it were completely encased . 7) PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF W O M E N A N D CHILDREN NEAR COTTON-OPENERS (SEC.27):No women or child shall be employed in any part of a factory where pressing cotton-opener is at work: provided that if the feed end of a cotton opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the inspector may in particular case specify in writing women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed and is situated.

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8.) Hoists and lifts (sec.28) in every factory:A) Every hoist and lift shall be :-

.of good mechanical construction sound material and adequate strength: . properly maintained and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months: B) every hoist way and lift way shall be sufficiently protected by are enclosure fitted with gates and the hoist or lift and every such enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any person or thing from being trapped between any part of the hoist or thing and fixed structure or moving part.

9. LIFITING MACHINES LIFITING TACKLES:-

CHAINS,ROPES

AND

In every factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting machines and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering machines and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials: All party including the working gear, whether fixed or moveable r every lifting machines and every chain rope or lifting tackle shall be : Of good construction, sound materials and adequate and free from defects. Properly maintained and thoroughly examined by a competent persons at least once in every period of twelve months:b) No lifting machines and no chain, rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test be loaded beyond the safe working load which shall be plainly marked thereon together with in identification mark and daily entered in the prescribed register.

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10) REVOLVING MACHINERY:-

In every room in a factory n which the process of gridding is carried on there shall be placed near each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or secure such safe working peripheral speed.

11) PRESSURE PLANT:If in any factory any part of the plant or machinery used in a manufacturing process is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure affective measure shall be taken to insure that the safe working pressure of such part is not exceeded.

12) FLOORS STAIRS AND MEANS OF ACCESS:In every factory all floors stairs passage and gang ways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstruction and substances likely to cause to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety steps stairs passage and gang ways shall be provided with substantial hand rails.

13) PITS SUMPS, OPENING IN FLOORS ETC.:In every factory fixed vessel ,sumps tank pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which by reason of its depth situation constructions or contents is or in a floor which by reason of its depth situation constructions or contents is or may be a source of danger shall be either covered or securely fenced.

14.EXCESSIVE WEIGHTS:Page3

No person shall be employed in any factory of lift carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury. The state government may make rules

prescribed the maximum weights may be lifted carried or moved and children employed in factories or in any class or describes or description of factories or in a carrying on any specified process.

15.PROTECTION OF EYES:IN respect of any such manufacturing process carried on in any factory as may be prescribed being a process which involves. Risk of injury to the eyes from particles thrown off in the course of the processor. Risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to e x c e s s i v e l i g h t , t h e S t a t e Government may be rules require that effective screens or suitable goggless h a l l b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s e m p l o y e d o n , o r i n t h e immediate vicinity of the process. 16) PRECAUTIONS AGAINST DANGEROUS FUMES (SEC.36):a)In any factory, no person shall enter or be permitted to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely tube present to such an extent as to involve risk of persons beingover come thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or effective means of either; I. a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person, based on a test carried out by himself, that the space is free from dangerous fumes and fit for persons to enter, or, II. The worker is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope, the free end of which is held by a person standing outside the confined space. b)No person shall be permitted to enter any boiler furnace, boiler flue, chamber ,tank, vat, pipe or other confined space for the purpose

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of working or making any examination therein until it has been sufficiently cooled by ventilation or otherwise to be safe for persons to enter. 17) PRECAUTIONS REGARDING THE USE OF PORTABLE LIGHT (SEC.36A):In every factory: a)no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space; and b)If any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chamber,t a n k , v a t , f l u e o r o t h e r c o n f i n e d s p a c e , n o l a m p l i g h t o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f flameproof construction shall be permitted to be used therein. 18) EXPLOSIVE OR INFLAMMABLE DUST,GAS etc (sec.37):Where in any factory any manufacturing process products dust, gas, fume or vapors of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition all particular measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by:a) Effective enclosure or the plant of machinery used in process. b)Removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust ,gas , fume or vapors . c) Exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.

19) PRECANTIONS CASE OF FIRE:Page3

In every factory these shall be provided such means of escape in case of fire an may be prescribed. a) In every factory the doors affording exit from any room shall not be locked or fastened so that they cannot be easily and immediately opened from the inside while any person is within the room and all such doors unless they are of the sliding type shall be constructed to open outwards. b) There shall be provided in every factory effective and dearly audible means of giving warning in case of fire to every person employed in the factory. 20) POWER TO REQUIRE SPECIFICATION OF DEFECTIVE PART OR TESTS OF STABILITY:If it appears to the inspectors that any building or part any part of the ways machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory and order in writing requiring him before a specific date. To fumes such drawings specification and other particular as may be necessary to determine whether such building ways machinery or plant be used with safety or b) To carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof.

21) SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY (SEC.40):I f i t appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion

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should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.

22) MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS (SEC.40A):


If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building in a factory is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion would be taken and requiring the same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.

23) SAFETY OFFICERS (SEC.40B):


In every factory: a)Wherein, one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or b)Wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing processor operation is carried on, which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to health, to the persons employed in the factory c)The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of safety officers shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.

24) POWER TO MAKE RULES (SEC.41):


The State Government may make rules requiring the provision in any factory or in any class or description of factories of such further devices and measures for securing the safety of persons employed therein as it may deem necessary.
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2.EMPLOYEE HEALTH & SAFETY


PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OR HEALTHYWORKING CONDITIONS
It is essential to ensure favorable working conditions so that the workers can perform their tasks without experiencing physical or mental strain. Some of the conditions surrounding a worker as he does his job and affecting his physical well being and thus his efficiency, are as under:

6) CLEANLINESS 7) LIGHTING 8) TEMPERATURE AND VENTILATION 9) FREEDOM FROM NOISE ( 1 0 ) D U S T 11)WORKING SPACE AND SEATING ARRANGEMENT

1) CLEANLINESS:
It is essential for health. Dust should be removed daily froma l l r o o m s , p a s s a g e a n d s t a i r - c a s e s . S u f f i c i e n t s p i t t o o n s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d a t convenient places and should be kept hygienic, properly cleaned and disinfected.

2) LIGHTING:
Good lighting can facilitate higher production. It is essential to the health, safety, and efficiency of workers. Without proper lighting, eye
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damage will occur, accident and spoilage of material will increase and production will slow down. The efficiency of workers directly depends on his ability to see the objects accurately and quickly. Thus, lighting must be adequate and free from defects.

3) TEMPERATURE AND VENTILATION:


The employees must be provided tolerable temperatu re if they are to work efficiently. Their efficiency is bound to suffer if the temperatu re of the work place is either too high or too low. Steps should be taken to ensure flow of fresh air having right temperatu re and humidity. Proper ventilation is necessary to ensure the circulation of fresh air and remove congestion in the plant. If the ventilation arrangement is not provided, the air will become stale and the employees will feel tired and sleepy. This will reduce their efficiency. Electric fans circulate fresh air and exhaust fans expel the stale air.

4) FREEDOM FROM NOISE:


Noise may be defined as an unwanted sound in or outside the factory. It has an adverse effect on the minds of employees staff and tells upon their efficiency. It is source of distribution to the employees and does not allow them to work with concentration. Therefore, it is essential to keep noise under control. There are two types of noise, namely, internal and external. Internal noise is caused by conversation, running of machines, movement of workers, clerks, peons and visitors through corridors. Noise is also created by incoming and outgoing telephone calls. Internal noise can be controlled more easily as compared to external noise. External noise comes from outside the factory premises. It enters through doors, windows, and ventilators. The external noise cannot be eliminated. But sound proof walls, double doors, and glass panes can be used to prevent the external noise from entering the premises.

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5) DUST:
In certain areas or regions, the ratio of dust in the atmosphere is quite high. When dust enters the factory, it affects the health of the employees adversely. Dust also reduces the life of various machines and

equipments. Therefore it is essential to check the entry of dust into the factory premises. It may be difficult to check entry of dust into the factory. Dust should be cleaned quite regularly because it not only pollutes the environment but also has an adverse impaction the intensity of light.

6) WORKING SPACE AND SEATING ARRANGEMENT


Adequate space should be provided for workers, materials, tools and equipments for their free and unhindered movement from one machine or process to another. There should also be enough seating arrangement for the workers

SAFETY OF FACTORY WORKERS


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The safety provisions are contained in section 21 to 41 of the Factories Act, 1948. The provisions are to be followed by every factory covered by this act. They are obligatory in their character. The requirements prescribed under the act are absolute and are in no way dependent upon previous notice or warning from the Inspector of Factories. The provisions dealing with the safety of the workers in different states are supplemented by rules framed by each State Government. So in relation to a factory in a particular State, the rules of the Government of the state must be referred to. The safety provisions as given under the Factories Act described as under: 10) Fencing of machinery (Sec.21) 11) Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec.22) 12) Employment of young persons on Dangerous Machines (Sec.23) 13) Striking Gear and Devices for Cutting of Power (Sec.24) 14) Self acting Machine (Sec.25) 15) Casing of New Machinery (Sec.26) 16) Prohibition of Employment of Women and Children near Cotton-openers (Sec.27) 17) Hoists and Lifts (Sec.28) 18) Lifting Machines, Chains, Ropes and Lifting Tackles (Sec.29) 10) Revolving Machinery (Sec.30) 11) Pressure plant (Sec.31) 12) Floors, stairs and Means of Access (Sec.32) 13) Pits, Sumps, Opening in Floors, etc. (Sec.33) 14) Excessive Weights (Sec.34) 15) Protection of Eyes (Sec.35) 16) Precautions against Dangerous Fumes (Sec.36) 17) Precautions regarding the use of Portable Light (Sec.36A) 18) Explosive or Inflammable Dust, Gas, etc. (Sec.37) 19) Precautions in case of Fire (Sec.38) 20) Power to require Specification of Defective Part or Tests of Stability (Sec.39) 21) Safety of Buildings and Machinery (Sec.40) 22) Maintenance of Buildings (Sec.40A) 23) Safety Officers (Sec.40B)

24) Power to Make Rules (Sec.41)


1) FENCING OF MACHINERY (SEC.21)

I n e v e r y f a c t o r y , e v e r y dangerous part of any machineryevery moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to prime-mover, the head-race and tail-race of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter,every part of transmission machinery- must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction. The State Government is empowered to frame rules in this regard.

2)

WORK ON OR NEAR MACHINERY IN MOTION (SEC.22): With a view to secure the safety of the workers, it is necessary to examine any part of t h e m a c h i n e r y w h i l e i t i s i n m o t i o n . T h e e x a m i n a t i o n a n d l u b r i c a t i o n o f t h e machinery, should be carried out only be a specially trained adult worker wearingtight-fitting clothing. Such a worker is not allowed to handle a belt at a moving pulley unless the belt is less than fifteen cm. in width and the belt-joint is either laced or flush with belt. women and young children are not allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime-mover or of transmission machinery while it is in motion, if it is likely to expose her or him to risk to injury from any moving part.

3) EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS ON D A N G E R O U S MACHINES (SEC.23):Page3

No young person shall work at any machine unless he has been fully instructed as to be dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and: c)Has received sufficient training in work at machine, or d)Is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine. 4) STRIKINGGEAR AND DEVICES FOR CUT

T I N G O F F POWER (SEC.24):
In every factory:
c)

Suitable striking gear or other efficient mec h a n i c a l a p p l i a n c e s s h a l l b e provided and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery, and such gear or appliances shall be constructed, placed and maintained as t o p r e v e n t t h e b e l t f r o m creeping back on to the fast pulley; d)Driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shaft in motion.

5) SELF-ACTING MACHINES (SEC.25): No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of eighteen inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine.

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6) CASING OF NEW MACHINERY (SEC.26): In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory: c) Every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger; d) All spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as it would be if it were completely encased . 7) PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF W O M E N A N D CHILDREN NEAR COTTON-OPENERS (SEC.27): No women or child shall be employed in any part of a factory where pressing cotton-opener is at work: provided that if the feed end of a cotton opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the inspector may in particular case specify in writing, women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed end is situated.

8.) Hoists and lifts (sec.28) in every factory:A) Every hoist and lift shall be :.of good mechanical construction sound material and adequate strength: . properly maintained and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months: B) every hoist way and lift way shall be sufficiently protected by are enclosure fitted with gates and the hoist or lift and every such enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any person or thing from being trapped between any part of the hoist or thing and fixed structure or moving part.

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9. LIFITING MACHINES LIFITING TACKLES:-

CHAINS,ROPES

AND

In every factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting machines and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering machines and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials: All party including the working gear, whether fixed or moveable r every lifting machines and every chain rope or lifting tackle shall be : Of good construction, sound materials and adequate and free from defects. Properly maintained and thoroughly examined by a competent persons at least once in every period of twelve months:b) No lifting machines and no chain, rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test be loaded beyond the safe working load which shall be plainly marked thereon together with in identification mark and daily entered in the prescribed register.

10) REVOLVING MACHINERY:In every room in a factory n which the process of gridding is carried on there shall be placed near each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or secure such safe working peripheral speed.

11) PRESSURE PLANT:Page3

If in any factory any part of the plant or machinery used in a manufacturing process is operated at a

pressure above atmospheric pressure affective measure shall be taken to insure that the safe working pressure of such part is not exceeded.

12) FLOORS STAIRS AND MEANS OF ACCESS:In every factory all floors stairs passage and gang ways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstruction and substances likely to cause to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety steps stairs passage and gang ways shall be provided with substantial hand rails.

13) PITS SUMPS, OPENING IN FLOORS ETC.:In every factory fixed vessel ,sumps tank pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which by reason of its depth situation constructions or contents is or in a floor which by reason of its depth situation constructions or contents is or may be a source of danger shall be either covered or securely fenced.

14.EXCESSIVE WEIGHTS:No person shall be employed in any factory of lift carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury. The state government may make rules prescribed the maximum weights may be lifted carried or moved and children employed in factories or in any class or describes or description of factories or in a carrying on any specified process.

15.PROTECTION OF EYES:Page3

IN respect of any such manufacturing process carried on in any factory as may be

prescribed being a process which involves. Risk of injury to the eyes from particles thrown off in the course of the processor. Risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to e x c e s s i v e l i g h t , t h e S t a t e Government may be rules require that effective screens or suitable goggless h a l l b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s e m p l o y e d o n , o r i n t h e immediate vicinity of the process.

b)Risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to ex


c e s s i v e l i g h t , t h e S t a t e Government may be rules require that effective screens or suitable goggless h a l l b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s e m p l o y e d o n , o r i n t h e immediate vicinity of the process.

16) PRECAUTIONS AGAINST DANGEROUS FUMES (SEC.36):


a)In any factory, no person shall enter or be permitted to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely tube present to such an extent as to involve risk of persons being overcome thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or effective means of either; I. a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person, based on a test carried out by himself, that the space is free from dangerous fumes and fit for persons to enter, or, II.The worker is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope, the free end of which is held by a person standing outside the confined space. b)No person shall be permitted to enter any boiler furnace, boiler flue, chamber, tank, vat, pipe or other confined space for the purpose of working or making any examination therein until it has been sufficiently cooled by ventilation or otherwise to be safe for persons to enter.

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17) PRECAUTIONS REGARDING THE USE OF PORTABLELIGHT (SEC.36A):


In every factory: a)no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space; and b)If any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chamber,t a n k , v a t , f l u e o r o t h e r c o n f i n e d s p a c e , n o l a m p l i g h t o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f flameproof construction shall be permitted to be used therein. 18) EXPLOSIVE OR INFLAMMABLE DUST,GAS etc (sec.37):Where in any factory any manufacturing process products dust, gas, fume or vapors of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition all particular measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by:d) Effective enclosure or the plant of machinery used in process. e) Removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust ,gas , fume or vapors . f) Exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.

19) PRECANTIONS CASE OF FIRE:Page3

In every factory these shall be provided such means of escape in case of fire an may be prescribed. d) In every factory the doors affording exit from any room shall not be locked or fastened so that they cannot be easily and immediately opened from the inside while any person is within the room and all such doors unless they are of the sliding type shall be constructed to open outwards. e) There shall be provided in every factory effective and dearly audible means of giving warning in case of fire to every person employed in the factory. 20) POWER TO REQUIRE SPECIFICATION OF DEFECTIVE PART OR TESTS OF STABILITY:If it appears to the inspectors that any building or part any part of the ways machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory and order in writing requiring him before a specific date. To fumes such drawings specification and other particular as may be necessary to determine whether such building ways machinery or plant be used with safety or b) To carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector of the results there of. 21) SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY (SEC.40): I f i t appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.

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22) MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS (SEC.40A): If it appears to theInspector that any building or part of a building in a factory is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of theworkers, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order inwriting specifying the measures which in his opinion would be taken and requiring thesame to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.

23) SAFETY OFFICERS (SEC.40B): In every factory:a)Wherein, one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or b)Wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing processor operation is carried on, which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to health, to the persons employed in the factory,c)The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of safety officers shall besuch as may be prescribed by the State Government.

24) POWER TO MAKE RULES (SEC.41):


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The State Government maymake rules requiring the provision in any factory or in any class or description of factories of such

further devices and measures for securing the safety of

personsemployed therein as it may deem necessary

Chapter no.3
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Data analysis & Interpretation

The analysis and discussion tells us about job satisfaction at Verka milk Plant Ltd.Bthinda . It covers the aspects like general profile of the respondents, their degree of satisfaction in different areas.

General profile of respondents


This section gives the general profile of respondents as obtained from the data collected through survey. It deals with age and gender.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HEALTH & SAFETY


Question 1:-Is there proper floor cleaning system in Verka? Answer:Percentage90%10% INTERPRETATION :-Out of 20 employees surveyed who were asked about floor cleaning system in Verka 90% says yes it is proper and 10% no it is not proper table shows the percentage of all responses. Q.2 Is there proper ventilation in the different production areas in Bathinda? INTERPRETATION:Out of 20 employees surveyed who were asked about ventilation in the different production areas Verka 80% says yes it is proper and 20%no it is not proper table shows the percentage of all responses.

Chapter 4
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Research Methodology
Meaning of research:- Research is the systematic and objective search
for the analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of the specific problem . research is science and a systematic search for particular information on a particular topic. In fact research is an act of scientific investigation.
a)

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD:Experimental method of data collection is ideal through not always possible because of many research problems in the social science and education do lend themselves to experimental enquiry.

b)

NON EXPERIMENTAL :Non experimental research posses only one component which is measurement. The research does not exercise any control over the extraneous variable. RESEACH DESIGN :A research is the overall plan or program of research. It is the general blue print for the collection measurement and analysis of data. In an investigator can do from writing the hypothesis and their operational implication to the final analysis of data. Descriptive research design has been used for the purpose of this study.

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DATA:-

Data constitutes the foundation of any analysis. Data is the collection of any number of related observations. Surveys are the most popular device of obtaining the quantities or numerical information which is collected for future analysis and interpretation in order to base decision on them. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY: Main objective of study is to determine the level of satisfaction among employees regarding the facilities provided to them. To know about how the worker rate the factory as a work place. To know about the safety provision of the factory workers. To know about the duties performed by safety officers. SAMPLE DESIGN :A simple design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population which includes.

SAMPLE PROCEDURE:Sample random sampling used to selects the most accessible population.

SAMLING UNIT:Employees were the sampling unit of the future research study.

SAMLING SIZE:The sample size was of 30 respondents.

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SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:In research training report survey was used as the sampling techniques.

Methodology used in the study:There were various sources of data collection used for this study. These are direct and indirect sources which are referred to as primary and secondary sources. These sources are as follows: Primary sources: Some of the primary sources of data collection are past records of workers, oral interviews, interaction with operators and guidance from officers. Secondary sources: The secondary sources were used to gain basic and extra information regarding health and safety . The secondary source used was internet source and the various rules of Milkfed. Mainly Various sites containing information regarding concerned topic are given in the bibliography. During the study of the topic I had to face some limitations and the constraints as well. Some of the see limitations were 1. The biggest limitation which I any HR trainee has to face in Verka Mlik Plant Bathinda that no proper training is provided to HR students. That place is good for engineering and food technology students only as far as summer training is concerned. 2. Permission for conducting a proper survey was not given. 3. Sufficient time was not given to me to understand the exact nature and the concept of employee health & safety. 4. The whole of the staff was co-operative with me
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IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.

2. 3.

4.

The knowledge of methodology provides good training especially to the new research worker and enables him to do better research. It helps him to develop disciplined thinking to observe the field objectively. Knowledge of research methodology will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence. Knowledge of Research methodology enables us to make intelligent decisions concerning problems facing us in practical life at different points of time. Knowledge of Research methodology helps the consumer of research results to evaluate them and enables him to take rational decisions.

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Chapter no 5.

FINDING & CONCLUSION


From the data collected from the various departments Milk Operations, Fresh Milk Reception, Egron, Warehouse, Culinary, Powder Filling Plant, Accounts, HR etc in the Verka we come to the result that 80% workers are satisfied from the ventilation system in the production areas and 20% says that it should be more improved. 75% workers say that there is proper provision of protecting eyes and25% workers dont think so. 90% says that there is proper fencing of machinery and 10% want more improvement 70% workers says that they are satisfied from the facilities given to them by the Verka but 30%says that there should be more facilities regarding Health & Safety. About the fire fighting system in Verka 30% workers said that it is excellent .40%said that it is very good .10% said that it is good and .20% considers it moderate. About the first aid provision in Verka .50% said that it is excellent .30% said that it is very good 10% said that it is good and 10% considers it moderate. When the employees were asked about the performance of the safety officers in Verka .60%said that it is excellent .20% said that it is very good .15% said that it is good and .5% considers it moderate. About the behavior of senior officers in Verka .30%said that it is excellent,.40% said that it is very good., 15% said that it is good and10% considers it moderate,5%considers it poor In the end we can say that the overall percentage of the satisfaction of the workers from the provisions regarding health and safety is higher than dissatisfaction. Most of the workers are satisfied from the working conditions in the Bathinda

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OBSERVATIONS

During the training period some shortcomings were observ ed which are listed below:1.Grass in the lawns is not cut in time it is cut when the grass is grown like afield. 2. There were mosquitoes in the area where the milk is unloaded in the storage tanks and is supplied to different areas. 3. There is not the provision of dispensary services during the night shifts it is only from 8 A.M to 5 P.M. 4. The medicines in the first aid box were being misused 5.The doctor in the dispensary is not permanent. 6.There is only a permanent Pharmacist. 7. Employees spore time for the checkup 8.There is not any system for monitoring the time spent by the workers for checkup.

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Chapter no.6

SUGGESTIONS & RECCOMMDATION


There are some suggestions that can be given for the improvement There should be some medical facilities available for night shift, and two employees from each department should be well-trained for providing first aid To monitor the time spend for the medical checkup one should enter the arrival and departure time in the punch machine time while going for check-up. There should be provision of permanent doctor in the dispensary so that instant critical situation can be handled. Shift officer should have a control on the consumption of the consumption of the medicines in the first aid box. No one should be allowed to visit dispensary without medical slip signed by the shift officer. Grassy lawn should be properly maintained. Regular cleaning should be done in training department. Mosquito killing spray should be used in drainage area. Sewerage storage area should be covered separate .

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Chapter no .7

BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS
Shashi k Gupta & Rosy joshi ( Human Resources Management). Kalyani Publishers. T.N.CHHABRA, HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGEMENT Concepts &issues, DHANPAT RAI & CO., 2007, 479-497.

WEBSITES
http://www.google.com/ http://www.Mohali.in/

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ANNEXURE

Question 1:-Is there proper floor cleaning system in Verka? Ans: a) Yes b) NoQuestion 2:-Is there proper ventilation in the different production areas in Verka? Ans: a) Yes b) NoQuestion 3:-Is there proper fencing of the machinery? Ans: a) Yes b) NoQuestion 4:Is there proper arrangement of replacing the defective pa rts of themachinery and proper repairing? Ans: a) Yes b) NoQuestion 5:-Are there you satisfied from the facilities provided to you? Ans: a) Yes b) NoQuestion 6:-How well the fire fighting system of Verka is? Ans: a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Moderate e) Poor Question 7:-What do you think about the arrangement of providing the first aid incase of injury? Ans: a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Moderate e) Poor Question 8:-How well safety officers perform their duties? Ans: a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Moderate e) Poor Question 9:-How will you rate the factory as a work place? Ans: a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Moderate e) Poor Question 10:-How will you rate the Safety system of Verka? Ans: a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Moderate e) Poor

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