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SDH Presentation

-SDH Basics -Alcatel SDH Systems -Alcatel 1662SMC Introduction -SDH Link No.17

SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ? Advantages of SDH over PDH. SDH Data rates. SDH Multiplexing Structure. SDH Basic Frame Structure.


SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ?

SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hiararchy.In SDH each and every signal is synchronized exactly to the single (container) defined for that particular signal ( like C11,C12,etc).The techniques like bit stuffing and bit justification are adopted in SDH to achieve the synchronization. The signal used for SDH transmission is known as Synchronous Transport Module (STM). The various STM rates are illustrated below STM-1 (155.52 Mbps) STM-4 (622.08 Mbps) STM-16 (2488.32 Mbps) STM-64 (9953.28 Mbps) STM-256 (39813.12 Mbps) STM-1 STM-1 SDH STM-1 MUX STM-1 STM- 4 STM- 4 STM- 4 STM- 4 SDH MUX STM- 16 STM- 16 SDH STM- 16 MUX STM- 16 STM- 64 STM- 64 SDH STM- 64 MUX STM- 64 STM- 256


PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

Plesio means = similar Chronous means= Timing

Plesiochronous almost synchronous, because the digital signals being multiplexed together are not at quite the same frequency

SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ? (continues)

PDH stands for Pleisynchronuous Digital Hiararchy.The PDH contains the signals having similar data rate signals (like E1,E 2,E3,T1,T2,etc.) but with slight timing differences as shown below. E1 2.048 Mbps [32 x 64 kbps (DS0)] E2 8.448 Mbps [4 x E1] E3 34.368 Mbps [4 x E2] E4 139.264 Mbps [4 x E3]

E1(2.047990 Mbps) E1(2.048001 Mbps) E1(2.047992 Mbps) E1(2.048000 Mps)


E2(8.447997 Mbps) E2(8.447989 Mbps) E2(8.447991 Mbps) E2(8.448000 Mbps)


E3(34.367989Mbps) E3(34.367998Mbps) E3(34.367990Mbps) E3(34.368000Mbps)



SDH Basics

Advantages of SDH over PDH

High Transmission Rates: The highest data rate that can be achieved with PDH technologies is 140 mbps, whereas the transmission rates up to 10Gbps (STM-64) can be achieved with SDH technology. Easy Add & Drop Functionality: Compared to the older PDH system, low bit rate channels can be easily extracted from and inserted into the high-speed bit streams in SDH. It is now no longer necessary to apply the complex and costly procedure of demultiplexing then remultiplexing the plesiosynchronous structure. High Availability and Capacity matching: With SDH, network providers can react quickly and easily to the requirements of their customers. For example, leased lines can be switched in a matter of minutes. The network provider can use standardized network elements (NE) that can be controlled and monitored from a central location via a telecommunications management network (TMN) system. Reliability:
Modern SDH networks include various automatic back-up circuit and repair mechanisms (like Automatic Protection Switching (APS) and Equipment Protection Switching (EPS) which are designed to cope with system faults and are monitored by management. As a result, failure of a link or an NE does not lead to failure of the entire network.

Integrated Services: SDH is the ideal platform for a wide range of services including POTS, ISDN,mobile radio, and data communications (LAN, WAN, etc.). It is also able to handle more recent services such as video on demand and digital video broadcasting via ATM.

Disadvantages of PDH
Changing from one hierarchical level to another requires additional equipment. For Add/drop of individual channels from the higher order stream we have to disassemble / reassemble it  Redirection (cross-connection) of channels must be done by hand on DDFs.  Administrative connections require separate equipment to support Supervision, EOW and protection switching.  Compatibility of transmission and administrative signals between different vendor may give trouble.

SDH Basics

SDH Data rates: STM-0 (51.84 Mbps) STM-1 (155.52 Mbps) STM-4 (622.08 Mbps) STM-16 (2488.32 Mbps) STM-64 (9953.28 Mbps) STM-256 (39813.12 Mbps)

Note: The STM-0 is not widely used in the telecom network except for some Microwave Links.

SDH Basics

SDH Multiplexing Structure:








TUG-3 TU-3 VC3

E-4(139.264Mbps) Or ATM(149.760Mbps)

STM-0 AU-3 VC3 C3

T-3(44.736Mbps) Or E-3(34.368Mbps) Or ATM(48.384Mbps) T-2(6.312Mbps) Or ATM(6.874Mbps) E-1(2.048Mbps) Or ATM(2.144Mbps) T-1(1.544Mbps) Or ATM(1.6Mbps)

TUG-2 Containers Virtual Containers (Containers + POH) Tributary Units/Administrative Units (Virtual Containers + Pointers) Tributary Unit Groups/Administrative Unit Groups (Multiplexed structures of lower signals) TU-2 VC2 C2

TU-12 VC12 C12

TU-11 VC11 C11



SDH Multiplexing Structure:


K-TUG 3 L-TUG 2 M-TU 12 First KLM combination is 1 1 1 Last KLM combination is 3 7 3

Mapping of 63 E1s into STM1 E1 = 32 bytes/frame C12 = 34 bytes/frame (E1 +2 stuffed bytes) VC12 = 35 bytes/frame (C12 + 1 POH byte ) TU12 = 36 bytes/frame (VC12 +1 pointer byte) M So, one TU12 occupies 4 columns(36 bytes) in an STM1 frame L TUG-2 = 3 X TU12 = 12 columns /frame TUG-3 = 7 X TUG-2 = 86 columns /frame K (7 X 12 + 2 stuffed columns are added) VC4 = 3 X TUG-3 = 261 columns /frame (3 X TUG-3 + 2 stuffed columns + 1 POH) STM1 = VC4 + SOH = 261+ 9 = 270 columns /frame.

1.Container Cn, where C=Container,n=Index of the container(n=11,12,2,3,4) The rate of the container depends on the signal which is transported. 2.Virtual container VCn,It is made up of Cn and Poh Vcn=Cn+Poh,where Poh is path over head Pathover head contain Payload content 3.Tributary unit TUn=VCn+PTR n=11,12,2,3 lower oder VCn Where Pointer is an addittional rate used to locate its Vcn with in the TU 4.Tributary unit Group TUG-k=m*TU-n, where k=2,3 n=11,12,2,3 TUG ,the Tug-2/Tug-3 can consist of several types of capacity payloads with different sizes. 5.Adminitrative Unit(AU),it is made up of higher order VCn(n=3,4) and a pointer AUn=VCn+PTR n=3,4 AUG=1*AU-4 or 3*AU-3

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1):

270 Colomns 1 1 9 10 270

RSOH (3 x 9 Cells)

3 9 Rows 4 5


PAYLOAD (261 x 9 Cells )

MSOH (4 x 9 Cells)

Each cell represents a single byte indicating a 64 kbps channel. RSOH :- Regenerator Section Overhead (27 bytes ) MSOH : Multiplexer Section Overhead (45 bytes) Total Section Overhead (SOH) : RSOH + MSOH AU-4 Pointer :- 9 bytes Payload :- 261 x 9 = 2349 bytes STM -1 Data rate = (270 x 9) bytes = 2430 bytes = 2430 x 64 kbps = 155520 kbps = 155.52 Mbps

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1) (Continues.):

Section Overhead (SOH ) A1 B1 D1 A1 A1 A2 E1 D2 A2 A2 J0 F1 D3 X X

* *

* *

* *

AU-4 Pointer B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 K1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 X X

X Bytes Reserved for national use. * - Media Dependant Bytes

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1) (Continues.):

Overhead Bytes Functions

Overhead Byte
A1,A2 B1,B2 D1,D2,D3 D4,..,D12 E1,E2 F1 J0 K1,K2 S1 M1 Frame Alignment Quality Monitoring , parity bytes Qecc Network Management Qecc Network Management Voice Connections Maintenance Trace Identifier


Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Control Clock Quality Indicator Transmission Error Acknowledgement

Alcatel SDH Systems

Alcatel SDH Systems




Version 1(R1)

Version 2(R2)

Supports Upto STM-1

Version 4(R4)

Version 5(R5)

Supports Upto STM-4

Supports Upto STM-16

Supports Upto STM-16

Supports Upto STM-64

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Features Shelf View Commonly used cards Technical Specifications

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction


It complies with the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.707. Compatible with existing plesiochronous systems as well as with the installed SDH networks, The 1662SMC is transmission equipment operating at 155.520 Mbit/s (STM-1) , 622.080 Mbit/s (STM-4) and 2488.320 Mbit/s(STM-16). It can be configured as a Multiple Line Terminal Multiplexers or as a Add/Drop Multiplexers or as a Mini local cross-connect for applications in linear links, network rings and meshed networks. Equipment (EPS) and network (MSP) protection mechanism Matrix capacity 96*96 stm-1 equivalent matrix(HO) 64*64 stm-1 equivalent matrix(LO) Network interfaces: Stm-1/4/16 Customer interfaces: 2Mbps,34/45Mbps,140Mbps,ethernet,gigaethernet











50km 54km


Total Pondy Trichy Fiber Owner

: 244 KMS : BTSOL

Fiber allotted for vsnl/Ttsl : F no 39 F no 48 Fiber used for SDH Link name & no : F no 43&44 : SDH LINK No 17

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Shelf View:




- Total Slots : 20 - Access Area 1: Slot 1-5 ( Hosts Access Cards like A63E1, A4S1, Congi ,etc). - Access Area 2: Slot 16-20 ( Hosts Access Cards like A63E1, A4S1, Sergi ,etc). - Port(Basic area)Area: Slot 6-15 (Hosts Port Cards like SYNTH, P4S1, P63E1, etc).


1. Congi card : It the used to control the whole SDH system. It consists of power supply&house keeping unit. the congi card is in slot no1 2. Synth4Card: It is card used to insert the optical signals from the fms.It consists the Optical module it is named as IL- 4.2,IL-1.2,IS1.1.- these are called Optical modules. There are two synth cards its inserted in slot no 6&15. 3. P4S1N card: P indicates Port ,S1N indicates STM1. card 4. P63E1 card : P indicates port, 63 E1 indcates Electical signals. 5. A63E1-120 : its a card corresponding to P63E1 card.A indicates access area. 6. LSPORT/HSPROT: Its is a Low Speed/High speed protection Card. It is used to implement EPS protection.(i.e)it implements the connection between the access and spare card.These cards receive the signal coming from the access card via back panel.

7.SERGI CARD: Used as a stand by card for the CONGI CARD 8. IL- It indicates LONG HAL it should in corresponding SYNTH CARD. 9. IS- It indicates SHORT HAL . Note: 1. For All cards corresponding stand by cards are used. 2. Inserting a port card we have to insert a corresponding acess card in the particular slot. : Corresponding Acess area 3. Port area Slot No-7 : No-2 Slot No-8 : No-3 Slot No-9 : No-4 Slot No-10 : No-5 Slot No-11 : No-16 Slot No-12 : No-17 Slot No-13 : No-18 Slot No-14 : No-19 4. Congi card in Slot no- 1 5. Sergi card in Slot no-20 6. Synth card in slot no:6,15

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards:

ACRONYM P63E1N P4ES1N P3E3T3 SLOTS 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P63E1 processes 63 2Mbits/s signals whose accesses are on the relevant Access cards A21E1,A63E1 P4ES1N handles four electrical STM-1 Signals.All four accesses are on the relevant access card(A4ES1).It is one of the board that can be EPS protected. P3E3T3 Prt card is a bi-directional interface from/to three PDH streams at 34Mbits/s or at 45Mbits/s Switchable and the STM-4

(1) Multicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit Orange led . unit in stand-by (EPS schema)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM P4ES1N P4E4N SLOTS 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P4ES1N handles four electrical STM-1 signals.All the four accesses are on the Relevant Access card(A4ES1).It can be EPS protected. P4E4N it describes the same features of P4S1N. Two STM-1 electrical modules(Electricl or optical )can be hosted on the board. Two further STM-1 modules can be hosted on the Access card A2S1

LEGEND: (1) Channel #1 (N.B.) (2) Channel #2 (N.B.) (3) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


SLOTS 1, 20


1662SM-C houses two congi card(i.e)congi-A and congi-B CONGI-A hold the Equip MAC(media access control) address

LEGEND: (1) Power (2) Housekeeping and remote alarm (3) Rack lamp (not used in slot 20) (4) QMD Q2 (not used in slot 20) (5) I/O BNC Q3 10base2 (not used in slot 20) (6) RJ45 Q3 10baseT (not used in slot 20) (7) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel Used Cards ( continues..): Introduction 1662 SMC Commonly




Sergi card Provides reduced combination of congi and service card functions It has Power interface,Auxillary interface,I/p o/p clock interface for NE synchronization

LEGEND: (1) Power (2) Auxiliary channels: 2 channels G.703 2 channels RS232 2 channels V.11 (3) Aux and Sync. 2Mbit/s J1 . 2MHz Input (T3) or 2Mbit/s Input (T6) J2 . 2Mbit/s Input channel J3 . 2MHz output (T4) or 2Mbit/s output (T5) J4 . 2Mbit/s output channel (4) Four wire telephone extersion point (RJ11) (5) Z1-Z4 EOW zone selection LEDs (N.B.1) (6) L1-L2 LEDs status for selective and multiple call (N.B.2) (7) Telephone jack (8) Line seizure Key (9) EOW zone selection Key (10) Reset command Key (11) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):



SYNTH16 6,15 SYNTH16 can be EPS 1+1 Protected Slot no:6 is main card Slot no:15 is spare card Synth16 card is equipped with two parts for modules 1*STM-16 signals can be processed by the SYNTH 16 card Synth 16 card performs several fns like shelf controller,Equip controller, Performance monitoring collection,remote inventory Synth 16 cards have a 96*96 stm-1 Matrix capacity. It is also called as Compact ADM16 Card

LEGEND (1) Reset command key (2) Channel #1 (N.B.) (3) Lamp test pushbutton (4) Personal Computer Connector (F interface) (5) Red LED . Urgent Alarm (Critical or Major) (6) Red LED . Not Urgent Alarm (Minor) (7) Yellow LED . Alarm storing (Attended) (8) Yellow LED . Abnormal condition (9) Yellow LED . Indicative Alarm (Warning) (10) Green LED . when on it means active unit when off it means standby unit (11) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm (INT) Green led . in service unit (12) Alarm storing pushbutton (Attended)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM A63E1B (120Ohm) SLOTS 2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A63E1 is the access card for the P63E1  63*2Mbit/s Access card(A63E1)Provides the connections from backpanel to the external line and vice versa for the 63 PDH signals.  Three different type of connectors available: A63E1/A:75 ohms unbalanced A63E1/B:120 ohms balanced A63E1/C:75 Ohms unbalanced with coax(3 slot wide) LEGEND (1) Channel #1-7 (2) Channel #8-14 (3) Channel #15-21 (4) Channel #22-28 (5) Channel #29-35 (6) Channel #36-42 (7) Channel #43-49 (8) Channel #50-56 (9) Channel #57-63

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM A2S1 SLOTS 2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19


A2S1 is the access card for the P4S1N and P4E4N port cards. A2S1 can host upto 2modules(optical stm-1) in the front panel.

LEGEND (1) Channel #3 (N.B.) (2) Channel #4 (N.B.) (3) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM A3E3 A3T3 SLOTS 2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19 2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19


A3E3 Provides 3*34Mbit/s accesses for the P3E3T3 A3T3 Provides 3*45Mbit/s accesses for the P3E3T3 For each P3E3T3 One A3E3,A3T3 is necessary

LEGEND (1) Channel #1 (2) Channel #2 (3) Channel #3 (4) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM A4ES1 SLOTS 2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19


A4ES1 Provides 4 STM-1 Accesses for the P4ES1N. For each P4ES1N one A4ES1 is Necessary

LEGENDA (1) Channel #1 (2) Channel #2 (3) Channel #3 (4) Channel #4 (5) Bicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


S-1.1 S-Stands for short haul 1-stands for stm-1 1-stands for representing 1310nm L-1.1 L-Stands for Long haul 1-stands for stm-1 1-stands for representing 1310nm Module types: Stm-1 and stm-4 Optical module:SC-PC Type and Fc-Pc Type are available Stm-1 & stm-4 Optical modules are available and it physically different 140Mbit/s-STM-1 Electrical module.

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

LEGENDA (1) Multicolor LED: Red led . local unit alarm Orange led . temperature major than 55 C Green led . in service unit (2) Battery A connector (3) Battery B connector (4) Alarms connector for 1662SMC on the Left side of the Rack (5) Not used (6) Alarms connector for 1662SMC on the Right side of the Rack (6)

PSC front view

+ VBATT (male)

GND (female)


-VBATT (male)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Technical Specifications: Safty First

The optical interfaces which have HAZARD LEVEL 3A (see Table A below ) carry the following hazard symbol label:

Caution : Invisible Laser Radiation may be present inside the optical interfaces carrying the above label ,hence NEVER directly view into the beam.Doing so may result in the permanent damage to the eyesight. UNIT/PORT STM.1 STM.1 STM.1 STM.4 STM.4 STM.4 STM.16 STM.16 STM.16 OPTICAL INTERFACE S.1.1 (short haul) L.1.1 (long haul) L.1.2 (long haul) S.4.1 (short haul) L.4.1 (long haul) L.4.2 (long haul) S.4.1 (short haul) L.4.1 (long haul) L.4.2 (long haul) HAZARD LEVEL 1 3A 3A 1 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A


SEVERITY ALARMS SYNTHESIS 1.Critical Alarms 2.Major Alarms 3.Minor Alarms 4.Warning Alarms 5.Intermediate Alarms DOMAIN ALARMS SYNTHESIS 1.Synchronization Alarms 2.External points(House keeping Alarms) 3.Transmission Alarms 4.Equipment Alarms MANAGEMENT ALARMS SYNTHESIS 1.Supervision 2.Alignment 3.Local access 4.Operating system 5.Managed by Nm & RM 6.Abnormal condition


Power -48V DC, 6A MCB Rating used in the TRU unit is 16A The max current consumed by the Equipment is less than 4Amps A/C environment with temperature, humidity and dust control Fire safety by centralised monitoring and automatic operation of extinguisher


LCT access through Q interface for NMS access through the LAN card Tools: Power source, power meter, OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) and OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Technical Specifications (Continues):

Interface P63E1 Charaterisitics Bit rate No. of channels Line Code Signal amplitude 2048 Kbit/s 50 ppm 63 HDB3 2.37 Vp on 75 Ohm unbalance/ 3 Vp on 120 Ohm balance. 34368 Kbit/s 20 ppm 3 HDB3 1Vp/75ohms 44.736 Kbit/s 20ppm 3 B3ZS 155 520 Kbit/s 20 ppm CMI 139264 Kbit/s 15 ppm CMI

Electrical Interface Characteristics-


Bit Rate No. of tributaries Line Code Signal amplitude


Bit rate No. of tributaries Line Code


Bit rate Line Code


Bit rate Line Code

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Technical Specifications (Continues): Optical Characteristics
 STM-1 Trans Power Receiver Sensitivity Receiver Overload Optical Connectors STM-4 Trans Power Receiver Sensitivity Receiver Overload Optical Connectors STM-16 Trans Power Receiver Sensitivity Receiver Overload S 1.1 -15 to -8dB -28dB -8dB FCPC/SCPC S 4.1 -15 to -8dB -28dB -8dB FCPC/SCPC S 16.1 0 to -5dB -18dB 0dB L 16.1 2 to -2dB -27dB -8dB L 16.2 2 to 2dB -28dB -8dB L 4.1 2 to -3dB -28dB -8dB L 4.2 2 to 3dB -28dB -8dB L 1.1 0 to - 5dB -37dB -10dB L 1.2 0 to 5dB -37dB -10dB

RS232 Pin Assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Pin 1 Received Line Signal Detector (Data Carrier Detect)

Pin 2 Received Data Pin 3 Transmit Data Pin 4 Data Terminal Ready Pin 5 Signal Ground Pin 6 Data Set Ready Pin 7 Request To Send Pin 8 Clear To Send Pin 9 Ring Indicator The connector on the PC has male pins, therefore the mating cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector


Equipment Protection Switching

Multiplex Section Protection

1:1 1:N


EPS:Protection against the equipment failure

MSP:Protection against the equipment failure And the Line Failure

EPS(Equipment Protection Switching) 1+1 Type EQUIPMENT 1


1.The 1+1 EPS Protection type means that one working equip is Protected by One Redundant Equip 2.The mode of 1+1 EPS Protection is Non Revertive.

EPS(Equipment Protection Switching) 1:N Type LINE 1 EQUIPMENT 1






1)1:N Type protection means that N working Pieces of equip are protected by just 1 Portecting Equivalent. 2)The mode of 1:N Eps protection is revertive.

MSP(Multiplex Section Protection) MSP(linear) is also called as APS(Automatic Protection Switching) NE-A NE-B








1:N Protection