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ESCHER

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 1

(SPANISH )

HISTORY

MATHS ASSIGNMENTS

MATHEMATICS

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 2

Mauritis Cornelis Escher (1898-1972) is one of the worlds most famous graphic artists and an outstanding example of such an artist and designer. He was never a good student during his childhood days. After failing his high school exams, Mauritis (nicknamed Mauk) was enrolled in the School for Architecture and Decorative Arts in Haarlem; after one week, he informed his father that he would study graphic art instead of architecture. Although Escher occasionally produced watercolours and sculptures, he was first and foremost a graphic artist. During his lifetime, he mad 448 lithographs, woodcuts and wood engravings and over 2000 drawings and sketches. Apart from this, he also illustrated books, designed tapestries, postage stamps and murals. And in 1958, he published an illustrated book entitled Regular Division of the Plane, with reproductions of a series of woodcuts based on tessellations of the plane. In July 1969 he finished his last work, a woodcut called Snakes, in which snakes wind through a pattern of linked rings which fade to infinity toward both the centre and the edge of a circle. Eschers work shows how art can be enhanced by math, and vice versa. Despite having no formal training in Mathematics, Escher created artwork that followed certain mathematical principles, and was influenced by developments in science and mathematics. His works included exploration of the three dimensional world, perspective, abstract mathematical solids, approaches to infinity and also tessellations (arrangements of closed, regular and irregular, shapes that completely cover the plane without overlapping and leaving gaps). While certain schools of art history may not teach Escher as a great artist, his popularity gives him enormous educational leverage to teach topics such as photo-realism, hyper realism, optical art, lithography, illustration, and surrealism. So, creating highly imaginative artwork that marries the world of art and mathematics, he would become a famous artist.

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 3

Escher didnt like being called an artist; he preferred to be known as a graphic artist because printmaking fascinated him. The printmaking methods he used most often were mezzotint (one intaglio technique), linocut, wood engraving and woodcut (these three ones are relief techniques), and lithography (a planographic technique). But he worked primarily in the media of lithographs and woodcuts; the few mezzotints he made are considered to be master pieces of the technique. Judging from the complexity of some of his prints, there can be little doubt that he was indeed a master of his craft. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures and space. A large part of his popularity is due to his depictions of impossible worlds, and his prints on this theme are based on his research into perspective (the system to represent depth on a flat surface). But undoubtedly, tessellations was Eschers primary interest. His fascination with tessellations began when he briefly visit the Alhambra in 1922. He was impressed by the Moorish tilings decorating the Alhambra and the way in which the geometric figures on the plane were repeating. It was only during the second visit in 1936 that he began a more serious and theoretical study into tessellations. And so, the Alhambra became one of the sources of inspiration for Eschers designs. Unlike the Islamic designs, Eschers tilings resemble recognizable objects, usually living beings.

It is quite common to describe Eschers works with regard to mathematics. Thus, we can easily find on Internet many descriptions of his artwork where the role of mathematics is pointed out or even emphasized.

Maurits Cornelis Escher, who was born in Leeuwarden, Holland in 1898, created unique and fascinating works of art that explore and exhibit a wide range of mathematical ideas.1

1

http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/minitext/escher/index.asp

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 4

His engravings and drawings have been admired for years by many artists, mathematicians and intellectuals throughout the world.2 But, why is mathematics so important to a better understanding of Eschers works? In order to clarify this relationship we can try to answer this tricky question by focusing on either the artist or the artwork. If we first consider the artist, we will realize mathematics is essential mainly in two different ways: As a tool To represent the world, his world: continuous, dual and dialectic (black and white, good and evil, limit and unlimited), relativist, cyclic, magic, staggering, bewildering. To represent the conflict between reality and imagination. To represent the mystery of perception. As a magic structure under reality

The laws of mathematics are not merely human inventions or creations. They simply are; they exist quite independently of the human intellect. The most that any(one) ... can do is to find that they are there and to take cognizance of them. M.C. Escher

If we now concentrate on the second focus of attention to answer the initial question we will find two remarkable aspects, too. Eschers artwork has been considered by some mathematicians as a way of visualizing difficult mathematics concepts or principles. Eschers artwork is full of mathematics objects and references: Regular Polyhedra, Archimedean Solids, Regular Division of the Plane (Reflections, Translations and Rotations), Topological objects (Mbius Strip), Non-Euclidean and Fractal Geometry, Perspective laws.

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1)

Espaol. Visita

obligada. Consultar la biografa (http://www.eschergranada.com/es/mcescher/biografia ); explica toda la exposicin en un repaso de sus obras, agrupadas ms por temas que por pocas ( aqu tienes los enlaces de cada seccin: Representacin figurativa /Paisajes naturales y artificiales, el Mediterrneo/ Metamorfosis/ Cruce de mundos/ Formas tridimensionales y matemticas/ Geometrizacin del plano/ Perspectivas y arquitecturas ). Dedica adems un apartado especial a su relacin con la Alhambra y a sus visitas a Espaa. http://www.eschergranada.com/es 2)

para responder tus tareas y preparar la visita. http://www.eschergranada.com/en. Enlaces a las secciones: Natural and Artificial Landscapes. The Mediterranean/ Metamorphosis / Crossing Worlds / Three-dimensional and Mathematical Forms / Geometrisation of the Plane / Perspectives and Architectures 3)

buena en lo referente a los temas y tcnicas. Base de partida para estos apartados en nuestra actividad, as como para el estudio d las citas. Muy recomendable galera de imgenes agrupadas por etapas cronolgicas, no temticas (Cada obra incluye nombre, fecha y tcnica empleada). Atrvete a escuchar los vdeos con las entrevistas realizadas al autor. Ingls. http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/youth/escher/home/home01_e.jsp 4)

imgenes por etapas cronolgicas-. Ingls.

5) 6)

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurits_Cornelis_Escher

interesante que la versin espaola. Ingls: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._C._Escher

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7) 8) 9)

vida. Ingls. http://users.erols.com/ziring/escher_bio.htm

Ingls. http://im-possible.info/english/articles/escher/escher.html

buena en lo referente a los temas y tcnicas. Base de partida para estos apartados en nuestra actividad, as como para el estudio d las citas. Muy recomendable galera de imgenes agrupadas por etapas cronolgicas, no temticas (Cada obra incluye nombre, fecha y tcnica empleada). Atrvete a escuchar los vdeos con las entrevistas realizadas al autor. Ingls. http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/youth/escher/home/home01_e.jsp

11)

Ver en el apartado tcnicas una clasificacin global http://tecnica.z0ro.com/tecnica.htm

12)

Printmaking Wikipedia

de impresin , as como algunos de los ms importantes aristas impresores agrupados por tcnicas para comparar con Escher. La versin en espaol no es ms completa y puede induciros a confusin y malinterpretaciones, ms que aclararos; pero tiene un cuadro de artistas muy completo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printmaking 13) 14)

Grabado Wikipedia

espaol. Bsico para conocer de qu hablamos en lo ingls. Bsico para obtener ideas claras y un vocabulario

Engraving Wikipedia

esencial antes de moverte en otras pginas de consulta (te interesa hasta el apartado 3.1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engraving 15)

Espaol. Materias

primas, procedimientos, tcnicas Exhaustivo pero no complicado, interesante para aclarar y diferenciar conceptos, con cierto nivel. http://www.uchile.cl/cultura/grabadosvirtuales/apuntes/grabado.html#1.2 16)

las tcnicas. Incluye un vocabulario breve y completo; para cada tcnica una galera de imgenes til para estudiar otros artistas y sobre todo, no olvides apretar la flecha de comenzar, se abre una de las ms claras y amenas explicaciones de cada proceso

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 7

artstico, adems fcil (=Press arrow to start). Ms que recomendable, obligada. Ingls. http://www.moma.org/interactives/projects/2001/whatisaprint/print.html 17)

buena en lo referente a los temas y tcnicas. Base de partida para estos apartados en nuestra actividad, as como para el estudio de las citas. Muy recomendable galera de imgenes agrupadas por etapas cronolgicas, no temticas (Cada obra incluye nombre, fecha y tcnica empleada). Atrvete a escuchar los vdeos con las entrevistas realizadas al autor. Ingls. http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/youth/escher/home/home01_e.jsp

tiempo. Espaol http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspectiva

ingls (ms simple y con menos informacin) ingls. Muy recomendable: definicin e

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_%28visual%29

ideas claras; historia y evolucin, obras tericas, explicacin de temas y esquemas de visuales muy tiles. Recomendable. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_%28graphical%29 21)

Aproximacin a la Perspectiva

formato diccionario; til para definir y aclarar trminos usados en las actividades y pginas de consulta. Espaol. http://www.imageandart.com/tutoriales/morfologia/perspectiva.htm 22)

la Historia del Arte. Muy resolutiva para algunas actividades . Espaol. http://www.profesorenlinea.cl/artes/Perspectiva_Tipos.htm 23)

Sencilla y

perspectiva y su evolucin en la historia del arte. Espaol http://www.cossio.net/actividades/pinacoteca/p_02_03/perspectiva.htm

25)

Perspective

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 8

26)

para introduccin a la geometra en arte y para ejemplos de perspectiva en funcin de la posicin del espectador. Ingls, no demasiado fcil. http://www.artyfactory.com/perspective_drawing/perspective_index.htm 27)

Anamorfosis Wikipedia

autores que la han usado en sus obras. Ingles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anamorphosis 28) 29)

Anamorfosis Wikipedia

pgina dedicada a Julian Beever.

Perspective

http://www.artgraphica.net/free-art-lessons/wetcanvas/basic-

perspective-for-artists/basic-perspective-for-artists.htm

Ver el contenido convertido en Presentacin de Power Point 1, 2 & 3 point perspective.pptx (descrgalo de esta pgina web del IES: (Download:

http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia)

30)

Mathematics and art. para comprender la estrecha relacin entre el arte y las

matemticas, en especial en lo referido a la proporcin y perspectiva, de Grecia a nuestros das. Ingls. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics_and_art

31)

para trabajar y comprender las teselaciones en la obra de Escher. Aborda la relacin entre el autor y la Alhambra. Unas excelentes animaciones para comprender los procesos geomtricos de creacin de teselaciones. Ingls. http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/maa/0203-2-03Escher/main.html#Introduction 33)

Polyhedra and Art. Una pgina donde podrs rastrear la relacin entre el arte y

los poliedros a lo largo de la historia. De especial inters el enlace hacia la pgina de Escher donde se comenta uno de sus grabados Stars. Ingls. http://www.georgehart.com/virtual-polyhedra/art.html

34)

de lo que es un poliedro arquimediano. Este tipo de poliedros fueron utilizados por Escher en algunas de sus obras. Ingls. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedean_solid

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 9

35)

para crear tus propias figuras imposibles. Se trata de un programa que trabaja por medio de cubos en perspectiva y que genera formas como la siguiente:

http://imp-world.narod.ru/programs/index.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9eqeBsNMBo

36)

El espejo mgico de M.C. Escher. Bruno Ernst. Ed.: Evergreen, Kln 1994.

Este libro es un clsico en la bibliografa sobre Escher. Se trata de un texto autorizado por el propio Escher, muy vlido para conocer las opiniones del propio artista.

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Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia ) A. With the biographical data which appear in SLIDES 3 to 6, design a timeline about MC Escher life. Incorporate the information about the chronological periods (SLIDE 7) in order to organize them. Identify the timeline date with a specific colour related to Escher artistic evolution.

For further information visit the websites on your WORKBOOK (in sections Generales and Vida y Obra): Resources number 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7.

strange power of attraction that keeps its hold on the graphic artist? There are, I believe, three elements that are an inherent part of this fascination: 1. desire for multiplication; 2. beauty of the craft; 3. forced limitations resulting from the technique."

(Escher in Escher, 1989)

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia ) A. Observe the two pictures included in SLIDE 9. In both of them you can see Escher working in his workshop. Try to find out which technique is employed in each image or in which stage of the artistic process is it in.

in your WORKBOOK.

I especially recommend you (in order of preference) numbers 16, 17 (English) and 11, 15 (Spanish).

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 11

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia ) A. Play close attention to the SLIDES in section Eschers Tecniques from a to f (SLIDES 10 to 15). Every image show a different printmaking technique used by Escher (exemplified by different Works) with the exception of letters e and f which refer to the same technique. Can you identify the represented technique in each SLIDE? numbers 1 and 4 (look for the Picture Gallery). Number 3 can also be useful although it may need some more time to be loaded. B. Design a comparative table of the 5 graphic printmaking techniques more frequently used by Escher. Show in each technique the year in which it was invented, the matrix used (the material used for the engraving), the media (material on which it is printed), the tools which had been used for the engraving and a brief summary of the process. You will find especially useful the website (Flash presentation) What Is a Print from the MOMA.

You may find further information in the websites of your WORKBOOK numbers 12,

14 and 15.

Read the article Whats Perspective by Jim Elkins (see below, at the end of activity 12, ) and answer the following questions: A. Define the words which appeared highlighted in turquoise. B. In the tradition of Western Art, which period, work and author can we claimed the first linear perspective? C. Over which elements of representation has no power linear perspective? D. According to the majority of art critics, who destroys the concept and use of perspective in the 20th Century? Whats the article writers opinion? E. Value from 1 to 10 the difficulty of the text considering 1 the minimum and 10 the maximum. Indicate if your evaluation comes from text references and artistic vocabulary, to the difficulty of vocabulary in general, to the difficulty of understanding the expressions and sentence structures. How many words did you have to look up in the dictionary (not including those in activity A)?

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In the twentieth century artists began to play with perspective by drawing impossible objects. These objects included stairs that always go up or cubes where the back meets the front. Such works were popularized by artist M. C. Escher and mathematician Roger Penrose. Although referred to as impossible objects such objects as the Necker Cube and the Penrose triangle can be built using anamorphosis. When viewed at a certain angle such sculptures appear as the so-called impossible objects. http://en.wikipedia.org

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia ) A. Look for SLIDE 17 and identify the name which corresponds to each of the represented images. Why are they called Impossible Objects? B. The image of stairs is recurrent in Eschers work (see SLIDE 18). Name at least 4 works from Escher (title and date) in which the stairs theme is emphasized. - Are they common examples of representing a stair? Why? In your opinion, what is the sense of this recurrent theme? C. It is commonly assumed the influence of G.B. Piranesi (discovered in his Italian period) in Eschers artwork -Elaborate a brief file on Piranesi (Time-space location, artistic style, techniques and main Works) - Observe the Piranesi image on SLIDE 18. Which Eschers work does it remind you? Which technical element do they share?

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) A. In SLIDE 20 (Picture Gallery 1) there are three photographs showing linear perspective. Which differences can you notice? Analyse the vanishing points, the horizon line and the viewers point of view (also eye or dark point, is the place from which the image is observed. It would be as the viewers eye) B. Image 1 represents The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci. Observe the perspective diagram. Which is the vanishing point? Where does it go to? Does it refer to a symbolic or spatial necessity? Reason your answer out.

Visit the websites in section Perspectiva in your WORKBOOK. I especially recommend you (in order of preference) numbers 20, 26 (English) and numbers 22, 18, 25 (Spanish).

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C. Analyse and compare the images in SLIDE 21 (Picture Gallery 2). What kind of perspective do they show? What do they have in common and which differences can you notice? Reason your answers out.

Visit the websites in section Perspectiva in your WORKBOOK. I especially recommend you (in order of preference) numbers 29, 26 (English) and number 22 y 18 (Spanish).

La realidad tiene tres dimensiones, alto, ancho y profundo, pero un cuadro slo dos, lo alto y lo ancho. Este es el principal problema de todo pintor: cmo conseguir dar la ilusin de profundidad en un cuadro?. La respuesta es mediante el engao a nuestro sentido de la vista. Es en el Renacimiento cuando los pintores florentinos comienzan a investigar en serio la perspectiva como una ciencia, con sus leyes y sus principios matemticos. Mantegna, Ghiberti, Massaccio y otros establecieron ciertos principios necesariamente observables para reproducir la distancia. Estos principios fueron posteriormente perfeccionados por Leonardo, Miguel Angel, Giorgione y Rafael. Pero, cules son los engaos necesarios para lograr la tridimensionalidad en un plano? Fue Leonardo, precisamente, quien en su "Tratado de la pintura" defini a la perspectiva como la "ciencia de las lneas de la visin", dividindola en tres partes: lineal, de color y menguante. Perspectiva lineal. El cuadro se estructura como si mirsemos una pirmide desde dentro de su base. Vemos as un punto de fuga imaginario al fondo sobre el que convergen una serie de lneas de fuga, a veces imaginarias y a veces reales (pavimentos, techos, personajes, etc.) Perspectiva menguante. A medida que aumenta la distancia, disminuye la nitidez, los contornos se van haciendo borrosos y desdibujados, al igual que ocurre en la realidad. Perspectiva de color. En este caso, cuanto ms lejos aparece representado un objeto, ms tenues son sus colores. Existe tambin en el mundo real un desvaimiento de los tonos al aumentar la lejana. (Vemos las montaas azules desde lejos). Adems de estas tres perspectivas generales hay otros recursos aadidos para subrayar la tridimensionalidad como, por ejemplo, el punto de vista alto (perspectiva caballera) que aumenta el campo visual y por tanto la sensacin de profundidad. Tambin la alternancia de planos iluminados y otros en penumbra; o un fondo ilimitado e infinito; o disminuir el tamao de los objetos progresivamente segn se alejan del espectador, etc. A la perspectiva que toma en consideracin las tres citadas anteriormente se la suele conocer como perspectiva area. http://www.cossio.net/actividades/pinacoteca/p_02_03/perspectiva.htm

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1 2 3

1 2 3

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) A. The Works which are showed in SLIDE 22 belong the great Italian painters of the Renaissance, who are pioneer in linear perspective. Which elements do these Works have in common from the perspective point of view? Which differences can you notice among them? You have to analyze the vanishing points, the horizon lines and the eye view. B. Look for and define in Spanish the words escorzo and perspectiva caballera. Explain their relationship with the Works in this slide. C. SLIDE 23 shows three different ways of representing the 3D space in the picture. Identify the Works, period and style they belong to and the type of perspective which has been used in each case. D. In SLIDE 24 you can see Las Meninas by Velzquez. Explain in Spanish how Velzquez creates the space in the painting and what kind of perspective he uses. Interpret and explain the coloured lines on top. Which spatial concept does each color correspond to? E. SLIDE 25, 26 Y 27 (Picture Gallery 6, 7 y 8) belong to the Early Flemish Painters School (Northern Renaissance). These painters will also be interested in the 3D space representation on the plane and they will approach its study from different premises to those used by the Italian painters and, therefore, with different results. - Analyse in SLIDES 25 and 26 the elements on which the author leans to create space and depth in the picture (they can be architectural, furniture, wall decoration, floor, ceiling) - Locate the vanishing points and the horizon line. Is it the same perspective as the one used by the Italian painters? If not, identify which type does it belong to. Reason your answer out. F. SLIDE 27 represents a famous picture by Jan Van Eyck. Which one are we referring to? Observe the orthogonal lines and locate the vanishing point. What kind of perspective do you find? Does the element in the middle of the picture coincide with the main

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 15

vanishing point? Which symbolic value is given to the main vanishing point in this work? What does it represent?

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) A. Visit the PPT Presentation Perspective Comic by F. Boucq in the IES Albayzn website and answer the following questions: 1. In SLIDE 6 you can read: perspective is an obsolete conception of the representation of reality. nobody is interested in perspective anymore. Do you think this is a true sentence in contemporary art? Reason your answer out. 2. In SLIDE 6 you can read: I have been a Sunday afternoon painter for twenty-five years and, for me, perspective is much more than a simple technique, it is something connected with universal laws!!... . What does the expression Sunday afternoon painter mean? Do you think it has a pejorative sense? Why? Which are the universal laws the author refers to? 3. Why is there a connection between perspective and the expression Sunday afternoon painter, and the lack of perspective and artistic creation in contemporary art? 4. Which three basic rules of perspective are implicitly mentioned in the dialogues in SLIDE 7? 5. Mr. Ferdinand, the man with the plough, says in SLIDE 9 I cant draw hyperboloids. Which type of perspective does he refer to? Justify your answer. 6. In SLIDE 16 you can read: I wanted to send the rules of perspective to hell and thats why the bananas are hard to recognize. Now look at the picture with the bananas: What is the meaning of this sentence? 7. Try to find images in the Presentation with perspectives which are equivalent to those on pictures 2, 3 and 4 in SLIDE 20 of the PPT Presentation MC Escher. Art & Maths. Art Assigments Resources

Curvilinear perspective involves the representation of space using vanishing curves rather than vanishing lines. As these curves seem to converge at both ends, the horizontal and vertical transversals create two vanishing points each with a fifth created by the orthogonals parallel to the direction of view. Hence the name five point perspective or spherical perspective

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for some of these projection systems. Historical Uses of Curvilinear Perspective: From the 16th to the 20th centuries, perspective theorists explored the problem of anamorphic or geometrically distorted images, which can be rectified back to a normal perspective image when viewed using an appropriately curved mirror. These studies often overlapped with the problems of projective distortions in two dimensional images, specifically the difference in perspective view straight ahead and the view obliquely to either side. FROM: http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/tech10.html#index

Curvilinear perspective is a graphical projection used to draw 3D objects on 2D surfaces. It was formally codified in 1968 by the artists and art historians Andr Barre and Albert Flocon in the book La Perspective curviligne. In 1959, Flocon had acquired a copy of Grafiek en tekeningen by M. C. Escher who strongly impressed him with his use of bent and curved perspective, which influenced the theory Flocon and Barre were developing. They started a long correspondence, in which Escher called Flocon a "kindred spirit". Examples of approximated (not necessarily systematically constructed, but emulated through an empirical method) five-point perspective can also be found in several mannerist paintings such as the famous self-portrait of Parmigianino seen through a shaving mirror as well as in the curved mirror in Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini's Wedding. http://en.wikipedia.org A. In SLIDE 28 you can find three examples of Eschers interest in curvilinear perspective which he would develop in his hyperbolic tessellations (=regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane) together with his mathematician friend Coxeter, an expert in Hyperbolic Geometry. This interest in curvilinear perspective is not new in Art History. We have chosen Jan van Eyck and Parmigianino and in picture 1 in SLIDE 26 you can see a work by Master of Flmalle. Can you identify these three pictures? Which style or artistic school do the authors belong to? - Look for information and write an abstract on Parmigianinos work and his interest in the distortion of curvilinear perspective. B. Try to find some other examples (five at least) of curvilinear perspective in Eschers work apart from those which appear in this Slide. Anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective requiring the viewer to use special devices or occupy a specific vantage point to reconstitute the image. There are two main types of anamorphosis: Perspective (oblique) and Mirror (catoptric). Examples of perspectival anamorphosis date to the early Renaissance (15th Century) Examples of mirror anamorphosis occurred at the time of the late Renaissance (16th Century).

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During the 17th century, Baroque trompe l'oeil murals often used this technique to combine actual architectural elements with an illusion. When standing in front of the art work in a specific spot, the architecture blends with the decorative painting. Cinemascope, Panavision, Technirama and other widescreen formats use anamorphosis to project a wider image from a narrower film frame. http://en.wikipedia.org

Anamorphic images have been distorted so that they appear flat or undistorted (veridical) when they are (a) viewed from a direction that is not perpendicular to the image plane; (b) viewed in a curved mirror or other highly reflective object; or (c) painted on a curved or faceted surface (i.e., the image plane is not a plane). http://en.wikipedia.org

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) Hans Holbein the Younger is well known for incorporating this type of anamorphic trick. His painting The Ambassadors is the most famous example for anamorphosis (mirror anamorphosis), in which a distorted shape lies diagonally across the bottom of the frame. Viewing this from an acute angle transforms it into the plastic image of a skull. C. Search for information on the Internet about the meaning of the skull in Holbeins picture. D. Which Eschers work shows a skull reflected on a naturally curve surface? E. Escher uses the perspectival anamorphosis , in the Baroque tradition of trompe l'oeil. What does trompe l oeil mean (explain in Spanish)?. Find out an Eschers work showing this visual stunt. You can find at least two examples included in the Art Resources PPT Presentation-. - How can you explain the anamorphosis (visual trick) in each example you have chosen?.

Visit the websites in section Perspectiva in your WORKBOOK. I especially recommend you number 27 (English).

Este recurso del cuadro dentro del cuadro utilizado ya antes del Renacimiento convierte al cuadro incluido en un objeto tan real como el resto de objetos que forman parte de la obra total. No hay distincin alguna entre la realidad y la ilusin, entro lo viviente y lo pintado. A partir del siglo XVI se le va a aadir un atributo ms a dicho recurso: el cuadro incluido consigue que el espectador lo destaque del resto de la imagen representada. http://vailima.blogia.com/2004/111101-el-cuadro-dentro-del-cuadro.php

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.otro procedimiento, mucho ms sutil, de introducir un espacio dentro de otro, un exterior en un interior: el del cuadro dentro del cuadro, es decir, la presencia en la pared del fondo de un interior de otro cuadro colgado, que representa algo fuera de l. Tal sistema comprende tres soluciones, () a veces difciles de distinguir: el cuadro (o tapiz) colgado sobre el falso muro pintado; el hueco abierto en este muro, puerta o ventana a otra estancia o al aire libre; en fin, el espejo, que introduce en el espacio fingidamente real del cuadro lo que se halla frente a l ().En los tres casos nos hallamos ante una derivacin de la veduta (). Esta prctica alcanza entre los espaoles del Siglo de Oro, especialmente en Velzquez, tal perfeccin. Julin Gllego, Visin y Smbolos en la Pintura Espaola del Siglo de Oro, 1984

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) A. Escher uses this resource in his work. Find some examples of it in his production (some of them are in this presentation). Do you think this resource is connected with his interest in representing infinite universes? In which way? Reason your answer out. B. In SLIDE 30 (Picture Gallery 11) there are some examples of Spanish painters. One of them is Velzquez. Who is the author of image 1? C. Find in this presentation some other Works by Velzquez of a picture within a picture. Explain the within picture and read carefully the attached text by Julin Gllego.

En la crtica literaria, negacin del significado normal de los conceptos y favorecimiento de otro tipo de interpretaciones

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

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Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) Observe carefully the Works which are included in SLIDES 31 to 33 (Picture Gallery 12 to 149). Design a table with the works in a chronological order. Mention the author, style or artistic period of the work and name of it. Do you think the rules of linear perspective are fulfilled in these Works? Justify your answer. Which works maintain a certain concept of linear perspective in these pictures (Write number and author)?. Pay close attention to the four Works in SLIDE 31 y numbers 2, 3 and 4 in SLIDE 33 (Picture Gallery 12 and 14). Analyse the type of representation of the space which has been used by the authors. Consult the table in SLIDE 19. Which of these Works represent the elimination of perspective? Reason your answer out. Does Cubism mean the elimination or the intensification of the concept of 3D in painting? Justify your answer.

Visit the websites in section Perspectiva in your WORKBOOK. I especially recommend you (in order of preference) numbers 25 and 20 (English) and numbers 18 y 22 (Spanish).

Another form of anamorphic art is often called "Slant Art." Examples are the sidewalk chalk paintings of Kurt Wenner, Manfred Stader and Julian Beever where the chalk painting, the pavement and the architectural surroundings all become part of an illusion.

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia) A. What is the meaning of epigone? In which sense can we name these chalk artists as epigones of Escher? What is the relationship between Eschers art and these Street artists / sidewalk chalk painters?

Resources

(Download: http://www.iesalbayzin.org/index.php/departamentos-didacticos/65-dpto-geografia-e-historia)

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A. In this section (SLIDES 35 to 41) some quotes have been selected on two main subjects: the relationship between Escher and Maths and Escher and his artistic creation. Choose one relevant quotation for each subject. Justify your choice and the meaning of the quotation within the artistic production of Escher (SLIDE 35 with Spanish quotations cannot be chosen for this exercise).

FROM: www.artic.edu/aic/

What Is Perspective?

The Basics of Perspective Linear perspective is a mathematical system for projecting the three-dimensional world onto a two-dimensional surface, such as paper or canvas. In brief, this type of perspective begins with a horizon line, which defines the farthest distance of the background and a central vanishing point. To this vanishing point, orthogonals may be drawn from the bottom of the picture plane, which defines the foreground of the space. The orthogonals, vanishing point, and horizon line establish the space in which the artist may arrange figures, objects, or architecture such that they appear to exist in three dimensions. Once these basic elements have been set in place, the artist may add further elements to create a more complicated, yet more realistic, space. For example, to

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represent a square-tiled floor, the artist chooses another point on the horizon line, called the distance point, and draws a line through the orthogonals to a point at the bottom of the picture plane. The points at which this line bisects the orthogonals establish the points at which horizontal lines, called transversals, may be placed. These lines represent the perspectively correct regression of the square tiles into space (see diagram). These elements of linear perspective link the science of three-dimensional geometry with the art of illusionistic representation. Art-Historical Meanings of Perspective In the 13th and 14th centuries, before linear perspective was discovered, artists occasionally employed something called reverse perspective, in which parallel lines splay rather than converge as they approach the horizon line. One of the rules set forth in an early artists' manual is that elements above the eye of the viewer tend downward (like roofs), while elements below the viewers eye tend upward (like tables). While arbitrary tilting of lines upward and downward can create unusual effects, this is generally considered to be a significant step in the progression toward the rational application of linear perspective. It was not until the Renaissance that artists began to refine this science. Linear perspective soon emerged as the tool for artists to capture the world around them in a remarkably illusionistic manner (this was the same time that cartographers were mapping the surface of the earth using a similar system of mathematical projection). Masaccio's (140128) Trinity (142728), considered to be the first accurately perspectival painting in the Western tradition, introduced the relationship between linear perspective and subject matter in art. The painting is divided into three levels: the figure of God stands on a tomb above and behind Christ crucified on the cross; the Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist stand at the base of the cross; and two donors, who commissioned the painting, kneel on either side of the cross at the lowest level. The figures are harmoniously organized underneath a barrel-vaulted ceiling. The figure of Christ and the barrel vault are rendered as if seen from below. The figures of Mary and John are rendered again as if from below, but just lower than Christ. The two donors, given the lowest vanishing point, are rendered as if seen, directly in front of the viewers eye. In this way, the painting provides the illusion that the viewer is looking at sculptural forms that exist in three dimensions and rise vertically in space. Yet the accurate, illusionistic representation of space in this work has no obvious theological meaning. It has much more to do with the artist exhibiting his skillinjecting his own thoughts into this religious image. Unusual Kinds of Perspective Some artists of the Renaissance were not as concerned with putting their subjects in perfect perspective as they were with making religious statements. For example, in pictures that include the Virgin Mary the vanishing point is often intentionally placed on Mary's womb to indicate her place as the mother of Christ. This placement of the vanishing point has religious significance and may not be related to the intention to ART & MATHS : M.C. ESCHER

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create a rational perspectival space. Further, if the artist chooses a short distance between the distance point and the vanishing point then the perspective will appear warped. The distance between the distance point and the vanishing point should, in theory, correspond exactly to the distance between the viewers eye and the picture plane. When the distance between the points is small, the viewer must place his or her eye at this same distance from the painting directly in front of the distance point in order to see the work with no distortion whatsoever. When the viewer stands back from the work, the space in the image will appear distorted. Anamorphosis (from the Greek, something without form) involves stretching an ordinary linear-perspective image in one or more directions to obscure its original form. To achieve this, the artist draws a grid over the original image and then translates the image point by point to a grid that has been stretched. If the viewer looks at the image directly, it appears formless and amorphous. In order to recognize the image, the eye of the viewer must be positioned from a particular spot, generally off to the side, and from this point the image appears in linear perspective. Curvilinear perspective is an alternate to linear perspective. Although technically all straight lines are curved, curvilinear lines are suppressed in Western paintingthat is, straight lines are represented as straight rather than arced. In the 19th century, a group of artists made an attempt to return curvilinear perspective to painting, but the idea was short lived because it presented a philosophical problem. When observing lines in the real world, such those of as walls and buildings, the lines appear curved. (Think of standing in front of a long wall, and looking left and right: The top of the wall seems to curve up from either side.) It follows that a wall in a painting, drawn with straight lines, can also seem curved. Therefore, if those curves are represented in painting they will seem doubly curved. This tension between reality and the representation of reality in painting posed a challenge to the painters who employed this technique. Perspective and Nature There are some elements of representation over which linear perspective has no power, such as landscapes, faces, and organic forms, for this type of perspective only describes linear things. In his Landscape with Saint John on Patmos (1640), Nicolas Poussin (1593/41665) used linear perspective to demonstrate his knowledge of geometry. In the ruins in the foreground, a cube, a threedimensional rectangle, and a cylinder are represented in perfect perspectival form, each illustrating a different aspect of foreshortening. Yet the landscape in which the objects and the figure of Saint John exist does not adhere to the rules of linear perspective. The pathway recedes into the distance giving an illusion of depth, but nature twists and turns and rises and falls in its unpredictable, organic way.

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Modern Art and Linear Perspective Since the Renaissance, painters have reworked and refined linear perspective. The American 19th-century realist Thomas Eakins (18441916) created remarkably accurate outdoor scenes, with shadows painted so precisely that art historians have been able to determine, based on their knowledge of where the works were painted, the exact date and time of day he painted them. Some critics have argued that perspective was destroyed by modern artists such as Pablo Picasso in the early-20th century. In works such as his portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1910), Picasso sought to break up the picture plane and divide the forms into individual geometric pieces. Yet early modern artists did not actually overthrow perspective; they borrowed from it, elaborated upon it, and redefined it for the viewer. That linear perspective is still very much a part of representation today is evident in video games, which employ the most exact perspective in the Western tradition. In computer software, all figures and objects are drawn using a perfect geometric grid. Regardless of the vantage point from which the player views figures in a game, all figures, objects, and elements in the settings adhere to the established rules of representation. Perspective is both an exacting art and an exacting science that is still very much all around us. Adapted from a lecture titled What Is Perspective? by Jim Elkins. www.jameselkins.com.

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Donors = donante, comitente

Canvas = lienzo

End-Grain Wood Etching = aguafuerte, grabado al cido Foreshortening = acortar Intaglio = talla dulce o grabado a buril (huecograbado) Linocut = linoleografa Mezzotint = mezzotinta, manera negra o inglesa Reverse Perspective Tiling = alicatar, enlosar, poner azulejos Wood Engraving = xilografa (a testa, a contrafibra)

Engrave = grabado

Foreground = primer plano Horizon Line = lnea del horizonte Linear Perspective Lithography= litografa Planographic = planogrfico Tiles = azulejos , baldosas Vanishing Point = punto de fuga Woodcut = xilografa (a fibra, al hilo)

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Escher was very interested in visual aspects of Topology, a branch of mathematics just coming into full flower during his lifetime. The Mbius strip is perhaps the prime example, and Escher made many representations of it. It has the curious property that it has only one side, and one edge. Thus, if you trace the path of the ants in Mbius Strip II, you will discover that they are not walking on opposite sides of the strip at all they are all walking on the same side.

Balcony

Print Gallery

Mbius Strip II

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Another very remarkable lithograph, called Print Gallery, explores both the logic and the topology of space. Here a young man in an art gallery is looking at a print of a seaside town with a shop along the docks, and in the shop is an art gallery, with a young man looking at a print of a seaside town . . . but wait! What's happened? All of Escher's works reward a prolonged stare, but this one does especially. Somehow, Escher has turned space back into itself, so that the young man is both inside the picture and outside of it simultaneously. The secret of its making can be rendered somewhat less obscure by examining the grid-paper sketch the artist made in preparation for this lithograph. Note how the scale of the grid grows continuously in a clockwise direction. And note especially what this trick entails: A hole in the middle. A mathematician would call this a singularity, a place where the fabric of the space no longer holds together. There is just no way to knit this bizarre space into a seamless whole, and Escher, rather than try to obscure it in some way, has put his trademark initials smack in the centre of it. As we have seen Escher was very interested in Topology. Now we will try to clarify the meaning of this branch of mathematics.

Topological Equivalence

Someone once said that topologist is a person who does not know the difference between a doughnut and a coffee cup. Two geometric figures are said to be topologically equivalent if one figure can be elastically twisted (torcida), stretched (estirada), bent (doblada), or shrunk (encogida) into the other figure without puncturing (perforar) or ripping (rasgar) the original figure. If a doughnut is made of elastic material, it can be stretched, twisted, bent, shrunk, and distorted until it resembles a coffee cup with a handle, as shown in the picture below. In topology, figures are classified according to their genus. The genus of an object is determined by the number of holes that go through the object. A cup and a doughnut each have one hole and are of genus 1 (and are therefore topologically equivalent). Notice that the cup handle is considered a hole, whereas the opening at the rim of the cup (borde de la taza) is not considered a hole.

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Marble. Genus 0

Doughnut. Genus 1

Kettle. Genus 2

Scissors. Genus 2

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Activity 1:

Give the name and the genus of the following objects. If the object has a genus larger than 5, write larger than 5.

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

Name: Genus:

A Jordan Curve is a topological object that can be thought of as a circle twisted out of shape. Like a circle, it has an inside and an outside. To get from one side to the other, at least one line must be crossed. Consider the following Jordan curve; are points A and B inside or outside the

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curve? Could you establish a general rule to know whether a point is inside or outside the Jordan curve?

If you place a pencil on one surface of a sheet of paper and do not remove it from the sheet, you must across the edge to get to the other surface. Thus, a sheet of paper has one edge and two surfaces. The sheet retains these properties even when crumpled into a ball. The Mbius strip, also called a Mbius band, is a one-sided, one-edged surface. You can construct one by: a) Taking a strip of paper

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The Mbius strip has some very interesting properties. To better understand these properties, perform the following experiments.

Experiment 1: Take a sheet of paper, a strip of paper and construct a paper ring as shown

in the picture. Could you tell how many edges and how many sides these different surfaces have?

Number of edges

Number of sides

How to count the edges: Start colouring an edge at one point with your felt-tip pen, if you colour the entire edge and never have to lift the pen from the paper then the paper has one edge. A pointy vertex does not divide an edge into two parts. How to count the sides: Start colouring one side, fill it with colour but don't cross over any sharp edges. When you are done, one side will be coloured the other will not. So, the strip has 2 sides. A simpler way to test for the number of sides is to draw a line along one side. If any point can be reached from the line without crossing an edge then that point is on the same side as the line. Draw a line on one side of the paper, points on the other side cannot be reached without crossing an edge, this means the paper has two sides.

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Experiment 2: Make a Mbius strip using a strip of paper and tape as illustrated

Check a Mbius band is a one-sided, one-edged surface.

above.

Experiment 3: Make a Mbius strip. Use scissors to make a small slit in the middle of the

strip. Starting at the slit, cut along the strip, keeping the scissors in the middle of the strip. Continue cutting and observe what happens.

Experiment 4: Make a Mbius strip. Make a small slit at a point about one-third of the

width of the strip. Cut along the strip, keeping the scissors the same distance from the edge. Continue cutting and observe what happens.

constructions are impossible. This means we can draw these impossible constructions on a sheet of paper but we cant build a three-dimensional model of them. How can such a disturbing event like that happen? Explaining this strange event involves to think of perspective rules. Two-dimensional impossible constructions are possible because when we draw them we break some of the perspective rules. For instance:

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Parallel line segments in 3D world are also parallel in their 2D representations, and the other way round. Every 2D representation of the 3D world is made using the same type of coordinate trihedral.

Activity 1:

How could you interpret this coordinate trihedral? How many possibilities can you see? Maybe if you look carefully at the following picture you will realize the different points of view. To represent a trihedral in 2D is always ambiguous.

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Activity 2:

The following chart contains several 2D representations. Some of them are possible constructions in a 3D world, others are not. Could you identify or classify the possible and impossible constructions? Could you explain your answer according to the perspective rules explained above?

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Activity 3:

His fantastical structures, which couldnt possibly exist in the real world, are optical illusions that play with perspective. Could you recognize any of the critiria explained above to create impossible constructions in these Eschers artwork?

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In addition to being wonderfully engaging art, the work of Maurits Cornelius Escher also displays some of the more beautiful and intricate aspects of mathematics. In 1936 Escher, became obsessed with tessellations, that is, with creating art that used objects to cover a plane so as to leave no gaps. Symmetry became a cornerstone of Eschers famous tessellations. Escher kept a notebook in which he kept background information for his artwork. In this notebook, Escher characterized all possible combinations of shapes, colours and symmetrical properties of polygons in the plane. By doing so, Escher had unwittingly developed areas of a branch of mathematics known as crystallography years before any mathematician had done so!!

These pictures have been created by Escher using the rules of transformational geometry. One of the targets of this activity will be to discover that rules.

This activity has been developed using different materials selected from the following bibliographic sources: AAVV, A Survey of Mathematics with Applications, Eighth Edition (Pearson Education, 2009). Recursos digitales de la Editorial ANAYA (digital.com).

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We will now introduce a type of geometry called transformational geometry. In transformational geometry we study various ways to move a geometric figure without altering the shape or size of the figure. When discussing transformational geometry, we often use the term rigid motion. The act of moving a geometric figure from some starting position to some ending position without altering its shape or size is called a rigid motion (or transformation). When discussing rigid motion of two-dimensional figures, there are four basic types of rigid motions: Reflections, Rotations, Translations, and Glide Reflections. We call these four types of rigid motions the basic rigid motions in a plane. A reflection is a rigid motion that moves a geometric figure to a new position such that (tal que) figure in the new position is a mirror image of the figure in the starting position. In two dimensions, the figure and its mirror image are equidistant from a line called the reflection line or the axis of reflection.

A translation (or glide) is a rigid motion that moves a geometric figure by sliding (deslizar) it along a straight line segment in the plane. The direction and length of the line segment completely determine the translation. A concise way to indicate the direction and the distance that a figure is moved during the translation is with a translation vector.

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A rotation is a rigid motion performed by rotating a geometric figure in the plane about a specific point, called the rotation point or the centre of rotation. The angle through which the object is rotated is called the angle of rotation.

We will measures angles of rotation using degrees. In mathematics, generally, counterclockwise angles have positive degree measures and clockwise angles have negative degree measures. A glide reflection is a rigid motion formed by performing a translation (or glide) followed by a reflection.

As a summary of the basic rigid motion in a plane we can bear in mind the following image:

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Activity 1:

Construct the reflection of polygon ABCDE, shown in Figure a, about line e and the reflection of polygon ABCD, shown in Figure b, about point O.

Activity 2:

Given the shapes shown in Figure a and b, and translation vector , construct the translated shapes (ABCDE).

Activity 3:

Use the given figure and rotation point O to construct the indicated rotations

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If you compare this rigid motion to the one in the exercise 1b, what would you say about it?

Activity 4:

Construct the reflection of polygon shown below about line e.

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Activity 5:

Construct the reflection of polygon shown below about point O.

Activity 6:

Given triangle OAB, where ( ) ( )y ( ):

a) Plot all the points and draw the triangle. b) Construct the translation of triangle OAB using ( ) as a translation vector. c) Determine the coordinates of the three vertices of triangle OAB.

Activity 7:

John has to study this composition that he has found out in an art exhibition, could you help him to answer the following questions?

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Departamentos de Historia y Matematicas 41

What rigid motion would you use to transform tile 1 into tile 2? And tile 1 into tile 3? And tile 1 into tile 6?

Activity 8:

Construct a glide reflection of square ABCD using vector and reflection line e.

Activity 9:

Determine whether the following Eschers work have been created using reflection, translation, rotation or glide reflection. You can use a tracing paper (a transparent sheet placed over the original) to answer this question.

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Todas las fuentes de informacin usadas en la realizacin de este proyecto aparecen recogidas en el apartado inicial de , en las notas de pie de pgina y en el apartado correspondiente a . Todas las imgenes empleadas en la elaboracin de esta actividad interdisciplinar (actividades o Presentaciones con Power Point) han sido tomadas de Internet, en su mayora proceden de las pginas web recomendadas.

Los autores de esta actividad quieren agradecer su inestimable colaboracin a: D. Rafael Moreno y los alumnos de T.I.C. de 2 de Bachillerato, por su cooperacin en la Presentacin La derisoire effervescence des comprimes D. Javier Paos, por proporcionar la idea y el material original base de dicha presentacin D. Francisco Julio, por su asesoramiento y supervisin en la redaccin final del texto en ingls, y muy especialmente, por la traduccin de las actividades correspondientes al apartado Art Assignments

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Snakes (1969), last M.C. Eschers artwork Woodcut in orange, green and black, printed from 3 blocks

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