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Chapters 5–8 Resources
Chapters 5–8 Resources
Chapters 5–8 Resources
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such materials be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited.

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Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027

ISBN: 978-0-07-878761-4 MHID: 0-07-878761-0

Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Contents To the Teacher . . . . . . . . .
Table of
Contents
To the Teacher
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iv

Chapters 5-8 Resources

Reproducible Student Pages

Student Lab Safety Form .

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vi

Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms

 

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Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

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. 27

Chapter 7 Ionic Compounds and Metals

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Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding

 

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Teacher Guide and Answers

 

Chapter 5

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113

Chapter 6

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117

Chapter 7

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121

Chapter 8

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127

To the Teacher This booklet contains resource materials to help you teach more effectively. You
To the Teacher
This booklet contains resource materials to help you teach more effectively. You will
find the following in the chapters:

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Reproducible Pages

Hands-on Activities

MiniLab and ChemLab Worksheets: Each activity in this book is an expanded version of each lab that appears in the Student Edition of Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change. All materials lists, procedures, and questions are repeated so that students can read and complete a lab in most cases without having a textbook on the lab table. All lab ques- tions are reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. In addition, for student safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on these expanded pages. Answer pages for each MiniLab and ChemLab are included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Transparency Activities

Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to major

concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the transparencies contain art or photos that extend the concepts put forth in the textbook. Others contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition. There are 73 Teaching Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to math-

ematical concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the trans- parencies contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition, or extend concepts put forth in the textbook. There are 42 Math Skills Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Intervention and Assessment

Study Guide: These pages help students understand, organize, and compare the main chemistry concepts in the textbook. The questions and activities also help build strong study and reading skills. There are six study guide pages for each chapter. Students will find these pages easy to follow because the section titles match those in the textbook. Italicized sentences in the study guide direct students to the related topics in the text.

The Study Guide exercises employ a variety of formats including multiple-choice, matching, true/false, labeling, completion, and short answer questions. The clear, easy- to-follow exercises and the self-pacing format are geared to build your students’ confi- dence in understanding chemistry. Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

To the Teacher continued

Chapter Assessment: Each chapter assessment includes several sections that assess stu- dents’ understandings at different levels.

• The Reviewing Vocabulary section tests students’ knowledge of the chapter’s vocabu- lary. A variety of formats are used, including matching, true/false, completion, and comparison of terms.

• The Understanding Main Ideas section consists of two parts: Part A tests recall and basic understanding of facts presented in the chapter, while Part B is designed to be more challenging and requires deeper comprehension of concepts than does Part A. Students may be asked to explain chemical processes and relationships or to make comparisons and generalizations.

• The Thinking Critically section requires students to use several different higher-order learning skills, such as interpreting data and discovering relationships in graphs and tables, as well as applying their understanding of concepts to solve problems, com- pare and contrast situations, and to make inferences or predictions.

• The Applying Scientific Methods section puts students into the role of researcher. They may be asked to read about an experiment, simulation, or model and then apply their understanding of chapter concepts and scientific methods to analyze and explain the procedure and results. Many of the questions in this section are open-ended, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and creative problem-solv- ing skills.

Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

STP Recording Sheet: Recording Sheets allow students to use the Standardized Test Practice questions in the Student Edition as a practice for standardized tests. STP Recording Sheets give them the opportunity to use bubble answer grids and numbers grids for recording answers. Answers for the STP Recording Sheets can be found in the Teacher Wraparound Edition on Standardized Test Practice pages.

Teacher Guide and Answers: Answers or possible answers for questions in this booklet can be found in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. Materials, teaching strate- gies, and content background, along with chapter references, are also provided where appropriate.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Lab Safety Form

Name:

Date:

Lab type (circle one) : Launch Lab MiniLab ChemLab

Lab Title:

Teacher Approval Initials

Date of Approval

Read carefully the entire lab and then answer the following questions. Your teacher must initial this form before you begin the lab.

1. What is the purpose of the investigation?

2. Will you be working with a partner or on a team?

3. Is this a design-your-own procedure? Circle:

Yes

No

4. Describe the safety procedures and additional warnings that you must follow as you perform this investigation.

5. Are there any steps in the procedure or lab safety symbols that you do not understand? Explain.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Reproducible Pages Contents Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms
Table of
Reproducible Pages
Contents
Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms

MiniLab .

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ChemLab

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Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets .

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Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets

 

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Study Guide .

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Chapter

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STP Recording Sheet

 

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. 26

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class mini LAB 5 Identify Compounds
Name
Date
Class
mini
LAB 5
Identify
Compounds

How do flame colors vary for different elements?

Materials Bunsen burner; cotton swabs (6); crystals of lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, strontium chloride, unknown solution

Procedure

chloride, strontium chloride, unknown solution Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Dip

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Dip one of six cotton swabs into the lithium chloride solution. Put the swab into the flame of a Bunsen burner. Observe the color of the flame, and record it in your data table.

3. Repeat Step 2 for each of the metallic chlo- ride solutions (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride). Record the color of each flame in your data table.

4. Compare your results to the flame tests shown in the Elements Handbook.

5. Repeat Step 2 using a sample of unknown solution obtained from your teacher. Record the color of the flame produced.

6. Dispose of the used cotton swabs as directed by your teacher.

Flame Test Results

Compound

Flame color

Lithium chloride

Sodium chloride

Potassium chloride

Calcium chloride

Strontium chloride

Unknown

Analysis

1. Suggest a reason why each compound produced a flame of a different color, even though they each contain chlorine.

2. Explain how an element’s flame test might be related to its atomic emission spectrum.

3. Infer the identity of the unknown crystals. Explain your reasoning.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHEMLAB 5
Name
Date
Class
CHEMLAB
5

Analyze Line Spectra

E mission spectra are produced when excited atoms return to a more stable state by emitting radiation of specific wavelengths.

When white light passes through a sample, atoms in the sample absorb specific wavelengths. This produces dark lines in the continu- ous spectrum of white light and is called an absorption spectrum.

Problem

What absorption and emis- sion spectra do various sub- stances produce?

Safety Precautions

Objectives

Observe emission spectra of several gases.

Observe the absorption spectra of various solu- tions.

Analyze patterns of absorption and emission spectra.

Materials

ring stand with clamp

40-W tubular light- bulb light socket with

grounded power cord 275-mL polystyrene culture flask Flinn C-Spectra ® or similar diffraction grating

food coloring (red, green, blue, and yellow) set of colored pencils

spectrum tubes (hydrogen, neon, and sodium) spectrum–tube power supplies (3)

Pre-Lab
Pre-Lab

• Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron.

• Use care around the spectrum tube power supplies.

• Spectrum tubes will get hot when used.

1. Read the entire CHEMLAB.

2. Explain how electrons in an element’s atoms produce an emission spectrum.

3. Distinguish among a continuous spectrum, an emission spectrum, and an absorption spectrum.

4. Use the data table on the next page.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHEMLAB 5
Name
Date
Class
CHEMLAB
5

Procedure

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Use a Flinn C-Spectra ® or similar diffraction grating to view an incandescent lightbulb. What do you observe? Draw the observed spectrum using colored pencils.

3. Use the Flinn C-Spectra ® to view the emission spectra from tubes of gaseous hydrogen, neon, and sodium. Use colored pencils to make draw- ings in the data table of the spectra observed.

4. Fill a 275-mL culture flask with about 100-mL water. Add 2 or 3 drops of red food coloring to the water. Shake the solution.

5. Repeat step 4 for the green, blue, and yellow food coloring.

6. Set up the 40-W lightbulb so that it is near eye level. Place the flask with red food coloring about 8 cm from the lightbulb. You should be able to see light from the bulb above the solution and light from the bulb projecting through the solution.

7. With the room lights darkened, view the light using the Flinn C-Spectra ® . The top spectrum

viewed will be a continuous spectrum of the white lightbulb. The bottom spectrum will be the absorption spectrum of the red solution. Use col- ored pencils to make a drawing in the data table of the absorption spectra you observed.

8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 using the green, blue, and yellow colored solutions.

9. Cleanup and Disposal Turn off the light socket and spectrum tube power supplies.Wait several minutes to allow the incandescent lightbulb and the spectrum tubes to cool. Follow your teacher’s instructions on how to dispose of the liquids and how to store the lightbulb and spectrum tubes.

Drawings of Emission Spectra

Hydrogen

Neon

Mercury

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHEMLAB 5
Name
Date
Class
CHEMLAB
5

Drawings of Absorption Spectra

Red

Green

Blue

Yellow

Analyze and Conclude

1. Think Critically How can the single electron in a hydrogen atom produce all of the lines found in its emission spectrum?

2. Predict How can you predict the absorption spectrum of a solution by looking at its color?

3. Apply How can spectra be used to identify the presence of specific elements in a substance?

4. Error Analysis Name a potential source of error in this experiment. Choose one of the elements you observed, and research its absorption spectrum. Compare your findings with the results of your experiment.

Inquiry Extension

Hypothesize What would happen if you mixed more than one color of food coloring with water and repeated the experiment? Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

15
15

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

TheThe ElectromagneticElectromagnetic SpectrumSpectrum

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

Visible light Wavelengths ( ) in meters 3 10 4 3 10 2 3 10
Visible light
Wavelengths ( ) in meters
3 10 4
3 10 2
3 10 12
3 10 6
3 10 8
3 10 10
3 10 14
3
3 10 2
3 10 4
Radio
Infrared
Ultraviolet
Gamma rays
Microwaves
X rays
TV, FMAM
4
12
14
16
18
20
22
10
10 6
10 8
10 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Frequency ( ) in hertz
Energy increases

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

15
15

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

TheThe ElectromagneticElectromagnetic SpectrumSpectrum

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

1. What kinds of waves have the longest wavelength? What kinds of waves have the short- est wavelength?

2. Which waves have the lowest frequency?

3. Which has a higher frequency: microwaves or X rays?

4. Which waves can be seen by the eye?

5. Sequence the different segments of the visible spectrum in order from shortest wave- length to longest wavelength.

6. Sequence the following types of waves from lowest frequency to highest frequency:

ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, gamma rays, radio waves, and green light.

7. Compare the wavelengths and frequencies of each kind of wave. What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength?

8. What is the wavelength of a radio station emitting its signal at 95.5 MHz? Estimate your answer to the nearest power of ten.

Name

Date

Class

16
16

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

AtomicAtomic OrbitalsOrbitals

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.2

z x y 1s orbital
z
x
y
1s orbital
z x y
z
x
y

2s orbital

z y p x
z
y
p
x

z

x x y p y p orbitals
x
x
y
p
y
p
orbitals
z x y p z
z
x
y
p
z
z z z z y y y y x x x x
z
z
z
z
y
y
y
y
x
x
x
x

d xy

d xz

d yz

d

x 2 y 2

d orbitals

z x y d 2 z Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies,
z
x
y
d
2
z
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

16
16

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

AtomicAtomic OrbitalsOrbitals

1. What is the shape of an s orbital?

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.2

2. What is the relationship between the size of an s orbital and the principal energy level in which it is found?

3. What is the shape of a p orbital? How many p orbitals are there in a sublevel?

4. How many electrons can each orbital hold?

5. Look at the diagrams of the p orbitals. What do x, y, and z refer to?

6. How many d orbitals are there in a given sublevel? How many total electrons can the d orbitals in a sublevel hold?

7. Which d orbitals have the same shape?

8. What point in each diagram represents an atom’s nucleus?

9. How likely is it that an electron occupying a p or a d orbital would be found very near an atom’s nucleus? What part of the diagram supports your conclusion?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1s

Name

Date

Class

17
17

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Orbital Orbital Filling Filling Sequence Sequence

and and Energy Energy Levels Levels

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.3

EnergyIncreasing 7p 6d 5f 7p 6d 7s 5f 6p 7s 5d 6p 4f 6s 5d
EnergyIncreasing
7p
6d
5f
7p
6d
7s
5f
6p
7s
5d
6p
4f
6s
5d
4f
5p
6s
4d
5p
5s
4d
5s
4p
4p
4s 3d
3d
4s
3p
3p
3s
3s
2p
2s
2p
2s
1s
4p 4p 4s 3d 3d 4s 3p 3p 3s 3s 2p 2s 2p 2s 1s ecneuqesgnilliflatibrO

ecneuqesgnilliflatibrO

3p 3p 3s 3s 2p 2s 2p 2s 1s ecneuqesgnilliflatibrO 10 Chemistry: Matter and Change •

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

17
17

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

Orbital Orbital Filling Filling Sequence Sequence

and and Energy Energy Levels Levels

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.3

1. What does each small box in the diagram represent?

2. How many electrons can each orbital hold?

3. How many electrons can the d sublevel hold?

4. Which is associated with more energy: a 2s or a 2p orbital?

5. Which is associated with more energy: a 2s or a 3s orbital?

6. According to the aufbau principle, which orbital should fill first, a 4s or a 3d orbital?

7. Which orbital has the least amount of energy?

8. What is the likelihood that an atom contains a 1s orbital?

9. Sequence the following orbitals in the order that they should fill up according to the aufbau principle: 4d, 4p, 4f, 5s, 6s, 5p, 3d, 4s.

10. Write a general rule to describe the filling of orbitals in an atom.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

5
5

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

InterpretingInterpreting WavesWaves

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

A amplitude B amplitude
A
amplitude
B
amplitude

Waves A and B are both electromagnetic waves.

c for all electromagnetic waves.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

5
5

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

InterpretingInterpreting WavesWaves

Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1

1. Look at the two waves shown. What is the speed of each wave?

2. Look at the two waves shown. Which wave has a higher frequency? Which wave has a longer wavelength?

3. Assume that wave A has a wavelength of 699 nm. Calculate the frequency of the wave. Show your work.

4. Assume that wave B has a wavelength of 415 nm. Calculate the frequency of the wave. Show your work.

5. Compare your calculations in question 4 with your answer to question 3. Do your calcu- lations support your answer in question 2?

6. If wave A has a frequency of 4.60 10 14 s 1 , what is its wavelength in nanometers? Show your work.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5 STUDY GUIDE
Name
Date
Class
CHAPTER
5
STUDY GUIDE

ElectronsElectrons inin AtomsAtoms

Section 5.1 Light and Quantized Energy

In your textbook, read about the wave nature of light.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.

amplitude

energy

frequency

hertz

light

wave

wavelength

speed

(2)

Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of (1)

that behaves like a(n)

as it travels through space. (3)

is one type of

electromagnetic radiation. Other examples include X rays, radio waves, and microwaves.

All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and

(4)

. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is

called a(n) (5)

origin to a trough is the (6)

waves that pass a given point in one second. The SI unit for frequency is the

. The height of a wave from the origin to a crest or from the

. (7)

is the number of

(8)

, which is equivalent to one wave per second.

Use the figure to answer the following questions.

A D B Origin C
A
D
B
Origin
C

9. Which letter(s) represent one wavelength?

10. Which letter(s) represent the amplitude?

11. If twice the length of A passes a stationary point every second, what is the frequency of the wave?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
Name
Date
Class
CHAPTER
5

Section 5.1 continued

In your textbook, read about the particle nature of light.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

12. A(n)

is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.

b. electron

c. quantum

can be lost or gained by an atom. b. electron c. quantum a. valence electron d.

a. valence electron

d. Planck’s constant

13. According to Planck’s theory, for a given frequency, , matter can emit or absorb energy only in

c. entire wavelengths.

1

1

d. multiples of 2 h , 4 h , and so on.

a. units of hertz.

b. whole-number multiples of h .

14. The

is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a metal’s surface

when light of a certain frequency shines on it.

a. quantum

b. Planck concept

c. photon effect

d. photoelectric effect

15. Which equation would you use to calculate the energy of a photon?

a. E photon h Planck’s constant

b. E photon h

c.

d.

1

E photon 2 h

c

In your textbook, read about atomic emission spectra.

For each statement below, write true or false.

16. Like the visible spectrum, an atomic emission spectrum is a continuous range of colors.

17. Each element has a unique atomic emission spectrum.

18. A flame test can be used to identify the presence of certain elements in a compound.

19. The fact that only certain colors appear in an element’s atomic emission spectrum indicates that only certain frequencies of light are emitted.

20. Atomic emission spectra can be explained by the wave model of light.

21. The neon atoms in a neon sign emit their characteristic color of light as they absorb energy.

22. When an atom emits light, photons having certain specific energies are being emitted.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
Name
Date
Class
CHAPTER
5

Section 5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom

In your textbook, read about the Bohr model of the atom.

Use each of the terms below to complete the statements.

atomic emission spectrum

electron

frequencies

ground state

higher

energy levels

lower

1. The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its

2. Bohr’s model of the atom predicted the

of the lines in

hydrogen’s atomic emission spectrum.

.

3. According to Bohr’s atomic model, the smaller an electron’s orbit, the

the atom’s energy level.

4. According to Bohr’s atomic model, the larger an electron’s orbit, the

the atom’s energy level.

5. Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its

moves to a higher-energy orbit.

6. According to Bohr’s atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to

the difference between the

orbits it transitions between.

associated with the two

7. Bohr’s atomic model failed to explain the

other than hydrogen.

of elements

In your textbook, read about the quantum mechanical model of the atom.

Answer the following questions.

8. If you looked closely, could you see the wavelength of a fast-moving car? Explain your answer.

h

9. Using de Broglie’s equation, which would have the larger wavelength, a

m

slow-moving proton or a fast-moving golf ball? Explain your answer.

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Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER
5

Section 5.2 continued

In your textbook, read about the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.

Column A

10. The modern model of the atom that treats electrons as waves

11. States that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time

12. A three-dimensional region around the nucleus representing the probability of finding an electron

13. Originally applied to the hydrogen atom, it led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom

Answer the following question.

Column B

a. Heisenberg uncertainty principle

b. Schrödinger wave equation

c. quantum mechanical model of the atom

d. atomic orbital

14. How do the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model of the atom differ in how they describe electrons?

In your textbook, read about hydrogen’s atomic orbitals.

In the space at the left, write the term in parentheses that correctly completes the statement.

15. Atomic orbitals (do, do not) have an exactly defined size.

16. Each orbital may contain at most (two, four) electrons.

17. All s orbitals are (spherically shaped, dumbbell shaped).

18. A principal energy has (n, n 2 ) energy sublevels.

19. The maximum number of (electrons, orbitals) related to each principal energy level equals 2n 2 .

20. There are (three, five) equal energy p orbitals.

21. Hydrogen’s principal energy level 2 consists of (2s and 3s, 2s and 2p) orbitals.

22. Hydrogen’s principal energy level 3 consists of (nine, three) orbitals.

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Date
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CHAPTER
5

Section 5.3 Electron Configuration

In your textbook, read about ground-state electron configurations.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.

Aufbau principle

electron configuration

ground-state electron configuration

Hund’s rule

lowest

Pauli exclusion principle

spins

stable

(1)

The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atom’s . Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement

that gives the atom the (2) of electrons is the most (3) atom’s (4)

.

possible energy. This arrangement arrangement and is called the

Three rules define how electrons can be arranged in an atom’s orbitals. The states that each electron occupies the lowest energy

states that a maximum of two

(5)

orbital available. The (6)

electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite

(7)

. (8)

states that single

electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional

electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.

Complete the following table. Element Atomic Number Orbitals Electron Configuration 1s 2s 2p x 2p
Complete the following table.
Element
Atomic Number
Orbitals
Electron Configuration
1s
2s
2p x
2p y
2p z
9.
Helium
1s 2
10.
7
11. Neon
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(

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Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER
5

Section 5.3 continued

Answer the following questions.

12. What is germanium’s atomic number? How many electrons does germanium have?

13. What is noble-gas notation, and why is it used to write electron configurations?

14. Write the ground-state electron configuration of a germanium atom, using noble-gas notation.

In your textbook, read about valence electrons.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

15. The electrons in an atom’s outermost orbitals are called

a. electron dots.

b. quantum electrons.

c. valence electrons.

d. noble-gas electrons.

16. In an electron-dot structure, the element’s symbol represents the

a. nucleus of the noble gas closest to the atom in the periodic table.

b. atom’s nucleus and inner-level electrons.

c. atom’s valence electrons.

d. electrons of the noble gas closest to the atom in the periodic table.

17. How many valence electrons does a chlorine atom have if its electron configuration is [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 ?

a. 3

b. 21

c.

5

d.

7

18. Given boron’s electron configuration of [He]2s 2 2p 1 , which of the following represents its electron-dot structure?

a. Be

b.

B

c.

••

B

••

d. Be

19. Given beryllium’s electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 , which of the following represents its electron-dot structure?

a. Be

b.

B

c.

••

B

••

d. Be

20. Which electrons are represented by the dots in an electron-dot structure?

a. valence electrons

b. inner-level electrons

c. only s electrons

d. both a and c

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Name Date Class CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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Date
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CHAPTER
5
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

ElectronsElectrons inin AtomsAtoms

Reviewing Vocabulary

Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.

Column A

1. The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of an element

2. The minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom

3. A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space

4. A three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron’s probable location

5. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave

6. The lowest allowable energy state of an atom

7. A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy

8. The emission of electrons from a metal’s surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it

9. A figure indicating the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals

Describe how each pair is related.

10. frequency, amplitude

Column B

a. wavelength

b. photoelectric effect

c. photon

d. quantum

e. atomic orbital

f. atomic emission

spectrum

g. principal quantum number

h. ground state

i. electromagnetic

radiation

11. valence electron, electron-dot structure

12. principal energy levels, energy sublevels

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CHAPTER
5

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)

Match the equation in Column A with its description in Column B.

Column A

1. E h

2. c

3. h /m

4. E E higher-energy orbit E lower-energy orbit

Column B

a. Relates the wavelength, frequency, and speed of an electromagnetic wave

b. Describes the energy change of an electron undergoing an orbit transition

c. Energy relationship developed by Planck

d. de Broglie’s equation

Complete the table. Principal Quantum Number, n Types of Orbitals Number of Orbitals Related to
Complete the table.
Principal Quantum Number, n
Types of Orbitals
Number of Orbitals Related
to Principal Energy Level
5.
1
s
6.
7.
3
9
8.
4

Write the orbital diagram and complete electron configuration for each atom.

9. nitrogen

10. fluorine

11. sodium

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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Date
Class
CHAPTER
5

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Use the following figure to answer questions 1 and 2.

C A D B E
C
A
D
B
E

1. According to Bohr’s atomic model, which letter(s) in the figure represents a place where an electron cannot be?

a. A

b.

B, C and E

c.

A and D

d.

D

2. According to the quantum mechanical model of the atom, point E in the figure represents a

a. point where an electron cannot be.

b. position where an electron probably is.

c. position where an electron must be.

d. point beyond which no electron can go.

3. What can you conclude from the figure on the right?

a. Hund’s rule has been violated.

b. The Pauli exclusion principle has been violated.

c. The Aufbau principle has been violated.

d. This is a valid orbital diagram.

4. What can you conclude from the figure on the right?

a. Hund’s rule has been violated.

b. The Pauli exclusion principle has been violated.

c. The Aufbau principle has been violated.

d. This is a valid orbital diagram.

)( ) ) 2p )( 2s
)(
)
)
2p
)(
2s

1s

)) 2p )(
))
2p
)(
)(
)(

1s

2s

5. Which of the following can you conclude based on the de Broglie equation?

a. Waves behave like particles.

b. Most particles are electrons.

c. All matter has an associated wavelength.

d. All matter behaves like particles.

6. Which of the following best describes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?

a. Light behaves like a particle and like a wave.

b. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency.

c. It is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.

d. You can measure an object without disturbing it.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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Date
Class
CHAPTER
5

Thinking Critically

Answer the following questions.

1. A radio station has a frequency of 103.7 MHz. (1 MHz 10 6 s 1 ) What is the wavelength of the radiation emitted by the station? Indicate where this wavelength falls on the electromagnetic spectrum shown below.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

9 6 5 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
9
6
5
7
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
(Hz)
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Radio
4
3
2
1
–4
–5
–6
–7
–8
–9
–10
–11
10
10
10
10
1
10 –1
10 –2
10 –3
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
(m)
AM radio
FM radio
VHF-TV
UHF-TV
Microwave
Infrared
Visible
Ultraviolet
X rays
rays

2. Look at the electromagnetic spectrum again. Are the microwaves used to cook food higher or lower in frequency than radio waves? Are microwaves longer or shorter in wavelength than radio waves?

3. Write the orbital diagram of aluminum.

4. Write the complete electron configuration and the noble-gas notation for aluminum.

5. Write the noble-gas notation for iodine.

6. Identify each atom.

a. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1

b. [Ar]4s 1

7. Write electron-dot structures for the following atoms.

a. neon

c. carbon

b. hydrogen

d. sulfur

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER
5

Applying Scientific Methods

A chemist isolated four samples, A, B, C, and D. She obtained the following atomic emission spectra of the samples.

A B C D
A
B
C
D
following atomic emission spectra of the samples. A B C D 400 500 600 Nanometers 700
following atomic emission spectra of the samples. A B C D 400 500 600 Nanometers 700
following atomic emission spectra of the samples. A B C D 400 500 600 Nanometers 700
following atomic emission spectra of the samples. A B C D 400 500 600 Nanometers 700

400

500

600

Nanometers

700

1. Examine each sample’s atomic emission spectra. Assume that each sample represents a single element. What can you conclude by looking at the spectra? Do the samples repre- sent the same element or different elements?

2. Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum do the atomic emission spectra show?

3. Would the atomic emission spectrum for each sample change if you repeated the proce- dure? Explain your answer

4. What does each line in an atomic emission spectrum represent?

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Name Date Class CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER
5

Applying Scientific Methods, continued

5. You find the following atomic emission spectrum for hydrogen in your textbook. Compare this spectrum to the spectra of the samples that the chemist obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer.

obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if
obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if
obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if
obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if
obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if
obtained. What can you conclude? Explain your answer. 400 500 600 Nanometers 700 6. Which, if

400

500

600

Nanometers

700

6. Which, if any, of the atomic emission spectra can the Bohr model explain? Explain your answer.

7. According to Bohr’s model, how many times were photons emitted from the excited atoms in each sample to produce its atomic emission spectrum?

A

B

C

D

8. The difference between successive energy levels becomes smaller as n becomes larger. Explain how hydrogen’s emission spectrum demonstrates this statement.

9. Assume that instead of measuring the photons emitted by each sample, the chemist meas- ured the photons absorbed by each sample. What would the absorption spectra look like? Explain your answer.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 5 Assessment Student Recording Sheet Standardized Test Practice Multiple Choice
Name
Date
Class
CHAPTER 5
Assessment
Student Recording Sheet
Standardized Test Practice
Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.

1.

1. 4. 7. 10.

4.

1. 4. 7. 10.

7.

1. 4. 7. 10.

10.

1. 4. 7. 10.
1. 4. 7. 10.
1. 4. 7. 10.
1. 4. 7. 10.

2.

5.

8.

 

3.

6.

9.

Short Answer

 

Answer each question with complete sentences.

 

11.

12.

13.

14.

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry

 

15.

15. 17. 19.

17.

15. 17. 19.

19.

15. 17. 19.

16.

18.

 

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Reproducible Pages Contents Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law
Table of
Reproducible Pages
Contents
Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

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