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same algorithm (intel handoff) should this ll the user is ‘dropped. The total number of blocked and dropped packets is then determined, and expressed as «percentage ofthe uraber of plckes that are fered to the system. (Wren adaptive modulation and coding is no: used its assumed that all packets must either {se [6QAM, or be Blockedidropped) kato ¢ 2 bn ppt ramber overs = ig. 2 Packet ln aes form power como ine AMC, po handel! Bag AME: fend SAME hand SAME Ranft ‘Sinalaton route: The slation results are given in Fig, | (for the ease where power-bolancing power cone i used, ie. every user compensates perfectly forthe channel los to the focal base ‘aon, 0 that al ecived signals atthe base station ae of equal power) and Fig. 2 (or the ease of no power contra} Also shown fon thes graphs & the cise whore no dntacell handolls are Allowed: users whose channels degrade below the accepable thesbokd when anew wer is introduced are automatically dropped. Taking the numberof users for a 1% packet los ate as ‘a measure of system capacity (es in (8, intedueing AMC tec- ‘igus nto this syste redees the capacity from 6D to 686 users ‘with poner-alancing power conc, and from 495 to 480 without power coneol, as wel as adding significant complexity 10 the ‘chanel lloeation algortam and the a interface Discussion: In. theory, there age substantial advantages to be ‘ined om the use of adapeive modulation and coding tech- ‘igus, and ia the case where every user demands us much band ‘with 38 they can get and all chanel in all als ave being sod, there i @signfcant advantage (up toa factor of wo) available [5] However, forthe cas where every user has the same, hited sdta rat hat they want to transit, and using reasonable stem paramcers for atypical fixed wireless acces sytem with u Sensi be channel assignment strategy, the use of these adaptive tei niques appears to hae ite advantage forthe system a8 whole, ‘The option to allow a wser to use more than one slot to transmit data sans that these slots are not wailableto other users who have beter channels, and could trast the information using less spectrum. With te system assumptions made re, the choi to reso all ser 10 the mest efficent modulation and coding format optimises the spectrum efficiency of the network Conchason: Ase of simulations hasbeen performed using 4 typ- ica] PRMA-bused cellular access system conveying fed-band- ‘wid traffic, and using dyoamic channel assignment with and vithowt AMC. tis son that the introduction of AMC Teens, Inu introducing substantial additonal complexity tothe stem, ‘actually redues the system spectrum effin. I also noted thatthe use of power-bulancing power contol has a positive lest fon the system capaci 102 ELECTRONICS LETTERS © tke 201 ‘Eire Lenore nine No: 2001082 Dot th iodbet ootunee DAJ, Pater, AG, Barr ané T.C, Tove anoraty of Yor, Heston, Yok, VOWS Ea apt olin yorkac uk 2 November 2000 rent of leon, 15 itl mg) References 1 canna, “Perfomance ines and gore for dynamic ‘Somme signment, IEEE J) Sol. dvees Comma, 1993.1 0) pp 355-363 2 Meat 1 “Spectrum efciecy of mullet! modulation schemas ‘Rode adi communications EEE Trans Commu. 135.48, iemerrent) 3 EALGADOGALCIC Hy RHE A, and AERA. 2M: °A nurowband Spprouch to ellsen’ PCS spectrum susng though decent BEA tose: policies. IEEE Por Commu. February 1997, pp aes 4 umn ac, roren, rc, amd waves 82: “Capacity of an adaptive IMA cae ajc comparison wih conventional acs {cpome' Pros IEEE Cool, Perso, Indoor and Mobile Rao Communications PIRMICS) 5 haneo Ur "Bandwidibelicent | wireless mltimedia onmusistion’ Proc IEEE, 199,86 (7) pp. 1382-1381 6 Haan Caller mobi adi systems ~ dating stems For epuimsn capacity sin Wily and Sosy 198) 7 Poakis no: Distal commanstions ¢MeGrw-H, 199), Sd tn. fisoawuntib: “Packer tesciaion mulupe ates for Lal tees communications; TEEE Trans, Comm, $1) pp. 3 e 9 MeaKct.DA), mR NO, and To2eK- te: “Capacity of TDMA ‘lor ssn with slow Rayligh fing counter menses Proc Commanisation (PIMRCSH), VoL 3p. 12401248 Reduced-complexity decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check codes E., Bleftheriou, T. Mitteholzer and A. Dholakia A now reduad-eolesty dcdiag alin for lwdensy fury eades tht opts ene the ood oman is pent. The compuasonaly expensive edad tutes ofthe smog lg te ted y wg ‘Goeacemetie apycads ons two-site ual and by temploing te dsr “approximation. The uk Spyouinain is father improved usa coection aor sean etm pen ht a som Introduction: Weenie decoding of binary low-density priy-check (LDPC) codes [has become a topic of increasing intrest aer i ‘vas recognised that thew codes can achive very’ good perfor nee on biarinput memoryless channels such as the binary sym ‘metre channel orth ualtve white Gaussian noise channel (2,3) ‘The most commony usd tethod for dosing LDPC codes the socalled “sum-produet™ algorithm (SPA) ((2] and. efrences ‘herein Recetly, a simplification of the SPA Tus been proposed [BJ that seduces the high computational cost of the SPA at the [ce of some loss in performance. In this Lette, a novel simpli- Fed SPA''s presented that operates emily i the loatikelhood fall (LLR) domain and ofr. substatialrduction in complex: ‘ty with escatially the same performance asthe full SPA Suunpracr algo: The SPA operates onthe bipartite graph sociated with a given spare pany-ceck matrix 7 having Mf rows and N columns 2}. Ths graph fs two kinds of nodes: Symbol nodes, corresponding wo cach bitin the codeword, and [check nodes, corresponding tothe party checks ps) Sms [M epresented by the tows ofthe matte H. Each symm node i teonected to the check nods it participates in, and each check ‘ode i connected to the symbol odes checks, The SPA opet= ts by pasing messages beoween symbol nodes snd check noses 18th January 2001 Vol.37 No.2 Te messages themselves can bea posterior probabilities (APP) or LLRs. A convenient and commonly used message-passing sched te allerately computes updates of all symbol nodes and ofall, sheck nodes. Following the notation in (2, 3). let Mo) = (m= Hay the set of tits that participate inches m, and It Mn “Hag = I) be the set of chooks in which itm paripats, The teclaion of an element from Mn) of m from MG) fs denoted by Nom or Minion respectively, and 17s the transpose of Falls, we denote by = Do Yu) the received sequence that 1} be corresponds 10 the Wanstead codeword = [s.r tah The inputs ofthe SPA consist of LLRS n(x, = tx = Obi) ‘equivalent, of APPS PCs, = I) an Psy = Oy), whic as ‘etermined by the channel Sais Initiation: dul) = Psy = 9 FOE X = 0, ‘Step (i) (eheck-nade update): For each m and n € Nun), and for ¥= 0, I,compute foun fre en's) TT ventas ‘hehe condinal proba ia he summations ap indatoe fonction that indstss whtst the meh checksum sd then the hypethes as fora (s Sin (i) (smblnde te) Foe cack nam & AM) an toe, ode Fle Ppt = Os = emalta) nots) = maPCee =the) TL Pa alt) her the constant fg is ehosen such that gf) + df) = For eat marl for x0, 1, update the ‘peudoposeie® probabil ities qi) a8 alt) = HPC = be) TL ma eit where the constant is cose suc that (0) + gl) = 1 Step (i) 4 Quuntse £ = [8).., fq] such that = 1 if gf) > 05, and X= Dit gdl) $05. bir £2" 0, then sop und & is the decoder output; otherwise 20,10 Sep (. dat a aire ithe algositm doesnot halt within some max nun number of erations Its posible to wse LLRs as messages instead of APPS. This allows Us to replace mukiplitions in Step (i) of the SPA with ddiios. Sep (i) can aso be easly adapted for LLRS. The sim Dlications derived in this Later allow one to efiienly use LLRS so in Step without converting between LLRS and APPS. Simplified sun-prodct sep ssi lg-tkelhood rato: In general, tech checks pel) cn be sewed a 4 sl party eek code fn the & = [Nt} symbols it checks. The node meager 2) Of Step f) canbe regarded a extrinsic information foes en the Staistics gq). These messapes ean be computed by te orward ‘ackward afgordu [2] on te tworsate els of the single-party heck code as follows (whee © denotes addon mod 2 Intaisation of state metic) =o Ford rooursion: For 1 BAD lee and x = 0,1 24(2) =05-1(0}imsle) + aAOMnsle 1) ‘aucward ocusion: For = (Dy Vand x= 0,1 AAC) = Ba 0) 2) + Beas Dm ean) combining recursion: For and x= 0,1 role) = -a(O)BC2) +0,-101)5(2 61) In the LLR domain, we define 84,» Ifa) and 68, lngS(INB(G). Note thatthe LLRs B4, and 8H, can be viewed a8 the forward and backward dlflerence metrics in the log domain, ELECTRONICS LETTERS 16th January 2001 Vol. 37 ‘The application of a diferencometrc approach to the dual eter for pural-esponse css TV channels has been proposed in [4 In his Letter, we consider the two-state parity-check tells and tse the dileence of state mevcs, ie. the ifeence of logs fins, which is merely the LLR of the probabities We wil lo ‘make Use ofthe folowing LLRS: Jag, 5 dy AIG (0) ad Ay 2 lalgDMfg dO). Using the above defitions the standard “approximation InSjexpa~ may and the dil rl [the Forward recursion (gn. 2) can be tewsten as = Inf1-+ e505 +84-a)} @ = max(AmisSAi-1} — maxfO. Ans +5 Sgn{FALa)Ams if |6AL1| > Dm Ssgnts, 0A otherwise cc) where so) isthe si futon The backovar and the combining recursions canbe reform lated in a similar way. By replacing 84, and 89, wih 8 and 8b ‘spectively, te following LL version of the forward-ackward algorithm i obained ‘ntalisation: 8a, =o and By = 0 feward recursion: For = 2, 4-1 sit )ma i 606-11 Ara jun (aie i? heel ‘backward cusion: For Lot sn(8berPrqirr Buys > Dnata m{Seha ake helo combining cusion: For 7= 1... ~sen(8.-180, Hbaal> bly Asani sh 60.5 otherwise « SH 08 Fig. Performance of rates/2 LDPC code with 8 = spa Either. 1S _LER'SPA win corstion S._ Thtemtinne = he erations Coren factor for dua.na approximation: The simpliied SPA that resus rom using egos. 7 forthe check node updates wil be called the LLISPA because st operate ently i the LR ‘domain, The LLR-SPA fs somevhat lower performance thin the full SPA. Following (5, 6, ve ean apply a corection factor to Improve the dvakmax approximation om eins. 3 and & Using the deny ln{exp(e)+-exp(y)} —mats,y} = In(1 + exp(—le ~ al)? No.2 103, cam be shown that the approximation ero, Le. @gn. 3 minus fun. even y the bivariate Function Shee) = in texp(clu— ob) Tree) where w= 84, and » = Ry. In practi, fi) can be approxi mated by using singe conection factor ete {: it fue > uo and jue] <2 fle) Ae fluo] > jut el and jute] <2 1 otherwise A simile conection factor apis tothe approximation in the trakward and combining rcursons. The constant ¢ ean be Select to maximise the performance gine in the ron of inter. Se with respect to bit evr rte oF signabto-noise ratio. Fig Shows the performance ofthe LER-SPA with eoeetion factor ¢ = (05 for th adie white Gavssisn noise channel using the stme ‘at-1/2 LDPC code with N= $04 asin (3) For comparison, the ‘performance of the full SPA and LLR-SPA is also shown. The umber of terations fo he «vo sof curses shown ea most 10 ‘and 200, respectively. I can be seen that LLR-SPA with correction “factor priors win kes tha 0.084 of the fll SPA, Acknowledgment: We thank D.LC. Mackay for proving the {LDPC mati forthe code sod inthis Let. ‘Beevones Ltrs One No: 20010077 Dow biopic un? , Fletherou, 7. Mitwhol and A. Dholkia (8 Reach Zur Rework Loboratry, Saumenirasae 8818 isco ‘Shera mu elogzrich sha com 2 November 2000 References 1 Gguincee Ra: “Lowdensiy paiy-heck code’ IRE Tran tof Theo 1968, TT pp 2 2. Atncxay ns! "Gond errecotectng cde ted wey spans Iasteos ZEEE Trans, Inf Theory. 199,46) Po, 99-28 43 Toston re, ius tand ta ne Reed ompleaty iterative decoding of low-density" party check coves tsa on be propagation, YEE Tons Commun, 199,47 (3 pp 680 44 Bion sy and UNOKREOECK. a: “Rend Muller coding for parti Sam Anon, TX GHEE, Petavay, 199) p24 So vraaiay: “AR intiive stifaton "and a sinplifed implementation of the MAP. decor for convolutional sodee TEBE! Set tras Commun. 1998.16.) 200-268 6 Gross. und cLLAR Pa ‘Spied MAP algo. suitable Tor impesentaion of bo decoders. Electron Ltt 1998 3 (Uo. pp 1516 Soft decoding of linear block codes with differential phase detection IP. Fonseka and T.A. White Soft decoing finer back ele i sonidere over a Gaui Shama. A noncorent sl Snnan ltenil ns Sac {hat open cn ny eed egos oma! Toe ‘dete, Numeral eit damon the impoyent of bcos ovr ard doing an th let the nab of Invrdueton: Sot decoding of linear block codes has heen consid rd in the iterate wth coherent detection [Ha this study, sot ‘ending is consdered wth noncoberent different pase detec: tion and compared with ard decoding over a Gaussian channel Tn the sjstem considered here, the binary messige sequence m = fmm) (ith my (0, 1}) fs (4) Block encode 0 Fon the eee! sequence b= (yy, Bes). The sequence Bis 104 ELECTRONICS LETTERS