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OUTLINES OF SOLUTIONS ‘The following are outlines of solutions extracted from the annual reports of past Hong examinations. Readers should note that they are not meant to outline of Solutions 1080 Paper | w Using properties of matrices, we have AO = 0, and for any x. ¥ &E, andany a, BER, Alax + By) = @(Ax)+ play) = 0 Hence 0 € E, andforany x, y €E, andany a, BER ax + By © E, showingthat & Wey = ptx with xEE, then Ay = Alp + x) = Ag+ Ax=b . Ontheatherhand,if Ay = b, then putting x= y~p, wehae Ax= Ay-Ap=0, showing xE EF and y=ptx. By routine method, solutionset = [(3#, -2e, 6r) : 2 © R} Applying (aNii) and (b)(i, A solution set = [( 4 3¢, 4-20, V2 +60 Reflexive: Let I(x) 21. Forany FEF, 1+ f= £* 1 and I isa polynomial, therefore f~ 7 Symmetric: If f ~ g, then there exist polynomials p, q © F such Transitive: tf ~ g and g ~ h, then th that pef=aqegorg ont. pet P. a. 1, & © F suchthat psf a9, rege seh Je and associative, we get +8) eh whee rep and ges in F. Thus f~ Noting + is commuta (replete are both polynomi Wty ~ = fi/~ and g/~ = g/~, then 03 (ch Let x, = 2% then x, > 0 and Bx, =n. Deft aeh nd rege sey for some polynomials p, @, r, § € F. Then (perle(feg) = (aesde th oy) +rm So > (6 oo + nf if the equality holds and m #1, then where p +f and q+ § are polynomials in F. Thus Fag ~ foo, ie fe gl~ = Uh eal/~ oF t/~@ 9!~ = fhf~ OH/~ Tq Ny giving Y= ey, (i) Closure: follows from (by). Associatvity: follows from the definition of @ and the associativity of + be , lentiy: ——1/~ nteidentiy since torany VE F/~, 0k ty AR et at ti~@I/~ = (fe Ii~ = f/~, and Tae ee Te This formula can be established by mathematical induction, Inverse: For any f/~ © F/~, let #7) be the inverse (0) x, — an = oy a of f in F. Then Gb Load * f[~O I'm = 1/~, = 2, Ahan y 1 = 80 Where 2 XE OK yy fs @t/~ = Tm Bok ome oe fependent of k and 2% 1. From (a), Poy =e Fu, a= omy 7G Differentiating fx) = S2*L= 1 - xP — 1 we find that the pti Pp absolute minimum of f on (0, =) is O et x = 1. Hence for all x > 0, xPthaa ptt and the equality holds only if x = 1. Take By induction om and using (a). W xy, # 1 for some fp , then by (i Q5 (2) (i) By substitution, we find that u+v, wu tw, wutuv 5 ‘are roots of the equation 2 duvx = +P) 0 i Consider +e =6 e+e =6 un? 8 lee as 1 Werfind that u? = 2 and v? = 4. Asolutionis v= 2? , imptving es ea ene “ 1 1 wa > ies >o ™ mat ae oe Bast >n, acontadicion A as as a7 (a) to) Cc) @ o w i Note Expand the right-ha f | This o Let a, @, B be the roots of (+). By the relations between roots and coetficients, we get Qatp=0, a +2ab=p, -a Bra Eliminating @ and B, weget 2797 + 4p? = The rootsof (+) ae uty, wut uty, wry + wy, where w+Pe-a. 1 wrote whien has u =v =~ JZ svasotutionit 2707 + 49° = 0° Thus wu + wy = wu + wy isamultiple oot of (+) mth etx ~ alu +(x - ym” that [It + ux (au + 6) \ side and compare the coefficients of u’ mini(a~bym* nth (m+a+ii “=a (x = by = (= a. (e_ym enn it mmtn or m>r. can be easily verified From the properties of g we get io(zl = iz, Ite) t = lent Using properties of complex numbers, we have gizil? = (g(z)+ acai) +1 = edad Therefore b= £1. a7 as @ (al 3) =i, then Thus we get als =i, ioiz) + Weget 912) - giz) = 2-7. By ,olzyaz. = fiz) = £10) Saat 9, given by g (2) = FEL —ETEY isan isometry satisfying th conditions in (b), Then f(z) = ag(z) +b with a= f(1)~ (0) and b= FLO) Thus Lal = 1. By (b) and (c), wehave fz) = ert o flz)= Fob te”. Ne GM in = 1 y ok Since ko is most probable, we have praetor) By computation we get N-n+1 wey aS KOS Mean number = k Pa i ae 2) Differentiating both sides of io (p + qx) = Fiqve AK gait with eect to x antenna x 23, 9 = qe We we get mean nber = since (1-1) chy Mot stmeretore|to ~ AL 1 . ‘Take out one cell and consider this to be occupied by exactly k balls (1S SN). There are G.% ways of doing so, Then the number of ways such that the remining cells being occupied by WV ~k_ balls is AIN =k, 0). Thus W Ain, nen = 2 Gan —k, The second partis proved by induction on. For = 1, itcan be emily verified, Assume i