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Subject Introduction Formal Definition Characteristics of Cloud Computing Enabling Technologies Cloud types Cloud computing categories Component Virtualization Users Advantages of Cloud Computing Working Of Cloud Computing Merits & demerits Conclusion References

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Introduction

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet). Computing clouds provide computation, software, data access, and storage resources without requiring cloud users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructure. Within limits, cloud users can consume any amount of these resources without having first to acquire servers or other computing equipment. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. End users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud application providers strive to give the same or better service and performance as if the software programs were installed locally on end-user computers. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote Data Centre location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data Centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.

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Formal Definition A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Characteristics of Cloud Computing 1. Self Healing
Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. There are multiple copies of the same application - each copy updating itself regularly so that at times of failure there is at least one copy of the application which can take over without even the slightest change in its running state.

2. Multi-tenancy
With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. This is done in such a way that the privacy of the users or the security of their data is not compromised.

3. Linearly Scalable
Cloud computing services are linearly scalable. The system is able to break down the workloads into pieces and service it across the infrastructure. An exact idea of linear scalability can be obtained from the fact that if one server is able to process say 1000 transactions per second, then two servers can process 2000 transactions per second.

4. Service-oriented
Cloud computing systems are all service oriented - i.e. the systems are such that they are created out of other discrete services. Many such discrete services which are independent of each other are combined together to form this service. This allows re-use of the different services that are available and that are being created. Using the services that were just created, other such services can be created.

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5. SLA Driven
Usually businesses have agreements on the amount of services. Scalability and availability issues cause clients to break these agreements. But cloud computing services are SLA driven such that when the system experiences peaks of load, it will automatically adjust itself so as to comply with the service-level agreements. The services will create additional instances of the applications on more servers so that the load can be easily managed.

6. Virtualized
The applications in cloud computing are fully decoupled from the underlying hardware. The cloud computing environment is a fully virtualized environment.

7. Flexible
Another feature of the cloud computing services is that they are flexible. They can be used to serve a large variety of workload types - varying from small loads of a small consumer application to very heavy loads of a commercial application.

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En ing T nabli Techn gies nolog
Cloud Co omputin Appl ng lication Archit n tecture

Thi gives t basic architec is the c cture of a cloud co omputing applica g ation. We know e tha cloud c at computin is the s ng shift of co omputing to a hos of hard g st dware inf frastructu ure tha is distri at ibuted in the clou The c n ud. commodi hardw ity ware infra astructure consist ts of the vario low co data s t ous ost servers that are c connected to the s system and provi ide the storag and pr eir ge rocessing and oth comp g her puting resources to the ap pplication n. Clo comp oud puting in nvolves running applicatio on virtual serv a ons vers that are t allo ocated on this dis n stributed hardwar infrast d re tructure available in the c e cloud. The virtual server are ma in such a way that the differen service level ese rs ade y nt e agr reements and rel s liability issues are met. Th e here may be mult y tiple insta ances of the sam virtua server accessin the dif me al ng fferent pa of th hardwa infrastructure arts he are e ava ailable. T This is to make su that th ure here are multiple copies o the app of plications wh hich are r ready to take over on anot t r ther one’ failure. The virt ’s tual server dis stributes the proc cessing b between t infras the structure and the e com mputing is done and the r a result returned. There will be a wo l orkload d distribution ma anagement system also kn m, nown as the grid engine, for mana aging the differen e nt req quests co oming to the virtu serve This engine will take care of t creat ual ers. w the tion of multiple copies and also the preservation of integr of th data th is stor m a rity he hat red in the infras t structure This wi also ad e. ill djust itself such th even on heavi load, the hat ier
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pro ocessing is com mpleted as per the requiremen nts. The differen worklo nt oad ma anagement system are hidden fro the u ms om users. For the use the pr r er, rocessing is g don and th result is obtai ne he t ined. The is no questio of whe it wa done and ere o on ere as a how it was done. Th users are bille based on the usage of the syste - as s w he ed d u em said bef fore - th commodity is now cyc he cles and bytes. T The billin is usu ng ually on the bas of usa per C per h sis age CPU hour or G data t GB transfer p hour. per .

Server Ar rchitect ture

Clo comp oud puting m makes use of a larg physical resou e ge urce pool in the c cloud. As said above cloud computing serv e, vices and applic d cations m make use of virt e tual rver ser ins stances b built upon this resource po There are two applica n ool. e o ations wh hich help in ma anaging t serve instanc the er ces, the r resources and als the ma s so anageme of the ent res sources b these virtual s by server in nstances. One of these is the Xen hypervi isor wh hich prov vides an a abstracti layer between the har ion n rdware a the v and virtual OS so S tha the di at istributio of the resour on e rces and the pro d ocessing is well manag g l ged. Another ap pplication that is widely used is the Enom n malism s server m managem ment sys stem which is use for ma ed anagemen of the infrastru nt ucture pla atform.

Ma Redu ap uce
Ma Reduc is a sof ap ce ftware fra amework develop at Google in 2003 to s k ped support par rallel com mputations over l large (mu ultiple pe etabyte) data sets on clust s ters of com mmodity compute This framewo is lar y ers. ork rgely take from ‘ en ‘map’ and ‘reduce’

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functions commonly used in functional programming, although the actual semantics of the framework are not the same. It is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets. Many of the real world tasks are expressible in this model. Map Reduce implementations have been written in C++, Java and other languages. Programs written in this functional style are automatically parallelized and executed on the cloud. The run-time system takes care of the details of partitioning the input data, scheduling the program’s execution across a set of machines, handling machine failures, and managing the required inter-machine communication. This allows programmers without any experience with parallel and distributed systems to easily utilize the resources of a largely distributed system.

Hadoop
Hadoop is a framework for running applications on large cluster built of commodity hardware. The Hadoop framework transparently provides applications both reliability and data motion. Hadoop implements the computation paradigm named Map Reduce which was explained above. The application is divided into many small fragments of work, each of which may be executed or re-executed on any node in the cluster. In addition, it provides a distributed file system that stores data on the compute nodes, providing very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster. Both Map Reduce and the distributed file system are designed so that the node failures are automatically handled by the framework. Hadoop has been implemented making use of Java. In Hadoop, the combination of the entire JAR files and classed needed to run a Map Reduce program is called a job. All of these components are themselves collected into a JAR which is usually referred to as the job file. To execute a job, it is submitted to a jobTracker and then executed.

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Cl loud Type es

Pu ublic C Cloud
Pub cloud or exte blic ernal clou descr ud ribes clou computing in t tradit ud the tional ma ainstream Public clouds a run by third parties, an applic m. are y nd cations fr rom diff ferent cu ustomers are likel to be mixed tog ly m gether on the clo oud’s serv vers, sto orage sys stems, an networ nd rks. A pu ublic clou provid servi ud des ices to m multiple cus stomers.

Private cl loud:
Private clou are b uds built for th exclusive use of one cl he lient, pro oviding th utmos he st con ntrol ove data, se er ecurity, a quality of ser and rvice. The compan owns the e ny infr rastructu and h contro over h ure has ol how appli ications a deplo are oyed on it. Private clo ouds can be built and man naged by a compa y any’s ow IT orga wn anization or by a n clo provi oud ider

Hy ybrid cl loud:
Hybrid clou comb uds bine both public and private cloud models This is most ofte h d s. en see with th use of storage clouds to suppor Web 2.0 applic en he f o rt cations.

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Cloud Com C d mputing C gorie Categ es
App plication Servic ces(AaaS)

Gmail, Google Calend IBM Lotus dar, L Live etc c

So oftware Services(SaaS) )

Platform S P Services(P PaaS)

Google App en e ngine, AWS, IB Virtua BM al Images s

Infr rastructur Service re es(IaaS)

Micro osoft Azu IBM ure, Blue House, V VMware, Amaz EC2 zon

Cloud com mputin produ ng ucts and services can be cla n assified into 4 d ma ajor cat tegories:
1. Applicati as s service (A A ion s AaaS): Th hese are t first kind of cl the k loud com mputing

ser rvices tha came into bein Under this, a s at i ng. r service is made av s vailable to an end duse The end-user i asked to create an acco er. is e ount with the serv h vice prov vider and d sta using t appli art the ication. O of fir famou applica One rst us ation was web-ba s ased ema ail ser rvice by h hotmail started in 1996. Sc s n cores of such serv vices are availab now on e ble o the web. e
2. Platform as a Serv P vice (Paa aS): Cloud vendor are com d rs mpanies that offe cloud s er

com mputing services and pro s oducts. One of the services that the provid is calle e s ey de ed Paa Unde this a computing platfor such a operat aS. er c rm as ting syste is pro em ovided to a o cus stomer or end use on a m er monthly rental bas Some of the major cloud sis. e m com mputing vendor a Amaz are zon, Micr rosoft, Go oogle etc c

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3. Infrastructure as a service: The cloud computing vendors offer infrastructure

as a service. One may avail hardware services such as processors, memory, networks etc. on agreed basis for specific duration and price.
4. Software as a service (SaaS): Software package such as CRM or CAD/CAM can

be accessed under cloud computing scheme. Here a customer upon registration is allowed to use software accessible through net and use it for his or his business process. The related data and work may be stored on local machines or with the service providers. SaaS services may be available on rental basis or on per use basis.

Component
The key to a SOA framework that supports workflows is componentization of its services, an ability to support a range of couplings among workflow building blocks, fault-tolerance in its data- and process-aware service-based delivery, and an ability to audit processes, data and results, i.e., collect and use provenance information. Component-based approach is characterized by reusability (elements can be re-used in other workflows), substitutability (alternative implementations are easy to insert, very precisely specified interfaces are available, run-time component replacement mechanisms exist, there is ability to verify and validate substitutions, etc), extensibility and scalability (ability to readily extend system component pool and to scale it, increase capabilities of individual components, have an extensible and scalable architecture that can automatically discover new functionalities and resources, etc),customizability (ability to customize generic features to the needs of a particular scientific domain and problem), and composability (easy construction of more complex functional solutions using basic components, reasoning about such compositions, etc.). There are other Characteristics those also are very important. Those include reliability and availability of the components and services, the cost of the services, security, total cost of ownership, economy of scale, and so on. In the context of cloud computing we distinguish many categories of components. From differentiated and undifferentiated hardware, to general-purpose and specialized software and applications, to real and virtual ―imagesǁ, to environments, to no-root Differentiated resources, to workflow-based environments and collections of services, and soon.
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Virtua V alization

Virtua alization is anothe very useful con er ncept. It a allows ab bstraction and n iso olation of lower-le evel funct tionalitie and un es nderlying hardwa g are. This e enables por rtability of higher r-level fu unctions and sharing and/ aggre a /or egation o the of phy ysical resources. The virtu ualization concep has been aroun in som form n pt nd me sin 1960s (e.g., in IBM mainframe s nce s n systems) Since th ). hen, the concept has ma atured co onsiderab and it has bee applie to all a bly t en ed aspects o computing – of me emory, st torage, processor softwa p rs, are, netw works, as well as s services that IT offe It is t comb ers. the bination o the gro of owing ne eeds and the rece advan d ent nces in th he IT architect a tures and solution that is now brin d ns nging the virtualiz e zation to the true com mmodity level. V y Virtualizat tion, thro ough its e economy of scale, and its a y , ability to o offe very a er advanced and com d mplex IT services at a rea s asonable cost, is p poised to o bec come, along with wireless and hig h s ghly distr ributed and perva a asive com mputing dev vices, su as sen uch nsors and person cell-based acc d nal cess devi ices, the driving tec chnology behind the next wave in IT growt .Not su y th urprising there are doze gly ens of virtualiza v ation products, an a num nd mber of sm and large companies that mak mall s ke the Some exampl in the operatin system and software a em. e les e ng ms applicati ions spac ce are VMware Xen - an open source Linux-ba e e1, n ased prod duct dev veloped b by Xen nSource2 and Microsoft v 2, virtualiza ation prod ducts, to mention a few. M n Major IT pla ayers hav also sh ve hown a re enewed interest i the tec in chnology Classic storag y. cal ge pla ayers suc as EMC ch C10, NetA App11, IBM12 an Hitach I nd hi13 have not been standin e ng stil either. In addition, the n ll network virtualiza v ation mar rket is tee eming wi activity. ith

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Users
The most important Cloud entity, and the principal quality driver and constraining influence is, of course, the user. The value of a solutions depends very much on the view it has of its end-user requirements and user categories. There four broad sets of nonexclusive user categories: System or Cyber infrastructure (CI) developers, developers (authors) of different component services and underlying applications, technology and domain personnel that integrates basic services into composite services and their orchestrations (workflows) and delivers those to end-users, and finally users of simple and composite services. User categories also include domain specific groups, and indirect users such as stakeholders, policy makers, and so on. Functional and usability requirements derive, in most part, directly from the user profiles.

Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Lower computer costs:
– You do not need a high-powered and high-priced computer to run cloud computing's web-based applications. – Since applications run in the cloud, not on the desktop PC, your desktop PC does not need the processing power or hard disk space demanded by traditional desktop software. – When you are using web-based applications, your PC can be less expensive, with a smaller hard disk, less memory, more efficient processor... – In fact, your PC in this scenario does not even need a CD or DVD drive, as no software programs have to be loaded and no document files need to be saved.

• Reduced software costs:
– Instead of purchasing expensive software applications, you can get most of what you need for free-ish! – That is right - most cloud computing applications today, such as the Google Docs suite, are totally free.

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• Instant software updates:
– Another advantage to cloud computing is that you are no longer faced with choosing between obsolete software and high upgrade costs. – When the application is web-based, updates happen automatically available the next time you log into the cloud. – When you access a web-based application, you get the latest version - without needing to pay for or download an upgrade.

• Unlimited storage capacity:
– Cloud computing offers virtually limitless storage. – Your computer's current 200 Gbyte hard drive is small compared to the hundreds of Pbytes available in the cloud. – Whatever you need to store, you can.

• Increased data reliability:
– Unlike desktop computing, in which if a hard disk crashes and destroy all your valuable data, a computer crashing in the cloud should not affect the storage of your data. – That also means that if your personal computer crashes, all your data is still out there in the cloud, still accessible. – In a world where few individual desktop PC users back up their data on a regular basis, cloud computing is a data-safe computing platform!

Working Of Cloud Computing:
Cloud computing system can be divided it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. On the back end there are various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules
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cal lled proto ocols Ser rvers and remote compute do m d e ers most of the work an store e nd the data. e

Merits & D erits: M s Deme
Me erits:
Clo enab oud bler techn nologies like utili computing, Gr Comp s ity rid puting, R web RTI, infr rastructu and o ure others are cloud e e enabled. 1. I Infrastruc cture ser rvice providers ar taking advanta of the Cloud s re g age e services. . 2. I Informati services, ente ion ertainmen nt-orient services such as video on ted h o dem mand, sim siness se ervices su as cu uch ustomer a authentic cation or identity mple bus ma anagement and co ontextual services such as location or mapp l s n ping serv vices are e pos sitioned well by using the service. u e 3. O Other ser rvices, su as co uch orporate processe (for ex es xample, billing, d deduction n ma anagement and m mortgage calculati ion) and transacti ional ser rvices (fo examp or ple, fisc transa cal actions), would ta longe to reac the clo and the main ake er ch oud nstream. 4. C Cloud co omputing infrastru g uctures a allows eff ficient us of their IT hard se r dware and d sof ftware inv vestments 5. A cloud i infrastruc cture can be a cos efficien model for deliv n st nt l vering in nformatio on ser rvices, re educing I manag IT gement c complexi ity.

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6. The Cloud makes it possible to launch Web 2.0 applications quickly and to scale up applications as much as needed when needed.

Demerits:
1. Stored data might not be secure: With cloud computing, all our data is stored on the cloud. The unauthorized users gain access to our confidential data. 2. Dependent on internet connection: Internet connectivity isn’t completely stable and reliable. 3. It’s not platform agnostic: Most clouds force participants to rely on a single platform or host only one type of product. 4. Can be slow: Even on a fast connection, web based application scan sometimes be slower than accessing a similar software program on our desktop PC.

Conclusion
―Cloud computing builds on decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web and software services. It implies a service oriented architecture, reduced information technology overhead for the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of ownership, on demand services and many other things. In today's global competitive market, companies must innovate and get the most from its resources to succeed. Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size. They can help companies achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments and provide a means to accelerate the adoption of innovations. Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization. Costs are driven down by delivering appropriate resources only for the time those resources are needed. Cloud computing has enabled teams and organizations to streamline lengthy procurement processes. Cloud computing enables innovation by alleviating the need of innovators to find resources to develop, test, and make their innovations available to the user community. Innovators are free to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing resources that enable the innovation.

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References
1. http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/04/07/15FE-cloud-computingreality_1.html, “What Cloud Computing Really Means” 2. http://www.spinnakerlabs.com/CloudComputing.pdf “Welcome to the new era of cloud computing PPT” 3. http://www.johnmwillis.com/ 4. “Demystifying Clouds” - discusses many players in the cloud space 5. www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/zones/hipods/library.html\ 6. http://communication.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing2.html 7. www.thbs.com 8. http://www.wikipedia.org/

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