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PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROJECT ON CRICKET

Cricket A magic word in the sphere of sports.

INTRODUCTION
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman hitting the ball with his bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of an innings. In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.[1] Cricket is the second most popular sport in the world behind soccer. The ICC, the game's governing body, has tenfull members.[3] The game is played particularly in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, the West Indies, Southern Africa and England.

HISTORY
The game of cricket has a known histor y spanning from the 16th century to the present day, with international matches played since 1844, although the official history of international Test cricket began in 1877. During this time, the game developed from its origins in England into a game which is now played professionally in most of the Commonwealth of Nations. The first evidence of cricket being played was recorded in the year 1550, by the pupils of Royal Grammar School, Guildford. In the year 1611 it is reported that two young men from Sussex were punished for playing cricket instead of going to the church. The first match is recorded to have been played at Coxheath in Kent in the year 1646. Cricket was in fact a major gambling sport towards the end of the 17th century. It is recorded that in the year 1679, a 11-aside match was played with stakes as high as 50 guineas per side. During the 18th century cricket survived and thrived due to the huge amounts of money via monetary backing and gambling.

The first instance of a match to be played between counties in England is recorded to be on 29th June in the year 1709. This match was played between Surrey and Kent at Dartford Brent.

The first English touring team on board ship at Liverpool in 1859 The 18th century also witnessed the emergence of two types of cricket players. They were known as the retained player and the individual player. Generally the retained player was the servant of the lord and a cricketer as well. On the other hand the individual player was free to play anywhere with his skills In the year 1787, the Marylebone Cricket Club also known MCC was created. The MCC has since then gone on to become one of the most prominent bodies in world cricket. The late 18th century was a very crucial phase for the development of the game, both within and outside Britain. The game was spread far and wide mainly due to Englands imperialism. The first official match was held between Canada and United States was held in the year 1844.

In the present times, cricket has its own following of loyal fans. The International Cricket Council, better known as the ICC is the governing body in world cricket. The ICC was founded on the 15th of June in the year 1909. All laws relating to ODIs and Test Cricket are framed and implemented by the ICC.

INDIAN CRICKET
Cricket was popularized by English settlers and the British army. The Oriental Club was the first all-Indian cricket club, specifically for a Indian religious sect. In 1906, a triangular match was played with the Hindus, the Parsis, and the Europeans; however in 1912, it became a quadrangular tournament with a Muslim team. The National championship has been played since 1934 for the Ranji Trophy, named for K.S. Ranjitsinhji, one of the most famous Indian cricketers.

21ST-CENTURY CRICKET
Cricket remains a major world sport in terms of participants, spectators and media interest. Cricket's newest innovation is Twenty20, essentially an evening entertainment. It has so far enjoyed enormous popularity and has attracted large attendances at matches as well as good TV audience ratings. The inaugural ICC Twenty20 World Cup tournament was held in 2007 with a follow-up event in 2009. The formation of Twenty20 leagues in India the unofficial Indian Cricket League, which started in 2007, and the official Indian Premier League, starting in 2008 raised much speculation in the cricketing press about their effect on the future of cricket.

HOW IS CRICKET PLAYED ?


In cricket, there are two teams, the batting and the nonbatting. Nine members of the nonbatting team are in the field, one is the wicketkeeper, and one is the bowler, for a total of 11 players. The batting team designates the order of the batters, where the first batter is called the striker. A batsman tries to guard his wicket, while the bowler tries to hit it. The batsman tries to keep the bowler from hitting the wicket with the ball, while also attempting to hit the ball hard enough to give him time to run to the other end of the pitch, before any of the nonbatting team picks up the ball and hits the wicket. If the wicket is broken, by a thrown ball or by the wicketkeeper or bowler, the batsman is dismissed. The striker does not have to run after he hits the ball, and a miss does not count against him. However, if he gets a hit and thinks he can score a run, he runs for the opposite wicket while the second batsman - the nonstriker - runs toward him. If they each reach the opposite wicket before a wicket is broken, a run is scored. Also, if the batsmen theing there is time, they may run back for two or more runs, crossing each time. If they score an even number of runs, the striker is the next to hit the ball. However, if an odd number is scored, the nonstriker will be facing the bowler and thus getting his chance to hit the ball. Any runs scored in this manner go to his personal score for the game. When a hit ball goes beyond the boundary, the game is paused and four runs are added to the team's score. In order for the

team's score to go up, several other things may happen other than the batsman scoring runs. A bye occurs when a ball from the bowler is missed by the batsman, but he can still make a run. A leg bye happens when the ball touches part of the batsman's body, but he can still make good a run. A wide occurs when the ball is out of reach of the striker, and this counts for a run. No balls occur when the ball is improperly bowled. Each of these extras add points to a side's score. If a bowler bowls six balls, not counting wides and no balls, he completes what is termed an over. A new over is then begun by a different bowler at the opposite wicket. The field must also adjust accordingly. If a bowler bowls a complete over without a batsman personally scoring a run, it is called a maiden over. A bowler may bowl either right or left armed, propelling the ball overhand without bending his elbow. He is allowed any number of steps to give a delivery, but he may not cross the bowling crease. A good bowler must be able to control length and direction, which includes the spin placed on the ball to attempt to deceive the batsman into being dismissed. A batsman may hit either right or left handed, based on a vertical bat with its entire blade faced to the ball. There are many different batting strokes, including the forward stroke, the back stroke, the leg glance, and the cut. Fieldsmen must be quick runners, with good hand-eye coordination and the ability to throw a cricket ball far. He should be able to guess the batsman's strokes, and act accordingly. The wicketkeeper should have exceptionally good reaction time and sharp sight. He must concentrate fully on every ball.

CRICKET EQUIPMENTS
WICKET AND CREASES - A wicket is three stakes or stumps placed into the ground so that a cricket ball cannot pass between them. There are two wickets, which the bowler attacks and which the batsman defends. The creases are lines of whitewash that mark the ground at each wicket. The bowling and return creases mark the area where the bowler's rear foot must be placed when bowling the ball; the popping crease marks the area which is the batsman's ground. BAT AND BALL - The bat is paddle shaped made of willow and approximately 11 centimeters wide. It, including the handle, may not under regulation exceed 97 centimeters in length. The ball is made of a core of cork encased in red leather. The two leather halves are sewn together with a raised seam. A baseball is slightly heavier, softher, and larger than a standard cricket ball. DRESS - The players usually wear white flannel pants and shirt, white canvas or buck shoes, a white woolen sweater (often times with their club colours trimming it), and multicoloured club caps. A batsman wears protective white pads, or leg guards, rubber or leather batting gloves, and a body protector. The wicketkeeper also wears pads and reinforced gloves. However, the fielders in cricket do not wear gloves when fielding.

CRICKET LANGUAGE
CAPPED - A cricket player is"capped" when he is selected to play for a representative team. This term comes from the use of club caps in the game. REPRESENTATIVE TEAM - A "representative team" is a team of cricket players selected by their ability to represent a county, a country, etc. These players are normally selected from among club teams or minor teams.) INNINGS - An innings has actually several term usages in cricket. (1) It is a turn of a batsman to bat, (2) a turn of a team to bat, or (3) when results are being given, it is when one team still has a turn to bat but has scored more runs than the opposing team (which has completed its two innings.) FOLLOW ON - To "follow on" occurs when a team bats out of turn (e.g. second innings directly after first innings) after scoring less than the opposing team in first innings by a certain number of runs. HIT A SIX - To "hit a six" means to hit the ball over a boundary without it touching the ground, thus scoring six runs. PITCH - A "pitch" can be used in several ways. (1) It is the area going 1.5 meters on either side of the center line between the wickets, (2) the impact of a bowled ball on the ground, or (3) the distance from one wicket to the other. WICKET - The word "wicket" has four meanings in cricket. First, it is the goal, consisting of three stakes, which two sticks lay on top of. The batsman defends them and the bowler attempts to hit. Secondly, it is a turn to bat. Thirdly, a wicket is, in scoring, if a side is batting last, it is the number of batsmen who have to be put out (dismissed) when the opponent's score is passed.

And lastly, it is the area between two sets of stumps (also known as pitch.) STICKY WICKET - A "sticky wicket" is a wicket (pitch) that is drying after a rain. Any soft soil - turf - makes playing more difficult for a batsman.

PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS IN CRICK ET


In a game of cricket, there are two main points of interest where the flight of the ball is concerned. The first is the time from when the bowler releases the ball to when it is either hit or missed by the batsman. The second is the time after the collision of the ball with the bat. As the batsman's goal is to score as many runs as possible, most hits are played so that the ball is close to the ground, and is therefore harder to catch by a fieldsman. The bowler's main aim is to pitch the ball so the batsman does not hit the ball to his best ability. The flight path of the ball is such that the trajectory can be found with a simple equation. However, this does not necessarily apply to slow pitches. There is a small set of critical speeds in which pressure imbalances cause the ball to swing (deviate) to one side or the other of a bowl. These speeds are functions of several variables, including the angle of the seam, surface texture of the ball, the spin put on the ball by the bowler, and the air

currents. Forces up to 30% of the weight of the ball push on the ball from the side. In a horizontal direction of motion, m(dv/dt)=-kv2 where m is the mass of on time, representing constant. This equation completely ignored. If derivative of velocity in will be: v(dv/dx)=-(k/m)v2 where all variables remain the same, but x is the distance down the bowl that the ball is when measured. This equation can be solved to give x=(m/k)ln(v0/v) where ln is the natural logarithm, and v0 is the initial velocity, and all other variables remain constant. This shows the relationship of distance and velocity after a hit by the bowler. In order to find an estimate of the time of flight, separation of variables can be performed on the last equation to give t=(m/k){(1/v)-(1/v0)} This shows how long the ball is in the air for a particular velocity. Once each of these equations is solved using the known variable(s), the deviation of the ball from the visible path can be traced. Even the slightest variation can trick a batter's eye into missing the ball or mistiming a hit. the ball, (dv/dt) is the derivative based acceleration, and k is the side force is only true if the vertical motions are this equation is changed to be a respect to distance rather than time, it

LAWS OF CRICKET

The laws of cricket are a set of rules established by the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) which describe the laws of cricketworldwide, to ensure uniformity and fairness. There are currently 42 laws, which outline all aspects of how the game is played . PLAYERS AND OFFICIALS The first four laws cover the players, the umpires and the scorers. Law 1: The players. A cricket team consists of eleven players, including a captain. Outside of official competitions, teams can agree to play more than eleven-a-side, though no more than eleven players may field. Law 2: Substitutes. In cricket, a substitute may be brought on for an injured fielder. However, a substitute may not bat, bowl, keep wicket or act as captain. The original player may return if he has recovered. A batsman who becomes unable to run may have a runner, who completes the runs while the batsman continues batting. Alternatively, a batsman may retire hurt or ill, and may return later to resume his innings if he recovers. Law 3: The umpires. There are two umpires, who apply the Laws, make all necessary decisions, and relay the decisions to the scorers. While not required under the laws of cricket, in higher level cricket a third umpire (located off the ground and available to assist the on-field umpires) may be used under the specific playing conditions of a particular match or tournament. Law 4: The scorers. There are two scorers who respond to the umpires' signals and keep the score.

AN UMPIRE

EQUIPMENT AND LAYING OUT THE PITCH Law 5: The ball. A cricket ball is between 8 13/16 and 9 inches (22.4 cm and 22.9 cm) in circumference, and weighs between 5.5 and 5.75 ounces (155.9g and 163g). Only one ball is used at a time, unless it is lost, when it is replaced with a ball of similar wear. It is also replaced at the start of each innings, and may, at the request of the fielding side, be replaced with a new ball, after a certain number of overs have been bowled (80 in Test matches, 34 inODIs). The gradual degradation of the ball through the innings is an important aspect of the game.

Law 6: The bat. The bat is no more than 38 inches (97 cm) in length, and no more than 4.25 inches (10.8 cm) wide. The hand or glove holding the bat is considered part of the bat. Ever since the Heavy Metal incident, a highly publicized marketing attempt by Dennis Lillee, who brought out an aluminium bat

during an international game, the laws have provided that the blade of the bat must be made of wood (and in practice, they are made from White Willowwood). Law 7: The pitch. The pitch is a rectangular area of the ground 22 yards (20 m) long and 10 ft (3.0 m) wide. The Ground Authority selects and prepares the pitch, but once the game has started, the umpires control what happens to the pitch. The umpires are also the arbiters of whether the pitch is fit for play, and if they deem it unfit, with the consent of both captains can change the pitch. Professional cricket is almost always played on a grass surface. However, in the event a nonturf pitch is used, the artificial surface must have a minimum length of 58 ft (18 m) and a minimum width of 6 ft (1.8 m).

Law 8: The wickets. The wicket consists of three wooden stumps that are 28 inches (71 cm) tall. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump. They are positioned so they are 9 inches (23 cm) wide. Two wooden bails are placed on top of the stumps. The bails must not project more than 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) above the stumps, and must, for men's cricket, be 4516 inches (10.95 cm) long. There are also specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the wickets and bails for junior cricket. The umpires may dispense with the bails

if conditions are unfit (i.e. it is windy so they might fall off by themselves).

Law 9: Bowling, popping, and return creases. This law sets out the dimensions and locations of the creases. The bowling crease, which is the line the stumps are in the middle of, is drawn at each end of the pitch so that the three stumps in the set of stumps at that end of the pitch fall on it (and consequently it is perpendicular to the imaginary line joining the centres of both middle stumps). Each bowling crease should be 8 feet 8 inches (2.64 m) in length, centred on the middle stump at each end, and each bowling crease terminates at one of the return creases. The popping crease, which determines whether a batsman is in his ground or not, and which is used in determining front-foot no balls (see law 24), is drawn at each end of the pitch in front of each of the two sets of stumps. The popping crease must be 4 feet (1.2 m) in front

of and parallel to the bowling crease. Although it is considered to have unlimited length, the popping crease must be marked to at least 6 feet (1.8 m) on either side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the middle stumps. The return creases, which are the lines a bowler must be within when making a delivery, are drawn on each side of each set of the stumps, along each sides of the pitch (so there are four return creases in all, one on either side of both sets of stumps). The return creases lie perpendicular to the popping crease and the bowling crease, 4 feet 4 inches (1.32 m) either side of and parallel to the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps. Each return crease terminates at one end at the popping crease but the other end is considered to be unlimited in length and must be marked to a minimum of 8 feet (2.4 m) from the popping crease. Law 10: Preparation and maintenance of the playing area. When a cricket ball is bowled it almost always bounces on the pitch, and the behaviour of the ball is greatly influenced by the condition of the pitch. As a consequence, detailed rules on the management of the pitch are necessary. This law contains the rules governing how pitches should be prepared, mown, rolled, and maintained. Law 11: Covering the pitch. The pitch is said to be 'covered' when the groundsmen have placed covers on it to protect it against rain or dew. The laws stipulate that the regulations on covering the pitch shall be agreed by both captains in advance. The decision concerning whether to cover the pitch greatly affects how the ball will react to the pitch surface, as a ball bounces differently on wet ground as compared to dry ground. The area beyond the pitch where a bowler runs so as to deliver the ball (the 'run-up') should ideally be kept dry so as to avoid injury through slipping and falling, and the Laws also require

these to be covered wherever possible when there is wet weather.

STRUCTURE OF THE GAME Law 12: Innings. Before the game, the teams agree whether it is to be over one or two innings, and whether either or both innings are to be limited by time or by overs. In practice, these decisions are likely to be laid down by Competition Regulations, rather than pre-game agreement. In two-innings games, the sides bat alternately unless the follow-on (law 13) is enforced. An innings is closed once all batsmen are dismissed, no further batsmen are fit to play, the innings is declared or forfeited by the batting captain, or any agreed time or over limit is reached. The captain winning the toss of a coin decides whether to bat or to bowl first. Law 13: The follow-on. In a two innings match, if the side batting second scores substantially fewer runs than the side batting first, the side that batted first can force their opponents to bat again immediately. The side that enforced the follow-on risks not getting to bat again and thus the chance of winning.

For a game of five or more days, the side batting first must be at least 200 runs ahead to enforce the follow-on; for a three- or four-day game, 150 runs; for a two-day game, 100 runs; for a one-day game, 75 runs. The length of the game is determined by the number of scheduled days play left when the game actually begins. Law 14: Declaration and forfeiture. The batting captain can declare an innings closed at any time when the ball is dead. He may also forfeit his innings before it has started. Law 15: Intervals. There are intervals between each day's play, a ten-minute interval between innings, and lunch, tea and drinks intervals. The timing and length of the intervals must be agreed before the match begins. There are also provisions for moving the intervals and interval lengths in certain situations, most notably the provision that if nine wickets are down, the tea interval is delayed to the earlier of the fall of the next wicket and 30 minutes elapsing. Law 16: Start of play; cessation of play. Play after an interval commences with the umpire's call of "Play", and at the end of a session by "Time". The last hour of a match must contain at least 20 overs, being extended in time so as to include 20 overs if necessary. Law 17: Practice on the field. There may be no batting or bowling practice on the pitch except before the day's play starts and after the day's play has ended. Bowlers may only have trial run-ups if the umpires are of the view that it would waste no time. SCORING AND WINNING The laws then move on to discuss how runs can be scored and how one team can beat the other.

Law 18: Scoring runs. Runs are scored when the two batsmen run to each other's end of the pitch. Several runs can be scored from one ball. Law 19: Boundaries. A boundary is marked round the edge of the field of play. If the ball is hit into or past this boundary, four runs are scored, or six runs if the ball didn't hit the ground before crossing the boundary. Law 20: Lost ball. If a ball in play is lost or cannot be recovered, the fielding side can call "lost ball". The batting side keeps any penalty runs (such as no-balls and wides) and scores the higher of six runs and the number of runs actually run. Law 21: The result. The side which scores the most runs wins the match. If both sides score the same number of runs, the match is tied. However, the match may run out of time before the innings have all been completed. In this case, the match is drawn. Law 22: The over. An over consists of six balls bowled, excluding wides and no balls. Consecutive overs are delivered from opposite ends of the pitch. A bowler may not bowl two consecutive overs. Law 23: Dead ball. The ball comes into play when the bowler begins his run up, and becomes dead when all the action from that ball is over. Once the ball is dead, no runs can be scored and no batsmen can be dismissed. The ball becomes dead for a number of reasons, most commonly when a batsman is dismissed, when a boundary is hit, or when the ball has finally settled with the bowler or wicketkeeper. Law 24: No ball. A ball can be a no ball for several reasons: if the bowler bowls from the wrong place; or if he straightens his elbow during the delivery; or if the bowling is dangerous; or if

the ball bounces more than twice or rolls along the ground before reaching the batsman; or if the fielders are standing in illegal places. A no ball adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a no ball except by being run out, or by handling the ball, hitting the ball twice, or obstructing the field. Law 25: Wide ball. An umpire calls a ball "wide" if, in his or her opinion, the batsman did not have a reasonable opportunity to score off the ball. A ball is called wide when the bowler bowls a bouncer that goes over the head of the batsman. A wide adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a wide except by being run out or stumped, or by handling the ball, hitting his wicket, or obstructing the field. Law 26: Bye and Leg bye. If a ball that is not a no ball or wide passes the striker and runs are scored, they are called byes. If a ball that is not a no ball hits the striker but not the bat and runs are scored, they are called leg-byes. However, leg-byes cannot be scored if the striker is neither attempting a stroke nor trying to avoid being hit. Byes and leg-byes are credited to the team's but not the batsman's total. MECHANICS OF DISMISSAL Law 27: Appeals. If the fielders believe a batsman is out, they may ask the umpire "How's That?", commonly shouted emphatically with arms raised, before the next ball is bowled. The umpire then decides whether the batsman is out. Strictly speaking, the fielding side must appeal for all dismissals, including obvious ones such as bowled. However, a batsman who is obviously out will normally leave the pitch without waiting for an appeal or a decision from the umpire.

Law 28: The wicket is down. Several methods of being out occur when the wicket is put down. This means that the wicket is hit by the ball, or the batsman, or the hand in which a fielder is holding the ball, and at least one bail is removed. Law 29: Batsman out of his ground. The batsmen can be run out or stumped if they are out of their ground. A batsman is in his ground if any part of him or his bat is on the ground behind the popping crease. If both batsman are in the middle of the pitch when a wicket is put down, the batsman closer to that end is out. WAYS TO GET OUT Law 30: Bowled. A batsman is out if his wicket is put down by a ball delivered by the bowler. It is irrelevant whether the ball has touched the bat, glove, or any part of the batsman before going on to put down the wicket, though it may not touch another player or an umpire before doing so. Law 31: Timed out. An incoming batsman must be ready to face a ball (or be at the crease with his partner ready to face a ball) within 3 minutes of the outgoing batsman being dismissed, otherwise the incoming batsman will be out. Law 32: Caught. If a ball hits the bat or the hand holding the bat and is then caught by the opposition within the field of play before the ball bounces, then the batsman is out. Law 33: Handled the ball. If a batsman willfully handles the ball with a hand that is not touching the bat without the consent of the opposition, he is out. Law 34: Hit the ball twice. If a batsman hits the ball twice, other than for the sole purpose of protecting his wicket or with the consent of the opposition, he is out.

Law 35: Hit wicket. If, after the bowler has entered his delivery stride and while the ball is in play, a batsman puts his wicket down by his bat or his body he is out. The striker is also out hit wicket if he puts his wicket down by his bat or his body in setting off for a first run. "Body" includes the clothes and equipment of the batsman. Law 36: Leg before wicket (LBW). If the ball hits the batsman without first hitting the bat, but would have hit the wicket if the batsman was not there, and the ball does not pitch on the leg side of the wicket, the batsman will be out. However, if the ball strikes the batsman outside the line of the off-stump, and the batsman was attempting to play a stroke, he is not out. Law 37: Obstructing the field. If a batsman obstructs the opposition by word or action, he is out. willfully

Law 38: Run out. A batsman is out if at any time while the ball is in play no part of his bat or person is grounded behind the popping crease and his wicket is fairly put down by the opposing side. Law 39: Stumped. A batsman is out when the wicket-keeper (see Law 40) puts down the wicket, while the batsman is out of his crease and not attempting a run. FIELDERS Law 40: The wicket-keeper. The keeper is a designated man from the bowling side allowed to stand behind the stumps of the batsman. He is the only player from his side allowed to wear gloves and external leg guards. Law 41: The fielder. A fielder is any of the eleven cricketers from the bowling side. Fielders are positioned to field the ball,

to stop runs and boundaries, and to get batsmen out by catching or running them out. FIELDING POSITIONS :

Fair and unfair play Law 42: Fair and unfair play.

OBJECTIVES OF CRICKET
The objective of each team is to score more runs than the other team and to completely dismiss the other team. In limited overs cricket, winning the game is achieved by scoring the most runs within the overs allowed, even if the opposition has

not been completely dismissed. In Test cricket, it is necessary to score the most runs and dismiss the opposition twice in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn. DISTINCTIVE DECESSIVE ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Individual focus Spirit of the Game Influence of weather Uniqueness of each field

TYPES OF MATCHES
Cricket is a multi-faceted sport which, in very broad terms, can be divided into major cricket and minor cricket based on playing standards. A more pertinent division, particularly in terms of major cricket, is between matches in which the teams have two innings apiece and those in which they have a single innings each. The former, known as first-class cricket, has a duration of three to five days (there have been examples of "timeless" matches too); the latter, known as limited overs cricket because each team bowls a limit of typically 50 or 20 overs, has a planned duration of one day only (a match can be extended if necessary due to bad weather, etc.). Typically, two-innings matches have at least six hours of playing time each day. Limited overs matches often last six hours or more. There are usually formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea with brief informal breaks for drinks. There is also a short interval between innings. Historically, a form of cricket known as single wicket had been extremely successful. In this form, although each team may have from one to six players, there is only one batsman at a time and he must face every delivery bowled while his innings lasts.

Test cricket

. Test cricket is the highest standard of first-class cricket. A Test match is an international fixture between teams representing those countries that are Full Members of the ICC. Although the term "Test match" was not coined until much later, Test cricket is deemed to have begun with two matches between Australia and England in the187677 Australian season. Subsequently, eight other national teams have achieved Test status: South Africa (1889), West Indies (1928), New Zealand (1929), India(1932), Pakistan (1952), Sri Lanka (1982), Zimbabwe (1992) and Bangladesh(2000). Zimbabwe suspended its Test status in 2006 due to its inability to compete against other Test teams,[38] and returned in 2011.
[39]

Test matches between two teams are usually played in a group of matches called a "series". Matches last up to five days and a series normally consists of three to five matches. Test matches that are not finished within the allotted time are drawn. In the case of Test and first-class cricket: the possibility of a draw often encourages a team that is batting last and well behind to bat defensively, giving up any faint chance at a win to avoid a loss.[40]

Since 1882, most Test series between England and Australia have been played for a trophy known as The Ashes. Some other bilateral series have individual trophies too: for example, the Wisden Trophy is contested by England and West Indies; the Frank Worrell Trophy by Australia and West Indies and the Border-Gavaskar Trophy between India and Australia. Limited overs

Standard limited overs cricket was introduced in England in the 1963 season in the form of a knockout cup contested by the first-class county clubs. In 1969, a national league competition was established. The concept was gradually introduced to the other major cricket countries and the first limited overs international was played in 1971. In 1975, the first Cricket World Cup took place in England. Limited overs cricket has seen various innovations including the use of multi-coloured kit and floodlit matches using a white ball. A "one day match", named so because each match is scheduled for completion in a single day, is the common form of limited overs cricket played on an international level. In practice, matches sometimes continue on a second day if they have been interrupted or postponed by bad weather. The main objective of a limited overs match is to produce a definite result and so a conventional draw is not possible, but matches can be

undecided if the scores are tied or if bad weather prevents a result. Each team plays one innings only and faces a limited number of overs, usually a maximum of 50. The Cricket World Cup is held in one day format and the last World Cup in 2011 was won by the co-hosts, India. The next World Cup will hosted byAustralia and New Zealand in 2015. Twenty20 is a new variant of limited overs itself with the purpose being to complete the match within about three hours, usually in an evening session. The original idea, when the concept was introduced in England in 2003, was to provide workers with an evening entertainment. It was commercially successful and has been adopted internationally. National championships

Yorkshire County Cricket Club in 1895. The team won the first of its 30 County Championship titles in 1893. First-class cricket includes Test cricket but the term is generally used to refer to the highest level of domestic cricket in those countries with full ICC membership, although there are exceptions to this. First-class cricket in England is played for the most part by the 18 county clubs which contest the County

Championship. The concept of a champion county has existed since the 18th century but the official competition was not established until 1890. The most successful club has beenYorkshire County Cricket Club with 30 official titles. Australia established its national first-class championship in 189293 when the Sheffield Shield was introduced. In Australia, the first-class teams represent the various states. New South Wales has won the maximum number of titles with 45 to 2008. National championship trophies to be established elsewhere included the Ranji Trophy (India), Plunket Shield (New Zealand), Currie Cup (South Africa) and Shell Shield (West Indies). Some of these competitions have been updated and renamed in recent years. Domestic limited overs competitions began with England's Gillette Cup knockout in 1963. Countries usually stage seasonal limited overs competitions in both knockout and league format. In recent years, national Twenty20 competitions have been introduced, usually in knockout form though some incorporate mini-leagues. Other types of matches

Indian boys playing cricket on the street with a tennis ball in Uttar Pradesh,India. There are numerous variations of the sport played throughout the world that include indoor cricket, French cricket, beach cricket, Kwik cricket and all sorts of card games and board games that have been inspired by cricket. In these variants, the rules are often changed to make the game playable with limited resources or to render it more convenient and enjoyable for the participants. Indoor cricket is played in a netted, indoor arena, and is quite formal but many of the outdoor variants are very informal. Families and teenagers play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, and the cities of India and Pakistan play host to countless games of "Gully Cricket" or "tapeball" in their long narrow streets. In Samoa a form of cricket called Kilikiti is played in which hockey stick-shaped bats are used. In Estonia, teams gather over the winter for the annual Ice Cricket tournament.

INTERNATIONAL STRUCTURE-ICC

ICC member nations. The (highest level) Test playing nations are shown in orange; the associate member nations are shown in yellow; the affiliate member nations are shown in purple.

The International Cricket Council (ICC), which has its headquarters in Dubai, is the international governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the International Cricket Conference in 1965, and took up its current name in 1989.

The ICC has 104 members: 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 34 Associate Members, and 60 Affiliate Members.[41] The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, notably the Cricket World Cup. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in its country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. In the West Indies these matters are addressed by the West

Indies Cricket Board which consists of members appointed by four national boards and two multi-national boards. Vision of Success As a leading global sport , cricket will captivate and inspire people of every age, gender, background and ability, while building bridges between continents, countries and communities. Strategic Direction A Bigger Better Global Game Targeting more players, more fans, more competitive teams. Our long-term success will be judged on growth in participation and public interest and the competitiveness of teams participating in men's and women's international cricket. Mission Statement - Leading World Cricket by: * Providing a world class environment for international cricket * Delivering "major' events across three formats * Providing targeted support to Members * Promoting the global game. STRATEGIC PLAN

The Way Forward for International Cricket The ICC Strategic Plan 2011-15 was launched at the ICC's Annual Conference in Hong Kong in June 2011. After a two-year consultation period with the game's stakeholders, including Members, players, media and supporters, the plan sets out a vision for international cricket. By following through on our commitment to develop new competition structures and meritocratic pathways for men's and women's teams across Test, ODI and T20I cricket, supported by effective targeting, the ICC will be well-placed to achieve a truly global game with more players, more fans and more competitive teams. The ICC vision for 2011-15 is to create A bigger, better, global game' aimed at Targeting more players, more fans, more competitive teams.' Our success between 2011 and 2015 will be judged on growth in participation and public interest and the competitiveness of teams participating in men's and women's international cricket.

ICC WORLD CUP


The ICC Cricket World Cup is the showpiece event of the cricket calendar and takes place every four years, with matches contested in a 50 overs per side format. There have been ten events so far, with the first tournament taking place in England in 1975. The last ICC Cricket World Cup took place in 2011 in which was won by India, who hosted the tournament along with Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Other winners of the event include Australia (1987, 1999, 2003, 2007), West Indies (1975, 1979), India (1983), Pakistan (1992) and Sri Lanka (1996). The next ICC Cricket World Cup will be staged in Australia and New Zealand in 2015.

ICC WORLD CUP 2001 WINNER - INDIA

INDIA NATIONAL CRICKET TEAM

INDIAN CRICKET CREST

The Indian cricket team is the national cricket team of India. Governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), it is a full member of the International Cricket Council(ICC) with Test and One Day International (ODI) status. The Indian cricket team is currently ranked third by the ICC in Tests, second in ODIs and seventh in T20s.[1] On 2 April 2011, the team won the 2011 Cricket World Cup, its second after 1983. It thus became only the third team after West Indies and Australia to have won the World Cup more than once. Currently Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the captain in all forms of the game . Under the leadership of Dhoni, the Indian team has set a national record for most back-to-back ODI wins (9 straight wins)[3] and has emerged as one of the most formidable teams in international cricket.[4] Coaching staff :

Head coach: Duncan Fletcher Mental conditioning coach: Vacant Fitness trainer: Ramji Srinivasan Physiotherapist: Nitin Patel

Masseur: Ramesh Mane


Performance analyst: C.K.M. Dhananjai Bowling consultant: Eric Simons