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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Chapter 2 : Subgroups

Jason Rosendale

jason.rosendale@gmail.com

February 11, 2012

This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really dont understand something in one of these

proofs, it is very possible that it doesnt make sense because its wrong. Any questions or corrections can be

directed to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.

Exercise 2.1.1a

0 +0i is the identity element of G, and a +ai, b +bi G implies b +(b)i G with (a +ai) +(b +(b)i) =

(a b) + (a b)i G.

Exercise 2.1.1b

1 is the identity element of G, and a, b G implies [ab

1

[ = [a[[b

1

[ = [1[[1[ = 1 so that ab G.

Exercise 2.1.1c

0

1

is the identity element of G, and a/b, p/q G implies b[n and q[n so that b = n/x and q = n/y for some

x, y Z. Thus:

a

b

p

q

=

ax

n

py

n

=

ax py

n

which, when reduced, becomes

=

(ax py)/ gcd(ax py, n)

n/ gcd(ax py, n)

The denominator of this fraction clearly divides n, and thus the fraction is G.

Exercise 2.1.1d

0

1

is the identity element of G, and a/b, p/q G implies

a

b

p

q

=

aq bp

bq

And if b, q are relatively prime to n then bq is also relatively prime to n so the fraction is G.

Exercise 2.1.1e

1 is the identity element of G, and a, b G implies

(ab)

2

= a

2

b

2

which is a product of elements of Q and is thus an element of Q.

1

Exercise 2.1.2a

(1 2)(2 3) = (1 2 3), so the set is not closed if n 3.

Exercise 2.1.2b

(sr

1

)(sr) = r

2

, so the set is not closed (unless r

2

= 1, thus the requirement n 3).

Exercise 2.1.2c

Suppose n is composite. Then we can choose a, b such that ab = n with 1 < a < n. Were told that there is

an element x such that o(x) = n. If x G[ [x[ = n were a subgroup then the requirement of closure would

require that all elements in 1, x, x

2

, . . . , x

n1

be elements of the subgroup. But o(x

b

) = a, so x

b

is not in the

set and thus it is not closed under the operation.

Exercise 2.1.2d

The operation isnt closed under addition (1+3 is not odd), and not closed under inverses for multiplication

(3

1

= 1/3 , Z).

Exercise 2.1.2e

The operation isnt closed. (

2 +

3)

2

= 5 + 2

6.

Exercise 2.1.3a

The identity exists, and each element is its own inverse.

Exercise 2.1.3b

The identity exists, r

2

is its own inverse, and (sr)

1

= sr

3

.

Exercise 2.1.4

Let G = Q0 under the operation of multiplication and let H = Z. H is closed under its operation but does

not contain inverses.

Exercise 2.1.5

By Langranges theorem, [H[ = n 1 must divide n which is not possible when n > 2.

Exercise 2.1.6

Let T represent the torsion subgroup of G. Clearly 1 T . Suppose now that a, b T . There must be nite i, j

such that a

i

= b

j

= 1. From this, we have:

a

i

= b

j

= 1 assumed

(a

i

)

j

= (b

j

)

i

= 1 1

i

= 1

j

= 1

a

ij

= b

ij

= 1 algebraic substitution

a

ij

b

ij

= 1

(ab)

ij

= 1 from abelianism

To prove that abelianism is necessary, consider the group of bijective functions Z Z. The torsion group T

contains every element of nite order: in particular, it contains the following two bijective functions of order 2:

f(x) = x + 1 if x is even , f(x) = x 1 if x is odd

g(x) = x 1 if x is even , f(x) = x + 1 if x is odd

2

But the composite of these two functions is:

(f g)(x) = x 2 if x is even , (f g)(x) = x + 2 if x is odd

so that f g is of innite order, so that f g , T . Thus T is not a group.

Exercise 2.1.7

Note that the operation on Z (Z/nZ) must be addition in order for it to be a group. Every element of Z/nZ

is of nite order, and every nonzero element of Z is of innite order. So the torsion group must be

T = 1 Z/nZ

To show that the set of elements of innite order together with the identity do not form a subgroup of this direct

product, we simply take the two elements 3 0 and 2 1. Their sum, 1 1, is a nonidentity element of nite

order.

Exercise 2.1.8

Let H K be a subgroup. Proof by contradiction: Suppose neither H K nor K H. Then we could nd

some a H K and some b K H. But ab , H, for this would imply a

1

ab = b H; and ab , K, for this

would imply abb

1

= a K. Thus ab , H K, which contradicts our assumption that H K was a group.

Exercise 2.1.9

To show that its a subgroup of GL, then we can just appeal to basic linear algebra and rely on the facts that

det(I)=1 and det(AB)=det(A)det(B).

Exercise 2.1.10a

Both H and K contain the identity, so 1 H K. If a, b H K then a, b

1

H and a, b

1

K; thus

ab

1

H, ab

1

K; therefore ab

1

H K.

Exercise 2.1.10b

Let A

be an arbitrary, possibly non-countable collection of subgroups of G. All subgroups contain the identity,

so 1

. If a, b

then a, b

1

A

1

A

1

.

Exercise 2.1.11a

This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (a

1

, 1) and (a

2

, 1) then it contains (a

1

a

2

, 1).

Exercise 2.1.11b

This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (1, b

1

) and (1, b

2

) then it contains (1, b

1

b

2

).

Exercise 2.1.11c

This set contains the identity (1,1); and if the set contains (a

1

, a

1

) and (a

2

, a

2

) then it contains (a

1

a

2

, a

1

a

2

).

Exercise 2.1.12a

This set contains the identity 1

n

= 1, and if it contains a

n

, b

n

then it contains (b

1

)

n

(from closure under

inverses) (ab

1

)

n

(from abelianism).

Exercise 2.1.12b

This set contains the identity 1 since 1

n

= 1, and if it contains a, b then a

n

= 1, b

n

= 1 and (b

n

)

1

= 1, therefore

(ab

1

)

n

= 1 (from abelianism).

3

Exercise 2.1.13

Note: the weird requirement on H just guarantees us that every element of H has a multiplicative inverse even

though H is only a group under addition. We prove that if H ,= 0 then H = Q: Suppose we have some

nonzero element

a

b

H. From closure under addition we have b

a

b

= a H. From the existence of multi-

plicative inverses we then have

1

a

H, and therefore a

1

a

= 1 H. Now that we have 1 H, closure requires

n H for all n Z and the existence of multiplicative inverses requires

1

n

H for all n Q. And every rational

number

p

q

is some combination of these elements, so Q H. And since we were told that H Q, we have H = Q.

Exercise 2.1.14

The set contains s and sr, but it does not contain ssr = r when n 3.

Exercise 2.1.15

For ease of notation, let this innite union be represented by H. Since 1 H

1

, we know that 1 H. Now

suppose a, b H. There must be some m, n such that a H

m

and b H

n

. So that for N = max(m, n) we have

a, b, b

1

H

N

and thus ab

1

H

N

. This gives us ab

1

H.

Exercise 2.1.16

The identity matrix fullls the criteria for the given set (lets call it UT

n

). Proof by induction that UT

n

is a

subgroup for all n N: UT

1

, the set of 1 1 matrices over F, is trivially a subgroup of GL

1

(F). Assume

that UT

k

is a subgroup of GL

k

(F): we prove that UT

k+1

is also a subgroup. Let A, B be arbitrary elements of

UT

k+1

. The inverses are also in UT

k+1

:

A =

_

a

11

UT

k

0 a

nn

_

, A

1

=

_

(a

11

)

1

UT

k

0 (a

nn

)

1

_

And the product AB

1

is in UT

k+1

:

AB

1

=

_

a

11

UT1

k

0 a

nn

_ _

(b

11

)

1

UT2

k

0 (b

nn

)

1

_

=

_

a

11

(b

11

)

1

UT1

k

UT2

k

0 a

nn

(b

nn

)

1

_

so that UT

k+1

is a group. By induction, UT

n

is a subgroup of GL

n

(F) for all n.

Exercise 2.1.17

This proof is almost identical to that of the preceeding exercise. The identity matrix fullls the criteria for the

given set (lets call it UL

n

). Proof by induction that UL

n

is a subgroup for all n N: UL

1

, 1 1 matrice over

F, is trivially a subgroup of GL

1

(F). Assume that UL

k

is a subgroup of GL

k

(F): we prove that UL

k+1

is also

a subgroup. Let A, B be arbitrary elements of UL

k+1

. The inverses are also in UL

k+1

:

A =

_

1 UL

k

0 1

_

, A

1

=

_

1 UL

k

0 1

_

And the product AB

1

is in UL

k+1

:

AB

1

=

_

1 UL1

k

0 1

_ _

1 UL2

k

0 1

_

=

_

1 UL1

k

UL2

k

0 1

_

so that UL

k+1

is a group. By induction, UL

n

is a subgroup of GL

n

(F) for all n.

Exercise 2.2.1

C

G

(A) is a group, so it contains g i it contains g

1

, so the two sets contain the same elements. More formally:

choose g C

G

(A). The following steps are all bidirectional (i):

4

g C

G

(A) assumed

g

1

C

G

(A) the group C

G

(A) contains inverses

(a A)g

1

ag = a denition of membership in C

G

(A)

g g G[g

1

ag = a for all a A

Exercise 2.2.2

Members of Z(G) commute with every g G, and C

G

(Z) is the set of elements that commute with elements of

Z(G): that is, G itself. More formally:

g C

G

(Z(G)) assumed

gag

1

= a for all a Z(G) def. of C

G

gag

1

= a for all a such that aga

1

= g for all g G def. of Z

ga = ag for all a such that ag = ga for all g G right-multiplication

g G last statement is true for all g G

Exercise 2.2.3

We know that centralizers are groups, so we need only prove that C

G

(B) C

G

(A).

g C

G

(B) assumed

gbg

1

= b for all b B def. of C

G

gbg

1

= b for all b A A B

g C

G

(A) def. of C

G

Exercise 2.2.6a

Choose h H. We will prove that h N

G

(H) by proving that hHh

1

= H. From the closure of H, we know that

hHh

1

H. To prove that H hHh

1

H, we choose h

2

H and note that h(h

1

h2h)h

1

= h2 hHh

1

.

Thus hHh

1

= H and so h N

G

(H).

Were also asked to show that (a) does not hold if H is not a subgroup. I nd this a bit confusing, since the

claim is that H is a subgroup. Ill assume that were really being asked to show that H is necessarily a subset

of N

G

(H) if H is not a subgroup. Consider the group D

8

with H = r, s. Only the identity element commutes

with every element of H, so N

G

(H) = 1.

Exercise 2.2.6b

This is true practically by denition. By denition, C

G

(H) is the set of elements that commute with every

element of H. So to say H C

G

(H) is to say that every element of H commutes with every element of H.

More formally:

H is abelian assumed

(h

1

, h

2

H)h

1

h

2

= h

2

h

1

def. of abelian

(h

1

, h

2

H)h

1

= h

2

h

1

h

1

2

right-multiplication

(h

1

H)h

1

C

G

(H) def. of C

G

(H)

H C

G

(H) def. of

Each step was bidirectional (i), so we have proven that H is abelian i H C

G

(H).

5

Exercise 2.2.7

Part (a) is a direct consequence of exercise 1.2.5. Part (b) is a direct consequence of exercise 1.2.4.

Exercise 2.2.8

The text of this chapter contains a proof that stabilizers of G are subgroups of G. We could also proceed by

dening S = i and noting that the kernel of the action of G on S is precisely G

i

; and the kernel of an action

is a subgroup.

Exercise 2.2.9

To show N

H

(A) N

G

(A) H, choose an arbitrary element h H:

h H h N

H

(A) assumed

h H (a A)hAh

1

= A def. of N

H

(A)

h H h N

G

(A) def. of N

G

(A)

h H h N

G

(A)

Each step was bidirectional, so the two sets are equal.

Exercise 2.2.10

H must contain the identity element and one nonidentity element h: that is, H = 1, h. We proceed with a

bidirectional proof:

g N

G

(H) assumed

(h H)gHg

1

= H def of N

G

(H)

g1g

1

= 1 and ghg

1

= h see below for justication

(h H)ghg

1

= h H = 1, h

g C

G

(H) def. of C

G

(H)

The middle step is justied in the downward (only if) direction by noting that we clearly have g1g

1

= 1, so

that if we require gHg

1

= H then its necessary that ghg

1

= h. The step is justied in the upward (if)

direction by noting that 1, h is a complete list of the elements of H.

For the nal deduction, we note that if C

G

(H) = G this means each h H commutes with every element

of G. And, by denition, Z(G) is the set of all elements that commute with every element of G. Therefore

H Z(G).

Exercise 2.2.11

Choose some z Z(G). Then zg = gz for all g G. Therefore zgz

1

= g for all g G, which means zAz

1

= A

for any set A G. By denition, this means z N

G

(A).

Exercise 2.2.12b

The identity action of S

4

would be the identity permutation (1). Its clear from the nature of permutations that

(

1

2

) p =

1

(

2

p).

Exercise 2.2.12c

An element of S

4

stabilizes 4 i its disjoint cycles contain the 1-cycle (4). Thus we can construct the ismorphism

: S

3

S

4

() = (4)

6

Exercise 2.2.12d

The permutations that stabilize x

1

+ x

2

are those that either stabilize both 1 and 2 or swap the elements of 1

and 2:

(1), (1 2), (1 2)(3 4), (3 4)

Showing that this is an abelian group is trivial.

Exercise 2.2.12e

The permutations that stabilize x

1

x

2

+x

3

x

4

are the above permutations, plus the permutations that swap both

1,3 and 2,4 or 1,4 and 2,3:

(1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3), (1 3 2 4), (2 3 1 4)

To prove isomorphism, let R = (1324) and S = (1 3)(2 4). We obvious have o(R) = 4, o(S) = 2. And to verify

RS = SR

1

:

RS = (1 3 2 4)(1 3)(2 4) = (1 2) = (1 3)(2 4)(2 3 1 4) = SR

1

We need now only prove that (S

i

R

i

S

j

R

j

) = s

i

r

i

s

j

r

j

is a homomorphism from this set of permutations to D

8

.

And this follows immediately from the associativity of D

8

:

(S

i

R

i

S

j

R

j

) = s

i

r

i

s

j

r

j

= (s

i

r

i

)(s

j

r

j

) = (S

i

R

i

)(S

j

R

j

)

Exercise 2.2.12f

The same logic applies: the permutations that stabilize (x

1

+ x

2

)(x

3

+ x

4

) are those permutations that swap

elements in exactly the same way as in part (e).

Exercise 2.2.13

The proof is identical to that given for n = in the preceeding exercise.

Exercise 2.2.14

Its not specied if were looking for the center of H(F) in H(F) or the center of H(F) is GL

3

(F). Well assume

the more general case for now and look for the center of H(F) in GL

3

(F).

H(F) is just the set of 3 3 upper-triangular matrices with diagonal elements of 1. The center, Z(H(F)),

consists of the elements A GL

3

(F) such that AH = HA for all H H(F). Calculating AH and HA:

AH =

_

_

a b c

d e f

g h i

_

_

_

_

1 x y

0 1 z

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

a ax +b ay +bz +c

d dx +e dy +ez +f

g gx +h gy +hz +i

_

_

HA =

_

_

1 x y

0 1 z

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

a b c

d e f

g h i

_

_

=

_

_

a +dx +gy b +ex +hy c +fx +iy

d +gz e +hz f +iz

g h i

_

_

We need to see when these two matrices are equal for all H, so were solving for A. We see immediately that

we must have d = g = h = 0, so we simplify to

AH =

_

_

a ax +b ay +bz +c

0 e ez +f

0 0 i

_

_

, HA =

_

_

a ex +b iy +fx +c

0 e iz +f

0 0 i

_

_

So that we must have a = e = i. Further simplifying:

AH =

_

_

a ax +b ay +bz +c

0 a az +f

0 0 a

_

_

, HA =

_

_

a ax +b ay +fx +c

0 a az +f

0 0 a

_

_

7

So that our nal requirement is that bz = fx. The only way for this to hold for all values of x, z is for b = f = 0.

Therefore, the center of H(F) is the set of matrices of the form

A =

_

_

a 0 c

0 a 0

0 0 a

_

_

Now we see that the exercise must have been asking us to nd the center of H(F) in H(F), for there is not

necessarily any isomorphism between F and the set of all such Z(H(F)) (consider F = Z

2

: [F[ = 2 but

[Z(H(F)))[ = 4). Restricting our center to H(F) gives us

A =

_

_

1 0 c

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

which has an obvious isomorphism with F:

: F H(F), (x) =

_

_

1 0 x

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

Exercise 2.3.2

If o(x) = n, then x

0

, x

1

, . . . , x

n1

are distinct by exercise 1.1.32. Thus [ x [ = [G[ and x G, and theyre

both nite sets so they must contain the same elements. To show that this does not hold for innite groups, let

G = Z and let x = 2.

Exercise 2.3.3

Any n such that gcd(n, 48) = 1 (i.e., numbers with no factors of 2 or 3).

Exercise 2.3.4

Any n such that gcd(n, 202) = 1 (i.e., numbers with no factors of 2 or 101).

Exercise 2.3.5

Its tempting to resort to Eulers Phi function and say the answer is (49000). To nd this number explicitly,

we rst nd how many integers have factors in common with 49000. Using the theorem from set theory that

[A B C[ = [A[ +[B[ +[C[ [A B[ [A C[ [B C[ +[A B C[, we have

(factors of 2 + factors of 5 + factors of 7) (factors of 2,5 + factors of 5,7 + factors of 2,7) + (factors of 2,5,70)

= (24500 + 9800 + 7000) (4900 + 1400 + 3500) + (700) = 32200

So that (49000) = 4900 32200 = 16800.

Exercise 2.3.8

Any a such that gcd(a, 48) = 1 (i.e., numbers with no factors of 2 or 3).

Exercise 2.3.9

Well use the additive notation instead of the multiplicative notation and nd the integers a such that

a

: 1 ax

(i.e.,

a

(k) = kax) extends to a well-dened homomorphism. Well see that

a

is well-dened only i 3[a. We

prove that well-denedness requires this. Suppose psi

a

is a well-dened homomorphism. Choose i = j Z:

8

i = j given: equality in equality in Z/48Z

i = j + 48 equality in Z

a

(i) =

a

(j + 48)

a

is well-dened: equality in Z

36

a

(i) =

a

(j + 48) + 36n

a

is well-dened: equality in Z

a

(i)

a

(j) =

a

(12) +

a

(36) + 36n) is a homomorphism: equality in Z

the operations on the groups Z and Z/48Z are addition, so x

a

is repeated addition. Thus

(kx) = k(x) :

a

(i)

a

(j) = 12

a

(1) + 36(

a

(1) +n) is a homomorphism: equality in Z

Moving to Z

3

6, the LHS of this equation is zero because is well dened and 36k = 0 in Z

36

:

12

a

(1) = 0

a

is well-dened: equality in Z

36

(n Z)12

a

(1) = 36n equality in Z

(n Z)psi

a

(1) = 3n equality in Z

3[

a

(1) def. of divisibility

3[a def. of

a

This really just shows that is a well-dened homomorphism only if 3[a. To prove the if part, we assume

a = 3k and dene

a

: 1 3kx. We need only prove well-denedness, since homomorphism follows trivially.

i = j assumed: equality in equality in Z/48Z

i = j + 48n equality in Z

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) = 3kxi 3kx(j + 48) def of

a

: equality in Z

36

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) = 3kxi 3kx(j + 48) + 36m equality in Z

36

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) = 3kx(i j) + 3(48)kx + 36m algebraic rearrangment: equality in Z

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) = 3kx(i j) + 36(4kx +m) algebraic rearrangment: equality in Z

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) = 3kx(i j) equality in Z

36

a

(i)

a

(j + 48n) =

a

(i j) def. of

a

: equality in Z

36

a

(i)

a

(j) =

a

(0) in Z/48Z we have j = j + 48 and i = j: equality in

Z

3

6

a

(i)

a

(j) = 0 def of

a

: equality in Z

3

6

a

(i) =

a

(j) algebraic rearrangement: equality in Z

3

6

Exercise 2.3.10

The order is

lcm(30, 54)/30 = 54/ gcd(30, 54) = 9

Exercise 2.3.11

A subgroup that is not cyclic is 1, r

2

, s, sr

2

. Each element has order 1 or 2.

Exercise 2.3.12a

We can prove this by enumeration. There are only four elements of Z

2

Z

2

, each of which has order 1 or 2.

Exercise 2.3.12b

Proof by contradiction. Suppose the element (a, b) generated Z

2

Z

2

. Then (a + 1, b) cannot be an element of

(a, b) for this would imply that n(a, b) = (a+1, b) for some n which would mean that n = 1 and thus a = a+1,

which is not true for any element of Z

2

.

9

Exercise 2.3.12c

Proof by contradiction. Suppose the element (a, b) generated Z Z. Then (a + 1, b) cannot be an element of

(a, b) for this would imply that n(a, b) = (a+1, b) for some n which would mean that n = 1 and thus a = a+1,

which is not true for any element of Z.

Exercise 2.3.13

For parts (a) and (b), the group on the left-hand side contains an element (0, 1) of order 2 while the right-hand

side contains no element of order 2.

Exercise 2.3.15

Proof by contradiction. Suppose the element (a, b) generated Q Q. Then (a + 1, b) cannot be an element of

(a, b) for this would imply that n(a, b) = (a+1, b) for some n which would mean that n = 1 and thus a = a+1,

which is not true for any element of Q.

Exercise 2.3.16

Were told that o(x) = n, o(y) = m. Let A = lcm(m, n). From the relation mn = gcd(m, n)lcm(m, n) we have

(xy)

A

= x

A

y

A

from commutativity

= (x

m

)

A/m

(y

n

)

A/n

A/m, A/n are both integers

= 1

Thus o(xy)[A. This does not necessarily hold if x, y do not commute (consider D

8

with o(r) = 4, o(s) = 2, but

o(sr) ,= 4). The easiest example of commuting elements such that o(xy) is not equal to lcm(x, y) is to take D

8

with x = y = r. We have o(rr) = 2 while lcm(o(r), o(r)) = lcm(4, 4) = 4.

Exercise 2.3.17

x[x

n

= 1

Exercise 2.3.18

Choose x Z

n

such that x = Z

n

. Dene : Z

n

H as : x

k

h

k

. To show that this is a homomorphism

is trivial. To show uniqueness, assume we had another homomorphism f with f(x) = h. Then we have, from

homomorphism:

f(x

k

) = f(x)

k

= h

k

= (x

k

)

so that f = .

Exercise 2.3.19

Dene : Z H as (n) = h

n

. This is a homomorphism:

(a +b) = h

a+b

= h

a

h

b

= (a)(b)

And this function is unique: if f is any homomorphism with f(1) = h, we have (using multiplicative notation

so that 1

n

= n):

f(n) = f(1

n

) = f(1)

n

= h

n

= (n)

Exercise 2.3.20

If x

p

n

= 1, then we know that o(x)[p

n

. But p is prime, so the only divisors of p

n

are p

0

, p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

n

. Thus

o(x) = p

m

for some m n.

10

Exercise 2.3.21

From the binomial theorem we have

(1 +p)

p

n1

=

p

n1

k=0

_

n

k

_

p

k

1

nk

=

p

n1

k=0

_

n

k

_

p

k

We want to nd the value of this term mod p

n

:

p

n1

k=0

_

p

n1

k

_

p

k

mod p

n

Any terms of p

k

with k n are going to become zero here, so this is equivalent to

=

n

k=0

_

p

n1

k

_

p

k

mod p

n

The coecient

_

p

n1

k

_

will be a multiple of p

n1

whenever p

n1

> k, which can (with a bit of algebra) be shown

to hold for all n, k whenever p > 2. Thus every term in this sum except the k = 0 term has a factor of p

n

and

we can simplify:

=

0

k=0

_

p

n1

k

_

p

k

= 1 mod p

n

Its not enough to show that this doesnt always hold for p

n2

; if we want to make the deduction theyre asking

us to make, it must *never* hold.

Exercise 2.3.24a

If g N

G

(x), then g x g

1

= x, which means that gxg

1

x, and therefore gxg

1

= x

a

for some a Z.

Exercise 2.3.24b

Note that

(gxg

1

)

n

= g(xg

1

g)

n1

xg

1

= gx

n

g

1

So suppose gxg

1

= x

a

. Then we have gx

n

g

1

= (gxg

1

)

n

= (x

a

)

n

. This is sucient to prove that g x g

1

gx

i

g

1

= gx

j

g

1

gx

i

g

1

gx

j

g

1

= 1 x

ij

= g

1

g = 1 i = j

So that gx

i

g

1

is distinct for each i = 0, 1, . . . , n 1. Thus [g x g

1

[ = [ x [. Since these are nite subsets

with g x g

1

x, this proves that g x g

1

= x.

Exercise 2.3.25a

Suppose that G = x with [G[ = o(x) = n. Let k be an integer relatively prime to n. We prove that o(x

k

) = n:

o(x

k

) = i G is nite, so this must be true for some i > 0

(x

k

)

i

= 1

x

ki

= 1

o(x)[ki

n[ki o(x) = n

n[i k is relatively prime to n

The least i > 0 such that n[i is obviously i = n, so o(x

k

) = n. Thus the size of the range of this map is

[

x

k

_

[ = n = [G[, which for nite groups is sucient to prove

x

k

_

= G.

11

Exercise 2.3.25b

Let G be a nite group with [G[ = n (not necessarily cyclic). Choose k to be relatively prime to n. Dene the

mapping f : G G as f(g) = g

k

. Were asked to show that this mapping is surjective.

Choose an arbitrary element g G. Each element has nite order, so let o(g) = m. Since m[n (by Langragnes

theorem), we know that k is relatively prime to m. Thus, applying the previous exercise, f(g) = g and thus

g is in the range of f. But g was arbitrary, so every g G is in the range of f. And thus f is surjective.

Exercise 2.3.26a

We proved this in exercise 25. We proved the if portion explicitly, and we were assured that the only if

portion is a direct consequence of Cauchys Theorem which will be presented in section 3.2.

Exercise 2.3.26b

a

(x) =

b

(x) x

a

= x

b

x

ab

= 1 (a b)[n a = b(mod n)

Exercise 2.3.26c

Let Z

n

= x. Suppose : Z

n

Z

n

is an automorphism. Every element of Z

n

is expressible as x

i

for some i,

so (x) = x

i

for some i. And this completely denes , since for each x

j

x we have (x

j

) = (x)

j

= (x

i

)x

j

.

Exercise 2.3.26d

a

b

(x) =

a

(

b

(x)) =

a

(x

b

) = x

ab

=

ab

(x)

Exercise 2.4.1

H is dened to be the intersection A

i

of all subgroups A

i

such that H A

i

G. Since H A

i

we have

A

i

H; since H A

i

for each A

i

, we have H A

i

. Thus H = A

i

= H.

Exercise 2.4.2

If x A then x is the nite product of elements of A; since A B, this means that x is the nite product of

elements of B; thus x B. To see that we can have A B with A = B, consider the additive group Z

with A = 1 and B = 1, 2.

Exercise 2.4.3

Each element of H commutes with every element of H (by abelianism) and every element of Z(G) (by denition).

In turn, every element of Z(G) commutes with every element of H (since H G) and every element of Z(G)

(since Z(G) G). This means that all the elements from H, Z(G) commute with one another. Thus H, Z(G)

is abelian.

However, the elements of C

G

(H) do not necessarily commute with other elements of C

G

(H). Consider G = GL

n

,

H = I

n

. H is just the identity element, so its trivially abelian. Every element commutes with the identity

element, so we have C

G

(H) = G. Thus H, C

G

(H) = G. But we know that G is not abelian.

Exercise 2.4.4

First, suppose H = 1. Then H 1 = . This represents the intersection of every subgroup A such that

A G. But the empty set is a subset of every set, so is the intersection of every subgroup of G; the

only commonality is 1. Thus H 1 = 1 = H.

Now suppose H contains some nonidentity element h. Then 1 = hh

1

H 1, so that H 1 = H =

H.

12

Exercise 2.4.5

The only elements of order 2 in S

3

are the two 2-cycles (c.f. exercise 1.4.13). Without loss of generality, we can

write these as (a b) and (b c). Its trivial (but tedious) to construct six distinct elements from nite products of

these two elements.

Exercise 2.4.6

This is equivalent to (1 2), (3 4). From exercise 1.4.13, we know that any product of commuting 2-cycles has

order 2.

Exercise 2.4.7

We let R = AB = (1 3 2 4) and S = A = (1 2). Dene the isomorphism : D

8

S

4

as r R, s S. We

need only show that the relations from the generator o(r) = 4, o(s) = 2, sr = r

1

s hold in S

4

. And this is

done easily, since o(R) = 4, o(S) = 2, and SR = R

1

S = B.

Exercise 2.4.8

Let A = (1 2 3 4), B = (1 2 4 3). Then A, B contains A

1

= (1 4 3 2) and A

1

BA

1

= (1 2). On page 64,

were assured that the two elements A, (1 2) generate all of S

4

(although were told that the proof will come in a

later chapter). If this proof isnt convincing, we can always hunker down and generate the 24 distinct elements

of S

4

from nite products of A, B.

Exercise 2.4.9

In a previous exercise, weve shown that [GL

2

(F

p

)[ = p

4

p

3

p

2

+p. In this case, that gives us [GL

2

(F

3

)[ = 48.

Half of these have determinant 1, and half have determinant 2. Thus [SL

2

(F

3

)[ = 24. We havent encountered

any groups that are isomorphic to this group, so I dont see any way to prove that these two elements generate

SL

2

(F

3

) other than actually generating all 24 distinct elements.

Exercise 2.4.10

In exercise 1.5.3, we developed a generator for Q

8

:

Q

8

= 1, i, j, k[i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= 1, ij = k

Let the two given elements of SL

2

(F

3

) be represented by I, J and dene the following:

I =

_

0 -1

1 0

_

, J =

_

1 1

1 -1

_

, K = IJ

_

-1 1

1 1

_

, 1 =

_

1 0

0 1

_

Remember that in F

3

we have 2 = 1. Its easy to verify that o(i) = o(j) = o(k) = 4, and that i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= 1.

From section 1.6, this mapping between the generators of Q

8

and the generators of whatever were calling this

subset of SL

2

(F

3

) is sucient to prove isomorphism.

Exercise 2.4.11

The subgroup described above has only one element of order 2, while S

4

has more than one (e.g., (1 2) and

(3 4)). Thus the two groups cannot be isomorphic by exercise 1.7.2.

Exercise 2.4.12

This isnt true unless we restrict ourselves to upper-triangular matrices with 1s along the diagonal (cf exercise

2.1.17). In this case, all such matrices are of the form

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

13

where a, b, c 0, 1. There are clearly 2

3

= 8 such matrices. Now, dene the matrices R, S to be

R =

_

_

1 1 0

0 1 1

0 0 1

_

_

, S =

_

_

1 0 0

0 1 1

0 0 1

_

_

then we have o(R) = 4, o(S) = 2. Furthermore, we have

R

1

= R

3

=

_

_

1 1 1

0 1 1

0 0 1

_

_

, SR =

_

_

1 1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

_

_

= R

1

S

at which point weve reproduced the generator for D

8

.

Exercise 2.4.13

Let P = 1/p[p is prime . Clearly P Q

+

. Now, choose r/q Q

+

. From the fundamental theorem of

algebra, we know that q is the nite product of prime powers q =

p

n

i

i

. Therefore we have

r

q

= r

1

p

n

i

i

= r

1

p

n

i

i

P

so that Q

+

P.

Exercise 2.4.14a

Every nite G is generated by itself: G = G.

Exercise 2.4.14b

The additive group Z is generated by 1.

Exercise 2.4.14c

Let H be a nitely generated subgroup and let A be the nite set of generators for H such that A = H. Dene

k, 1/k as described in the exercise. Its clear that 1/k generates each element in A and therefore generates all

of H. Thus H 1/k.

Exercise 2.4.14d

If Q were nitely generated, then it would itself be a nitely generated subgroup of Q, and would therefore be

cyclic by part (c). But its not cyclic. By contrapositive, then, Q can not be nitely generated.

Exercise 2.4.15

Consider the additive group of the set of powers of 2:

_

2

i

[i Z

_

This set cannot be generated by

2

k

_

, because the set generated by this element will never yield 2

k1

(remember:

operation is addition).

Exercise 2.4.16a

If [G[ is nite, then there are only ([G[ [H[) elements in GH, and therefore there are precisely (2

|G||H|

1)

proper subsets of G containing H. If none of these nitely many subsets is a maximal group, then that means

that H was its own maximal group in G.

14

Exercise 2.4.16b

By Lagranges theorem, the order of any subgroup of D

8

must divide 8. So the only subgroup of D

8

with order

> 4 must be D

8

itself.

Exercise 2.4.16c

Suppose H G = x and [G[ = o(x) = n. Each element of G, and thus H, is of the form x

i

for some

i 0, . . . , n 1. To satisfy group closure, we must have H = x

a

where a = gcd(i[x

i

H). We now

consider three cases:

1. If (a, n) = 1 then H = G and H is not maximal (c.f. proposition 6 in section 2.3).

2. If a[n and a = m

1

m

2

is composite we see that

H = x

a

x

m

1

G

so that H is not maximal.

3. If a[n and a = p is prime, then x

p

is maximal. For suppose we have a group H

additional element x

i

so that H

x

p

, x

i

_

. If p[i then x

i

is already in H and thus H = H

. If p does not

divide i, then the primality of p means (p, i) = 1 and thus H

G contains H as a proper subgroup, so H is maximal.

We dont need to consider the case where (a, n) > 1 but a ,[n, since in this case we would have x

(a,n)

x

a

so

that x

a

=

x

(

a, n)

_

and clearly (a, n)[n. Therefore these three cases exhaust all possibilities and prove that H

is maximal i H = x

p

for some prime p.

Exercise 2.4.17a

By the subgroup criterion, we need only show that for each a, b H we also have ab

1

H. Dene H to be

the union of chain elements H

1

, H

2

, . . . so that H =

H

i

. Then we have:

a, b H (i, j N)a H

i

, b H

j

(j N)ab

1

H

j

ab

1

H

Exercise 2.4.17b

Let g

1

, g

2

, . . . , g

n

represent the nite generators of G. From our denition of S, each element in chain C must

be a proper subgroup of G. So if H = G then for each g

i

we could nd k

i

N such that g

i

H

k

i

. Then, since

this set is nite, we could nd the maximum of k

i

: call it k. Thus each g

i

H

k

, and so g

1

, g

2

, . . . , g

n

H

k

,

thus G = H

k

. And this contradicts our claim that each H

i

is a proper subgroup of G.

Exercise 2.4.17c

Were pretty much done. We have a bunch of chains in S, all of which have an upper bound (by exercise

2.4.16(a)); thus by Zorns Lemma S contains a maximal element.

Exercise 2.4.18a

Fix p prime, and let Z = z C[z

p

n

= 1 for some n Z

+

. Dene H

i

= z Z[z

p

i

= 1. We have a

bidirectional proof showing that H

k

H

m

m k.

15

H

k

H

m

assumed

z H

k

z H

m

z

p

k

= 1 z

p

m

= 1

(z

p

k

)

a

= z

p

m

, a > 0 (note: a N

To justify the claim that a > 0, we note that for z

p

k

= 1 to always imply z

p

m

= 1 we must have

z

p

m

be a positive integer power of z

p

k

.

ap

k

= p

m

, a > 0

To justify this last step in the direction, note that we must have a = b if we want z

a

= z

b

for all

z Z.

a > 0, a = p

mk

m k

Exercise 2.4.18b

From the given assumption, we can immediately conclude that

_

e

2im/p

n

_

= H

k

Exercise 2.4.18c

Let Y < Z. For each y Y , we have some smallest n such that y

p

n

= 1 so that y = exp(2im/p

n

) for some

m. Our choice of the smallest such n allows us to know that (m, p) = 1 (for otherwise (m, p) = p

k

and we have

y = exp(2i(mp

k

)/p

nk

) so that y

p

nk

= 1). From part (b), this means that y contains n distinct elements

including exp(2i/p

n

). The closure of Y then assures us that exp(2i/p

n

) Y .

Now now consider the set of all such exponentials generated by elements y Y , and further consider the set

of powers of p in this set:

_

n N[exp

_

2i

p

n

_

Y

_

For every n in this set, we have H

n

Y . Thus, if this set has no upper bound, then Y =

n=1

H

k

= Z and

Y is not a proper subgroup. If this set does have an upper bound, then it has a least upper bound N and thus

Y =

n=1

N 1H

k

= H

N1

. So we have proven that Y is a proper subgroup i Y = H

k

for some k Z

+

.

Exercise 2.4.18d

Let g

i

1

, . . . , g

i

n

be an arbitrary nite set of elements of Z. We prove that this cannot be a generator of Z. Using

the logic of the previous exercise, for each g

i

we can nd a subgroup H

j

such that g

i

H

j

. By exercise 2.4.2

this implies g

i

1

H

j

1

. Thus by part (a) we have

g

i

1

, . . . , g

i

n

H

j

1

, . . . , H

j

n

= H

j

, j = max(j

1

, . . . , j

n

)

And clearly H

j

,= Z, so Z was not generated by this nite set.

Exercise 2.4.19a

For each p/q Q and each integer k we have

p

qk

Q, k

_

p

qk

_

=

p

q

16

Exercise 2.4.19b

Let A be a nontrivial nite abelian group. Every element in a nite group has a nite order. So dene k to be

the nite product

k =

a

i

A

o(a

i

)

Since A is nontrivial, we can nd some nonidentity element b A. But this element has no k-th root: by our

denition of k we see that o(a)[k for all a A and thus a

k

= 1 ,= b for all a A.

Exercise 2.4.20

First, assume that A B is divisible. Then all of the elements of the form (1

A

, b) and (a, 1

B

) are divisible,

which can only happen if A and B are both divisible. Next, assume that A and B are divisible: let (a, b) be an

arbitrary element of AB and let k be an arbitrary element of Z

+

. By divisibility we have a

1/k

A, b

1/k

B

and thus

(a

1/k

, b

1/k

) = (a, b)

1/k

AB

Exercise 2.5.1 through 2.5.20

These exercises would require way too much time to typeset and Im kind of eager to move on to quotient groups.

Youre on your own.

17